14502

EU enlargement

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Международные отношения

EU enlargement The story of the European Union begins in 1951 with the formation of the European Coal and Steel Community. France Italy West Germany and 3 Benelux countries agreed to unify their coal and steel markets. The idea of being economically interdependent make a return to war in the words of French foreign minister Robert Shrooman materially impossible. The GDP of the 6 members rose steadily as the effect of the Community rules on the industrial production and trade began kick...

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2013-06-06

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EU enlargement

The story of the European Union begins in 1951 with the formation of the European Coal and Steel Community. France, Italy, West Germany and 3 Benelux countries agreed to unify their coal and steel markets. The idea of being economically interdependent, make a return to war, in the words of French foreign minister Robert Shrooman, materially impossible. The GDP of the 6 members rose steadily as the effect of the Community rules on the industrial production and trade began kicking. Six years later in 1957 the 6 countries signed the Treaty of Rome creating European Economic Community. In 1961 United Kingdom with Northern Ireland and Denmark applied to join but France’s President Charle de Goal vetoed their application. It wasn’t until 1973 that EEC enlarged taken 3 countries. In 1979 the first Europe’s wide election to the European Parliament took place. Two years later Greece joined the EEC, followed in 1986 by Spain and Portugal. In 1990 following the fall of the Berlin Wall and the subsequent reunification of Germany the EEC was extended to countries beneath Eastern Germany. In 1995 Austria, Finland and Sweden joined and it has become known as the European Union.

The single European currency, euro, was launched in 1999 with monetary and coin circulation in 2002. In 2004 the EU saw the biggest expansion yet, taking in 8 former Communist countries in Central and Eastern Europe, allowing Cyprus and Malta. Romania and Bulgaria followed in 2007. In 12 countries that joined in 2004-2007 the accession process has brought real benefits. According to the European Commission between 2000-2008 the process contributed 1,75  % points to annual GDP growth in these countries. The Commission also says that the enlargement has brought economic benefits to existing EU members, has made new export market so well done.

Today the European Union contains 27 member-states merging in size from Germany down to Malta. Under current rules in European Council, where heads of the governments meet to take decisions, voting right grows roughly in proportion to a country’s population. All the smaller countries tend to do better proportionally than the large ones. The future of the EU enlargement is uncertain. 3 countries Croatia, Macedonia and Turkey had their applications to join the Union officially accepted. Yet many argue that the EU needs more time to digest it recent ease with the extension of foreign borders on further serious enlargements. Of the 3 official candidates only Croatia looks likely to join it in the near future, probably some point in 2011. Negotiations with Macedonia were being blocked by Greece, which has concerned about the former Yugoslav republic’s name. Turkey’s movement towards accession has told own to concern sensor European leaders over whether the polls in EU were told. Iceland whose economy was wrecked by financial crisis applied for EU membership in 2009 and hopes to do with it quickly. EU membership remains an aspiration for the countries of the western Balkans. Albania, Montenegro and Serbia will apply for membership. Bosnia and Kosovo somewhere off yet. Further east it should become Slovakia. Ukraine, the most important country in the region, is keen on joining, but the EU is deeply worried of extending the invitation to a large poor country wrecked by instability and corruption. Equally some politicians in the countries of the South Caucuses, particularly Georgia, aspire the EU membership, but there is no real prospect in this short or even medium term.


 

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