14125

COMPUTER CONFIGURATION

Конспект урока

Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

UNIT 3. COMPUTER CONFIGURATION I. Practise reading the following words: component unit device interconnected microprocessor register integrated manage improve performance simplify description identify perform support integers arithmetic sine cosine compare superscalar represent equal rapidly area store single software responsibility significance increase trigonometry. II. Before reading the text try to answer these questions: 1. What components ...

Английский

2013-05-21

37 KB

6 чел.

UNIT 3. COMPUTER CONFIGURATION

I. Practise reading the following words:

component, unit, device, interconnected, microprocessor, register, integrated, manage, improve, performance, simplify, description, identify, perform, support, integers, arithmetic, sine, cosine, compare, superscalar, represent, equal, rapidly, area, store, single, software, responsibility, significance, increase, trigonometry.

II. Before reading the text try to answer these questions:

1. What components does a standard computer configuration consist of?

2. What is a central processing unit?

3. What is the main function of a central processing unit?

III. Read and translate the following text.

Computer configuration

A general-purpose computer has four main components which are interconnected by busses often made of groups of wires: the arithmetic logic unit, the control unit, the memory and the input and output devices (I/O). The control unit, ALU, registers and basic I/O are known as a central processing unit (CPU). Early CPUs were composed of many separate components but since the mid-1970s CPUs have been combined into a single integrated circuit called a microprocessor.

The control unit manages various components of the computer, i.e., it reads and interprets the program instructions, transforms them into a series of control signals which activate other parts of the computer. In advanced computers, the control unit may change the order of instructions to improve performance. A key component, common to all CPUs, is the program counter, a special memory cell that keeps track of the next instruction which must be read after the processed one. The main function of the control system is to identify the simplified description of the next instruction. Instructions that modify the program counter are known as «jumps».

The arithmetic logic unit performs two types of operations - arithmetic and logic. The set of arithmetic operations that ALU supports is: to add and subtract, multiply or divide, trigonometry functions (sine, cosine) and square roots. Some of them can only operate on integers while others use floating point to represent real numbers. However, any computer that performs the simplest operations can be programmed to break down complex operations into simple steps. The ALU may also compare numbers and boolean values (true or false) and it depends on whether one is equal to, greater than or less than the other. Superscalar computers may contain multiple ALUs and, as a result, can process several instructions simultaneously.

A computer memory can be described as a list of cells where numbers can be placed. The information stored in memory may represent characters (letters, numbers, symbols) and even computer instructions. In modern computers each memory cell is set up to store binary numbers in groups of eight bits. Modern computers have billions or even trillions of bytes of memory. The CPU contains a special set of memory cells called registers (their number depends on the type of CPU) that can be read and written into more rapidly than the main memory area. Registers are used for the most frequently required data to avoid accessing main memory every time the data is needed. The main memory of the computer consists of two types: random access memory (RAM) and read-only memory (ROM). It is called «random access» because the processor can find information in any cell or memory address with equal speed, instead of looking for the data in sequential order. ROM is pre-loaded with data and software and typically used to store the computer's initial start-up instructions. It contains a specialized program called BIOS that manages loading the operating system from the hard disk drive into RAM whenever the computer is turned on or reset. In embedded computers, which do not have disk drives, the required software may be stored in ROM and called firmware. Flash memory blurs the distinction between ROM and RAM, as it stores the data when the power is turned off. It is typically much slower than conventional ROM and RAM, however, so its use is restricted to applications where high speed is unnecessary. In more sophisticated computers there may be one or more RAM cache memory chips which are slower than registers but faster than main memory. In general, computers with this type of cache are designed to move frequently required data into the cache automatically, often without programmer intervention.

Peripheral devices are the means by which a computer exchanges information with the outside world. On a typical personal computer, peripherals include input devices, e.g., a keyboard and mouse, and output devices, such as a monitor and printer. Hard disk drives, floppy disk drives and optical disk drives can be both input and output devices. Computer networking is another form of I/O. A graphics processing unit might contain 50 or more tiny computers that perform the calculations necessary to display 3D graphics. Modern desktop computers contain many smaller computers that assist the main CPU in performing I/O.

IV. Answer the following questions:

1. What is a microprocessor?

2. What is the function of the control unit?

3. What operations does the ALU perform?

4. What types of information can be stored in memory?

5. What is the function of registers?

6. What is the difference between RAM and ROM?

7. What output devices are mentioned in the text?

8. What is a firmware?

V. Agree or disagree with the following statements:

1. The control unit manages various components of the computer.

2. ALU performs arithmetic (or, and) and logic (+, -, etc) operations.

3. The CPU differentiates between different types of information.

4. The main memory of the computer consists of two types.

5. RAM contains a specialized program called BIOS.

VI. Put as many questions to each sentence as possible:

1. The operating system is software that controls hardware.

2. Watching movies on the Internet needs a faster CPU and a modem.

3. Programs with a lot of graphics need a large RAM to run well.

4. Most computer owners store their data on the hard disk.

5. Computers store program files in folders and organize these folders in a directory.

VII. Arrange the words in the correct order to make sentences:

  1.  specified, the, speed, clock, processing, is, The, of, speed, by, electronic, of, the, PCs, commonly.
  2.  consists, system, parts, computer, of, A, three.
  3.  input, keyboards, most, devices, are, and, pointing, The, common, devices.
  4.  less, are, than, handle, CPU, usually, primary, can, with, the, memory, sold, PCs.

VIII. Fill in the gaps with the words from the following list:

memory, characters, secondary, CPU, removable, advances, to store, refers, common, later, capacities, computers, handle

Primary memory 1___ to memory that is directly accessible by the 2___. Modern processors can 3___ up to 4 GB. Upgrades can be made 4___ on. Secondary 5___ refers to external memory required 6___ data. Magnetic disks are the most 7___ form of secondary memory. Hard disks typically can store from 4 billion to 50 billion 8___ of text information. New kinds of 9___ disks resemble floppy disks but have 10___ above 100 MB. Despite the 11___ advances in secondary storage, some 12___ may be sold with no 13___ storage at all.

IX. Match each technical term with its proper definition:

1. chip

2. video

3. storage medium

4. firmware

5. control unit

6. main memory

7. operating system

8. cache

a) the programs and routines which allow a computer to operate

b) the electronic memory that holds the programs and data being used

c) a component of the CPU which coordinates all the other parts of the computer system

d) fast memory used to temporarily store frequently-used data to allow it to be accessed more quickly

e) an electronic integrated circuit in a small package

f) a material used for storing programs and data

g) permanent software instructions contained in the ROM

h) signals containing picture information.

X. Retell briefly the information you have learned from the text.


 

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