14124

COMPUTER APPLICATIONS

Конспект урока

Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

UNIT 2. COMPUTER APPLICATIONS I. Practise reading the following words: characterize distinguishing repetitive efficiently ordinary automobiles atmospheric physicists industries professional airframe survey industry maintenance process vital determine increasingly realized successfully extremely explosion matures distinctive epoch staggering eventual diagnostic proliferation equipment succeed pendulum climate acquisition. II. Before reading the te...

Английский

2013-05-21

39 KB

6 чел.

UNIT 2. COMPUTER APPLICATIONS

I. Practise reading the following words:

characterize, distinguishing, repetitive, efficiently, ordinary, automobiles, atmospheric, physicists, industries, professional, airframe, survey, industry, maintenance, process, vital, determine, increasingly, realized, successfully, extremely, explosion, matures, distinctive, epoch, staggering, eventual, diagnostic, proliferation, equipment, succeed, pendulum, climate, acquisition.

II. Before reading the text try to answer these questions:

1. What popular computer applications do you know?

2. Would you like to become a computer engineer? Why?

3. How often do you use your computer?

III. Read and translate the following text.

Computer applications

In the most technologically advanced countries the 21st century is the age of computers. It has been called the information age, the century of the knowledge explosion and the epoch of atomic power, but without the contribution made by computers these distinguishing aspects of our time would not have been fully developed.

In almost every case in which computers and robots have replaced human beings the tasks involved are repetitive and mechanical. Thus, machines can perform these tasks more rapidly and efficiently than human beings can. In addition, there are many goods and services which would be totally unavailable without the intervention of machines. The high-speed transportation provided by jet airplanes is one of examples; space exploration is another one.

The number of different computer applications is truly staggering. Today, there are more different programs than there are words in the English language. There are very few, if any, human activities that do not or could not use computers effectively. Supercomputers, which process information 100 million times faster than ordinary personal computers, have revolutionized the design of aircraft and automobiles. Instead of building expensive physical prototypes, engineers and designers can test designs through computer simulation, saving millions of dollars and thousands of hours. Yet, as Albert M. Erisman and Kenneth W.Neves of Boeing point out, the machines hold an exciting potential that remains to be realized to the benefit of both the industry and its customers. Supercomputers simulate large-scale and mesoscale. climate and weather changes; atmospheric physicists and climatologists are beginning to gain confidence in their ability to understand the forces that determine climate. Their eventual success will have great scientific value and provide strong economic leverage in transportation, agriculture and other industries.

As computer technology matures, systems will play an increasingly important role in education and in the acquisition and maintenance of professional skills.

A student learns French by playing a computer game in which the object is to successfully rent an apartment in Paris. Instead of building a physical model, an aerospace engineer saves millions of dollars and thousands of hours by testing an airframe concept on a computer. His electronics-industry counterpart, using powerful computer-aided-design (CAD) tools, creates a computer that would have required the work of 40 engineers two decades ago. A production manager uses an off-the-shelf expert system to help her troubleshoot a complex piece of machine-tool manufacturing equipment. A marketing executive stores thousands of data points from a massive survey of consumer preferences and correlates them with a list of product characteristics.

Each of these people (and thousands more like them) has a vital interest in knowing what computers can (and cannot) do; if these managers and professionals are to succeed, they also need to know when the various rich promises of the technology will be realized in usable programs and devices. For the electronics and aerospace engineers improvements in computer speed are extremely important. The production manager would like to know when she will have a diagnostic system that can learn different malfunction patterns as they evolve.

Until recently the rapid technological growth of computers was the dominant driving force; application developers eagerly awaited the arrival of new software and the next, even faster machine. Today the proliferation of personal computers, the development of more convenient user interfaces and the discovery of powerful application-driven models, such as spreadsheets, have begun to swing the pendulum in the other direction. Now needs are beginning to drive technological developments.

IV. Answer the following questions:

1. Why is the 21st century considered to be the computer age?

2. What types of occupation benefit from the use of a computer?

3. What comparison is used to draw our attention to the many uses of computers?

4. What name is given to the very fast computers referred to?

5. How fast are supercomputers?

6. Why are meteorologists interested in the new computer developments?

7. What future developments will managerial and professional people in particular need to be aware of?

8. What begins to drive technological developments?

V. Agree or disagree with the following statements:

1. As computer technology develops, systems will play an important role in our lives.

2. There are many goods and services which would be available without machines.

3. The number of different computer applications is truly astonishing.

4. Now needs are beginning to drive technological developments.

5. Supercomputers process information 10 million times faster than ordinary personal computers.

VI. Find in the text English equivalents to the following Ukrainian word combinations:

майже у кожному випадку; поява нового програмного забезпечення; дійсно вражаючий; забезпечує потужний економічний важіль; внесок, який зробили комп'ютери; замінили людей; існує багато; швидкісні перевезення; обробляти інформацію; тестуючи модель літального апарату; особливий інтерес.

VII. Which words in the text have the same meaning as:

supplied, spread both geographically and in terms of usage, faulty performance, often, client, evolves, change, astonishing, data, in whole, get, purpose, need, developed, complicated.

VIII. Put as many questions to each sentence as possible:

1. Today, there are more different programs than there are words in the English language.

2. Supercomputers have revolutionized the design of aircraft and automobiles.

3. His electronics-industry counterpart creates a computer that would have required the work of 40 engineers two decades ago.

IX. Match each technical term with its proper definition:

1. prototype  a) computer program which behaves like a human expert

2. mesoscale b) a set of instructions written in a computer language that control the computer

3. model  c) the process of designing using a computer program

4. off-the-shelf d) a programmed virtual environment that imitates a real or planned system

5. expert system e) of middling dimensions

6. program  f) the most powerful type of mainframe computer

7. interface  g) original version from which others are developed

8. simulation h) mass produced or for general purpose

9. CAD  i) the hardware or software that allows them to communicate with each other

10. supercomputer j) mathematical representation of some aspect of the real world

X. Make a list of key words to retell the text.


 

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