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Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

Unit 8. INFORMATION SECURITY Pretext exercises 8.1. Read the following words and expressions and try to guess their meaning. Biological virus organism infect cell program routine resource operating system file copy technique resident activate destructive message monitor screen detect hard disk instruction command limit effect control install attack password location container guarantee. 8.2. Read the following words and notice their pronuncia...



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Pretext exercises

8.1. Read the following words and expressions and try to guess their meaning.

Biological, virus, organism, infect, cell, program, routine, resource, operating system, file, copy, technique, resident, activate, destructive, message, monitor, screen, detect, hard disk, instruction, command, limit, effect, control, install, attack, password, location, container, guarantee.

8.2. Read the following words and notice their pronunciation.

























8.3. Choose the best translation to the following word-groups.

1. Virus protection program        

a) программа защиты от вирусов                                           b) программа защиты вирусов

с) вирусная защитная программа

2. Common programming 


a) обычный метод программирования                                                           b) обычный программный метод

с) метод обычного программирования

3. Monitor screen                                   

a) мониторный экран

b) экран монитора

с) отслеживание экрана

4. Normal execution sequence              

a) обычное выполнение последовательности

b) последовательность нормы выполнения

с) обычная последовательность выполнения

5. Uninterruptible power supply           

a) мощность бесперебойной подачи

b) бесперебойный источник питания                                                                  с) источник бесперебойной энергии

Memorize the following words and expressions

host program

главная программа


неправильное направление, указание

to reproduce


to hide

скрываться, прятать


коммутация, вставка в программу





операционная система


катастрофа, бедствие

to run

запускать, выполнять


защита, безопасность

to stay


оставаться в памяти

to take


принимать меры


полезная нагрузка

to implement

выполнять, осуществлять


неактивный, бездействующий


резервная копия


межсетевое устройство защиты




множество, разнообразие

surge protector

устройство защиты от скачков напряжения

to remain




программное обеспечение поставщика

to replace






зашифрованные данные

to lock

запирать, закрывать









8.4. Read the text.

Information security

A biological virus is a very small, simple organism that infects living cells, known as a host, by attaching itself to them and using them to reproduce itself. This often causes harm to the host cells.

Similarly, a computer virus is a very small program routine that infects a computer system and uses its resources to reproduce itself. It often does this by patching the operating system to enable it to detect program files, such as .COM or .EXE files. It then copies itself into those files. This sometimes causes harm to the host computer system.

When the user runs an infected program, it is loaded into memory carrying the virus. The virus uses a common programming technique to stay resident in memory. It can then use a reproduction routine to infect other programs. This process continues until the computer is switched off.

The virus may also contain a payload that remains dormant until a trigger event activates it, such as the user pressing a particular key. The payload can have a variety of forms. It might do something relatively harmless such as displaying a message on the monitor screen or it might do something more destructive such as deleting files on the hard disk.

When it infects a file, the virus replaces the first instruction in the host program with a command that changes the normal execution sequence. This type of command is known as a JUMP command and causes the virus instructions to be executed before the host program. The virus then returns control to the host program which then continues with its normal sequence of instructions and is executed in the normal way.

To be a virus, a program only needs to have a reproduction routine that enables it to infect other programs. Viruses can, however, have four main parts. A misdirection routine that enables it to hide itself; a reproduction routine that allows it to copy itself to other programs; a trigger that causes the payload to be activated at a particular time or when a particular event takes place; and a payload that may be a fairly harmless joke or may be very destructive. A program that has a payload but does not have a reproduction routine is known as a Trojan.

To prevent or limit the effects of disaster you should take security measures and protect hardware and software. If your work deals with the use of the Internet, you should implement network controls by installing firewalls to protect external and internal attacks. Another way of protection is using encrypted data including monitoring username and password use. Don’t use common names or dictionary words in passwords. To protect from natural disasters install uninterruptible power supplies and surge protectors.

Periodically make full backups, which copy all files. If your files are very important, keep backups in separate locations, in fireproof containers, under lock and key. Virus protection programs are another way of feeling safe. Use only vendor-supplied software products that guarantee they are virus-free.

8.5. Answer the questions to the text.

  1.  How does a biological virus infect living cells?
  2.  What is a computer virus?
  3.  What files does the virus copy itself into?
  4.  What technique is used by virus to become resident in memory?
  5.  How long does the process of infection continue?
  6.  How long does a payload remain dormant?
  7.  What is a trigger event?
  8.  What forms can the payload have?
  9.  What event changes the normal execution sequence?
  10.  What does the program need to have to be a virus?
  11.  How many parts do viruses usually have?
  12.  How is the program without reproduction routine named?
  13.  What should you do to prevent external and internal attacks?
  14.  Why should you install uninterruptible power supplies and surge protectors?
  15.  What software products guarantee they are virus-free?

8.6. Complete the sentences with appropriate words from the box.

backups                   to be executed              payload              reproduction          

host program        resources             hide            firewalls           encrypted data

security measures    

  1.  A computer virus infects a computer system and uses its … to reproduce itself.
  2.  The virus contains a … that remains dormant until the user presses a particular key.
  3.  The virus replaces the first instruction in the … with a command that changes the normal execution sequence.
  4.  A JUMP command causes the virus instructions … before the host program.
  5.  A … routine is needed to infect other programs.
  6.  A misdirection routine enables a virus to … itself.
  7.  To protect hardware and software you should take ….
  8.  Installing … helps to withstand external and internal attacks.
  9.  To protect your work from stealing use ….
  10.  Copy all your files and keep your … in separate locations under lock and key.

Text В                                   


                                  Pretext exercises

8.7. Read the following words and word-combinations and try to guess their meaning.

Physically, business, original, manipulation, act, place, instruction, function, normally, accumulate, individual, identification, code, file, sale, distribute, technique, modify, address, server, nature, detect, reputation, percent, reason.

8.8. Read the following words and notice their pronunciation.



[Im`plOIJ] [`emploI`J]
























Memorize the following words and word combinations

computer crime

преступление, совершаемое с помощью компьютера

as well


to get hurt



счёт, учётная запись



to account


after all

в конце концов





to be unaware of

не подозревать

to steal

воровать, красть

to log off

выходить из системы


намерение, цель



to prosecute

преследовать судебным порядком

data diddling

сдвиг элементов данных

to crash

выводить из строя

mail bombing

бомбардировка почтового адреса



to inundate




in addition

кроме того

to commit


to compromise

подвергать риску



by accident




by no means

отнюдь не, никоим образом



to assure



выгода, польза


обман, мошенничество

to alter




районный прокурор





8.10. Read the text.


Computer crimes are ‘clean’ white-collar crimes; no one gets physically hurt. But computer crime is serious business and deserves to be taken seriously by everyone. After all, if computer criminals can steal money from major banks, can they not steal from you?

Computer crime basically falls into three categories:

  •  Theft of computer time for development of software for personal use or with the intention of selling it. It is difficult to prove programs were stolen when copies are made because the originals are still in the hands of the original owners.
  •  Theft, destruction, or manipulation of programs or data. Such acts may be committed by disgruntled employees or by persons wishing to use another’s property for their own benefit.
  •  Altering data stored in a computer file.

The Trojan Horse is the name given to the crime in which a computer criminal is able to place instructions in someone else’s program that allow the program to function normally but perform additional, illegitimate functions as well.

Salami shaving method means manipulating programs or data so that small amounts of money are deducted from a large number of transactions or accounts and accumulated elsewhere. The victims are often unaware of the crime because the amount taken from any individual is so small.

Piggybacking means using another person’s identification code or using that person’s files before he or she has logged off.

Software piracy is unauthorised copying of a program for sale or distributing to other users.

Data diddling is a technique whereby data is modified before it goes into the computer file. Once in the file, it is not as visible.

Mail bombing is inundating an email address with thousands of messages, slowing or even crashing the server.

Prosecuting the computer criminal is difficult because discovery is often difficult. The nature of the crime is such that it is hard to detect, and thus many times it simply goes undetected. In addition, crimes that are detected – an estimated 85 percent of the time – never reported to the authorities. By law, banks have to make a report when their computer systems have been compromised, but other busineses do not. Often they choose not to report because they are worried about their reputations and credibility in the community.

Most computer crimes, unfortunately, are discovered by accident. Even if a computer crime is detected, prosecution is by no means assured. Thre are a number of reasons for this. First, law enforcement agencies do not fully understand the complexities of computer-related fraud. Second, few attorneys are qualified to handle computer crime cases. Third, judges are not educated in the ways of computers and may not consider data valuable.

In short, the chances of committing computer crimes and having them go undetected are, unfortunately, good. And the chances that, if detected, there will be no ramifications are also good: a computer criminal may not go to jail, may not be found guilty if prosecuted, and may not even be prosecuted. You can be sure, however, that this will not be tolerated for long.    

8.11. Read the following sentences and decide if they are true (T) or false (F).

  1.  Everyone gets physically hurt in computer crimes.
  2.  A computer crime doesn’t deserve to be taken seriously.
  3.  Computer crimes fall into 4 categories.
  4.  It is easy to prove that programs were stolen.
  5.  Altering data stored in smb’s computer file is not a crime at all.
  6.  The Trojan Horse can replicate itself.
  7.  The victims of ‘Salami shaving’ method of stealing money are always aware of the crime.
  8.  Software piracy is unauthorised copying of programs.
  9.  Mail bombing can crash the server.
  10.  Prosecuting the computer criminals is impossible.
  11.  Businesses choose not to report about the crime because they are worried about their reputation.
  12.  The computer criminal being caught never goes to jail.

8.12. Answer the questions to the text.

  1.  Why is a computer crime called ‘clean’?
  2.  How many categories does a computer crime fall into?
  3.  What is the name of the virus which allows the program to function normally but performs additional illegitimate functions?
  4.  What does ‘Salami shaving’ mean?
  5.  Which method is used by hackers to slow down or even crash the server?
  6.  Why is it difficult to punish computer criminals?
  7.  Do the banks have to make a report about the crime against them?
  8.  Why do other businesses prefer not to report about the crime?
  9.  How are most computer crimes discovered?
  10.  Why do computer criminals often remain unpunished even if they are detected?
  11.  What is the percentage of detected crimes which are never reported to the authorities?

8.13. Discuss the following topics.

  1.  Computer crime and prosecution.
  2.  Virus-protection software that is used nowadays. Which is the most effective?
  3.  Ways of protecting hardware and software.


Неличные формы (Verbals)

8.14. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the function of the gerund and participle I.

  1.  Numbers can be multiplied by repeated addition, by adding and shifting or by using multiplication tables.
  2.  Adding numbers is the easiest process in the system of calculation.
  3.  Having made a great number of experiments with different devices the research group chose the best one for practical work.
  4.  At least one advantage of using this technique is obvious.
  5.  Each research center is interested in training a younger generation of efficient specialists.
  6.  We are developing a new program of cooperation.
  7.  Acquiring knowledge is not sufficient in itself; you must also practice the art of applying this knowledge to problems you hit upon.
  8.  The applications of laser techniques are expanding very rapidly.
  9.  The next question of the discussion is making a program for the computer.
  10.  When discussing a problem they argued a lot.
  11.  Minimizing experimental errors is one of our principal difficulties.
  12.  Writing the article he had to use a lot of foreign materials.
  13.  We found the error without repeating this experiment.
  14.  I suggest exchanging the latest information on this subject.

8.15. Translate the sentences from Russian into English using the gerund or participle I. Point out their functions.

  1.  Переводить статьи с английского языка на русский необходимо каждому инженеру.
  2.  Мое хобби – переводить статьи.
  3.  Он переводит интересную статью сейчас.
  4.  Он любит переводить статьи.
  5.  Я часто читаю статьи  о различных способах перевода.
  6.  Его способ перевода статьи не очень хороший.
  7.  Человек, переводящий (который переводит) статью, – наш коллега.
  8.  Прежде чем переводить статью, нужно как следует научиться этому .

9.  Переводя статью, студент пользовался словарем.



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