14152

THE INTERNET

Конспект урока

Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

Unit 7. THE INTERNET Pretext exercises 7.1. Read the following words and expressions and try to guess their meaning. Global system computer networks user million private public academic local global electronic optical networking technology information resources and services hypertext documents World Wide Web WWW infrastructure electronic mail materials journals information system the Internet hypertext document special program browser...

Английский

2013-05-21

199 KB

5 чел.

Unit 7. THE INTERNET

Pretext exercises

7.1. Read the following words and expressions and try to guess their meaning.

Global system, computer networks,  user, million, private, public, academic, local,  global, electronic, optical,  networking technology, information resources and services, hypertext documents,  World Wide Web (WWW),  infrastructure,  electronic mail, materials,  journals, information,  system,  the Internet, hypertext,  document, special program, browser, Web pages,  click, Web sites, code,  commands,  textual and graphical information, e-mail,  film,  Web site,  actors of the film, telephone lines, fibre-optic cables, satellites,  signals.

7.2. Read the following words and notice their pronunciation.

suite

[swI:t]

standard

[`stxndqd]

private

[`praIvIt]

resource

[rI`zLs]

array

[q`reI]

virtual

[`vWCuql], [`vWtjuql]

hypertext

[`hai`pqtekst]

resource

[rI`zLs]

navigate

[`nxvIgeIt]

aerial

[`FqrIql]

vice versa

[`vaIsI`vWsq]

Memorize the following words and expressions

Internet Protocol Suite

стек протоколов IP

navigate

передвигаться

array

массив (информации, данных)

to surf the Web

бродить по сети

networking technology 

сетевые технические средства

vice versa

лат. наоборот

World Wide Web (WWW)

глобальная гипертекстовая система для поиска и использования ресурсов Интернет, «всемирная паутина»

dish aerial

параболическая антенна

hypertext markup

language

язык гипертекстовой маркировки, язык HTML

wide area network

глобальная сеть

7.3 Read the text.

    THE INTERNET

The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) to serve billions of users worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks, of local to global scope, that are linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless and optical networking technologies. The Internet carries a vast range of information resources and services, such as the interlinked hypertext documents of the World Wide Web (WWW) and the infrastructure to support electronic mail.

With a few touches at a keyboard a person can get access to materials in almost everywhere. One can have access to full-text newspapers, magazines, journals, reference works, and even books. The Web is one of the best resources for              up-to-date information. It is a hypertext-based system by which you can navigate through the Internet. Hypertext is the text that contains links to other documents. A special program known as «browser» can help you find news, pictures, virtual museums, electronic magazines, etc. and print Web pages. You can also click on keywords or buttons that take you to other pages or other Web sites. This is possible because browsers understand hypertext markup language or code, a set of commands to indicate how a Web page is formatted and displayed.

Internet Video conferencing programs enable users to talk to and see each other, exchange textual and graphical information, and collaborate.

Internet TV sets allow you to surf the Web and have e-mail while you are watching TV, or vice versa. Imagine watching a film on TV and simultaneously accessing a Web site where you get information on the actors of the film. The next generation of Internet-enabled televisions will incorporate a smart-card for home shopping, banking and other interactive services. Internet-enabled TV means a TV set used as an Internet device.

The Internet is a good example of a wide area network (WAN). For long-distance or worldwide communications, computers are usually connected into a wide area network to form a single integrated network. Networks can be linked together by telephone lines or fibre-optic cables. Modern telecommunication systems use          fibre-optic cables because they offer considerable advantages. The cables require little physical space, they are safe as they don’t carry electricity, and they avoid electromagnetic interference.

Networks on different continents can also be connected via satellites. Computers are connected by means of a modem to ordinary telephone lines or fibre-optic cables, which are linked to a dish aerial. Communication satellites receive and send signals on a transcontinental scale.

7.4. Answer the questions to the text.

  1.  What does the Internet consist of?
  2.  What are networks linked by?
  3.  What is the Web?
  4.  What does hypertext contain?
  5.  What is the browser?
  6.  What do Internet Video conferencing programs enable users to do?
  7.  What does Internet-enabled TV mean?
  8.  How can networks be linked together?
  9.  Why do modern telecommunication systems use fibre-optic cables?
  10.   How are computers connected?

Text B

Programming Languages

Pretext exercises

7.5. Read the following words and expressions and try to guess their meaning.

Machine code,  symbolic languages, special program, equivalent,  assembler,  information structures,  actions,  architecture,  person,  compiler,  popular,  commercial,  mini, micro and personal computers,  version,  style of programming, generation.

7.6. Read the following words and notice their pronunciation.

process

[`prquses]

version

[`vWSqn]

sequence

[`sJkwqns]

compiler

[kqm`paIlq]

advantage

[qd`vRntIG]

artificial

[`RtI`fISql]

Memorize the following words and expressions

machine code

машинный код, программа на машинном языке

assembler

aссемблер ( машинно-ориентированный язык программирования)

basic language

основной язык

run

зд. выполнять, запускать программу

symbolic language

символический язык

compiler

компилятор, компилирующая программа

portable program 

мобильная программа (легко переносимая на компьютер другого типа)

software engineer

специалист по разработке (разработчик) программного обеспечения

instruction

машинная команда, команда (в языках низкого уровня)

application program

прикладная программа

machine oriented language

машинно-ориентированный язык

artificial intelligence

искусственный интеллект

7.7. Read the text.

Programming Languages

The only language computers can understand directly is called machine code. It consists of the Is and 0s (binary code) that are processed by the CPU. However, machine code as a means of communication is very difficult to write. That is why it is necessary to use symbolic languages that are easier to understand. Then, by using a special program, these languages can be translated into machine code.

Basic languages, in which the program is similar to the machine code version, are known as low-level languages. In these languages, each instruction is equivalent to a single machine code instruction, and the program is converted into machine code by a special program called an assembler. These languages are quite complex and restricted to particular computers.

To make the program easier to write, higher-level languages were developed such as BASIC, COBOL, FORTRAN, Pascal, Ada, С and others. A higher-level language is a problem oriented programming language, whereas a low-level language is machine oriented. This means that a high-level language is a convenient and simple means of describing the information structures and sequences of actions to be performed for a particular task.

A high-level language is independent of the architecture of the computer which supports it. This has two advantages. Firstly, the person writing the program does not have to know anything about the computer the program will be run on. Secondly, programs are portable, that is, the same program can (in theory) be run on different types of computer. Programs written in one of these languages should be converted by means of a compiler into a lower-level language or machine code so that the CPU could understand it.

С, a high-level programming language, is very popular today because it is small, so it is not too hard to learn, it is very efficient and portable so one can use it with all kinds of computers. A lot of software engineers use С to write commercial applications programs for mini, micro and personal computers. There are also various versions of С – C++ and Objective C, which represent a new style of programming.

People communicate instructions to the computer in symbolic languages and the  easier this communication can be made, the wider the application of computers will be. Scientists are already working on Artificial Intelligence and the next generation of computers may be able to understand human languages.

Notes to the text

BASIC (Beginner’s All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code)

язык программирования БЕЙСИК Первоначально язык реализовывался в виде интерпретаторов, что существенно облегчало программирование и особенно отладку программ.

COBOL (COmmon Business-Oriented Language)

язык программирования КОБОЛ для экономических задач.

FORTRAN (сокр. от FORmula TRANslator)

язык программирования ФОРТРАН для численных методов.

Pascal

язык программирования Паскаль; широко используется для обучения студентов программированию.

7.8. Match the English terms with their definitions.

1. COBOL

a. a computer programming language that uses common English terms

2. FORTRAN

b. a high-level computer programming language developed as a teaching language: used for general-purpose programming

3. BASIC

c. a high-level computer programming language for mathematical and scientific purposes, designed to facilitate and speed up the solving of complex problems

4. Pascal

d. a high-level computer programming language designed for general commercial use

7.9. Use the expressions from the box and complete the following sentences.

programming         compiler          programmed          program        assembler           language        programmers            portable          low-level          machine code

1. A computer ... is a set of instructions that tells the computer what to do.

2. Converting an algorithm into a sequence of instructions in a programming language is called ....

3. Most computer ... make a plan of the program before writing it.

4. Coding is the translation of the logical steps into a programming ....

5. In the next century computers will be ... in natural languages like English or French.

6. A ... is a special program that converts a program written in a high-level language into a program written in a lower level language.

7. It is difficult to use ... ..., which is the only language understood by the processor.

8. A special program called ... converts a program written in a low-level language into machine code.

9. If the same program can be used for different computers, it is called ... .

10. In a ... language each instruction has a corresponding machine code equivalent.

7.10. Topic for discussion:

The new programming language you have heard of or read about.

GRAMMAR

Infinitive

7.11. Put the verbs in brackets into the right form, as in the model.

   Model: – He didn’t want to be asked that question. (ask – simple passive) 

1. I’m sorry … you but the question is very important (disturb – simple active) 

2. I was very upset … the seminar.  (miss – perfect active) 

3. The high-speed devices … as secondary storage are both input and output devices. (use – perfect passive)

4. These difficulties are too great …  . (ignore – simple passive)

5. Russia was the first country … the cosmic era. (start – simple active)

6. A printer is an example of a device … output in a human readable format. (produce – simple active)

  1.  Translate the following sentences, point out the infinitive function.
  2.  To translate such an article without a dictionary is difficult.
  3.  Automation makes it possible to obtain and develop new sources of energy.
  4.  To work with computer was new to us.
  5.  Signals to be measured must be strong enough.
  6.  Our aim is to translate technical articles without a dictionary.
  7.  To distinguish between cause and effect is sometimes difficult.
  8.  A special electronic device signals the engine to stop.
  9.  To convert the electrical connections of the peripheral an interface is used.
  10.   Some minicomputers allow the word length to vary.
  11.  Programming a computer involves analyzing the problem to be solved and a plan to solve it.
  12.  To develop the supercomputer, highly developed electronics and new materials were required.
  13.  Recently a radar to be mounted on cars has been developed.
  14.  There are projects to use lasers for long distance communication.
  15.  In a new Japanese car the information to be received by the driver will come through a navigation earth satellite.
  16.  A very interesting problem is to produce a practically limitless source of energy.
  17.  Lasers to be placed on Earth satellites will transform solar radiation into laser beams.
  18.  The idea to use this substance is not new.
  19.  He described the device to be used in all modern systems.
  20.  To translate the text without a dictionary is difficult.
  21.  To carry out the experiment you must improve the device.

7.13. Translate the following sentences.

  1.  To carry out this research work requires special knowledge.
  2.  We’ll consider a very simple example to explain this phenomenon.
  3.  The fastest way to detect an artificial satellite is by radio.
  4.  We are to study the main laws of physics.
  5.  An electronic machine has to be used to perform these calculations.
  6.  To analyze this effect is to take into consideration all the elements of the circuit.
  7.  The machinery to be installed in our laboratory was built by the modern machine-building plant.
  8.  To prevent corrosion metal must be covered with paint.
  9.  The wire to be tested is connected to the measuring instrument.
  10.  The voltage that is to be produced in this circuit is to be sufficiently high.
  11.  The motor is a device to change mechanical energy into electric one.
  12.  The galvanometer must be sensitive enough to detect the existence of the current.
  13.  The main objective of the cosmonaut was to study the human organism in space.
  14.  The signals of different frequencies are combined to form a single complex wave output which is transmitted to the receiver.
  15.  Most minicomputers have extra registers and indicators to perform particular functions.
  16.  We will discuss the operation of the junction transistor to show how amplification may be achieved.
  17.  Thus thermal energy at room temperature is sufficient to remove the carriers from their parent atoms.
  18.  The energy required to remove the electron is called impurity ionization energy.
  19.  The useful work to be done by a machine is less than the total work to be performed by it.
  20.  One of the best ways to keep the car speed constant is to use a computer.
  21.  In a new Japanese car the information to be received by the driver will come through a navigation earth satellite.
  22.  To detect objects at a distance such as ships, aircrafts, buildings, etc. is of great importance for navigation both at sea and in air.
  23.  Materials used for superliner structures must be strong enough to withstand the air resistance at high speeds.
  24.  A very interesting problem is to produce a practically limitless source of energy.
  25.  One of the ways to make planes as economical as possible is to lighten the aircraft by using new composite materials.
  26.  All a pilot needs to do is to tune to radio transmitters and he will get direction signals he needs.
  27.  A new electronic device to be installed in the car’s panel will calculate how far one can drive on the fuel left.
  28.  Besides, there is one more problem to be studied – that of surface cooling.
  29.  Every student of Cambridge is to go to his tutor once a week to discuss with the work done.
  30.  Some metals and glasses to be cooled down to the point of solidification in space can be brought back to earth.      

7.14. Translate the text.  Point out the infinitive function.

Information is frequently considered to be almost synonymous with knowledge. It is in this context that information scientists are concerned with information. What then is a satisfactory definition of information? In order to define information, the thing to begin with is the use of information. Information is used to make decisions; in fact, the only available resource for a decision maker is information. The decision maker may be a single person, a committee, or a machine, but in any case the decision is based on information selected from the available data. Thus information represents data of value to make decisions.

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