14150

INTEGRATED CIRCUITS

Конспект урока

Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

Unit 5. INTEGRATED CIRCUITS Pretext exercises 5.1. Read the following words and expressions and try to guess their meaning. Electronics microchip passive components integration manual discrete photolithography contain term economically reflect combination vertically horizontally microwave silicon. 5.2. Read the following words and notice their pronunciation. substrate [...

Английский

2013-05-21

188.5 KB

14 чел.

Unit 5. INTEGRATED CIRCUITS

Pretext exercises

5.1. Read the following words and expressions and try to guess their meaning.

Electronics, microchip, passive, components, integration, manual, discrete, photolithography, contain, term, economically, reflect, combination, vertically, horizontally, microwave, silicon.

5.2. Read the following words and notice their pronunciation.

substrate

[`sAb`streIt]

approach

[q`prquC]

enormous

[I`nLmqs]

notably

[`nqutqblI]

guidance

[`gaIdqns]

advance

[qd`vRns]

propose

[prq`pquz]

initiated

[I`nISIeItId]

entire

[In`taIq]

supercomputer

[`sHpqkqm`pjHtq]

Memorize the following words and expressions

electronics

электроника

die

кристалл

to consist of

состоять из

to consume

потреблять

as well as

также как

close together

сжатый, без пропусков

surface

поверхность

to denote

означать, обозначать

substrate

подложка

crucial

решающий, критический

tiny

крошечный, маленький

guidance system

система-путеводитель, система управления

enormous

громадный, огромный

circuit board

печатная плата

assembly

монтаж, сборка, компоновка

growth

рост

performance

работа, производительность, характеристика

entire

весь, полный, целый

furthermore

более того

notably

исключительно,

особенно

5.3. Read the text.

INTEGRATED CIRCUITS

In electronics, an integrated circuit is a miniaturized electronic circuit consisting mainly of semiconductor devices, as well as passive components that have been manufactured on the surface of a thin substrate of semiconductor material.  The integration of large numbers of tiny transistors, diodes, resistors and capacitors into a small chip was an enormous improvement over the manual assembly of circuits using electronic components. The integrated circuit’s mass production capability, reliability, and building-block approach to circuit design ensured the rapid adoption of standardized ICs in place of designs using discrete transistors.

There are two main advantages of ICs over discrete circuits: cost and performance. Cost is low because the chips, with all their components, are printed as a unit by photolithography and not constructed one transistor at a time. Furthermore, much less material is used to construct a circuit as a packaged IC die than as a discrete circuit. Performance is high since the components switch quickly and consume little power because the components are small and close together.

The first integrated circuits contained only a few transistors. The term “Small-Scale Integration” (SSI) was used to denote them. SSI circuits were crucial to early aerospace projects in 1960s as Apollo program needed lightweight digital computers for their guidance systems.

The next step in the development of integrated circuits, taken in the late 1960s, introduced devices which contained hundreds of transistors on each chip called “Medium-Scale Integration” (MSI). They were attractive economically because while they cost little more to produce than SSI devices, they allowed more complex systems to be produced using smaller circuit boards, less assembly work and a number of other advantages.

Further development led to “Large-Scale Integration” (LSI) in the mid 1970s, with tens of thousands of transistors per chip.

The final step in the development process, starting in the 1980s and continuing through the present, was “Very Large-Scale Integration” (VLSI). To reflect further growth of complexity, the term ULSI that stands for “Ultra-Large-Scale Integration” was proposed for chips of complexity of more than 1 million transistors.

Wafer-scale integration (WSI) is a system of building very large integrated circuits that uses an entire silicon wafer to produce a single “super-chip”. Through a combination of large size and reduced packaging, WSI could lead to dramatically reduced costs for some systems, notably massively parallel supercomputers.

A system-on-a-chip (SOC) is an integrated circuit in which all the components needed for a computer are included on a single chip. A three-dimensional integrated circuit (3D-IC) has two or more layers of active electronic components that are integrated both vertically and horizontally into a single circuit. Among the most advanced are the microprocessors or cores, which control everything from computers to cellular phones to digital microwave ovens.

Only half a century after their development was initiated, integrated circuits have become useful. That is, modern computing, communication, manufacturing and transport systems, including the Internet, all depend on the existence of integrated circuits.

5.4. Use the expressions from the box and complete the following sentences.

photolithography           power             performance             capability                      

lightweight           useful           cores          complexity           microprocessors

layers             substrate

 

  1.  Semiconductor devices, as well as passive components, are manufactured on the surface of a thin … of semiconductor material.
  2.  The rapid adoption of standardized ICs was due to its mass production ….
  3.  An IC is printed as a unit by ….
  4.  … is high since the components switch fast and consume little ….
  5.  SSI circuits were crucial to aerospace projects as they needed … digital computers for their guidance systems.
  6.  A three-dimensional integrated circuit has two or more … of active electronic components on a single circuit.
  7.  Microwaves are controlled by ….
  8.  Integrated circuits have become … for the last 50 years.
  9.  The term ULSI is used to denote chips of … of more than 1ml transistors.
  10.  The most advanced are … which control everything.

5.5. Complete the table.

Time period

Scale of integration

Number of transistors per chip

1960s

SSI

a few

hundreds of transistors

mid 1970s

VLSI

over a million

5.6. Answer the questions to the text.

1. What is an IC?

2. What material is the substrate of IC made of?

3. How were transistors assembled earlier?

4. What ensured the rapid adoption of ICs?

5. What are the main advantages of ICs over discrete circuits?

6. Why is the performance of IC high?

7. How many transistors were used in SSI?

8. How is an IC with tens of thousands of transistors per chip called ?

9. How are the layers of active components integrated in 3D-ICs?

10.What does modern computing depend on?

Text B

Cellphones

       Pretext exercises

5.7. Read the following words and expressions and try to guess their meaning.

Communication, aeroplane, mobile phone, service, system, control base station, message, relay, controller, fixed, type, limit, user, network, portable, transmit, call, hexogonal-shaped cell, channel, interference, output power, cluster, car park, permanently, select, register, position, signal, contact, check, tune, constantly, monitor, prevent, reduce, test, switch, silence.

5.8. Read the following words and notice their pronunciation.

emergency

[I`mWGqnsI]

interference

[`IntqF`fIqrqns]

available

[q`veIlqbl]

compromise

[`kOmprqmaIz]

lightweight

[`laItweIt]

permanently

[`pWmqnqntlI]

portable

[`pLtqbl]

automatically

[`Ltq`mxtIkqlI]

cellular

[`seljulq]

neighbouring

[`neIbqrIN]

Memorize the following words and expressions

emergency service

аварийная служба

to vary

меняться, разнообразить

to relay

передавать

interference

интерференция, взаимное влияние, помехи

within

в пределах, в рамках

to depend on

зависеть от

lack

недостаток, отсутствие

compromise

компромисс

to overcome

преодолевать, превозмочь

cluster

группа, блок, совокупность, пакет

lightweight

легкий

public telephone exchange

телефонная станция общего пользования

transceiver

приемопередатчик

register

журнал записей, реестр

hexagonal

шестиугольный

to page

зд. глагол 

сопровождать

to allocate

предназначать, резервировать

signal strength

уровень сигнала

5.9. Read the text.

Cellphones

Radiophones, using the VHF band, were developed during the Second World War to provide communications for ships and aeroplanes. At the end of the war they were further developed as mobile phones for use by the emergency services and other services such as taxis.

With mobile phone systems, all communications take place through a central control base station. Mobile units normally do not communicate directly with other mobile units. They send messages to the control base station and the base station controller relays the messages to the other mobile units. Although mobile phones can be moved, they must stay within fixed areas. This type of system is limited by the fact that there are not enough VHF frequencies available for large numbers of communications between individual users.

The problem of a lack of suitable frequencies can be overcome by using a cellphone network. A cellular phone (cellphone) is a lightweight, portable radio transceiver which can transmit and receive telephone calls anywhere in the cellular network area. In the network, the same frequencies can be used for many different telephone calls at the same time. To achieve this, each communications area is divided into a number of hexagonal-shaped cells.

Each cell is allocated a number of frequency channels for communications. Although the frequencies used in any one cell are not used in its neighbouring cells, the same frequencies can be used in cells further away without causing interference. The size of the cells varies from 1 km to about 30 km across, depending on the output power of the cellphone transmitters. Each area can have a different number of cells, but a cluster of seven cells gives a good compromise between the number of frequency channels available in each cell and the interference between communications in different cells.

Each cell has a small electronic base station situated in a public place such as a car park or shopping centre. All the base stations for a cluster of cells are permanently connected to a main switching centre (MSC). This contains a computer to select suitable frequencies and control the communications for that cluster of cells. The MSC is also connected to other MSCs and to the public telephone exchange, allowing cellphones to make calls or receive calls from other cellphones and fixed telephones thoughout the whole telephone system.

The MSC keeps a register of cellphones indicating their cell position. If the cellphone moves to another cell, its new position is signalled to the MSC. In this way, the MSC knows where to send signals to contact each cellphone. When a call is made to a cellphone, the MSC first checks the registrations to find the position of the cellphone. It then pages the cellphone and causes it to tune to the allocated frequency channel. The cellphone then begins sending an 8 kHz signal to the base station. When the user takes the call, the 8 kHz signal is discontinued and the speech channel is enabled.

The base station constantly monitors the signal level of a call. If the signal level becomes too strong, it will cause interference to other users. To prevent this, the power level of the cellphone is automatically reduced. If the signal level becomes too weak, the MSC tests the signal strength from neighbouring base stations and switches the call to another base station and speech channel if necessary. This may cause a period of silence of up to about 400 ms while the switching takes place.

5.10. Read the text and say which paragraph deals with the following:

  1.  cellphone networks;
  2.  how signal levels are controlled;
  3.  how the MSC locates a cellphone;
  4.  limitations of mobile phone systems;
  5.  frequency distribution within cells and clusters;
  6.  the development of mobile phones;
  7.  how cellphones link with other cellphones and with the telephone system.

5.11. Match the beginnings and ends of the following sentences.

1. Mobile phones using the VHF band were developed for use by …

2. Mobile phone systems work through a …

3. The lack of VHF bands for large numbers of individual users is the main reason for … of mobile units.

4. The same frequencies can be used for a large number of calls at the same time in the …

5. The size of the cells varies depending on the output power of the cellphone …

6.MSC is connected to other MSCs and to the … giving opportunity to make and receive calls via cellphones and fixed phones.

7. MSC first checks the registrations to find the position of the …

8. When the user takes the call, the 8 kHz signal is discontinued and the … is enabled.

a) limitations

b) emergency services.

c) cellular network area.

d) transmitters

e) central control base station

f) speech channel

g) public telephone exchange

h) cellphone

5.12. Answer the questions to the text.

  1.  Who uses mobile phones?
  2.  What does the MSC register of cellphones contain?
  3.  What is the difference between a mobile phone and a cellphone?
  4.  What does the word “cellphone” imply?
  5.  How large is the cell?
  6.  How does the MSC prevent interference caused by a strong signal level?
  7.  What is the most suitable number of cells to form a cluster?
  8.  When were radiophones developed?
  9.  How does an MSC ensure that a cellphone is using the right frequency for a call?

10. What is permanently connected to MSC?      

                                                            

GRAMMAR

Participle

5.13. Translate the following sentences, paying attention to the functions of participles.

  1.  IC is a miniaturized electronic circuit consisting mainly of semiconductor devices that have been manufactured in the surface of a thin substrate of semiconductor material.
  2.  The integration was an enormous improvement over the manual assembly of circuits while using electronic components.
  3.  The next step taken in the late 1960s introduced MSI.
  4.  Further development driven by economic factors led to LSI.
  5.  All components needed for a computer are included on a single chip.
  6.  Computing, communication, manufacturing and transport systems including the Internet all depend on the existence of IC.
  7.  A neighbouring electron can move to fill the hole leaving a hole at the place it has just come from.
  8.  The photon emitted has a very specific wavelength.
  9.  A robot is a mechanical device controlled by a computer.
  10.  Network connections using radio signals without network cables are becoming more common.
  11.  Robots, controlled by computers with neural nets, would be able to learn for themselves rather than depend on fixed programs.
  12.  Barcode is the sequence of vertical parallel lines used to give items unique identification numbers.
  13.  A smart card is a plastic card containing a processor and memory chip.
  14.  Students studying at our university must know Mathematics well.
  15.  The device made in our laboratory will be used in industry.
  16.  Scientists working at new computers have a lot of different problems to solve.
  17.  Having designed the car radar the engineers started complex tests.
  18.  The engine tested showed that it needed no further improvements.

 

5.14. Translate the following sentences from English into Russian paying attention to the participles.

  1.  The size of the cells varies depending on the output power of the cellphone transmitters.
  2.  The MSC keeps a register of cellphones indicating their cell position.
  3.  The MSC causes the cellphone to tune to the allocated frequency channel.
  4.  The jobs of many skilled workers are threatened by the computer.
  5.  Detailed information about a suspect’s background may be obtained from a computer.
  6.  New plastics are being introduced all the time.
  7.  Synthetic materials resembling ivory were widespread by 1900.
  8.  Electronic computers perform both arithmetic and logical operations, making it possible to control the process under rather complicated conditions.
  9.  System design goes through several stages, becoming more detailed in each stage.
  10.  When being pure, water is a colourless liquid.
  11.  Using the energy of the atom we produce electric energy at atomic power plants.
  12.  Algol is a system being developed and intended to become a universal programming language.
  13.  The compound being treated for several hours turned dark red.
  14.  The instrument used is very reliable.
  15.  Written in pencil the article was difficult to read.
  16.  We also discuss experiments connected with some related questions.
  17.  The recent talks resulted in the agreement just signed.
  18.  The data obtained outweighed those that we had had before.
  19.  The man replacing this device by a new one is our mechanic.
  20.  Applying this new method the operator received good results.
  21.  When translating the article he used no dictionary.
  22.  The parts produced by our plant are reliable.

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