UNIT 7. KEYBOARDS
Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика
UNIT 7. KEYBOARDS I. Practise reading the following words: component primary commands virtually obsolete corporate term universal specification equipment status automating layout arrangement area numeric mode isolated modified vendor menu cursor simulate mandatory via economic requirement environment support minimize sacrifice. II. Before reading the text try to answer these questions: 1. What input devices do you know 2. What input devices d...
I. Practise reading the following words:
II. Before reading the text try to answer these questions:
III. Read and translate the following text.
Keyboard is one of the basic system components used to enter commands and data into the computer. IBM has created three keyboard designs for PC systems since the introduction of the original IBM PC. These designs have become de facto standard and are used by all PC manufacturers. The primary keyboard types are the following: 101-key Enhanced keyboard; 104-key Windows keyboard; 83-key PC and XT keyboard (obsolete).
In 1986, IBM introduced the «corporate» Enhanced 101-key keyboard for the newer XT and AT models. The term «corporate» first appeared in IBM's PC, which was a RISC system designed for scientific and engineering applications. Keyboards with this design were soon supplied with every type of system and terminal IBM sold; for this reason other companies began to use IBM's design, too. In fact, other companies, such as Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) and Texas Instruments (TI), had already used designs similar to the IBM 101-key unit. The IBM 101-key units originally came in versions with and without the status-indicator LEDs (it depended on whether the unit was sold with an XT or AT system). Now, many types keyboards are available including touch pads and programmable keys. A lot of keyboards include both the standard mini-DIN and USB connectors for maximum flexibility when attaching to newer systems. The 101-key keyboard layout can be divided into four sections: typing area, numeric keypad, cursor and screen controls, function keys. The cursor-control keys are arranged in the inverted T format that is now expected to be on all computer keyboards. Insert, Delete, Home, End, Page Up and Page Down keys are separated from the numeric keypad and located above the dedicated cursor-control keys. The function keys, arranged in groups of four, are located on the top of the keyboard. The Esc key is isolated in the upper-left corner of the keyboard. In addition, dedicated Print Screen/Sys Req, Scroll Lock and Pause/Break keys are provided for commonly used functions. Foreign-language versions of the Enhanced keyboard include 102 keys and a slightly different layout from the 101-key U.S. versions.
When Microsoft released Windows 95, it also introduced the Microsoft Natural Keyboard, which implemented a revised keyboard specification that added three new Windows-specific keys to the keyboard. The Microsoft Windows keyboard specification outlines a set of additional keys and key combinations. The 104-key layout includes left and right Windows keys and an Application key. These keys are used for operating system and application-level keyboard combinations, similar to the existing Ctrl+Alt combinations. You don't need the new keys to use Windows, but software vendors add specific functions to their Windows products that use the new Application keys (which provide the same functionality as clicking the right mouse button and bring up a context pop-up menu). The left and right Windows (WIN) keys open the Windows Start menu, which you can navigate with the cursor keys. Several WIN key combinations offer preset macro commands as well. For example, you can press WIN+E to launch the Windows Explorer application. The Windows keyboard specification requires that keyboard makers increase the number of trilograms in their keyboard designs. A trilogram is a combination of three rapidly pressed keys that perform a special function, such as Ctrl+Alt+Delete. Many keyboard manufacturers have standardized 104-key keyboards that include these Windows-specific keys. Some manufacturers have added browser control or other keys to facilitate navigating web pages and launching various applications.
The proliferation of laptop and notebook systems have a great impact on the keyboard design because it is obviously impossible to use the standard keyboard layout for a portable computer. Early laptop systems often used smaller-than-normal keys to minimize the size of the keyboard, which resulted in many complaints from users. Today, the keytops on portable systems are usually comparable in size to that of a desktop keyboard, although some systems include half-sized keytops for the function keys and other less frequently used keyboard elements. Of course, the most obvious difference in a portable system keyboard is the sacrifice of the numeric keypad. Most systems now embed the keypad into the standard alphabetical part of the keyboard. To switch the keys from their standard values to their keypad values, a user must press a key combination involving a proprietary function key, often labeled Fn. This is an extremely inconvenient solution, and many users abandon their use of the keypad entirely on portable systems. For a short time, IBM marketed systems with a keyboard that used a «butterfly» design. The keyboard was split into two halves that rested on the top of one another when the system was closed. When you open the lid, the two halves form a keyboard that is actually larger than the computer case. Ironically, the trend toward larger-sized displays in portable systems has made this arrangement unnecessary. Many manufacturers have increased the footprint of their laptop computers to accommodate 14.1" and even 15" display panels, leaving more than adequate space for a keyboard with full-size keys. However, even on the newest systems, there still isn't enough space for a separate numeric keypad.
IV. Answer the following questions:
1. What is a keyboard?
2. What types of keyboards do you know?
3. What design became the standard for Intel-based PC system?
4. How can you connect a keyboard to your PC?
5. What is a trilogram?
6. What is the impact of the laptop and notebook systems proliferation?
7. What is the most obvious difference in portable system keyboards?
8. What do you know about the «butterfly» design?
V. Agree or disagree with the following statements:
1. Common keyboards include both the standard mini-DIN and USB connectors.
2. One of the basic computer system components is a keyboard.
3. IBM has created three keyboards designs for notebooks.
4. A trilogram is a combination of two rapidly pressed keys.
5. The cursor-control keys are arranged in the ordinary format.
VI. Find in the text the words with the opposite meaning:
older, slowly, bought, few, smaller, down, close, disappear, pop-down, seldom, minimum, different, yesterday.
VII. Arrange the words in the correct order to make sentences:
1. old, design, you, that, still, the 85-key, find, Although, systems, can, use.
2. left, both, and, buttons, They, the right, mouse, use.
3. manufactures, on 104-key, Virtually, have, keyboard, standardized, all, keyboards.
4. motherboards, standard, current, and, include, ports, systems, still, Most, the.
5. when, solution, is, «cancel» in, are, cases, some, to click, you, to log on, The, asked.
VIII. Put as many questions to each sentence as possible:
1. The layout of this universal keyboard was improved over that of the 84-key unit.
2. The cursor- and screen-control keys have been separated from the numeric keypad.
3. The WIN keys open the Windows Start menu.
4. Early laptop systems often used smaller-than-normal keys to minimize the size of the keyboard.
5. Many portable system manufactures sell external numeric keypads.
IX. Match each term with its proper definition
4. function key
7. menu bar
a) the area at the top of the screen which allows access to the various menus
b) the input device that has keys arranged in a similar layout in a typewriter
c) a small picture that follows the mouse movement
d) a symbol available on the keyboard
e) a network device used to input and output data (usually a basic computer)
f) an order which the computer can obey
g) the shape, style and size of a particular typeface
h) a stationary device that works like a mouse turned upside down
i) mathematical representation of some aspect of the real world
j) a key on a computer keyboard which causes a specific operation to take place
X. Make a list of key words and retell the text.
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