14149

THE UNITED KINGDOM

Конспект урока

Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

The United Kingdom Pretext exercises 4.1. Read the following words and expressions and try to guess their meaning. United total leader population capital major command business commerce principle focus liberalization regulation economy concentrate industry international global calendar production textile private public product constitutional monarchy parliamentary cultural military. 4.2. Read the following words and notice their pronunciation. ...

Английский

2013-05-21

262 KB

3 чел.

The United Kingdom

Pretext exercises

4.1. Read the following words and expressions and try to guess their meaning.

United, total, leader, population, capital, major, command, business, commerce, principle, focus, liberalization, regulation, economy, concentrate, industry, international, global, calendar, production, textile, private, public, product, constitutional, monarchy, parliamentary, cultural, military.

4.2. Read the following words and notice their pronunciation.

kingdom

[`kINdqm]

originate

[q`rIGI`neIt]

square

[skwFq]

success

[ sqk`ses]  

constituent

[kqn`stItjuqnt]

renown

[rI`naun]

business

[`bIznqs]

influence

[`Influqns]

majority

[mq`GOrqtI]

privately 

[`praIvItlI]

shipbuilding

[`SIp`bIldIN]

parliamentary 

[`pRlq`mentqrI]

monarchy

[`mOnqkI]

government

[`gave(n)mqnt]

textile

[`tekstaIl]

Birmingham

[`bWmINqm]

Edinburgh

[`edInbqrq]

Wimbledon

[`wImbldqm]

Memorize the following words and expressions

total area

общая площадь  

rowing

гребля

a major center

важный (главный,

крупный) центр

to retain

удерживать, сохранять

constituent

составляющий часть (целого)

to influence 

влиять, оказывать влияние

to include 

включать, содержать в себе

steel   production 

производство стали

taxation 

обложение налогом,

взимание налога

be ranked as smth.

котироваться (расцениваться)

как что-либо (в качестве чего-либо)

initially  

первоначально,

в исходном положении

privately

 

частным образом

shipbuilding 

кораблестроение

vast majority

значительное большинство

coal mining

добыча угля

internationally renowned 

известный (знаменитый, прославленный) во всем мире

a tourist destination 

достопримечатель-   ность 

to originate from smth.

происходить, возникать из (от) чего-либо

 

4.3. Read the text.  

    

THE UNITED KINGDOM

The United Kingdom is situated in the north-west of Europe. It consists of four countries: Great Britain, Scotland, Northern Ireland and Wales. The total area of the United Kingdom is 242,000 square kilometers. The population of the United Kingdom is more than 60 million people.  The four capitals of the United Kingdom’s constituent countries are London (England), Edinburgh (Scotland), Cardiff (Wales) and Belfast (Northern Ireland).   

The Anglo-Saxon model focuses on the principles of liberalization, the free market, and low taxation and regulation. The United Kingdom is the fifth largest economy in the world and the second largest in Europe after Germany. The British started the Industrial Revolution initially concentrated on heavy industries such as shipbuilding, coal mining, steel production, and textiles.  Tourism is very important to the British economy. With over 27 million tourists a year, the United Kingdom is ranked as the sixth major tourist destination in the world. 

The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy with Elizabeth II, Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, as the head of the state. Her power is not absolute, but it is limited by the Parliament which is headed by the Prime Minister. The Parliament of Great Britain consists of two Houses: House of Commons and House of Lords.

London is the capital of the country. There are four main districts in London: the West End, the East End, the City and the Westminster. The City is the business and financial center of London. There are a lot of banks, offices there. Stock Exchange is situated in the City.

London is famous for its great history. There are many places of interest there: Tower, Big Ben, Trafalgar Square, Buckingham Palace, Houses of Parliament, British Museum, etc.

A number of major sports originated in the United Kingdom, including football, rugby, cricket, tennis and golf. The most popular sport in the UK is football. The UK has proved its success in the international sporting arena in rowing. Rugby is a national sport. The game of tennis first originated from the UK’s second city of Birmingham between 1859 and 1865. The Wimbledon Championships are international tennis events held in Wimbledon in south London every summer and are regarded as the most prestigious event of the global tennis calendar.

Great Britain is famous for its culture. Many well-known writers, poets, artists, scientists lived and worked there. They are Shakespeare, Dickens, Darvin, Newton, etc.     

4.4. Read the statements and decide if they are true (T) or false (F).

  1.  The north-west of Europe is a place for the United Kingdom.
  2.  There are three countries that the United Kingdom consists of.
  3.  UK is an absolute monarchy.
  4.  There are two Houses in British Parliament: House of Commons and Senate.
  5.  The City is the cultural and scientific center of London.
  6.  The most popular sport in the UK is tennis.
  7.  The Prime Minister is responsible for the policy conducted by the Parliament.
  8.  Buckingham Palace is the place where the government of the country sits.

4.5. Complete the following sentences with the expressions from
      the box.

focuses on              democratic traditions               tourist destination

The most popular             is surrounded by               the most prestigious event

broadcaster                            densely                           majority religion

  1.  … … … sport in the UK is football.
  2.  The country … … … the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea.
  3.  The British economy … … the principles of liberalization, the free market, low taxation and regulation.
  4.  The BBC Corporation is the biggest and the largest in the world.
  5.  The UK uses a parliamentary government based on strong … … .
  6.  The Wimbledon Championships is regarded as … … … … of the global tennis calendar.

7. Great Britain is one of the most … populated countries in Europe.

8. The United Kingdom is ranked as the sixth major … … in the world. 

9. Christianity is the … … of the country.

4.6. Answer the following questions according to the text.

  1.  What is the geographical position of the United Kingdom?
  2.  What is the population of the country?
  3.  What are the main industries of Great Britain?
  4.  What is the capital of the UK?
  5.  How many parts are there in London?
  6.  What is the City?
  7.  What does the Parliament of Great Britain consist of?
  8.  Who is the Parliament headed by?
  9.  What are the places of interest in London?
  10.  What are major sports in Great Britain?
  11.  What famous people of the United Kingdom do you know?

 Text B      

HIGHER EDUCATION IN GREAT BRITAIN

Pretext exercises

 

4.7. Read the following words and try to guess their meaning.  

Institution, investment, private, personal, local, lecture, seminar, final, examinations, philosophy, privilege, prestige, dominate, academically, federation, physical, rugby, central, laboratory, organize, tutor, medicine, business, basic.

4.8. Read the following words and notice their pronunciation.

adult

[`xdAlt] [q`dAlt]

undergraduate

[`Andq`grxdjuqt]

society

[sq`saIqtI]

tutorial

[tjH`tLrIql]

exception

[Ik`sepSqn]

essay

[`eseI]

private

[`praIvIt]

acquire

[q`kwaIq]

authority

[L`TOrItI]

particular

[pq`tIkjulq]

Memorize the following words and expressions

benefit

выгода, польза, преимущество

residential rooms

жилые комнаты (помещения)

society

общество, общественность

tutorial system

университетская система обучения путем прикрепления студентов к отдельным консультантам

private institution

частный, негосударственный

academic merit

заслуга в учебе (достоинство)

to pay fees

вносить плату, оплачивать

mainly

главным образом, преимущественно,            в основном

living costs

стоимость проживания

in this respect

в этом отношении

expenses

расходы, затраты

to tend to smth.

склоняться (иметь тенденцию) к чему-либо  

contribution to smth.

вклад во что-либо

to be keen to do smth.

стремиться к чему-либо

to dominate smth.

доминировать,

занимать господствующее положение

eminent  

высокопоставленный, известный, знаменитый

to be regarded as smth. (smb.)

считать кем-либо, чем-либо

to scatter

размещать

to assign

назначать, определять

mostly

главным образом, по большей части

compulsory

обязательный (для всех), принудительный

attendance

посещаемость, посещение

apart from

помимо, кроме  

individual tuition

индивидуальное обучение

essay

эссе, очерк, набросок

 particular

индивидуальный, отдельный

chapel

часовня, молельня

4.9. Read the text.         

 

HIGHER EDUCATION IN GREAT BRITAIN

The aim of education in general is to develop to the full the talents of both children and adults for their own benefit and that of society as a whole. It is a large-scale investment in the future. Higher education is not an exception.
When higher education is being spoken about the University education is generally meant. All British universities are private institutions. Students have to pay fees and living costs, but every student may obtain a personal grant from local authorities. If the parents do not earn much money, their children will receive a full grant which will cover all the expenses. Students studying for first degrees are known as undergraduates. New undergraduates in some universities are called freshers. They have lectures, there are regular seminars. After three or four years the students will take their finals or final exams. Those who pass examinations successfully are given the Bachelors degree: Bachelor of Arts for History or Bachelor of Science. The first postgraduate degree is Master of Arts, Master of Science. Doctor of Philosophy is the highest degree. It is given for some original research work which is an important contribution to knowledge.  

The most oldest and famous universities in Britain are Oxford and Cambridge which dominated the British education for seven hundred years. Oxford and Cambridge (sometimes referred to as Oxbridge) are regarded as being academically superior to other universities and as giving special privilege and prestige.  

Oxford University is a federation of twenty-three colleges for men and five for women. Each college has a physical existence in the shape of a dining-hall, chapel, and residential rooms. It is governed by its Fellows commonly called “dons”, of whom there are usually about twenty or thirty. The dons are also responsible for teaching the students of the college through the tutorial system. The Fellows elect the Head of the college.

The colleges vary very much in size and buildings. Colleges choose their own students, and a student only becomes a member of the University by having been accepted by a college. Students are chosen mainly on academic merit, but the policy of colleges in this respect varies from college to college.

Part of the teaching is by means of lectures and any student may attend any university lecture. At the beginning of each term (there are three terms in the Oxford academic year) a list is published showing all the lectures being given during the term within each faculty, and every student can choose which lectures he will attend, though his own college tutor will advise him which lectures seem likely to be more useful. Attendance at lectures is not compulsory, and no records of attendance are kept.

Apart from lectures, teaching is by means of the “tutorial” system, which is a system of individual tuition organized by the colleges. Each Fellow in a college is a tutor in his own subject to the undergraduates who are studying it. Each student goes to his tutor’s room once every week to read out an essay which he has written, and for an hour he and the tutor discuss the essay. A student does not necessarily go only to his own tutor but may be assigned to another don in his own college or in another college when he is studying some particular topic which is outside the special interest of his own tutor.

Higher-educational institutions in Britain include not only universities and colleges but also various professional schools that provide preparation in such fields as law, theology, medicine, business, music, and art. Higher education also includes   teacher-training schools, junior colleges, and institutes of technology. They don’t give degrees to their students, they give only diplomas. The course of study there is usually shorter than at colleges. It lasts three or four years. Whereas at the universities students study five or even more years. The basic entrance requirement for most higher-educational institutions is the completion of secondary education, and the usual entrance age is about 18 years.

 

 4.10. Read the statements and decide if they are true (T) or false (F).

1. All the universities in Britain are free.

2. In some universities students studying for first degrees are called freshers.

3. Doctor of Philosophy is the degree given for an important contribution to knowledge.

4. The colleges of Oxford are governed by the Queen of the country.

5. The colleges, university buildings and scientific laboratories are situated mostly in the central area.

6. Each undergraduate has his own tutor.

7. There are two terms in the Oxford academic year.

8. Students of Oxford can attend all the lectures seemed to be useful to them.

9. There are no records of attendance in the colleges of Oxford.

10. The universities of Great Britain are regarded as being academically superior to other universities in the world and as giving special privilege and prestige.

4.11. Match the following words and expressions with their equivalents.

1. basic requirements

a) журнал посещаемости

2. higher-educational institutions

b) в течение семестра

3. university entrance age  

c) выбирать главу (главного)       чего-либо

4. outside the interest

d) основные требования

5. records of attendance

e) включать (в себя) что-либо

6. aim of education

f) состоять из чего-либо

7. part of teaching

g) отличаться по размеру

8. during the term

h) учреждения высшего     образования

9.  to consist of smth.

i) несколько лет спустя

10. to include smth.

j)  вне интереса (неинтерсно)

11. central area of the town

k) часть обучения

12. to vary in size

l) получение среднего образования

13. completion of secondary education

m) возраст для поступления в университет

14. to elect the head of smth.

n) центальная часть (район) города

15. a few years later

o) цель образования

4.12. Answer the following questions according to the text.

  1.  What is the aim of education in Great Britain?
  2.  Are the British Universities free of charge?
  3.  Do all the students receive a grant?
  4.  What academic degrees are there in British system of higher education?
  5.  In what way are Oxford and Cambridge Universities different from all the other universities of the UK?
  6.  What are the methods of teaching in British universities?
  7.  What is the tutorial system of education?
  8.  In what way are the professional schools different from universities?
  9.  Who can enter the higher-educational institutions?
  10.  Would you like to study at British universities? Why? Why not?

GRAMMAR

    Revising Verbals

4.13. Complete the following sentences with the right forms, as in the model.

Model: Having given a promise he couldn’t fail us. (дав; to give - давать)

  1.  … all his exams he decided to have a great party. (сдав; to pass сдавать)
  2.  Don’t forget to stick a stamp when … the letter. (отправляя; to send - отправлять)
  3.  … at the airport we went to the check-in office. (прибыв; to arrive - прибывать)
  4.  … the children in the park, she remembered her childhood. (наблюдая; to watch –  наблюдать)
  5.  He did it, not … of the result. (думая; to think –  думать)
  6.  … of the window she saw an unknown man. (выглянув; to look out – выглядывать)
  7.  He was thinking about her … in the park. (гуляя; to walk – гулять)
  8.  I like the flowers … in the garden. (растущие; to grow - расти)

4.14. Complete the sentences, as in the model.

Model: Having arrived in London we went to Trafalgar square. (to arrive)

1. While … his car he was thinking about the result. (to paint)

  1.  It was dark so we had to stop several times … home. (drive)
  2.  … enough money he bought the desired book. (to save)

4.  … a wallet in the street I wondered what I could do with it. (to find)                           

5. I spent the rest of the day … a few problems. (to solve)

6. The actress … the children fairy-tales is famous all over the country. (to tell)

  1.  … a cup of coffee she felt much better. (to drink)
  2.  … girl was hungry and tired. (to cry)

    

4.15. Choose the correct variant.

  1.  It seems to be a very … story.

    a) interesting             b) interested

  1.  I can see a lot of people … at the bank.

    a) standing        b) having stood

  1.  He stood for a moment ….

    a) frightened        b) frightening

  1.  The largest painting was the last work … by the artist.
    1.  doing             b) done
  2.  You will probably find your sister ….
    1.  growing        b) grown
  3.  Everyone finds the circus ….

      a) exciting                 b) excited

  1.  She will pass all her exams successfully ….
    1.  hardworking                        b)  being hardworking
  2.  Things … in the open air market can’t be of good quality.

    a) bought                     b) are being bought

 4.16. Answer the questions using the gerund with a preposition by, as in the model.

Model: How can you make your mother happy? (to have good results on exams)

            I can make my mother happy by having good results on exams.

  1.  How can you make enough money to buy a car? (to win the lottery)
  2.  How can you lose your weight? (to join the gym)
  3.  How can you find out if they are at home? (to phone them)
  4.  How can you keep fit? (to do morning exercises)
  5.  How can you avoid car accidents? (to drive carefully)

4.17. Use the right infinitive form (active or passive), as in the model.

Model 1:     I’d like to go home early today. (go)

Model 2:     He expected to be met by Helen at the station. (to meet)

1. Your watch will … by Tuesday. (to repair)

2. She must … her homework every day. (to do)

  1.  She hopes … for the student club. (to choose)
  2.  It’s important … to people. (to listen)
  3.  Try … the letter in the morning. (to post) 
  4.  They are going … married next Friday. (to get)
  5.  I want … the manager. (to see)

8. I prefer …  by everybody. (to listen)

9. I went to the chemist’s … some medicines. (to buy)

  10. The boy wanted … for taking part in the competition. (to reward)

  11. He was so happy … the first prize for his project. (to receive)

  12. He wanted his son … at a public school. (to educate)

  13. He is too young … the president. (to be)

  1.   She hoped … by everybody. (to admire)
  2.  We asked the driver … us a lift. (to give)

  16. Alex is fortunate … a scholarship. (to give)

4.18. Point out the infinitive functions.

1. He is not the person to fail the exams.

a) subject   b) attribute   c) adverbial modifier

2. Not to be late for the lectures was impossible.

  a) subject   b) attribute   c) adverbial modifier

3. I have a lot of time to finish my report.

a) subject   b) attribute   c) adverbial modifier

4. Italy is the best place to relax from work.

a) subject   b) attribute   c) adverbial modifier

5. He was talking for an hour without stopping to have some rest.

a) subject   b) attribute   c) adverbial modifier

6. To refuse the invitation was impolite.

a) subject   b) attribute   c) adverbial modifier

7. It takes me 10 minutes to get to the university.

a) subject   b) attribute   c) adverbial modifier

     8. What a wonderful place to have a picnic!

a) subject   b) attribute   c) adverbial modifier

     9. I don’t believe it. It’s too good to be the truth.

a) subject   b) attribute   c) adverbial modifier

10. To have a party in the garden is a wonderful idea.

a) subject   b) attribute   c) adverbial modifier

 

4.19. Choose the best translation, as in the model.

Model:   Я рад, что мне рассказали эту историю.

  •  a) I am glad to have been told that story.

b) I am glad to tell that story.

  1.  Он будет счастлив посетить известную художественную галерею.

a) He will be happy to have visited the famous Art Gallery.

b) He will be happy to visit the famous Art Gallery.

  1.  Кажется, он знает французский не очень хорошо.

a) He seems to have known French not very well.

b) He seems to know French not very well.

  1.  Я очень рада, что сумела помочь Вам.

a) I am glad to have helped you.

b) I am glad to help you.

  1.  Я слишком устал, чтобы продолжать разговор.

a) I am too tired to continue the conversation.

b) I was too tired to continue the conversation.

  1.  Он первым написал статью.

a) He was the first to have written the article.

b) He is the first to write the article.

  1.  Я хочу пойти туда завтра.

a) I want go there tomorrow.

b) I want to go there tomorrow.

  1.  Я знаю его недостаточно хорошо, чтобы просить его о помощи.

a) I don’t know him well enough to ask him for help.

b) I don’t know him well enough to be asked for help.

  1.  Я уверен, что он первым придет на встречу.

a) I am sure he was the first to come to the meeting.

b) I am sure he will be the first to come to the meeting.

  1.  Сумма, которая должна быть уплачена, включает стоимость доставки.

a) The amount to be paid includes the cost of delivery.

b) The amount to pay includes the cost of delivery.

  1.  Наш план – поехать летом в Италию.

a) Our plan is to have gone to Italy in summer.

b) Our plan is to go to Italy in summer.

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  Вместе с тем монолитное домостроение имеет особенности сдерживающее его более широкое применение: увеличенная трудоёмкость некоторых процессов опалубочные арматурные работы уплотнение бетонной смеси и др.; необходимость тщательного выполнения технологических регламентов производства работ и контроля их качества; относительно сложные технологические процессы что диктует повышенную требовательность к квалификации работников. Дальнейшее развитие монолитного строительства базируется на совершенствовании технологий опалубочных арматурных...
21824. Применение различных опалубок в монолитном домостроении 139 KB
  Щитовые опалубки Щитовые опалубки наиболее широко применяются в жилищном гражданском и промышленном строительстве. Для повышения производительности труда щиты опалубки можно предварительно собирать в крупноразмерные плоские опалубочные панели или в пространственные блоки которые устанавливаются и демонтируются с помощью кранов. Мелкощитовые опалубки отличаются высокой универсальностью их можно использовать для возведения самых различных конструкций – фундаментов колонн стен балок перекрытий. Существенным недостатком мелкощитовых...
21826. Возведение зданий методом подъёма перекрытий 136 KB
  Этот метод очень эффективен в сейсмических районах благодаря применению цельных неразрезных плит перекрытий выполняющих роль горизонтальных диафрагм обеспечивающих поперечную жёсткость здания а также при необходимости строительства в стеснённых условиях исключающих применение кранов. 5 а 2 3 б 1 2 в 4 г ...
21827. ВОЗВЕДЕНИЕ ВЫСОТНЫХ ЗДАНИЙ 85 KB
  Конструктивно современные высотные здания являются каркасными – это железобетонный стальной или комбинированный каркас с пространственным ядром жёсткости или с плоскими диафрагмамисвязями рис. В большинстве высотных зданий предусмотрено ядро жёсткости которое воспринимает горизонтальные нагрузки от примыкающих частей здания и обеспечивает устойчивость и пространственную жёсткость всего здания в процессе монтажа и эксплуатации. Ядра жёсткости обычно выполняют из железобетона хотя в металлических каркасах ядро может быть стальным....