17993

Іноземна мова зі спеціальності Економіка і підприємництво та Менеджмент

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МЕТОДИЧНІ ВКАЗІВКИ І ЗАВДАННЯ ДЛЯ САМОСТІЙНОЇ РОБОТИ з дисципліни Іноземна мова зі спеціальності для студентів Інституту післядипломної освіти і дистанційного навчання ІПОДН спеціальностей Економіка і підприємництво та Менеджмент Методичні вказівки і

Украинкский

2013-07-06

791.5 KB

3 чел.

МЕТОДИЧНІ ВКАЗІВКИ І ЗАВДАННЯ

ДЛЯ САМОСТІЙНОЇ РОБОТИ

з дисципліни «Іноземна мова зі спеціальності»

для студентів Інституту післядипломної освіти і дистанційного навчання (ІПОДН) спеціальностей «Економіка і підприємництво» та «Менеджмент»

Методичні вказівки і завдання для самостійної роботи з дисципліни «Іноземна мова зі спеціальності» для студентів Інституту післядипломної освіти і дистанційного навчання (ІПОДН) спеціальностей «Економіка і підприємництво» та «Менеджмент»/Укл: І.Ю. Гусленко. - Луганськ: вид-во СНУ імені В. Даля, 2009. - ___ с.

 

Мета методичних вказівок – сформувати у студентів навички самостійної роботи, розширити словниковий запас, удосконалити навички читання та спілкування за спеціальністю, забезпечити застосування отриманих знань, вмінь і навичок на практиці в процесі вивчення мови.

Укладач       І.Ю. Гусленко, ст. викл.

Відповідальний за випуск     В.Е. Краснопольський, доц.

Рецензент       М.Л. Крамаренко, доц.


ПЕРЕДМОВА

Сучасні вимоги до підготовки майбутнього спеціаліста з економіки або менеджменту потребують нового підходу не тільки до проблем вивчення економіки взагалі, а й до мовної підготовки зокрема. Належне володіння іноземною мовою є необхідною умовою для подальшого професійного зростання та інтеграції у Європейське та світове співтовариство. Саме цій підхід зумовив структуру цих методичних вказівок, розрахованих для студентів Інституту післядипломної освіти і дистанційного навчання (ІПОДН).

Тематичний діапазон уроків охоплює коло проблем з теорії менеджменту та повсякденних тем ділового спілкування. Company structure, Forms of Business, Management Styles, Meeting a business partner, Small Talk, Business trip, Telephoning. Читання та переклад текстів практикує студентів в роботі з фаховою літературою. До кожного тексту додаються вправи, спрямовані на розширення активного словникового запасу студентів . Багато з післятекстових вправ мають комунікативну спрямованість, що допомогає також у формуванні навичок іншомовного спілкування.

Надані до кожного уроку граматичні вправи дають можливість систематизувати, закріпити та перевірити отриманні знання. Для полегшення опанування деяких граматичних тем у кінці вказівок подані граматичні таблиці та список з неправильними дієсловами. До методичних вказівок також увійшли додаткові тексти для самостійного читання, розраховані на самостійну роботу студентів зі словником, для розширення лексичного запасу зі спеціальності та ділової міжкультурної комунікації.

UNIT 1

Topic: Company structure

Grammar: Present Simple – Present Continuous – Relative Pronouns/Adverbs – Adverbs of Frequency

Vocabulary

successive level – наступний рівень

chain of command – субординація

decision – рішення

to report – звітувати

immediate subordinate – безпосередній підлеглий

staff position – штабна посада

department – відділ

complicated – складний

incompatible goal – несумісна ціль

to encourage – заохочувати

division – підрозділ

profit – дохід

inherent – властивий

responsibility – відповідальність, обов’язок

temporary group – тимчасова група

to split up - розпадатися

COMPANY STRUCTURE

In business organization structure means the relationship between positions and people who hold the positions. Organization structure is very important because it provides an efficient work system as well as a system of communication.

Most companies are made up of three groups of people: the shareholders( who provide the capital ), the management and the workforce.

The management structure can be presented as a hierarchy. At the top of the company hierarchy is the Board of Directors, headed by the Chairperson or the President. The Board is responsible policy decisions and strategy. It will usually appoint a Managing Director or Chief Executive Officer, who has to overall responsibility for the running of the business. Senior managers or company officers head various departments or functions within the company, which may include the following:

Marketing

Sales

Public Relations

Information Technology

Personnel or Human Resources

Finance

Production

Research and Development

Organization for success

In order for a business to be successful, it is important that it be organized to best carry out the plans for the business. Arranging resources and relationships between departments and employees and defining the responsibility of each is organizing. Usually the business will develop an organizational chart showing the structure of the organization and the relationship among workers and divisions of work. Organizational charts will differ according to the kind of business.

The importance of the organizational chart is to:

1. Indicate each employee's area of responsibility and to whom each reports.

2. Coordinate the division of work and to make those divisions clear.

3. Show the types of work done by the business.

4. Indicate line of promotion.

Characteristics of Good Organization:

1. Responsibility and Authority - Each employee should know exactly the tasks assigned to them. Authority is the right to make decisions; it is delegated from the top of the organization down through the lowest levels.

2. Accountability - Who is each individual responsible to? Who will hold them accountable for their assigned tasks?

3. Unity of Command - No employee should have more than one supervisor. Confusion occurs when an employee has more than one supervisor assigning them tasks. They may have trouble deciding which task has priority or which way to do a certain task if two people have different ways of getting the job done.

4. Span of Control - How many employees are under one person? The manager who supervises too many people is overworked and unable to work effectively; however, if they have too few, the business may be wasting valuable time.

Types of Organization Structures:

1. Line Organization - It is most often used by small businesses or businesses that are very specialized. All authority and responsibility can be traced up from the lowest administrative unit to the president. The president has direct control over all units of business, but authority and responsibility are passed along from one person to another.

2. Line-and-Staff Organization - It is used by most large businesses. It adds staff specialist to a line organization. When a business grows, the work increases in amount and complexity. Staff specialist may be added to the line of organization to give advice and assistance to line personnel. Staff personnel have no authority over line personnel. They cannot assign any specific tasks.

Vocabulary exercises and activities

MEMORIZE THE FOLLOWING:

1. HIERARCHY:

The company is headed by the Managing Director (MD).

The Sales Director reports to the MD.

The Sales Director is under the MD.

The Sales Director is accountable to the MD.

The Sales Director is supported by a Sales team.

The Sales Director is assisted by a Sales Assistant.

2. RESPONSIBILITIES/ FUNCTIONS

The Finance Department is responsible for accounting.

The Research and Development (R&D) takes care of new product development.

The Administration Manager is in charge of personnel.

3. TIILES

Below are the main managerial titles with the US equivalents in brackets:

Chairman (President)

Managing Director (Chief Executive Officer/ Senior Vice-President)

Finance Director (Vice-President)

Sales Manager (Sales Director)

Note: The Director and Chairman of a company usually sit on the Board of Directors (Executive Board).

4. AFFILIATES

X is a parent company.

A, B, C are subsidiaries (more than 50% owned by the parent)

Exercise 1. Choose the appropriate word.

The Managing Director __________ to the Board. (accountable/ reports)

The Managing Director is __________ for running the company. (responsible/ takes care)

The Managing Director is __________ by four executive departments. (supported/ in charge)

Under the Managing Director, there are five regional __________ . (departments / divisions)

Each Regional Manager is in __________ of a territory. (charge/ report)

In addition to the __________, Rossomon has three __________ : Rossomon France, Germany and Japan. (parent company/ division/ subsidiaries)

Exercise 2. Match the jobs in the box with the descriptions below.

managing director

I organize training courses for members of staff - language, computer, etc.

sales representative

I set up the equipment and do experiments and tests.

purchasing manager

I am the senior executive.

laboratory technician

I check that products are made to the right standards.

personal assistant

I visit customers and try to increase business.

training officer

I work with the Managing Director. I am responsible for his diary, organize his travels and take calls for him.

quality control manager

I buy everything the company needs, from raw material to stationery.

Exercise 3. Read the text below about the French company Perrier Vittel and fill in the gaps. Use the words in the box.

product

takeover

subsidiary

market leader

research centre

turnover

division

brands

customers

market share

production sites

acquisition

Perrier Vittel is a s…………………(1)of the Nestlé Group. It has millions of c………………(2) all over the world. It is a water d………………(3). of the group and has many famous b…………….(4). such as San Pellegrino, Contrex, Panna and Aquarel. There are sixty-seven p…………… s………… (5). producing billions of liters of bottled water. The main r……….. c…………(6) of the Nestlé Group is in Lausanne and there is a network of seventeen other centre on four continents employing 2,500 staff. This research helps produce safe and affordable water for everybody.

A recent new p…………….(7). is Nestlé Pure Life. The company bottles this water locally in developing countries such as Pakistan and Brazil.

Nestlé’s interest in water began in 1969 with the a………….. (8) of 30% of Vittel. After the t………………(9). of Perrier in 1992 the new company Perrier-Vittel became a major part of the Nestlé Group. Today water sales represent 8.8% of the group’s t……………. (10). The group is the international m…………… l…………(11). for bottled water with a 15% m…………… s……………(12) .

A new CEO, Frits van Dijk took over in 2000 and he aims to keep Perrier-Vittel at the front of the bottled water market in both sales and technology.

Exercise 4. Look at this organization chart. Use information from the text above to complete the missing information. The first is done for you.

Exercise 5. Try and draw a similar chart for your company or a company you know. Describe it to a partner.

Exercise 6. Most companies have different departments. Look at the extracts from the documents below and match them with the appropriate department. There is one for each department.

Research and Development ………

Sales and Marketing ……..

Financial ………

Legal ………

Human Resources …….

Communications ……..

challenge that it involves.

I look forward to meeting you and discussing further the post that you are advertising.

Please find enclosed my CV and application form.

Yours sincerely

Jenifer Plater

A

Telephone Message

Perry Wright called.

Journalist from Economic News wants to interview the chairman about our results.

Call back on 08 145 0168 975.

B

INVOICE/CREDIT NOTE APPROVAL FORM

Newlands laboratories

Vendor number: 75960-28

Currency: €

Document number: 15-4

Discount: 20%

C

Supplier date:  25/10/09

Gross amount: €459

Invoice number: 023

VAT: 17,5%

Age

Weight (kg)

Time (mins)

Dosage (mg)

         D

65

90

80

70

35

30

25

20

55

90

80

70

25

20

15

20

45

90

80

70

22

18

12

20

35

90

80

70

20

17

10

20

25

90

80

70

14

15

15

20

Contract

This agreement is made the sixteenth day of January nine thousand.

BETWEEN

Carter Powell Management cervices of Frith Road Lancaster Lancashire (hereinafter called CPMS) of the one part and Penrith Cumbria   (hereinafter   called   PC)   of the

E

F

Exercise 7. Can you think of any other departments?

Exercise 8. Where do these people usually work?

Accountants work in the _____________________ department.

Scientists often work _________________________________ .

Sales people ________________________________________ .

Lawyers ___________________________________________ .

PR people __________________________________________ .

Training Managers ___________________________________ .

Exercise 9. Describe the structure of the company using the scheme given below. Answer the following questions.

How many departments are there in the company?

How many managers work in the company?

What is in your opinion the most important department(s)?

Are there any branches in the company?

Talking points

Describing your department

Describing the activity of a department

My department deals with/ is responsible for marketing/administration, etc.

We organize tests/ studies/ research.

We work with customers/ suppliers/ subsidiaries/ other companies in the group.

Describing the staffing of the department

There are …. people in the department.

Pierre Ducros is in charge of the department.

I am one of the managers/ technicians/ secretaries/ engineers.

Describing the equipment/ premises of a department

We have a large office/ three laboratories/ a small building.

We use computers/ fax / email a lot.

We have a well equipped laboratory/ a lot of technical equipment.

Think about your department or a department you would like to work in. Draw an organization chart for it. Use the language from the Language Note above to give a short presentation about your department.

Speak on the following:

1. List the purposes of an organizational chart.

2. Describe why it is important for an employee to report to only one supervisor.

3. In many businesses today an employee may have two supervisors. If you had two supervisors, with each supervisor asking you to perform a different task and both wanting them completed by the end of the day, describe how you would handle this situation (in a complete paragraph).

4. Describe what authority, if any, you have at your place of business.

5. Draw the organizational chart for your place of employment. (Use additional sheets as necessary.)

6. In groups discuss the differences among the various organizational charts that your classmates drew. (How are they different, why are they different, etc.). Share your conclusions with the rest of the class.

TEST

!. Read the text describing company structure. Then choose the correct answer to the questions.

SBS stands for Siemens Business Services. It is a division of the famous German company Siemens. It is only five years old but is already responsible for a considerable part of Siemens’ turnover. How? Siemens had the idea in 1995.A whole department of Siemens was at the time responsible for the information and communication activities of Siemens. The idea was to offer this service not only inside the company but outside too. SBS is now one of the world’s leading providers in the area of electronic business solutions and services.

Friedrich Froeschi is the CEO and SBS is now an independent division with 33,000 employees in 88 countries and turnover of 5.8 billion Euros. One of its largest customers is the British government. SBS organizes and manages the passports and national savings accounts for Britain. In Europe its main competitors are IBM, Cap Gemini and EDS. With growth in this marker of at least 15% the future looks bright for this German service company.

1 .What is the activity of SBS?

electronic engineering

printing

database management

2. Which company does Friedrich Froeschi manage?

Siemens Business Services

Siemens

IBM

3. One of its largest customers is:

EDS

SBS

The British government

4. 5.8 billion Euros represent:

Siemens turnover

SBS’s turnover

SBS’s profit

5. SBS manages electronic services for:

IBM

British passports

88 countries

6. SBS is :

a branch of Siemens

a department of Siemens

a division of Siemens

2. Find words in the Siemens text which match these definitions.

a computer application for keeping records -……………..

annual sales -……………

clients -……………

companies in the same market -……………

a document for travelling from one country to another -………….

an increase -………………

3. Look at the list of words. Match pairs of words as in the examples to make the expressions defined below.

sales, office, stock, head, site, annual, human, market, parent, public, company, research, resources, director, relations, development, marketing, managing, production, turnover

a department in charge of finding new ideas…………………………………..

e. g. research + development = Research and Development (department)

a person in charge of a company…………………………………..

a firm which owns subsidiaries ………………………………………..

a department in charge of finding and increasing the number of customers ………………….

a factory or a plant ……………………………………………………

department in charge of recruitment, training and personnel…………………………………

the administrative and the central building of a company……………………………………

the value of a public company is quoted here…………………………………………………

the total sales of a company for a year………………………………..

the department of a company which is in charge of external communication…………………

Grammar Practice

Present Simple – Present Continuous – State verbs – Linking Words/Phrases

Relative Pronouns – Relative Adverbs – Position of Prepositions in Relative Clauses – Adverbs of Frequency

1. a) Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form of present simple or present continuous.

I ………………………… (fly) to Liverpool tomorrow.

The McCarthys ………………………… (live) in Perth.

John ………………………… (paint) the garage at the moment/

The earth ………………………… (move) around the sun.

Anna ………………………… (like) her new school.

The flight to New York ………………………… (leave) at 7:00 am.

We ………………………… (look) for new furniture for the living room at present.

………………………… (you/go) to Spain this summer?

Rachel ………………………… (work) as a waitress at Sunrise Diner.

The train from Brussels ………………………… (arrive) at 5:10 pm/

We ………………………… (stay) at a beautiful hotel by the sea.

Ellen ………………………… (hate) dogs.

She ………………………… (exercise) three times a week.

I ………………………… (write) a letter to Michael right now.

Water ………………………… (freeze) at 0°C.

b) Which sentences describe:

a permanent state                              …………..

a temporary action                            …………..

a scheduled action                             …………..

an action arranged for the near future…………..

a general truth                                     …………..

an action happening now                    …………..

likes/dislikes                                       …………..

a routine                                              …………..

2. Underline the correct form of the verb.

Stacey goes/is going shopping for fruit and vegetables every Saturday morning.

He doesn’t speak/isn’t speaking five languages.

Bob drives/is driving the children to the match tonight.

Julie enjoys/is enjoying listening to classical music.

Do they play/Are they playing in the garden at the moment?

John and Mary hate/are hating adventure holidays.

They look/are looking for a house to rent.

The flight to London departs/is departing at 10:05 am.

Mrs Parker teaches/is teaching History at Lawton High School.

Water boils/is boiling at 100°C.

3. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form of present simple or present continuous.

1.  A: What ……………………. (you/cook)?

    B: I ……………………. (make) vegetarian lasagna.

    A: ……………………. (you/eat) vegetables every day?

    B: No, I usually ……………………. (have) meat at the weekend.

2.  A: What ……………………. (you/do) tonight?

    B: Nothing special. Why?

    A: Would you like to go to the cinema?

    B: That ……………….…. (sound) like a good idea. What …………..…... (you/want) to see?

    A: I’d really like to see Titanic.

    B: I ……………………. (hate) watching sad films

    A: How about a comedy then?

    B: OK.

3.  A: ……………………. (you/spend) the summer in Sicily?

    B: No, this year we ……………………. (go) to the north of Scotland. A friend of ours

        ……………………. (have) a cottage near Inverness.

    A: Oh, how wonderful! ……………………. (you/take) the children with you?

    B: No, they ……………………. (stay) with my mother because they …………………….

        (not/like) being away from their friends.

4. Underline the correct linking words/phrases.

I love coffee but/as well I hate tea.

Sally is a co-operative and/also energetic person.

Mike is friendly. However/As well, he tends to be arrogant at times.

Pete’s short, well built and/but middle-aged. He’s got curly grey hair and brown eyes as well/also.

Jessica is caring, generous and patient but/as well.

Ellen likes sharing her toys with other children. And/On the other hand, she can be rude at times.

Laura is a very hard worker. She’s however/also an imaginative person.

5. Join the sentences using who, which or whose, as in the example.

Bob is a photographer. His studio is located in the city centre. -                                                     Bob is a photographer whose studio is located in the city centre.

Anne works for a large firm. The firm produces cosmetics.

Pamela is an animal lover. She fights for animal rights.

Aristotle was an ancient Greek philosopher. His books are still widely read.

National Geographic is a magazine. It sells million of copies all over the world.

Frank Sinatra was a famous singer. He sang many beautiful songs.

I live in a village. It is very peaceful and quiet.

That is the man. His son is a professional basketball player.

6. Put the adverbs of frequency in the correct position.

We go out on Sunday evenings. (always)

The children eat junk food. (hardly ever)

They have been abroad. (never)

Do David and Sarah do their homework before dinner? (always)

I see my sister because she lives so far away. (rarely)

Emily cooks dinner for herself. (seldom)

Does Tom do the housework on Tuesday? (usually)

I watch comedy films. (sometimes)

Test yourself

1. Choose the correct item.

Lily is a very caring person ………….. she can be a bit lazy at times.

A. but

B. and

C. also

I ………….. my grandparents tomorrow.

A. seeing

B. ‘m seeing

C. see

That is the motorcycle ………….. Larry bought last month.

A. which

B. who

C. whose

Do you play golf at the weekends? – Yes, I ………….. do.

A. seldom

B. never

C. often

John’s parents ………….. on a farm.

A. lives

B. live

C. living

The restaurant ………….. we ate last night was amazing.

A. when

B. where

C. why

Caroline ………….. the dog at the moment.

A. is walking

B. walk

C. walks

This is Mr Kane ………….. wife is a deep-sea diver.

A. which

B. who’s

C. whose

I hate snakes ………….. I like lizards.

A. but

B. as well as

C. and

I ………….. of moving to the country.

A. thinks

B. am thinking

C. think

2. Cross out the unnecessary word.

Is he the man who he has got a white Porsche?

This is the restaurant where we ate there last Sunday.

This is the shop whose its alarm went off last night.

The flat where we stayed at was very small.

We rarely not go to the cinema.

“Do you like my new hat?” – “Yes, I do like.”

UNIT 2

Topic: Forms of Business  

Grammar: Past Simple/Continuous – Present Perfect Simple /Continuous – The Definite Article

Vocabulary

sole traderприватний підприємець

partnershipтовариство

private limited company    - закрита акціонерна компанія

public limited company   -  компанія відкритого типу

liability – відповідальність

assets – активи

to commence trade – починати торгівлю

legal entity – юридична особа

shareholder – юридична особа

beyond the amountпонад суму

third partyтретя сторона

the Registrar of Companies  - - реєстраційне бюро компаній

to compete –  конкурувати

unincorporatedне корпоративне підприємство

FORMS OF BUSINESS IN THE UNITED KINGDOM

As the UK is a country where market economy was established centuries ago, it would be interesting to look at British forms of business organization. The UK economy is mixed, that means that there exist private and public sectors and the first being by far larger then the latter. Four major types of business represent the private sector: sole trader, partnership, limited company and unlimited company. Limited companies in turn can be private limited and public limited. The public sector consists of nationalized companies. Let us review all of these forms in greater detail to identify their main features, advantages and disadvantages. The classification of business forms is illustrated by the following scheme:

Sole trader

The proprietor is the sole owner of a business and has full control of it. He is personally liable for all business debts, i.e. he carries an unlimited liability. This means that if his business fails, not only business assets are to be sold to cover outstanding debt, but also the owner’s personal property. It is easy to start a sole trader’s business at any time. As there are no legal formalities to complete before commencing trade.

Partnership

Partners jointly own a business and each partner is personally liable for the firm’s debt. If any of the partners have limited liability in a worse-case scenario they can lose only the capital they invested in the business. However, they cannot actively run the business and are therefore called “silent” partners. There are limitations to the number of partners: minimum of two and maximum of twenty.

Limited company

A limited company is the most common form of business. A limited company is a legal entity that is separate from shareholders and directors. The shareholders are not liable for the company’s debts beyond the amount remaining unpaid on the shares they hold or guaranteed to a third party. To register a firm as a limited company certain documents must be submitted to the Registrar of Companies who then issued a certificate of Incorporation. This certificate permits the company to start its operations. A limited company is managed by the Board of Directors elected at annual shareholders’ meetings.

Unlimited company

Unlimited companies are less common but sometimes they are useful entities which combine characteristics of both companies and unincorporated business (sole trader or partnership). There are certain businesses, regulated by professional bodies, which are required to be unlimited companies.

Nationalized company

Nationalized company are established by acts of parliament. Usually they are natural monopolies, although  there are some exceptions, such as the British  Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), which competes with independent radio and TV stations.

Exercise 1. Complete the following sentences.

1. The UK economy is mixed, that means that …..

2. Four major types of business represent the private sector: …..

3. The public sector consists of …..

4. The sole trader is personally liable for …..

5. It is easy to start a sole trader’s business as there are …..

6. Each partner is personally liable for …..

7. A limited company is …..

8. The shareholders are not liable for …..

9. To register a firm as a limited company …..

10. A limited company is managed …..

11. Unlimited companies are less common but sometimes they are …..

12. Nationalized companies are established by …..

Exercise 2. Agree or refute the following statements:

1. The UK economy is mixed.

2. Four major types of business represent the public sector.

3. The sole proprietor is not liable for all business debts.

4. It is easy to start a sole trader’s business at any time.

5. Partners jointly own a business and each partner is personally liable for the firm’s debt.

6. The shareholders of a limited company are liable for the company’s debts.

7. Nationalized companies are established by Acts of Parliament.

Exercise 3. The words in A are in the text. Match a word in A with a definition in B.

A

B

- sole trader

- a person who owns shares in a company

- shareholder

- responsibility

- liability

- to control a business, organization

- to run the business

- to give smth. to a person so that it may be considered or decided upon

- to compete

- to try to do or be better then someone else

- to submit

- a person who owns and runs a business and is the only person responsible for it

Exercise 4. Make up questions to the text and let your partner answer them.

Exercise 5. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English.

У Сполученому  Королівстві ринкова економіка була введена багато років тому.

Приватний підприємець несе відповідальність за всі борги компанії.

Якщо бізнес потерпає невдачу, то мають бути продані не лише активи бізнесу, але і особиста власність власника.

Якщо деякі з учасників партнерського бізнесу володіють обмеженою відповідальністю, то у гіршому випадку вони можуть втратити лише капітал, який вони вклали в бізнес.

Найбільш типовою формою бізнесу є компанія з обмеженою відповідальністю.

Для того, щоб зареєструвати фірму як компанію з обмеженою відповідальністю, потрібно надати необхідні документи в Реєстраційне бюро компаній.

Компанією з обмеженою відповідальністю керує Рада Директорів, що обирається на щорічних зборах акціонерів.

Націоналізовані компанії є звичайними монополіями.

Exercise 6. Fill in the blanks with appropriate words.

About 50% of entrepreneurs start their _________ (1) in industries in which they have some __________ (2).

People who come from families whose members were in business themselves are more likely to start their own __________ (3).

In a large business the tasks of organizing and operating are done by many hired __________ (4).

__________ (5) is a business owned by one person.

All debts and all problems associated with the business belong to the __________ (6).

___________ (7) is a business organization that is owned by two or more persons.

If the business were to fail, its __________ (8) would have the right to recover their money from any, or all, of the partners.

Ownership of a corporation is represented by shares of stock, and for that reason corporate owners are known as ___________ (9).

experience

creditors

stockholders

managers

business

companies

a sole proprietorship

a partnership

owner

Exercise 7. Would you like to own your own business? Why? If so, would you prefer to buy an existing business or start from scratch? Explain.

What product or service would you like to provide?

What talents, interests, skills and abilities do you have which would make you successful in this business?

Where would you want to locate the business and for what reason?

What type of business organization would you prefer (sole proprietorship, partnership, corporation)? Explain your choice.

Exercise 8. Do you have the personal characteristics that might help you become a successful entrepreneur? Read each question on the Rating Scale. Place a check mark on the line above at the point where you believe successful entrepreneurs would rate themselves. Repeat the exercise for yourself by placing an ‘X’ closest to the answer that best describes you. The check mark need not be placed directly over one of the suggested answers if your rating lies somewhere between two answers. Be honest with yourself.

Are you a self-starter?

I do things my own way. Nobody needs to tell me to get going.

If someone keeps me started, I keep going all right.

Easy does it. I don’t put myself out until I have to.

How do you feel about other people?

I like people. I can get along with just anybody.

I have enough friends and I don’t need anybody else.

Most people bug (annoy) me.

Can you take responsibility?

a) I like to take charge and see things through.

b) I’ll take over if I have to, but I’d rather let someone else be responsible.

c) There’s always some eager beaver around (someone who is extremely enthusiastic and enjoys working extremely hard) waiting to show off. I say, let him.

How good an organizer are you?

a) I like to have a plan before I start. I’m usually the one who lines things up (prepares everything properly).

b) I do all right unless things get too complicated. Then I lose interest.

c) I just take things as they come.

How good a worker are you?

a) I can keep going as long as necessary. I don’t mind working hard.

b) I’ll work hard for a time, but when I’ve had enough, that’s it.

c) I can’t see that hard work gets you anywhere.

Can you make decisions?

a) I can make my own mind in a hurry if necessary, and my decision is usually O.K.

b) I can if I have plenty of time. If I have to make up my mind fast, I usually regret it.

c) I don’t like to be the one decides things. I’d probably blow it (not to care about it).

Can you stick with it?

a) If I make up my mind to do something, I don’t let anything stop me.

b) I usually finish what I start.

c) It a job doesn’t go right, I turn off. Why beat my brains out?

Can you keep records?

a) Since they are needed I’ll keep records even though I don’t want to.

b) I can, but it’s more important to get the work out than to shuffle numbers

c) I would rather hire someone to keep records for me.

Exercise 9. Speak on different forms of business in the United Kingdom.

Grammar Practice

Past Simple – Past Continuous – Present Perfect Simple – Have gone (to) – Have been (to) – Present Perfect Continuous – The Definite Article – Clauses of Result

1. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form of the past simple.

Michael ………………. (watch) a great film last night.

Tom ………………. (come) home late, ………………. (eat) a sandwich and ………………. (go) to bed.

I always ………………. (enjoy) reading fairy tales when I was young.

Mrs Smith ………………. (arrive) at the office, ………………. (turn on) the computer and ………………. (start) typing.

………………. (you/study) hard when you were at university?

My grandfather ………………. (not/fight) in the Second World War.

Forty years ago, my grandmother ………………. (walk) two kilometers to school every day.

Last year, Tom ………………. (give) his wife a new car for her birthday.

2. Underline the correct form of the verb.

He slept/was sleeping at 10 o’clock this morning.

We all went/were going out last night.

I ate/was eating breakfast when the phone rang/was ringing.

I took/was taking some really great photos when I was/ was being in California.

She had/was having lunch with her fiancé when he gave/was giving her an expensive ring as a birthday present.

He met/was meeting Mary yesterday.

3. A policeman asking a witness about an accident he saw. Put the verbs in brackets into the past simple or past continuous.

P:   Where ………………. (be) you when you ………………. (see) the accident, Sir?

W:  I ………………. (stand) on the corner of Jameson Street.

P:   What exactly ………………. (happen)?

W:  Well, a boy ………………. (ride) his bicycle along the road towards the traffic lights when suddenly a car ………………. (drive) quickly around the corner. The driver ………………. (lose) control and ………………. (hit) the boy.

P:   ………………. (boy/cycle) fast?

W:  No, not at all.

P:   ………………. (anyone else/see) the accident?

W:  No, I don’t think so.

P:   Thank you very much for your help, Sir.

4. Put the verbs in brackets into present perfect simple.

Why don’t you stay at home and finish your homework? – I …………… (already/finish) it.

How long …………… (they/know) each other? – For more than ten years.

…………… (you/see) Carl lately? – No, I …………… (not/see) him since Christmas.

…………… (Mike/ride) a motorcycle before? – No, she hasn’t.

Mum …………… (already/cook) dinner, hasn’t she? – No, she …………… (not/start) cooking it yet.

Can I have a piece of cake? – Sorry, Sue …………… (just/have) the last piece.

5. Fill in the gaps with have/has gone or have/has been.

…………… you ever …………… to the opera?

My sister …………… to the cinema. She left an hour ago.

We …………… to Paris twice so far this year but we want to go again soon.

My brother …………… never …………… to an art gallery.

He …………… to school. He should be home by 4.00.

Peter …………… just …………… to the corner shop. He’ll be back in a minute.

James …………… to Manchester for a few days on a business trip. He’s returning tomorrow.

6. Fill in the gaps with the present perfect continuous form of the verbs in the list below.

talk              wait                  work                   ride

She’s bored. Her mum ………………. on the phone for an hour.

He’s happy. He ………………. his new bike all day.

She is tired. She ………………. since 7.00 this morning.

He’s worried. He ………………. for an important phone call for an hour.

7. Underline the correct word(s).

Chris went diving in Red Sea/the Red Sea.

The Taj Mahal/Taj Mahal is in India.

During their trip to New York, John and Mary plan to visit the Museum of Modern Art/Museum of Modern Art.

Woody Allen is a famous film director who also plays saxophone/the saxophone.

I have booked a seat on a flight which leaves at 8 o’clock in the evening/evening.

Geraldine speaks the Japanese/Japanese fluently.

In a few weeks, Grays/the Grays are planning to move to the seaside.

She stayed out in the sun/sun too long.

According to the last press reports, the Prime Minister/Prime Minister is going to resign.

They had a guide with them when they climbed Himalayas/the Himalayas.

I’m extremely tired. The only thing I want is to go to the bed/bed.

Sam and Pat played chess/the chess for hours yesterday afternoon.

Life in big cities can be very difficult for elderly/the elderly.

We always eat dinner/the dinner at seven o’clock.

James is always first/the first person to arrive at a party.

My greatest dream is to travel across the South America/South America.

8. Fill in the gaps with so, such or such a(n).

She runs ………… fast that she will surely win the championship.

Chris ………… generous person that he is always giving his friends gifts.

The music at the party next door was ………… loud that I couldn’t sleep.

How can you swim in ………… cold water?

We had ………… great time when we were in Dublin that we want to go again.

There was ………… much noise in the room I found it impossible to concentrate.

There were ………… few people at the meeting we had to cancel it.

She studies ………… little that it’s amazing passes her exams.

He’s ………… arrogant person that he never admits that he is wrong.

Have you ever seen ………… polite children before?

Test yourself

1. Choose the correct item.

Yesterday, we ………… at an excellent Chinese restaurant.

A. have dined

B. are dining

C. dined

Mary………… to her ballet lesson yesterday because she was ill.

A. didn’t go

B. hasn’t gone

C. wasn’t going

He’s been doing the same job ………… he was twenty years old.

A. since

B. for

C. before

Ron has already ………… the balcony.

A. clean

B. cleaned

C. cleaning

Donna ………….. working very hard lately.

A. has been

B. was

C. have been

The boys were playing basketball while their father ………….. the lawn.

A. was mowing

B. has mowed

C. mows

Do you read newspapers? – No, I ………… do.

A. usually

B. often

C. never

He’s been living in the same flat …………. twenty years.

A. just

B. for

C. since

9. Cross out the unnecessary word.

  1.  He is travelling to Manchester by the train.
  2.  The Rome is the capital of Italy.
  3.  While Melanie was studying in her room and she heard a strange noise.
  4.  It was such a nice weather that we went to the beach.
  5.  We went to England for two years ago.
  6.  The may is my favorite month.
  7.  It was such a good news that she couldn’t believe it.

UNIT 3

Topic: Management Styles

Grammar: Past Perfect Simple/Continuous – Must/Mustn’t/Needn’t – Comparative/Superlative forms

MANAGEMENT STYLES

In many management text books the three most talked about management styles are democratic, autocratic and consultative. Selecting the correct management style may lead to greater motivation and productivity from your staff. However, it is not as easy as just 'picking' a style. Managers personalities and characteristics will influence the type of style adopted. For example a timid manager will find an autocratic management style difficult to adopt.

Democratic Management Style

A democratic manager delegates authority to his/her staff, giving them responsibility to complete the task given to them (also known as empowerment). Staff will complete the tasks using their own work methods. However, the task must be completed on time. Employees are involved in decision making giving them a sense of belonging and motivating individuals. Because staff feel a sense of belonging and are motivated the quality of decision making and work also improves. Although popular in business today, a democratic management style can slow decision making down because staff need to be consulted. Also some employees may take advantage of the fact that their manager is democratic by not working to their full potential and allowing other group members to 'carry' them.

Autocratic Management Style

In contrast to the above an autocratic manager dictates orders to their staff and makes decisions without any consultation. The leader likes to control the situation they are in. Decision are quick because staff are not consulted and work is usually completed on time. However this type of management style can decrease motivation and increase staff turnover because staff are not consulted and do not feel valued.

Consultative Management style

A consultative management style can be viewed as a combination of the above two. The manager will ask views and opinions from their staff, allowing them to feel involved but will ultimately make the final decision.

Laissez Faire Management style

A laissez faire manager sets the tasks and gives staff complete freedom to complete the task as they see fit. There is minimal involvement from the manager. The manager however does not sit idle and watch them work! He or she is there to coach or answer questions, supply information if required. There are benefits, staff again are developed to take responsibility which may lead to improved motivation. However with little direct guidance from the manager staff may begin to feel lost and not reach the goals originally set within the time frame.

Diagram: Different forms of management styles

LANGUAGE PRACTICE

Exercise 1. Match different types of managers with their characteristics.

delegates responsibility for the task giving the staff full authority;

autocratic leader

sets the task and gives the staff complete freedom to complete the task as they see fit;

democratic leader

tells the staff who to do the task and makes final decision;

consultative leader

listens to the staff and then makes the final decision;

laissez faire leader

Exercise 2. Paragraphs 1-9 contain advice for business leaders. Choose the appropriate heading for each paragraph from the list below.

A leader should be a good teacher and communicator.

A leader must manage time and use it effectively.

A leader must have technical competence.

A leader must provide vision.

A leader must be visible and approachable.

A leader should be introspective.

A leader should be dependable.

A leader should be open-minded.

A leader should have a sense of humour.

In large organizations leaders should spend no more than four hours a day in their offices. The rest of the time they should be out with their people, talking to lower-level employees and getting their feedback on problem areas. They should be making short speeches and handing out awards. They should be travelling widely throughout their organizations.

The best leaders are those whose minds are never closed and who are eager to deal with new issues. Leaders should not change their minds too frequently after a major decision has been made, but if they never reconsider, they are beginning to show a degree of rigidity and inflexibility that creates problems for their organizations.

Executives must take a disciplined approach to their schedules, their post, their telephone calls, their travel schedules and meetings. Staying busy and working long hours are not necessarily a measurement of leadership effectiveness.

Leaders may run efficient organizations, but they do not really serve the long-term interests of the institution unless they plan, set goals and provide strategic perception.

The leader must be willing to pass on skills, to share insights and experiences, and to work very closely with people.

Leaders should let people know that life is not so important that you can’t sit back occasionally and be amused by what is happening. Laughter can be a great reliever of tension.

Reliability is something that leaders must have in order to provide stability and strength to organizations. Leaders must be willing to be flexible but consistency and coherence are important elements of large organizations.

Leaders must not only understand the major elements of their business but must also keep up with any changes.

Leaders should be able to look at themselves objectively and analyze where they have made mistakes and where they have disappointed people.

Exercise 3. Replace the underlined words by the appropriate words from the box below. There's one word more.

arbitrary

to advocate

an approach

to argue

to contribute

to emphasize

to encompass

to focus on

a viewpoint

an issue

a whim

A skilled manager favours an efficient running of the organization.

A superior's opinion is taken by subordinates for granted.

The organization achieved a great success thanks to the unified point of view on specific managerial principles.

The CEO has repeatedly tried to defend the marketing policy at the meeting of the Board of Directors.

Every representative of this classical school has been proving scientifically that the theory is wrong since the time when it was introduced.

The control of turnover is an important subject.

The reporter stressed the need to train employees.

In spite of all his fancies his opinion has always been taken into consideration.

The investigation involves a number of tough problems.

The manager is trying to fix an employee's attention on his work.

What type of manager are you?

We all have had experience working under various management styles. In some instances we may have preferred a manager with one style, while in another situation we may have preferred working under a totally different style. For example, while working on a particular project we may have preferred close supervision and yet most other times during our working career we preferred more freedom and independence from those supervising us as we worked through a particular assignment. We may have preferred the flexibility to present a final product to our manager.

Management theorists and management development programs have informed us that there are definite benefits to a particular style of management - usually the style the theorists or programs were advocating. Consequently, we have heard extolled over the years the advantages of such management philosophies and programs as Theory Y, Participative Management, System 4, 9.9, Management by Walking Around, Open Circles, Total Quality Management, Continuous Improvement and Employee Empowerment, to name only a few.

As managers we must select a management style that is best suited for us individually, our area of responsibility, those we manage and finally the organization that employs us. We may also require varying management styles depending on a specific assignment, the employees being managed, our natural tendencies and our employer's proclivities. Our style largely determines the performance outcome of those we supervise. Therefore, in order to determine the most appropriate management style we must first review previous results produced as a result of our personal management approach.

1. I have the final say over decisions made within my group.

AbsolutelyMost of the timeI let group members make their own decisions

2. I have the final say over decisions made within my group.

Absolutely Most of the time I let group members make their own decisions

3. I tell group members what to do, how to do it, and when I want it done.

All of the time Occasionally Rarely

4. If a group member makes a mistake, they are reprimanded or punished.

Rarely. Mistakes are a sign that a new strategy is needed.
Almost never. Group members can resolve problems on their own.
Absolutely

5. I carefully watch group members to be sure they are performing tasks properly.

Never. Group members know more about their job than I do.
Somewhat. I offer guidance if it is needed.
Always

6. Group members need clear rewards and punishments in order to complete tasks and meet goals.

Disagree. Group members should establish their own goals and objectives. Agree

Somewhat agree. They also need to feel involved and committed to the process

7. Group members are motivated by a need for security.

No Somewhat Yes

8. I accept input from group members.

Yes, but I have the final say over all decisions.
Never. I don't have time to worry about other people's ideas.
Absolutely. I allow group members to guide the decision-making process.

9. I ask for advice from group members when things go wrong.

No

Yes, and I let group members resolve problems on their own.

Often. I want input from group members when resolving problems.

10. I want group members to feel involved and relevant in the decision-making process.

Much of the time Never All of the time

11. When there are problems in the group, I work with members to arrive at a reasonable resolution.

Oftentimes. Group members should offer suggestions.

Never. I will decide how to fix the problem.

Always. Group members should work together to fix the problem.

12. I want to help group members fulfill their potential.

Absolutely Not really Occasionally

13. I prefer when decisions are made through group consensus.

Occasionally Never Always

14. Big decisions should have the approval of the majority of the group.

Always
Never. Group leaders are in charge of making decisions.
Sometimes. Group members should offer input.

15. I let group members decide what needs to be done and how to do it.

Never Occasionally Always

16. I allow group members to carry out their role with little of my input. They know more about their job than I do.

Neutral Disagree Agree

Grammar Practice 

Used to – Linking Words – Past Perfect Simple – Past Perfect Continuous – Must/Mustn’t/Needn’t – Comparative/Superlative forms

1. Rewrite each person’s comments using used to or didn’t use to, as in the example.

e.g. Deborah – I don’t work in a clothes shop any more…. She used to work in a clothes shop.

Don – I’ve got a motorcycle now.

Janet – I live on a boat now.

Adam – I haven’t got a beard now.

Lou – I grow my own vegetables now.

Kate – I don’t watch TV every day any more.

Peter – I go to the theatre once a week now.

Anne – I know how to use a computer now.

2. Join the sentences below using when, while, so or as/because.

They were having lunch.

It started to snow.

Emily was having a bath.

I took a taxi to work.

I woke up late.

They were hungry.

We were walking in the park.

Peter was making dinner.

3. Complete the sentences using so or because.

We overslept ………… the alarm clock didn’t go off.

I’m really tired ……….. I stayed up late last night.

The library was closed, ……….. we went to the bookshop instead.

I was bored ……….. I had nothing to do.

Jean was hungry, ………… she made herself a sandwich.

4. Put the verbs in brackets into the past perfect or past simple, then say which action happened first.

I …………..……. (just/wake up) when someone …………….… (knock) on the front door.

I ………...….… (have) my bus pass in my pocket but didn’t realize it ……...……. (expire).

By the time she …………………. (reach) the harbor, the ferry ……………………. (leave).

Maria …………..…….. (never/see) the ocean before she ………………. (leave) her village.

She ....…. (enjoy) her visit to the Rome although she ………. (already/go) there once before.

He ………….….………. (apologize) because he ………………….…… (miss) the meeting.

Lorna ……………………. (look) wonderful after she …………..….…… (lose) a few kilos.

After they ………… (finish) their picnic, they ……….. (take) their rubbish home with them.

When she ……..….…..……… (hang up) the phone she ………………………. (realize) she …………….…………(forget) to take down the caller’s name and number.

He ………….….……. (already/pack) his suitcase before he ………...…….……..(go) to bed.

5. Put the verbs in brackets into the past perfect or the past perfect continuous.

They …………………. (drive) for two hours before they finally reached their destination.

Emily …………………. (write) five letters by lunchtime.

The doctor told John to stay in bed until he …………………. (fully/recover).

He …………………. (iron) all morning when his wife arrived.

Peter …………………. (already/learn) to read and write before he started to school.

The baby …………………. (cry) for half an hour before it finally fell asleep.

The burglar …………………. (get away) by the time the police arrived.

How long …………………. (they/dance) in competitions when they retired?

They were exhausted because they …………………. (play) chess all day.

By the time we joined them they …………………. (already/order) their meal.

6. Fill in the gaps with must, mustn’t or needn’t.

You ……………….. take photos when you are in the National Museum.

You ……………….. smoke when you are at the petrol station.

He ……………….. come to the party if he doesn’t want to.

You ……………….. buy that book. I can lend you mine.

You ……………….. wear formal clothes in order to attend the reception.

You ……………….. go to the bank. I can give you some money.

You ……………….. come tomorrow. There’s not much work to do.

When on plane, you ……………….. turn off your mobile phone.

7. Tick the correct sentence.

1

a:

b:

A fish is less noisier than a cat.

A fish is less noisy than a cat.

……

……

2

a:

b:

Going to the zoo is more entertaining watching TV.

Going to the zoo is more entertaining than watching TV.

……

……

3

a:

b:

Cheetahs run faster than zebras.

Cheetahs run as fast than zebras.

……

4

a:

b:

Was the film as exciting as the book?

Was the film as more exciting as the book?

……

……

5

a:

b:

My hair is less dark than yours.

My hair is not as dark as yours.

……

……

6

a:

b:

A zebra’s neck is not as long as a giraffe’s.

A zebra’s neck is long as a giraffe’s.

……

……

7

a:

b:

Are dogs more loyal than cats?

Are dogs loyal more than cats?

……

……

8. Put the adjectives into the comparative or superlative form.

It was …………. (deep) lake I have ever swum in.

Your lecture on Modern Art was …………… (interesting) than mine.

Titanic was one …………….. (successful) films of the 1990’s.

Of all the students at my school, Penny is …………….. (popular).

That rock concert was …………….. (bad) I’ve ever been to.

Which is ……………….. (high) mountain in the world?

My puppy is …………….. (young) than yours.

Little Angie is …………… (quiet) baby I know.

Test yourself

1. Choose the correct item.

Where’s the old lady who lives next door? – She ……………..to Italy to visit her son.

A. has gone

B. has been

C. was going

Dad …………… dinner while Mum was reading a magazine.

A. had cooked

B. is cooking

C. was cooking

3 He was hot because he ………… in the sun.

A sat    B had been sitting   C is sitting

4 They were happy to hear they ………… a prize.

A win   B had won    C were winning

5 They ………… for half an hour when the doctor came.

A have waited  B had been waiting  C wait

6 Tom was painting the door while Judy …………… the windows.

A was cleaning   B cleaned    C is cleaning

7 I …………… this necklace since I was ten years old.

A had   B am having    C have had

8 They were bored because they …………… for hours.

A had been waiting   B are waiting    C have waited

9 We …………… get up early this morning, so we slept until ten o'clock.

A needn't   B mustn't   C didn't need to

10 Mum …………… the breakfast by the time we woke up.

A has been making   B made    C had made

2. Complete each sentence with two to five words, including the word in bold.

1 I've never read such an interesting book.

ever   It's the most ...interesting book I‘ve ever... read.

2 I haven't finished painting the house yet.

still                        I ………… the house.

3 It's a long time since they last went out.

have                     They ………… for a long time.

4 When did Pauline leave home?

since                     How long ………… Pauline left home?

5 They didn't begin eating until everyone had arrived.
before                  They waited until everyone ………… eating.

6 She's never eaten pizza before.

first                      It's the ………… eaten pizza.

7 I haven't seen Melanie for three years.

time                     The last ………… was three years ago.

8 That shelf is so high that I can't reach it.

too                       That shelf ………… to reach.

9 When did they join the company?

ago                       How long ………… the company?

10 It was the first time she had been to Europe.
never                   She ………… to Europe before.

11. It isn’t necessary for you to cook dinner tonight.

needn’t                 You …………………..tonight.

12 Kim is more hardworking than Anne.

as                            Anne …………….Kim.

13 Eagles are stronger than sparrows.

not                           Sparrows …………….eagles.

14. You aren’t allowed to keep library books for more than a month.

mustn’t                     You ………………..…..for more than a month.

UNIT 4

Topic: Meeting a business partner.

Grammar: Time Clauses – Future Tenses - Time Conjunctions  - Conditionals

MEETING A BUSINESS PARTNER

In business, people have to deal in person with all kinds of people. You may have to use English when talking to different people within your company who don’t speak your language: these may be your colleagues or co-workers, superiors or subordinates – who may work with you in your own department, in another part of the building or in another branch. And you may also have to deal in English with people from outside the organization: clients, suppliers, visitors and members of the public. Moreover, these people may be friends, acquaintances or strangers – people of your own age, or people who are younger or older than you. The relationship you have with a person determines the kind of language you use.

This relationship may even affect what you say when you meet people: for example, it’s not appropriate to say “Hi, how are you!” when meeting the Managing Director of a large company or to say “Good morning, it’s a great pleasure to meet you” when being introduced to a person you’ll be working closely with in the same team.

Remember that people form an impression of you from the way you speak and behave – not just from the way you do your work. People in different countries have different ideas of what sounds friendly, polite or sincere – and of what sounds rude or unfriendly! Good manners in your culture may be considered bad manners in another.  

Remember also that your body language, gestures and expression may tell people more about you than the words you use.

Greetings

1.

Formal

Semi – formal

Informal

Good morning

Good afternoon

Good evening

Morning. Afternoon.

Evening.

Hello.

Hi.

Until lunch time 12-2 p.m

Until 5-6 p.m

Until 11 p.m

2.

Formal

Semi-formal

Informal

How are you?

How are you getting on?

I am very/fairly/quite well, thank you.

Fine, thanks.

Not too/so bad, thank you.

All right, thank you.

OK, thanks.

A bit tired.

3.

Formal

Semi-formal

Informal

And how are you?

What about you?

And you?

How’s life?

How are things with you?

- Not very/too well, I’m afraid.

– Oh, dear, sorry to hear that.

- I’m afraid, I’m not well today. I’ve got a bad cold.

Leavetaking

Pre – closing phrases

Formal

Semi-formal

Informal

Well, I must be going.

I’m afraid I must be going.

It’s time I was going.

I’d better be going.

I must be off now.

Well, I think I’d better go now.

I’m in a bit of a hurry.

It’s been nice seeing you.

Hope to see you again.

Nice meeting you.

See you then.

See you.

Closing phrases

Formal

Semi-formal

Informal

Good-bye.

(Good) bye for now.

Bye then.

Bye-bye.

Cheerio.

All the best.

Good luck.

Illustrative Dialogues

Formal

Mr. Jones:  Good morning, Mr. Smith.

Mr. Smith: Good morning. How are you?

Mr. Jones:  Very well, thank you. And you?

Mr. Smith:  Quite well, thank you.

Semi-formal, informal

* * *

Chris: Hello, Jenny.

Jenny: Hello, Chris. How are you?

Chris:  Fine, thanks. What about you?

Jenny: Oh, not too bad.

* * *

David: Hello.

Jean:    Hello, David. How are you getting on?

David: All right, thanks. And how are things with you?

David: Oh, more or less the same as usual.

Formal

* * *

Mr. Adams:   I’m afraid I must be going.

Mr. Brent:     Must you really?

Mr. Adams:   Yes, I’m afraid so. I’ve got some urgent work to do.

Mr. Brent:     Well, I won’t keep you then.

Mr. Adams:   Good-bye.

Mr. Brent:      Good-bye. Remember me to your wife.

Mr. Adams:    Thank you. I will.

Semi-formal, informal

* * *

Susan: Well, I must be off now.

Mary:  Stay and have a cup of coffee first.

Susan: Thanks very much but I really must go. I’ve got an interview for a job tomorrow morning.

Mary:   Oh. Well, you’d better go to bed early then.

Susan:  Yes. Well, cheerio then.

Mary:   Bye. And good luck.

Susan:   Thanks. I’ll let you know how I get on.

* * *

Andrew:  I’ve come to say good-bye.

Roger:    When are you off?

Andrew:  My plane leaves at 12.30 tomorrow.

Roger:     Well, have a good journey.

Andrew:  Thanks. Good-bye.

Roger:      Bye. Keep in touch.

Andrew:   I will. And thanks for everything.

Roger:      Don’t mention it. Well, all the best.

Andrew:   Thanks. Bye-bye.

Exercise 1. Complete the four conversations. Use the phrases in the box.

(a) it was very nice meeting you.

(b) Good to see you again.

(c) …let me introduce you…

(d) Pleased to meet you.

(e) I look forward to seeing you in Kyiv.

(f) How do you do?

(g) May I introduce myself?

(h) How’s life?

* * *

Peter: Harry, (1) … to Julie Foster. Julie, this is Harry Wilson. Harry, this is Julie Foster.

Julie: Hello. (2) …

Harry: Pleased to meet you, too.

* * *

Mr. Shaw: Excuse me, are you Mrs. Price?

Mrs. Price: Yes, that’s right.

Mr. Shaw: (3) ….. I’m Robert Shaw.

Mrs. Price: How do you do?

Mr. Shaw: (4) …..

* * *

Joe: Hello, Bob. How are you getting on?

Bob: Fine, thanks, Joe. (5) ……

Joe: Nice to see you, too. How’s family?

Bob: They’re all very well. (6) ……

Joe: Oh, not too bad, but very busy.

* * *

Tom: I’m afraid I must go now.

Peter: Well, (7) ………

Tom: I really enjoyed meeting you, too.

Peter: (8)………

Tom: I do, too. See you soon.

Forms of Address

The most frequently used forms of address are:

Mister (Mr)                              - to a man e.g. Mister Johnson, Mr Smith

Mistress (Mrs)                         - to a married woman e.g. Mrs Joseph, Mrs Green

Miss                                         - to unmarried woman e.g. Miss Dee, Miss White

Ms [miz]                                  - to a woman not depending on her marital status e.g. Ms Lee

Doctor (Dr)                              a) to a medical doctor e.g. Doctor (use alone)

                                                b) to a person with a degree of Doctor of Philosophy or Doctor of

Science (the surname is always included) e.g. Dr Brown

Sir                                             - to a man

Madam                                     - to a woman (ma’am)

Officer                                      - to a policeman

Father                                       - to a priest

My Lord                                   - to a peer, to a bishop, a British judge

Professor                                  - to a University teacher at the highest level

Ladies and Gentlemen             - as a formal opening of a speech

If you want to know the place of work and living of a person you are talking to you may use such phrases:

Where are you from?

Where’s she from?

Where’s he from?

What company are you from?

What country are you from?

I’m from Ukraine.

She is from Kyiv.

He’s from Ukrforestry.

I’m from Forestry Equipment.

I’m from the USA.

Exercise 2. Choose the best answer.

When you address a middle-aged man whose name you do not know, you say:

Mister; b) Sir; c) Excuse me, please.

If it is a woman, you say:

a) Madam; b) Lady; c) Ms; d) Excuse me, please.

If you want to address an American tourist (Mrs Jane Hardy) whom you have known for a few days, you say:

a) Madam; b) Mrs Hardy; c) Jane.

If you want to address an eminent British scientist (Doctor John Lonsdale), aged 50, you say:

Mr Lonsdale; b) Dr Lonsdale; c) Doctor; d) John.

If you want to address a visiting English teacher called Helen Parker, aged 25-30 (unmarried), you call her:

Helen; b) Miss Helen; c) Miss Parker; d) Miss.

Exercise 3. Complete the dialogue.

1. A.: Bob Crawford?

    B.:………………..

2.   A.: Hello. I’m Helen Kirby from General Technologies. How do you do?

     B.: ……………………….

3.   A.: It’s a pleasure. Did you have a good trip?

     B.: ………………………

4.   A.: Oh, let me introduce you to Charlie Vitto. He’s our financial manager.

     B. ………………………………

Exercise 4.  

Introduce the staff of your company, using phrases:

Let me introduce my staff to you. This is ……….. .

He (She) is ……………… .

I’d like you to meet ……………. . He (She) is …………… .

May I introduce ……………… to you. He (She) is …………… .

Ask a representative of a foreign firm:

What company he represents; about his official position in the company; what country he comes from.

If he would like something to drink, offer him a cup of coffee (tea, juice).

Ask him about his plans for tomorrow; fix an appointment for tomorrow; say “good-bye”.

Exercise 5. Make up your own dialogues using the questions from Exercise 4.

Exercise 6. Which of the following do you think are important to make a good conversation? Tick your choices and add suggestions.

listen carefully

give only “yes” or “no” answers

show interest and ask questions

both listen and talk

answer questions and add extra information

only ask questions if you are the host

……………………………….

……………………………….

……………………………….

……………………………….

Grammar Practice

Time Clauses – Future Simple – Be going to – Present Continuous – Time Conjunctions – Type 1 Conditionals – Future Continuous – Future Perfect – Linking Words/Phrases

1. Choose the correct or most suitable answer A or B.

1 Who do you think ______ the next election?

A is winning   В will win

2 ______ my flat by next weekend.

A I paint                                     В I’ll have painted

3 Don't go out without a coat on ______ a cold.

A You'll catch                              В You're going to catch

4 I can't come out with you on Saturday. ______ a friend.

A I meet                                   В I'm meeting

5 At 2.00 tomorrow ______ in my office.

A I'll work                                В I'll be working

6 The concert ______ at 8.00 on Saturday.

A starts                                     В is going to start

7 'Would you like a drink?' 'Oh, yes, ______ a Coke. Thank you.'

A I'll have                                В I'm going to have

8 'Where are you going with that ladder?'' ______ the roof.'

A I'll repair                              В I'm going to repair

9 If ______ Martha, I'll tell her the news.

A I see                                В I'll see

10 Look out! That glass ______ off the table.

A falls                                           В is going to fall

2. Underline the correct word(s).

As soon/Until he had finished his lunch, he went back to work.

We didn’t touch anything until/as the police arrived.

Please return the books while/as soon as you have finished with them.

I saw the accident since/while I was working in the garden.

When/Since we got home, we realised our dog was missing.

The taxi arrived as/whenever I was locking the door.

After/While he had checked into the hotel, he went to get something to eat.

I’d love to see you before/by the time you leave.

Can you buy me a carton of orange juice when/until you go shopping, please?

Since/As long as he moved to the countryside he’s been more relaxed.

3. Put a tick next to the sentences which are correct (ν)and cross out (χ)the unnecessary word in the sentences that are incorrect.

As soon as we will reach Crete, we must try some of the local dishes.

……….

Take the rubbish out before you will go.

……….

After I will do my shopping, I’ll have lunch with a friend.

……….

By the time I will leave university, I’ll be twenty-two.

……….

When you see Ross, tell him I was looking for him.

……….

If you run into John, give him my regards

……….

After we finish studying, we’ll go to the park.

……….

You have to see the doctor before you will leave hospital.

……….

When will he post the parcel?

……….

I really don’t know when he will come back.

……….

4. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense.

If it ………….. (snow) , I’ll take the children skiing.

The football match will be cancelled if it ……………. (rain).

I won’t go to the party unless Connie…………… (come) with me.

If you ………….. (run) fast, you will win the race.

Unless they ………….. (work) overtime, they won’t earn enough money to go on holiday.

…………… (Greg/post) this letter for me if I ask him?

Unless you …………… (drive) carefully, you’ll have an accident.

If someone …………….. (not/water) these plants, they will die.

5. Put the verbs in brackets into the future simple or the future continuous.

Anna:

Do you want to go camping this weekend?

Jan:

I’d love to. I ………….. (call) you tonight and we an arrange everything.

Anna:

Alright. Do you mind if Ellen comes with us?

Jan:

Of course not. As a matter of fact, I ………….. (see) her for lunch so I …………. (ask) her then.

Anna:

OK. I ………….. (probably/be) home at around 8 o’clock so call me then.

Jan:

Great! Just think, in three days’ time, we …………… (put up) our tents!

Anna:

Oh yes! And we …………… (sit) around a camp fire, grilling delicious fresh fish.

Jan:

I can’t wait!

6. Fill in the gaps with by the time, until, by or by then.

Jake will have done the shopping ………… the children come home from school.

Have you mended mu bike yet? – No, I won’t have mended it ………… the end of the week.

Will you have booked your train ticket ………… Thursday?

I won’t have finished work …..… 8 o’clock tonight. – You poor thing. I’ll have dinner …..…

We will have completed our project ………….. the end of the month.

Dave will have fixed the washing machine ………….. you get home.

7. Put the verbs in brackets into the future simple, the future continuous or the future perfect.

Sally can’t come to the cinema on Friday because she………..… (babysit) for her little brother then.

I …………… (finish) typing all the letters by the time Mr Howard arrives.

Weather forecasters predict that it ……………. (snow) this winter.

……………… (you/go) to the supermarket later? – Yes, why? – can you pick up some milk and eggs?

Don’t talk so loudly, you …………… (wake up) Grandad.

Ashley …………….. (be) five years old in May.

8. Choose the correct linking words/phrases in bold to join the sentences below.

Keeping a horse as a pet is very expensive. Feeding and maintaining one costs a lot of money. (because/furthermore)

Using public transport is easy and convenient. It is cheap. (and/however)

Living in a big city is stressful. It can often be unhealthy. (also/on the other hand)

Life in the future will be a lot different from how it is today. I don’t think it will be exciting. (because/although)

9. Put the verbs in brackets into the future simple or the be going to form.

My car is old. I ……………..…- (look for) a new one next month.

It’s raining outside. Take an umbrella or you …………… (get) wet.

The buses are not running tomorrow. Peter …………… (walk) to work.

4 “I …………… (pay) for the drinks this time. It’s my turn.”

5 I’m sure John …………… (not/miss) tonight’s match on TV.

6 “The dog is dirty.” “I know. I …………… (wash) him in a few minutes.”

7 It’s Sarah’s birthday tomorrow. Her husband …………… (probably/cook) something special for her.

8 Mary …………… (give) a party next week. She has already invited most of her friends.

Test yourself

1. Choose the correct item.

1. The problem of pollution ………… worse these days.
A will get B got C is getting

2 This time next month I ………… in a new house.

A will live   B am living    C will be living

3 Peter ………… forty years old in January.

A be   B will be    C has been

4 Look at the sunshine! It ………… a beautiful day.

A is going to be  B is being    C be

5 Tim …………… work by six o’clock this evening.

A will have left B is leaving   C leave

6 We …………… the lock fixed before we went on holiday.

A had had B will be having  C have had

7 My brother …………… eighteen years old next year.

A will be B is being   C was

8 I’ve got time tomorrow, so I ………… the shopping if you like.

A will do    B am doing   C have done

9 By the time we get home, we …………… for six hours.

A will travel  B will have been raveling  C are raveling

10 The children …………… to bed by the time the guests arrived.

A have already gone  B will go   C had already gone

2. Write questions to which the words in bold are the answers.

James has written three letters so far today. ……Who has written three letters so far today?....

We have been waiting for three hours. ……………………………………………………..…

Paul and Tom are going to the bank. ………………………………………………….…….…

The baby is six months old. …………………………………………………………….………

The Browns have been to France.  ……………………………………………………..………

Sally is in her bedroom. ………………………………………………………………..………

Jack plays chess on Sunday afternoons. ………………………………………………..………

Dad listens to the radio in the mornings. ………………………………………………………

UNIT 5

Topic: Small Talk

Grammar: Reported Speech

SMALL TALK

In most English-speaking countries, it is normal and necessary to make “small talk” in certain situations. Small talk is a casual form of conversation that “breaks the ice” or fills an awkward silence between people. Even though you may feel shy using your second language, it is sometimes considered rude to say nothing. Just as there are certain times when small talk is appropriate, there are also certain topics that people often discuss during these moments.

WHO makes small talk?

People with many different relationships use small talk. The most common type of people to use small talk are those who do not know each other at all. Though we often teach children not to talk to strangers, adults are expected to say at least a few words in certain situations. It is also common for people who are only acquaintances, often called a “friend of a friend”, to use small talk. Other people who have short casual conversations are office employees who may not be good friends but work in the same department. Customer service representatives, waitresses, hairdressers and receptionists often make small talk with customers.

WHAT do people make small talk about?

There are certain “safe” topics that people usually make small talk about. The weather is probably the number one thing that people who do not know each other well discuss. Another topic that is generally safe is current events. As long as you are not discussing a controversial issue, it is usually safe to discuss the news. Sports news is a very common topic, especially if a local team or player is doing extremely well or badly. Entertainment news, such as a celebrity who is in town, is another good topic. If there is something that you and the other speaker has in common, that may also be acceptable to talk about. For example, people in an office might casually discuss the new paint or furniture. There are also some subjects that are not considered acceptable when making small talk. Discussing personal information such as salaries or a recent divorce is not done between people who do not know each other well. Compliments on clothing or hair are acceptable; however, you should never say something (good or bad) about a person’s body. Negative comments about another person not involved in the conversation are also not acceptable: when you do not know a person well you cannot be sure who their friends are. You do not talk about private issues either, because you do not know if you can trust the other person with your secrets or personal information. Also, it is not safe to discuss subjects that society deems controversial such as religion or politics. Lastly, it is not wise to continue talking about an issue that the other person does not seem comfortable with or interested in.

WHERE do people make small talk?

People make small talk just about anywhere. Most often, small talk occurs in places where people are waiting for something. For example, you might chat with another person who is waiting for the bus to arrive, or to the person beside you waiting to get on an aeroplane. People also make small talk in a doctor’s or dentist’s waiting room, or in queues at the grocery store. At the office, people make small talk in elevators or lunchrooms and even in restrooms, especially if there is a line-up. Some social events (such as a party) require small talk among guests who do not know each other very well.

WHY do people make small talk?

There are a few different reasons why people use small talk. The first, and most obvious, is to break an uncomfortable silence. Another reason, however, is simply to fill time. That is why it is so common to make small talk when you are waiting for something. Some people make small talk in order to be polite. After someone introduces you to another person, you do not know anything about them, so in order to show a polite interest in getting to know them better, you have to start with some small talk.

Small Talk: Conversation Starters

Talking about the weather

Beautiful day, isn't it?

Can you believe all of this rain we’ve been having?

It looks like it’s going to snow.

It sure would be nice to be in Hawaii right about now.

I hear they’re calling for thunderstorms all weekend.

We couldn’t ask for a nicer day, could we?

How about this weather?

Did you order this sunshine?

Talking about current events

Did you catch the news today?

Did you hear about that fire on Fourth St?

What do you think about this transit strike?

I read in the paper today that the Sears Mall is closing.

I heard on the radio today that they are finally going to start building the new bridge.

How about those Reds? Do you think they’re going to win tonight?

At the office

Looking forward to the weekend?

Have you worked here long?

I can’t believe how busy/quiet we are today, can you?

Has it been a long week?

You look like you could use a cup of coffee.

What do you think of the new computers?

At a social event

So, how do you know Justin?

Have you tried the cabbage rolls that Sandy made?

Are you enjoying yourself?

It looks like you could use another drink.

Pretty nice place, huh?

I love your dress. Can I ask where you got it?

Out for a walk

How old's your baby?

What's your puppy's name?

The tulips are sure beautiful at this time of year, aren’t they.

How do you like the new park?

Nice day to be outside, isn’t it?

Waiting somewhere

I didn’t think it would be so busy today.

You look like you’ve got your hands full (with children or goods).

The bus must be running late today.

It looks like we are going to be here a while, huh?

I’ll have to remember not to come here on Mondays.

How long have you been waiting?

Small Talk Practice : At the Office

Read the small talk below and find the 10 mistakes. What is wrong?

Woman: Hi there.

Man: Hi. I haven’t seen you around here before. Have you been working long?

Woman: No, I’ve only been here a few months. I work in the Human Resources Department.

Man: Oh, you must make more money than I do then. I’m in Sales.

Woman: Sales sounds like an interesting job.

Man: It’s okay. Hey, you look like you could really have a coffee.

Woman: Yes, it’s been a really hectic week.

Man: Tell me about it! At least it’s supposing to be a nice weekend.

Woman: Yes, I’ve listened that they are calling for blue skies.

Man: Say, did you happen to catch the game last night?

Woman: No, I was working late.

Man: It was a great game. We won in overtime.

Woman: Actually, I don’t even know who was playing. I don’t really follow sports.

Man: The Chiefs! Do you think they’re going to make it to the finals this year?

Woman: I’m not sure. Well, I better get back to my desk.

Man: Speaking of desks, what do you think of the new office furniture?

Woman: It’s nice, but I would rather get paid for my overtime hours than have new furniture.

Man: Oh. Well, I think I’ll be heading home early today. It might be snow.

Woman: I know. I can’t believe all of this cold weather. Hopefully Spring will come soon.

Man: I can’t wait until Spring.

Woman: Me neither! My divorce will finally come through by then!

Now check your answers

1.: I haven’t seen you around here before. Have you worked here long?

2.: Oh, that must be why I haven’t seen you around. I’m in Sales.

It is inappropriate to discuss how much people make in an office during small talk.

3.: It’s okay. Hey, you look like you could really use a coffee.

4.: Tell me about it! At least it’s supposed to be a nice weekend.

5.: Yes, I’ve heard that they are calling for blue skies.

6.: The man should not continue with this subject because the woman is obviously not interested in it.

7.: The man did not take the cue that the woman wants to end the conversation.

8.: Giving your opinion about a controversial subject is not appropriate when making small talk with someone you don’t know or trust.

9.: Oh. Well, I think I’ll be heading home early today. It looks like it might snow.

10.: Private information about one’s personal life is not acceptable.

SMALL TALK QUIZ

Are the following statements TRUE or FALSE?

1. It is common to use small talk when you are waiting in a long line-up.

2. Religion is a “safe” topic when making small talk.

3. It is rude for both children and adults not to make small talk with strangers.

4. It is inappropriate to make small talk with your mailman.

5. Sport is not a safe topic when making small talk.

6. One should never compliment another person’s clothes in order to make small talk.

7. Politics is a controversial subject according to society.

8. It is common to discuss the weather in an elevator.

9. It is rude to interrupt a conversation in order to make small talk.

10. One reason people use small talk is to eliminate an uncomfortable silence.

Talking point

HIGH CONTEXT CULTURES: People from high context cultures believe that you need to get to know the other person before you can do business with them. So you begin by discussing general points and them move on to the specific detail of the business deal.

LOW CONTEXT CULTURES: in low context cultures, business comes first. You might discuss other things with your business partner, but only if there is enough time at the end of the meeting!

1) Do you think your own culture is a HIGH CONTEXT or LOW CONTEXT culture?

Discuss your own culture and other cultures you or your fellow learners have visited.

2) SMALL TALK is what we call the non-serious conversations between people in social situations. The purpose of small talk is to get to know and develop confidence in the other person.

3) Are the following topics suitable as small talk at a business lunch or dinner?

Mark the topics as safe, dangerous or very dangerous.

Cars, traffic and transport

Children (your or your business partner’s sons and daughters)

Clothes and fashion

Computers and new technology.

Corruption in your business partner’s national government.

Films which you or your business partner have seen.

Food

Football (or any other sport)

Global warming, pollution and other environmental topics

International politics

Marriage (your or your business partner’s husband or wife)

Religion (your or your business partner’s beliefs and religious practices)

The salary or wage you or your business partner receive for working.

The weather in your or your business partner’s country.

Travel and places you or your business partner have visited.

Wars between your country and your business partner’s country

Your hobbies (e.g. gardening, dress-making, shopping)

Your or your business partner’s political beliefs or political party membership

4) The purpose of small talk is to make the other person feel good about themselves and to show that you are interested in their lives. But your interest must never invade their privacy. Part of the skill of small talk is to keep the conversation developing.

Read what a business person says in italics and then choose the most suitable response from the visitor.

1) I’ve just bought a Toyota Classic 3900.

A) Really? I’ve heard that is a terrible car.

B) Really? How much did you pay for it?

C) Really? Will you buy one for me?

D) Really? Are you pleased with it?

2) My son has just gone to university.

A) Really? What is he studying?

B) You must be pleased to get rid of him.

C) I don’t believe you!

D) How can you afford to pay for him?

3) I enjoy collecting old books.

A) I prefer collecting old motorbikes.

B) I’m sure my old books are better than yours.

C) I think old books are boring.

D) That’s fascinating. What kind of books do you like?

4) Our national team will be in the World Cup if we beat Bolivia on Friday.

A) Bolivia has a good team. I’m sure you will lose.

B) Bolivia has a good team. I’m sure it will be an interesting game.

C) Bolivia has a terrible team. Anyone can beat Bolivia!

D) Do you really want to be in the World Cup?

5) I’m afraid I have a bad cold.

A) I know someone who died from a bad cold.

B) Keep away from me! I don’t want to catch it.

C) That’s very bad luck. But thank you for coming to the meeting.

D) That’s nothing. I’ve got pneumonia!

6) I’m afraid it’s raining.

A) Yes, you really have a bad climate in this country.

B) Don’t worry, a little rain won’t hurt me.

C) I hope it won’t get any worse than this.

D) We usually have good weather in my country.

5) Compare your choices of the most suitable responses with another learner. Look back at the responses you did not choose. Why were those responses not suitable?

Grammar Practice

Reported Speech – Say/tell – Reported Statements – Reported questions – Reported Commands/Requests/Instructions – Introductory Verbs – Indirect Questions

Fill in the gaps with say or tell in the correct form.

Kathy ………. her friends the truth about what had happened that day.

“I’ll call you later,” he ……….. to her.

Ken ………… us that he was having a barbecue at the weekend.

“Please turn the volume down,” Cindy …………. .

“Open your books at page 29,” …………… the teacher to her students.

“Could you ………… me the time, please?” he asked me.

Jane ran down the stairs, …………. good morning and left for work.

My grandmother used to ………….. us exciting stories by the fire every night.

“Why did you ………….. everybody my secret?” he asked?

“I’m sorry. I can’t …………. you the way to the station because I’m lost too,” he said.

Rewrite the sentences in reported speech.

“There is no one at home”, he said.

“Mr and Mrs Wilson have gone on holiday,” Mr Bradley said.

“Jamie has never seen a dolphin before,” John said.

“I’ll order a pizza,” he said.

“The sun rises in the east”, the teacher said.

“I’m going to the dentist now,” said Lynn.

“There was a good documentary on TV Yesterday,” Gregory said.

“It’s always hot at this time of the year,” she said.

3. Turn the following questions from direct into reported speech.

“Who broke the window?” the teacher asked the students.

“Where are you going on holiday this year?” Josh asked me.

“What time is the wedding?” Helen asked.

“Did John do to the party last night?” Jill asked.

“Why are you laughing?” Philip asked.

“How long does it take you to walk home from here?” Peter asked/

“Will you lend me some money?” Lesley asked Sara.

“Who is this man?” the old lady asked her husband.

4. Turn the questions from direct speech into reported speech. (At the shop)

Do you have this in a smaller size?

Does it come in blue?

Can you order one for me?

Is it expensive?

Can I try it on?

Are there any shoes to match?

Can I pay by credit card?

Will your new stock come in soon?

5. Complete each sentence with two to five words, including the word in bold.

“I’m not giving you any ice cream until you have eaten your dinner,” said Barry’s mother. – Barrie’s mother refused………………………. any ice cream until he had eaten his dinner.

“I’m sorry I broke the window”, said Sean. – Sean apologized………..……… the window.

“Shall I help you carry the box?” asked Tom. – Tom offered ………………… the box.

“You should tell your parents the truth,” my friend said to me. – My friend advised …………………… my parents the truth.

“Could you go to the bank?” he said to me. – He asked …………………….. the bank.

I really will remember to feed the fish,” Maurice said. – Maurice promised ……… the fish.

“No, I won’t drive you to the football match,” Mum said to me. – Mum refused ………………. the football match.

“Why don’t we go to Paris for our holiday this year?” she said. – She suggested …………………. Paris for their holiday that year.

6. Complete the following indirect questions.

How tall is this building? – Do you know……………………………………………… ?

What’s that girl’s name? – I’d like to know ………………………………………….. .

What time does the last bus leave? – Could you tell me ……………………………… .

How long does the flight top Rome take? – I’d like to know …………………………. .

How much does this dress cost? – Could you tell me …………………………………. .

Why was the train delayed? – I’d like to know ………………………………………… .

7. Fill in the gaps with introductory verbs in the list in the correct form.

order       invite        admit        threaten        deny      beg       offer      command       complain

“Billy, go to bed!” – Mum ……………..Billy to go to bed.

“Please, please let me stay out late tonight.” – Molly ……………. her father to let her stay out late that night.

“Will you come to my graduation party?” – He ………………. me to his graduation party.

“I didn’t steal the sweater from the shop.” – Rachel ……. stealing the sweater from the shop.

“Put your hands in the air/” – The police officer …….. the robber to put his hands in the air.

“Stop talking or else I’ll send you to the headmaster’s office!” – The teacher …………. to send the student to the headmaster’s office if he didn’t stop talking.

“I have an upset stomach.” – He ……………. to me of having an upset stomach.

“I’ll give you a lift to the train station.” – He ….. to give his friend a lift to the train station.

“Yes, I broke into the art gallery and stole the paintings.” – The thief …………….. to breaking into the art gallery and stealing the paintings.

8. Turn the following sentences into reported speech.

1 ‘Be quiet!’ the teacher said to the boys. ...The teacher ordered the boys to be quiet....

‘Would you like to come to my party?’ she said to him.…………………………………..…

‘I’m the fastest runner in the school,’ Paul said.………………………………………………

‘I’ll phone you every week while I’m away,’ she said to him.…………………………..……

‘Don’t go near the waterfall,’ he said to us.……………………………………………………

‘Could you lend me some money?’ she said to her brother.………………………….………

‘Everyone wait outside!’ the boss said to his employees.…………………………….………

‘Can I borrow your pen?’ she said to the man.…………………………………….….………

‘Would you like to help me make dinner?’ Mum said to me.…………………………………

‘I didn’t borrow your football,’ he said to Tom.……………………………………...………

‘Don’t forget to water the plants,’ Mum said to me.……………………………….…………

Tm sorry I was late,’ he said to her.……………………………………………….…………

‘Let’s go for a walk,’ Linda said.………………………………………………….…….……

‘I’ve got toothache,’ Adam said.…………………………………………………….….……

‘Please, please help me,’ she said to him.…………………………………………….………

Test yourself

Frank was driving home last night when a police car stopped him. Read what Frank says happened. What do you think were the actual words that the policeman and Frank said?

First of all, the policeman told me ___1___ to switch off my engine. Then he asked me ___2___ where I was going. When I told him ___3___ I was going home, he asked me ___4___ where I lived. So I gave him my address. Then he asked me ____5__ where I had just come from. I said ___6___ I had been at a friend's house all evening. Then he asked ___7___ to see my driving licence. When I gave him my licence, he told me ___8___ to get out of the car. Then he wanted to know ___9___ if it was my car. I told him ___10___ I had bought it last year. After that he went back to his car and spoke on the radio for a short time. Then he told me ___11___ I could go home.

UNIT 6

Topic: Business trip

Grammar: The Passive

BUSINESS TRIP

Being a businessman you have to travel much, to meet many people, to arrange business deals and personal relations. It means you will often arrange business trips. Before you have a business trip you should do the following steps: prepare all business documents necessary for your meeting with a foreign partner.

If you visit your business partner for the first time you should take advertising materials representing your firm and its products. Today, many people make their travel arrangements over the phone. They call the travel agent and book their flight, and then give their credit card number to pay for the plane ticket, if you are going to travel by plane. It is the fastest way of traveling and it is helpful if you are short of time, but it is rather expensive. If your destination is not far from your town you can travel by car or by train. It is a slower way of traveling but it is cheaper and quite comfortable.

If a visa is necessary, some travel agents take their customers’ passports to the embassy’s visa department. You should also have medical insurance documents with you when you are going to visit your foreign partner.

It’s not a good idea to carry lots of cash with you, so traveller’s cheques are a safe way to take money abroad. It’s easy to change them at the bank for foreign currency during your trip.

When people travel they almost always stay at hotels or guest-houses, so you should make a hotel reservation in advance by letter, telephone or e-mail. Let the hotel manager know the day and the time of your departure, or you may arrive at the hotel to be told that there are no rooms available.

If you travel abroad you must go through the customs inspection. The customs officials check your luggage and ask you to fill in the customs declaration form. Some of your things may be subjected to duty, some of them are duty free. If you have foreign currency you would indicate the sum in your declaration.

If you don’t want to use public transport during your business trip you have to agree with accepting side to provide you with a car or you may ask about a good car rental company. In this case don’t forget to take your driving licence – you can’t drive without it! You also have to arrange insurance documents and take them too.

Useful tips

At the Customs. There is a list of certain goods which are permitted to carry through the border (so-called the Duty-Free Quota List). According to the list you may take personal things, a few trifles for the family, a bottle of perfume, some bottles of alcohol drinks, a carton of cigarettes and some other things for personal use. If you have the goods above the fixed quote, you will have to pay duty on each extra article.

There is also a list of goods which are prohibited to carry through the border (so-called the Prohibited Articles List). According to this list such things as gold, silver, valuables, pieces of art, weapon, drugs and some others are prohibited to carry through the border.

At the Hotel. If you have made a hotel reservation in advance, on arrival you have to confirm your reservation at the reception desk. The receptionist will give you a registration form to fill in and sign (the form is filled in block letters).

At large hotels you may ask for any service by telephone. You tell the telephone operator if you want to be called at a certain time; you call room service when you want a meal or drinks or if you need something (e.g.: to clean or iron your suit or your dress).

LANGUAGE PRACTICE

Travel, journey or trip? The general activity of moving from place to place is travel. E.g.: He came home after years of foreign travel. If a person moves from place to place over a period of time we speak of travels. E.g.: Did you go to Rome during your travels? A journey is the time spent and the distance covered in going from one particular place to another. E.g.: It was a long journey by train. A trip is a short journey, especially for pleasure or for a particular purpose. E.g.: I think, I’ll take a trip to see him. He is going to have a business trip to Japan.

Exercise 1. Complete each sentence with one of the words: travel, trip or journey.

Thank you for visiting us, have a safe … home.

How was your … to London last weekend? Did you have a good time?

When we were in London, we went on a sightseeing … round the city.

I … a lot for my business deals.

How many business … do you make every year, on average?

How long does the … to Brighton take by train?

It was a very long … , because there was a lot of traffic on the road.

Exercise 2. Match the words in the box.

visa

foreign

insurance

driving

credit

travel

plane

traveller’s

car

cheques

department

licence

documents

ticket

agent

rental company

currency

card

Exercise 3. Complete each sentence 1-8 with an ending a) - h).

1. Please take a seat until

2. They won’t accept our order unless

3. Helen wants to see you before

4. You won’t see Helen. By the time she arrives

5. As soon as Helen arrives

6. I can’t wait! This time next week I’ll

7. I’ll have a suntan next time we meet! I’ll

8. Sorry about this. In a few moments I’ll

a)  you leave

b) Dr Rihal is ready to see you.

c)   you’ll have left.

d)   we give a bank guarantee.

e)  have finished and we can talk.

f)    I’ll ask her to phone you.

g)  have just come back from Greece.

h)  be lying on a beach in Greece.

Exercise 4. Peter Eliot is welcoming Bob Watson, a visitor from Toronto, Canada. Read the conversation. What questions do you think they asked?

Peter: Watson? How do you do.

Mr. Watson: How do you do, Mr. Eliot.

Peter: Do come into my office. Did you have any problems finding us?

Mr. Watson: No, none at all. I walked here. My hotel is only a few minutes away.

Peter: Oh, really? Which (1)………………………………?

Mr. Watson: I’m staying at The Garrick. It’s in King Street. Do you know it?

Peter: I know the name. What (2) ………………………………….?

Mr. Watson: Oh, it’s very pleasant. I always stay there when I come to London. I like the fact that it’s small and friendly.

Peter: How often (3) ………………………………………?

Mr. Watson: Quite often. Four or five times a year. What about you? (4)………………?

Peter: Yes, I do quite a lot of traveling – mostly in Europe, but I go to Canada and the States as well – about two or three times a year.

Mr. Watson: That’s interesting (5) …………………………?

Peter: No, I’ve never been to Toronto, but I had a wonderful holiday on Vancouver Island not long ago.

Mr. Watson: Really? That’s where I was born. I lived there until I was twenty.  Which (6) …………………………………….

Exercise 5. Complete these conversations. Use the phrases in the box.

Fine. I’ll pay by Visa, then.

For one night.

I’d like to book a single room.

Do you accept Visa cards?

For Tuesday 5 May.

I’d like to pay my bill, please.

Could you give me an early morning call?

You have a reservation for me.

***

Receptionist: Riverside Hotel. Good afternoon. How can I help you?

Caller:           Hello. (1) …………………………………………………………………

Receptionist: Yes, certainly. When is that for?

Caller:            (2) ………………………………………………………………………..

Receptionist: And for how long?

Caller:           (3) ………………………………………………………………………...

Receptionist: One night. Could I have your name, please, madam?

Caller:           Yes, it’s Helen Barnes.

Receptionist:  Fine. I’ll reserve the room for you right now.

Caller:            Thank you very much.

***

Guest:            Hello. My name’s Helen Barnes (4) ……………………………………….

Receptionist: Oh, yes. Good evening, Mrs Barnes. Welcome to the Riverside Hotel. Could you                      fill in this form, please?

Guest:              Sure.

Receptionist:    Please could you sign here? Thank you. Here’s your key.

Guest:              Thanks (5) ……………………………………………………….

Receptionist:    Yes, of course. At what time?

Guest:                At 6.15, please.

***

Guest:           Good morning. (6) ……………………………………………………

Receptionist: Certainly, madam. Just a moment, please. Did you have anything from the mini- bar?

Guest:            No, nothing.

Receptionist: Fine, here’s your bill.

Guest:           Thank you.

Receptionist: How would you like to pay?

Guest:            (7) ………………………………………………………………………

Receptionist: Yes, we do.

Guest:            (8) ……………………………………………………………………….

Exercise 6. Complete the Word Map using the words in the box. What other words can you add into each category?

a) to reserve a room

g) business computer(PC)

m) swimming pool

b) departure lounge

h) to confirm a reservation

n) translation service

c) duty-free shop

i) to take off

o) electronic safe

d) baggage claim

j) customs

p) supermarket

e) satellite TV

k) foreign newspapers

q) fitness room

f) check-in-desk

l) land

r) bath

Exercise 6. Work in pairs. Do the AROUND THE WORLD quizes. Test your knowledge of international customs and etiquette with the quizes. Circle the answer you think is correct. Then check your answer with the Answer Key. Give yourself one mark for each correct answer.

Quiz 1

China

You’re invited to someone’s house. Which of these may cause offence?

Blowing your nose.

Refusing an offer of food.

Not removing your shoes before entering.

Saudi Arabia

You want to hire a car to tour the country. Is this permitted?

Yes, but you must take a test first.

Yes, but only if you’re male.

No – tourists have to travel by camel.

Finland

You’re planning to relax in A Finnish sauna. What should you wear?

Nothing.

A toweling robe.

A bath hat.

Nepal

While traveling you want to photograph local villagers. Is this allowed?

Yes – the Nepalese love being photographed.

No – their religion forbids it.

Yes, but you must ask permission first.

Cyprus

On a village tour, a local offers you glycol. Should you

Eat it – it’s a dessert.

Ride it – it’s a type of bicycle.

Wear it – it’s a traditional hat.

Morocco

You’d like to visit some mosques but are you allowed to go inside?

Yes, but you have to take your shoes off.

Yes, you don’t have to take your shoes off.

You mustn’t enter unless you’re a Moslim.

Sweden

You go out for a meal. How many glasses of wine can you drink before driving back to your hotel?

Two.

Any amount – there are no drink-driving laws.

None.

Spain

You’d like to sample the local cuisine. How late can you eat?

You have to finish your meal by 9 p.m. Restaurants close early.

Spanish restaurants stay open all night.

You can eat very late. Spaniards often eat after 11 p.m.

Thailand

On a bus, the only free seat is next to a Buddhist monk. Should you take it?

Yes, but only if you’re male.

Buddhist monks aren’t allowed to travel by bus.

Yes, but you must bow first.

Italy

You’d like to visit the duomo (cathedral) on a hot day. To show respect, what should you cover?

Your guidebook.

Your thighs and shoulders.

Your head and ears.

USA

While peacefully drinking a can of beer in Central Park, you are approached by the police. Why?

It’s forbidden to drink alcohol in Central Park.

You’re required to use a glass or straw.

You aren’t allowed to drink alcohol in Central Park unless the can is covered.

Singapore

You offer a piece of chewing gum to your tour guide. Why does she look shocked?

Because chewing gum is forbidden by law.

Because tour guides aren’t allowed to accept gifts.

Because chewing gum is given to animals.

India

An Indian friend invites you to a traditional meal. How should you eat?

With your left hand only.

With your right hand only.

With both hands.

Japan

You’re staying in a Japanese hotel and decide to relax in a traditional, shared bath. What shouldn’t you do in the bath tub?

You shouldn’t stay too long.

You shouldn’t talk to other bathers.

You shouldn’t wash yourself.

Quiz 2

Which should you never offer a Moslem to eat?

Beef

Pork

What do you have to do before you go into a mosque?

Put on white clothes

Take off your shoes

At a traditional meal in India, you should eat:

only with your right hand

only with your left hand

In a Buddhist country, you shouldn’t:

pat a child’s head

hold hands with a child

Which shouldn’t you do in Japan?

Take off your jacket before a meal

Blow your nose in public

Which is banned in Singapore?

Alcohol

Chewing gum

Which color is worn at a traditional Chinese funeral?

Black

White

The usual way of greeting people in Japan is:

shaking hands

bowing

What do Italians do at midnight on New Year’s Eve?

Throw old things out of the windows

Sit on the floor and hold hands

If you’re invited to a meal in Brazil, you should arrive:

shortly before the stated time

some time after the stated time

On holiday in Spain, you are invited to go on a paseo. Is this:

a walk

a picnic

In Russia, what do you do before going on an important journey?

kiss your hat

sit in silence for a short time

Which flowers should you never take to a dinner party in Poland?

Carnations

Chrysanthemums

Tulips

In Britain, what do superstitious people touch for luck?

Iron

Wood

Glass

HOW YOU SCORED:

11-14 Congratulations! You’ve completed your round-the-world tour with the minimum of embarrassment.

7-10    Not bad. Only a few embarrassing situations!

4-6   Not so good. You should learn more about cultural differences.

0-3     You must do some cross-cultural homework before your next trip abroad, or stay at home!

Grammar Practice

The Passive – Changing from Active to Passive – Questions in Passive – As – Like

1. Choose the correct answers (Active or Passive).

The National Security Bank in downtown San Antonio ___1___ (robbed/was robbed) last night. A safe ___2___ (blew open/was blown open) and around $800, 000 ___3___ (stole/was stolen). The robbery ___4___ (took/was taken) place between midnight and 1.00 am. The police ___5___ (are looking/are being looked) for two men who ___6___ (saw/were seen) getting into a black car near the bank at about 1 o'clock last night. They ___7___ (also want/are also wanted) to hear from Mr Joe Newman, 52, who ___8___ (worked/was worked) as a security guard at the bank. Mr Newman ___9___ (disappeared/was disappeared) just before the robbery and he ___10___ (has not seen/has not been seen) since then.

2. Put the verbs in brackets into a suitable passive tense.

Two men ………………. (see) running out of the bank yesterday morning.

The flowers ……………… (already/water).

The Smiths’ house …………….. (paint) at the moment.

The rubbish ……………… (already/collect) when I left for work.

The note ……………….. (could/not/read) because the handwriting was very messy.

Our exams ………………….. (not/mark) yet.

His car ………………… (wash) every Saturday.

The window ……………….. (break) before the children arrived.

Mary ……………………… (invite) to the party but unfortunately she couldn’t make it.

The telephone ……………….. (invent) in the 19th century.

3. Choose the best way of continuing after each sentence.

He lives in a small house.

Somebody built it about forty years ago.

It was built about forty years ago.

English is worth learning.

People speak it in a lot of countries.

It is spoken in a lot of countries.

He got a sports car, but he didn’t like it.

So he sold it again.

So it was sold again.

My nephew is an artist.

He has just painted another picture.

Another picture has just been painted.

The new Virginia Meyer film is marvelous.

They are showing it at our local cinema.

It is being shown at our local cinema.

4. Fill in the gaps with by or with.

The film was directed …………. my favorite director.

The sauce was made …………. mushrooms and onions.

The child was stung ……….. a bee.

The window was broken …………. a piece of wood.

The glass bowl is filled ………….. fruit.

The dog was saved ……….. the neighbor.

He was shot …………. a rifle.

Dan was laughed at ……….. his friends.

The parcel will be delivered ……….. my uncle.

The house has been decorated ………… balloons.

5. Rewrite the following in the passive.

Who invented the telephone?

The thief stole all the money in the till.

Who has written this poem?

Many tourists visit the Eiffel Tower every year.

The fire damaged many buildings in the city centre.

The repairman is fixing the machine.

They will open a new library to the public in September.

We took many of these photographs when we were in India.

They will dedicate the new university building to Dr Peters.

Has Victoria set out the invitations?

6. Re-write these sentences beginning with the words given.

Someone will give you the Information later. You ______

Someone sent me a letter. A letter ______.

Someone knocked me over in the street. I ______.

The president is expected to visit Poland. It ______

It is said that golf was invented in China. Golf ______

The Queen of England is thought to be one of the richest women in the world. It ______

It is claimed that beings from outer space have visited the earth. Beings from outer space ______

People say that sunbathing causes skin cancer. Sunbathing is supposed ______

7. Re-write the sentences in the active, beginning with the words given.

e.g. The phone is being repaired now. - They are repairing the phone now.

A new motorway has been built. They ______

The information is kept on our computer. We ______

A man was arrested late last night. The police ______.

The medicine should be taken after meals. You ______

The hotel will have to be sold. We ______

Mike doesn't like being criticized. Mike doesn't like people ______.

When I returned to the town, my old school had been pulled down. When I returned to the town, they ______

As I was walking home, I thought I was being followed. As I was walking home, I thought someone ______.

8. Fill in the gaps with as or like.

The clouds in the sky look ………….. cotton.

Mr Samson works ……………. a slave.

Paula would like to find a job ………….. a newspaper journalist.

Mr Hart works ………. a professor at Oxford University.

Mary and her sister fight ………… cat and dog.

“What are you cooking? It smells ………….. fish.”

Mrs Madison was offered a job ………… a sales assistant in a nearby boutique.

Carol has got a mobile phone ………… mine.

Their news came …………. a complete surprise to everyone who knew them.

“The sky is very dark.” – “It looks ………. rain.”

No one can sing that song …………. him.

UNIT 7

Topic: Telephoning

Grammar: The Modals

Discussion Questions:

How often do you have to speak on the phone in English?

Do you find it difficult? If so, why?

Are telephone conversations in English part of your job?

Will they be part of your job in the future?

Are work calls in English easier or more difficult than other calls in English?

TELEPHONING

The telephone; it is part of us. What would we do without it? It is as common as apple pie and summer sunshine. As much a part of our lives as learning to walk and talk and perhaps that is why we, at most times, give it little thought.

But making and receiving telephone calls is one of the hardest skills in English. As we can't see the person we're speaking to, we can't use the usual non-linguistic signs (gestures, facial expressions etc) to help us understand the other person.

However, we often use standard phrases during a phone call, and learning these will help you not only understand what the other person is saying, but also direct the telephone conversation so that you can communicate your message successfully and concisely.

Remember that it's perfectly acceptable to speak more slowly than in normal speech. Your main objective is to be able to understand – and be understood, so don't worry if you sound unnatural. Try to speak clearly, avoid speaking too fast, and be as concise as you possibly can.

Here is a list of useful telephoning phrases. As a suggestion, print them out and keep them by the phone for handy reference.

Introducing yourself

Good morning / Hello. This is (name) from (company). My name is…

Asking to speak to someone

Could I speak to X please? I'd like to speak to X please. Could you put me through to X please?

When you answer the phone

Good morning / Hello. Sarah Jones speaking. If the caller has asked for you by name, say "Speaking!"

Asking for caller identification

May I say who's calling? Could I have your name please? Who's calling please?

Saying why you are calling

I'm calling to… / about ….I'm phoning about….

Saying that someone is not available

I'm sorry, but (name)……/ isn't here at the moment…/ is out of the office…/ away from his(her) desk…/. is in a meeting/ I'm sorry, but the line is engaged / X is on another call.

Offering to take a message

Would you like to leave a message? Can I take a message? Can I take your name and number?

Leaving a message

Could you ask X to call me back please? Can I leave a message for X?

Promising action

I'll give X your message as soon as he / she comes back I'll pass your message on

Saying goodbye

Thank you for calling.

If you don't understand what the other person is saying

Sorry? / Pardon? Could you repeat that please? Sorry, I can't hear you. Can you spell that please?

USEFUL PHONE PHRASES

Here are some general phrases that you can use on the phone to make communication easier.

When you don't understand

Sorry, but I don't really follow you.

I'm not sure I understand.

Sorry, what was that?

Sorry, what did you say?

Did you say …..?

Can you say that again please?

Can you repeat that please?

Bad line / bad time

Can I call you back?

Can I give you a call back?

Can you call me back?

Asking the other person to slow down

Could you speak more slowly please?

I didn't get the last thing you said.

It's a really bad line. Can you say it again more slowly please

TELEPHONE ETIQUETTE

Many things have changed over the years, especially in the evolving world of business. One thing has not changed though, and that is the need for proper telephone etiquette in the work place. Along with company downsizings and layoffs has come a necessity for companies to merge jobs together in order to eliminate human resources and save money. While that may be necessary, it is not necessary that the common element of etiquette, especially telephone etiquette, be left to suffer.

Since customers are the ones who infuse the profits into a business, they do not appreciate being treated with rudeness in their dealings with a company. This includes any business that is conducted on the telephone.

Proper telephone technique involves some basic common sense in which everyone who works for a company should use. Here are some basic tips:

Incoming Calls: 

Tip 1- All incoming calls should be answered in a timely manner.

Tip 2- Business telephones should always be answered with a phrase like, "Good morning, ABC Company, Carol speaking, may I help you?" In a busy office setting that fields hundreds of calls each day, this particular phrase may be too much to say. If so, it can be shortened to a phrase that is less wordy. But the name of the company needs to be stated as soon as the phone is answered along with the person's name who answered the phone. This lets the caller know that they have indeed reached the right business, and lets them know with whom they are speaking.

Tip 3- Never put a caller on hold, but if you have to, be sure to check back with them every minute or so and ask if they would like to continue to hold. This lets them know that they have not been forgotten, and that you are attending to their call.

Tip 4- Speak clearly and slowly when you answer a business telephone. Do not slur or mumble your words. Speak with confidence so the person on the other end has the feeling that you know what you are doing.

Tip 5- Never be rude to a caller, no matter how nasty they are. Always remember to handle yourself in a professional, business-like manner. This includes handling the situation in a calm, cool manner.

Outgoing Calls: 

Tip 1- Same as Tip 4 above--Speak clearly and slowly when you make a business call. Time may be money, but if the other party cannot understand what you are saying, then you might as well have saved your breath and not made the call at all.

Tip 2- Same as Tip 5 above--All customers expect to work with a professional organization. One sign of a professional organization is how they are treated by the people who work there.

Tip 3- When calling another business, it is proper etiquette to give your name and the company's name you work for to whomever answers the telephone. Do not make them guess who it is or make them pry it out of you.

Tip 4- If you get the wrong number, apologize to the person who answers the phone--do not just hang up. This is especially important nowadays when people have Caller ID on their phone lines. All they have to do is to check their device to find out who just rudely hung up on them.

Tip 5- When leaving a phone message, always state your name, company, phone number and reason for calling. Do not stammer or stutter and use up an unreasonable amount of time.

LANGUAGE PRACTICE

Exercise 1. Fill in the gaps in the conversation with the phrases on the right.

Claire:  Hello, finance department

Female:  Hello, ___________(1) Adrian Hopwood, please?

Claire:  I’m , ___________(2) in a meeting at the moment., ___________(3) ? 

Female:  No I need to talk to Mr Hopwood, I think. What time will he be out of the meeting?

Claire:  In about an hour. ___________(4)

Female:  Okay, I’ll do that. 

Claire:  Or , ___________(5) ? 

Female:  Actually, would you mind?, ___________(6) Jennifer McAndrews called and that I’m in the office all day if he could call me back.

Claire:  Can , ___________(7) , please?

Female:  Yes, it’s 5556872.

Claire:  5556872.  Okay, , ___________(8)

Female:  Thanks very much for your help, bye!

Claire:  Goodbye!

Can I help

Could you tell him that 

I’ll make sure he gets the message.

can I take a message

afraid he’s 

Can you call back later?

can I speak to 

I take your number

Exercise 2. Put the lines in the correct order to make two telephone conversations.

***

No, it’s 5558790. 

Oh. Can I check the number I’ve got…. is that not  5568790?

No problem! Bye!

Rachel Allsop please.

I’m sorry, You must have the wrong number. There’s no-one of that name here.

Hello, this is the press office.

Oh sorry about that. I must have dialed the wrong number. 

***

I’m sorry, you’ve got the wrong number, but he does work here. I’ll try and put you through. In future his direct number is 5558770. 

No problem. Hang on a moment and I’ll put you through to Paul’s extension.

Did I not dial that?

No you rang 5558790.

Hello. Paul Richards, please.

Oh, sorry to have troubled you.

Hello, press office, can I help you? 

Thanks.

Exercise 3. Look at two conversations below. Rie Sakimoto is trying to call James Croft. Choose the correct words for Rie.

1

Marcia: Hello, Marcia Fox.

Rie: a) Hello, can I speak to James Croft, please?

  b) Hello, can James Croft speak to me, please?

  c) Hello, where is James Croft, please?

Marcia: He's in a meeting at the moment. Can I take a message?

Rie: a) Tell him Rie Sakimoto called, please.

  b) Could you tell him that Rie Sakimoto called, please.

  c) Could you tell him that Rie Sakimoto called in, please.

Marcia: Sure. Does he have your number?

Rie: a) I'll give it to you in case. It's seven hundred and thirty, two thousand nine hundred and fifty one.

  b) I'll give it to you in case. It's seven thirty, twenty nine, fifty one.

  c) give it to you in case. It's seven three zero, two nine five one.

Marcia: I'll tell him you called.

Rie: Thank you. Bye.

2

Marcia:  Hello, Marcia Fox.

Rie: a) Hello, where is James Croft, please?

  b) Hello, is James Croft, please?

  c) Hello, is James Croft there, please?

Marcia: Yes, I'll just put you though.

James: Hello, James Croft.

Rie: a) Hello James. It's Rie Sakimoto here.

  b) Hello James. I am Rie Sakimoto.

  c) Hello James. Here is Rie Sakimoto.

James:  Hi Rie. How are you?

Rie: a)  Fine thank you.

  b) Fine thank you. And you?

  c) Very healthy thank you. And you?

James:  Not so bad thanks. How can I help you?

Exercise 4. Imagine you are making a telephone call. You are arranging an appointment to see someone. What phrases might you use or hear?

Try to complete the conversation with appropriate phrases.

Michelle:  Mr Hibberd’s office!

Peter:  Hello, ____________ (1)

Michelle:  ____________ (2) until lunchtime. Can I take a message?

Peter:  Well, ____________ (3)  to see him, please. It’s Peter Jefferson here.

Michelle:  Could you hold on for a minute, Mr Jefferson. ____________ (4) . So ____________ (5) ? 

Peter:  Some time next week if possible. I gather he’s away the following week.

Michelle:  Yes, that’s right, he’s on holiday for a fortnight.

Peter:  Well, I need to see him before he goes away. So ____________ (6) ? 

Michelle:  Wednesday . let me see . he's out of the office all morning. But he's free in the afternoon, after about three.

Peter:  Three o'clock is difficult. But ____________ (7)

Michelle:  ____________ (8) , in Mr Hibberd's office?

Peter:  Yes, that sounds fine. Thanks very much.

Michelle:  Okay, then. Bye.

when’s convenient for you

I’m afraid he’s in a meeting 

So shall we say 4.15 next Wednesday

can I speak to Brian Hibberd, please? 

I could make it after four.

I’ll just look in the diary

I’d like to arrange an appointment

would next Wednesday be okay

TELEPHONE - CONNECTING QUIZ

Choose the one correct answer

1. When you telephone a company the person answering the phone may ask you a question. Which is the correct question?

A Who’s calling please?

C Who it is?

B Who calls?

D Who called?

2. Which phrase means the same as ‘hang on a moment?’

A Just a second

C Go ahead

B I’ll put you on

D I’m ready

3. Choose the correct word: “Please ……. and I’ll put you through.”

A stop

C talk

B stay

D hold

4. What is the expression used to connect two people on the telephone?

A I’m sending you through

C I’m calling you through

B I’m putting you through

D I’m talking you through

TELEPHONE - WRONG NUMBER QUIZ

Choose the correct word to complete the sentence.

1. You ______ have the wrong number.

A should                    B would                       C must                    D can
2. His _______ number is 998922.

A straight                B direct                     C certain                 D sure
3. I'm ________ to have troubled you.

A upset                  B apologize             C sorry                        D sad
4. I'm sorry, you've _______ the wrong number.

A got                    B had                       C have                         D put

TELEPHONE - APPOINTMENTS QUIZ

Finish the sentence with the correct phrase.

1. I’d like to ___________ an appointment

A arrange                        B have                    C do                      D save

2. I could ________ it after four

A take                            B fake                       C get                      D make

3. Let’s meet next Wednesday… shall we _____ 4.15?

A arrange                        B say                        C suggest              D see

4. Would next _________ be OK?

A day                               B morning                C week                D afternoon

Comprehension сheck and vocabulary exercises

Read the dialogue given below and do the exercises

Secretary: International Management here, can I help you?

Pete: Good afternoon. My name is Smirnov from Economtraining, Kyiv, Ukraine. Could I speak to Mr. Hill, please?

Secretary: Hold on, please. I’ll just see if Mr. Hill is available … I’m putting you through.

Pete: Thank you

David: Speaking

Pete: David, good afternoon. I am sorry to disturb you but we have a problem I am afraid

David: What kind of problem is it?

Pete: Well, you see, one of the participants has fallen ill and he won’t be able to join the group.

David:  I’m certainly sorry to hear that. First I ‘ll have to make another reservation for a single room since the number of participants isn’t even now. Besides it will cause changes in the Programme Fee.

Pete: Can you reduce the fee by one thousand pounds automatically?

David: I’m afraid it can’t be done. Some of the expenses are not directly connected with the number of participants. For example hiring coaches for excursions, for airport hotel transfers and so on. I’ll make calculations and send you the appropriate Amendment to the Contract.

Pete: Good. If I find the amended fee quite reasonable I shall immediately instruct the bank to make the transfer.

David: The reduction will be about nine hundred pounds and I hope you will pay for the Programme next week, as the Contract says.

Pete:  When you make calculations please remember it’s a force majeure case. Neither we nor you are responsible. We should split the expenses involved.

David:  I agree with you and I’ll take that into account. In an hour or so I’ll send you the amendment.

David keeps his promise and sends the amendment in thirty minutes. Pete finds the amended Programme Fee quite acceptable, signs the Amendment and sends it by fax to David

Exercise 1. Underline the sentences true to the text.

•  Pete telephones David.

David telephones Pete.

David’s secretary telephones Pete.

•  He makes this call two days before the group is to leave Moscow.

He makes the call one week before the Russian businessmen are to leave Moscow.

He makes the call two weeks before the businessmen are to leave

•  One of the participants has fallen ill.

Mr Lvov, Group Leader, has fallen ill .

Two participants have fallen ill.

•   David will have to change the hotel reservation.

Pete says he has changed the hotel reservation.

Pete says he will have to change the hotel reservation.

• This change causes the change of the fee.

This change does not cause the change of the fee.

The businessmen do not speak about the change of the fee.

•  David promises to telephone to settle the problem.

David promises to send a fax message to settle the problem .

David settles the problem dining the telephone talk.

Exercise 2. Match English and Russian equivalents.

Speaking.

У нас виникло деяке ускладнення.

I’m sorry to disturb you.

Яке ускладнення?

We have a problem, I’m afraid.

Слухаю.

What kind of problem is it?

Вибачaйте за турбування.

One of the participants has fallen ill.

Він не зможе поїхати з групою.

He won’t be able to join the group.

Дуже сумно (чути це).

I’m sorry to hear that.

По-перше, доведеться ре замовити номер.

First I’ll have to make another reservation.

Я маю на увазі номер на одну людину.

I mean reservation for a single room.

The number of participants isn’t even now.

Кількість учасників зараз непарне.

Один з учасників захворів.

Exercise 3. Insert prepositions.

Besides it will cause changes _______ the Programme fee.

Can you reduce the fee _______ 1000 pounds automatically?

Some _______ the expenses are not directly connected _______ the number of participants.

The number _______ participants isn’t even now.

______ example, hiring coaches ______ excursions, ______ airport hotel transfers and so on.

I’ll make calculations and send you the appiopriate amendment _______ the Contract.

Exercise 4. Insert articles.

If I find ______ amended fee quite reasonable I shall immediately instruct ______ bank to make ______ transfer.

______ reduction will be about 900 pounds and I hope you will pay for programme next week, as ______ Contract says.

When you make calculations please remember it’s ______ force majeure case. We should split ______ expenses.

In ______ hour or so I’ll send you ______ amendment.

Exercise 5. Complete the dialogues and act out similar ones.

1 — International ______ here. Can I ______ you?

— Good afternoon. My ______ , Ukraine. Could I speak ______ ?

— Hold ______ I’ll just see ______ available. I’m ______ through.

— Thank ______ 

— Speaking.

— David, good afternoon. I’m sorry ______ problem, I’m afraid.

What kind ______ ?

— Well, you see, one ______ ill and he won’t be able ______ .

— I’m certainly ______ . First I’ll have to make ______  since the number ______ .

3 — Besides it will cause ______ fee.

— Can you reduce ______ ?

— I’m afraid, it can’t be done. Some of the expenses ______ connected ______ participants. For example, hiring coaches ______ transfers and so on. I’ll make calculations and ______ appropriate ______ .

4 — If I find the amended fee quite ______ I shall immediately ______ bank transfer

— The reduction will be about ______ and I hope you will pay ______ as the Contract says.

When you make calculation ______ force majeure ______ . Neither we nor you are responsible. We should ______ .

I agree with ______ and I’ll take ______ . In an hoor or so I’ll ______ .

Exercise 6. Sum up each dialogue. The following words may be of help.

First Mr … speaks to …

First the businessmen speak about …

Mr. . mentions …

They discuss ..

They agree

Grammar Practice

The Modals

1. Choose the correct answer А, В or C.

1 How many languages ______?

A do you can speak  В can you speak  С can you to speak

2 Mike ______ chess very well.

A to can't play   В doesn't can play  C can't play

3 Maria ______ very fast when she was younger.

A can run    В could run   С was able run

4 The traffic was very heavy, but Peter ______ to work on time.

A managed to get   В could get   С couldn't get

5 They were whispering so I ______ what they were saying very clearly.

A could hear   В couldn't to hear  С couldn't hear

6 My grandfather was a very good footballer. He ______ a professional if he had wanted to.

A could be    В was able to be  С could have been

7 When Martha asked me for money, I ______ her some, so I did.

A could lend   В was able to lend  С could have lent

8 Sue would like ______ to buy a new car.

A to be able to afford  В to can afford  С be able to afford

9 Do you think that doctors ______ cancer in the future?

A will can cure   В will able to cure  С will be able to cure

10 I ______ the company's offer of a job in Edinburgh, but I didn't want to live in

Scotland.

A could accept                      В could have accepted                  С could to have accepted

2. Permission: can, could, may, might, be allowed to. There are mistakes in some of these sentences. Find the mistakes and correct them.

'Can I use your car this evening?' 'Yes, of course you could.'

The law says that you might not drive a car in Britain without a seat belt.

'May I ask you for a favour?' 'Of course you can.'

4 'Could I borrow your dictionary?' 'Yes, of course you might.'

5 My brother may borrow my sister's computer any time he wants to.

6 You can have a look at my newspaper if you like.

7 My sister's daughter could stay up late and watch the World Cup on TV last night.

3. Obligation and necessity . Re-write the sentences using the words in brackets.

e.g. It is against the law to drive without a licence. (mustn’t) You mustn't drive without a licence.

It isn't necessary to be over 16 to get married. (don't have to)

It is important for me to pass the exam. (must)

It is necessary to have an appointment to see the manager. (have to)

4 It isn't necessary for you to apologize, (don't have to)

5 It is against the law to drive without a seat belt. (mustn't)

4. Complete each sentence using the most suitable word in the box.

must   have to   have to   had to having to   have to

I'm sorry, but I can't see you this evening. My boss has told me I ______ work late.

You're always working late! You ______ work late yesterday, too!

3 I've got a terrible toothache. I really ______ go to the dentist.

4 I've got an appointment with the dentist today. I ______ be there at 2.00.

5 I hate ______ go to the dentist.

6 The law says that you ______ report a motor accident to the police.

5. Needn't have and didn't need to. There are mistakes in some of these sentences. Find the mistakes and correct them.

1 We needn't have bought so much wine for the party because nobody drank much.

2 Mike needn't have gone to work yesterday, so he stayed at home.

It was nice of you to phone and thank me, but you really didn't need to.

Sue needn't have hurried home, so she took her time.

Kate needn't have made lunch when she arrived home from work because her husband had already done it.

6. Obligation and advice. Choose the most suitable answer — А, В or С

1 Language students ______ a little every day.

A is supposed to study  В should study  С had better study

2 I think my car has been stolen. I ______ the police.

A had better phone   В should have phoned С am supposed to phone

3 I ______ tennis tomorrow, but I can't.

A had better play   В am supposed to play С am not supposed to play

4 I ______ this bill last month, but I forgot.

A should pay   В had better pay  С ought to have paid

5 We have to get up early tomorrow, so we ______ to bed too late tonight.

A had better not go  В ought to go  С are supposed to go

6 Everyone ______ a holiday sometimes.

A had better take   В ought take   С should take

7 I've forgotten to send my friend a birthday card. What ______ ?

A am I supposed to do  В shall I do   С shall I to do

8 You ______ my new camera or I'll kill you!

A had better not break  В shouldn't break  С aren't supposed to break

9 I've got a terrible headache. I think I ______ take an aspirin.

A am supposed to   В should take  С had better to take

10 You ______ with us to the beach yesterday. We had a very nice time.

A had better come   В should come  С should have come

7. Possibility: may, might, could. Re-write each sentence making it unsure. Use the words in brackets.

e.g. Sarah lent Simon some money, (might) Sarah might have lent Simon some money.

It will rain tonight. (may)

Peter is in the Sports centre. (could)

Sally wrote to the bank. (might)

Ken didn't see me. (may)

I won't be here tomorrow. (might)

The robbers had a key to the office. (may)

The children aren't asleep. (might)

People will be living on the moon in the year 2050. (could)

9 Mike didn't receive my letter. (may)
10 Those people are waving at us. (might)

8. Possibility: can. Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence. Use can or may.

e.g. It is sometimes very hot here in the summer. It can be very hot here in the summer.

Perhaps it will be very hot here tomorrow. It ______

Perhaps I am wrong. I ______

3 It is possible for anyone to be wrong. Anyone ______

Cats sometimes live for 20 years. Cats ______

Perhaps your cat will live for 20 years. Your cat ______

9. Probability: should, ought to. Re-write each sentence making it probable. Use the word in brackets.

e.g. Kate is very happy, (should) Kate should be very happy.

Simon is in his room. (should)

I'll finish the book soon. (ought to)

Maria received the letter yesterday. (should)
4 We won't be late home tonight. (shouldn't)
5 My parents arrived at their hotel a few hours ago. (ought to)

10. Deduction: must, can't. Complete the sentences. Use must or can't and the correct form of the verb in brackets.

1 You haven't eaten all day. You ______ hungry. (be)

2 You ______ cold. It's 30 degrees in the shade! (be)

There are no lights on in the office. Everyone ______ home, (go)

Peter ______ ill. I've just seen him playing tennis, (be)

5 I ______ my bag on the train. I can remember having it with me when I got off the train. (leave)

You drove home at night without any lights on? You ______ crazy! (be)

'I've just finished reading War and Peace in Russian.' 'That ______ a long time!' (take)

11. Requests, offers and suggestions. Write what you could say in these situations using the words in brackets.

e.g. You offer to make someone a cup of coffee. (Shall?) Shall I make you a cup of coffee?

You ask to use the phone in a friend's house. (Can?)

You ask the waiter for the menu in a restaurant. (Could?)

You ask your teacher to explain something to you. (Could?)

You ask a friend to lend you some money. (Would?)

You are carrying a lot of bags. You ask a stranger to open a door for you. (Would/mind?)

You offer to give a friend a lift home in your car. (I'll)

You offer to show a friend how to use a photocopier. (Shall?)

You suggest to a friend that you have a walk in the park. (How about?)

You invite someone to the cinema this evening, (you like?)

You ask a friend to suggest where you can meet tomorrow, (shall we?)

You suggest to a friend that you go swimming this weekend. (Let's)

You suggest to a friend that you watch a video this evening. (Why don't?)

Test yourself

1. Review of possibility, probability and deduction. Choose the correct answer(А, В or C).

1 It ______ a lovely day tomorrow.

A can be   В could be   С must be

2 I'm getting fat. I think I ______ eating the wrong kind of food.

A must be   В can't be   С can be

3 I'm not sure, but I ______ Sue in town last night.

A can see   В must have seen  С may have seen

4 Mike ______ driving to London tomorrow. He can't drive!

A might be   В can't be   С must be

5 My letter ______ yesterday, but it didn't.

A must have arrived В may arrive  С should have arrived

6 I can hear footsteps in the flat upstairs, so there ______ someone there.

A must be   В might be   С can't be

7 We're very busy tomorrow so we ______ time to visit you. We aren't sure.

A could not have  В might not have  С ought to have

8 That girl ______ 20 years old. She looks about 12!

A maybe   В must be   С can't be

2. Review of permission and obligation. Choose the most suitable answer (А, В or С)

1 It isn't cold outside. You ______ wear a coat.

A mustn't   В can   С needn't

2 You ______ keep out of that room. It's private.

A don't have to  В mustn't  С must

3 You ______ fall asleep when you drive a car.

A mustn't   В needn't  С must

4 I'm going to retire soon. Then I won't ______ work any more.

A must   В have to  С can

5 You ______ vote in Britain until you are 18.

A have to   В can   С aren't allowed to

6 You ______ wear a uniform in the army.

A can    В have to  С mustn't

7 Tomorrow is a holiday. We ______ go to work.

A don't have to  В aren't allowed to  С have to

8 You ______ ride a bicycle on a motorway in Britain.

A must   В don't have to С can't

TEXTS FOR READING

1. The Spirit of an Organization

Two sayings sum up the “spirit of an organization”. One is the inscription on Andrew Carnegie’s tombstone:

Here lies a man

Who knew how to enlist

In his service

Better men than himself

The other is the slogan of the drive to find jobs for the physically handicapped: “It’s the abilities, not the disabilities, that count.

Management by objective tells a manager what he ought to do. The proper organization of his job enables him to do it, but it is the spirit of the organization that determines whether he will do it or not. It is the spirit that motivates, that calls upon a man’s reserves of dedication and effort, that decides whether he will give his best or do just enough to get by.

It is the purpose of an organization to “make common men do uncommon things” – said Lord Beveridge. No organization can depend on genius; the supply is always scarce and always unpredictable. But it is the test of an organization that it makes ordinary human beings perform better than they are capable of, that it brings out whatever strength there is in its members and uses it to make all other members perform better. It is the test of an organization that it neutralizes the weaknesses of its members.

Altogether the test of a good spirit is not that people get along together; it is performance, not conformance.

“Good human relations” not grounded in the satisfaction of good performance and the harmony of proper working relations are actually poor human relations and result in poor spirit. They do not make people grow; they make them conform and contract.

There are five areas in which practices are required to ensure the right spirit throughout management organization.

There must be high performance requirements; no excuse of poor or mediocre performance; and rewards must be based on performance.

Each management job must be a rewarding job in itself rather than just a step in the promotion ladder. There must be a rational and just promotion system.

Management needs a “charter” spelling out clearly who has the power to make life-and-death decisions affecting a manager; and there should be some way for a manager to appeal to a higher court.

In its appointments management must demonstrate that it realizes that integrity is the absolute requirement of a manager, the one quality that he has to bring with him and cannot be expected to acquire later on.

A man should never be appointed to a managerial position if his vision focuses on people’s weaknesses rather than on their strengths. He should be a realist. A man should never be appointed if he is more interested in the question: “Who is right?” than in the question: “What is right?” Management should never appoint a man who considers intelligence more important than integrity.

2. Ten Effective Job Search Strategies

Searching for a new job is seriously hard work. In fact, it can be the toughest “job” you’ll ever have. That’s why the key to job search success is treating the entire process like a business. You are currently in the “job hunting” business. To stand head and shoulders above the rest of the job-seeking crowd, it’s important to lay out an effective strategy. By defining what you want and need, you’re on your way to getting it.

Jump-start your next job search with these helpful job-hunting strategies:

Know thyself. Begin your job search by taking a thorough inventory of your interests, skills, accomplishments, experience, goals, and values. Make a detailed list. The key to a successful job search is recognizing what makes you a unique candidate and communicating this effectively to a prospective employer, both verbally and in writing.

Aim for the right target. Try to match your skills, interests, and values with the right career choice. If one of your goals is to get a larger salary, don’t focus on career paths that traditionally pay low salaries. Do some research. Learn about different companies that interest you and target those that are more likely to have open positions.

Be assertive and proactive. Don’t wait around for opportunity to come knocking on your door. While cold calling on potential employers can be intimidating, it remains a powerful strategy. It’s important to get through the door first, before your competition.

Do some sleuthing. One key to breaking in is understanding the “hidden” job market. Many job openings exist only in the minds of directors, vice presidents, and other company bigwigs long before the job is finally advertised in newspapers or on the Internet. If you can present yourself as the perfect candidate at this early stage, an employer may snap you up without looking elsewhere.

Work the network. Networking should be at the center of your job search strategy. Get the word out to friends, trusted colleagues, and even relatives that you are actively looking for a job, and ask them to keep their eyes and ears open for any opportunities. Expand your network by joining professional organizations, signing up for job search newsletters and e-mail blasts, contacting former professors and classmates, and by participating in Internet discussion boards.

Get professional help. Employment agencies come in all shapes, sizes, and price ranges, and they can be an excellent resource for job leads. Some specialize in very specific occupational areas, and many often have exclusive arrangements with large companies. If you’re interested in the services of an agency, investigate it carefully. Determine what the agency will do for you and how much it will cost.

Be temporarily flexible. Temp jobs are a great way to learn skills, gain experience, and earn money while looking for a permanent position. They are also a way to prove your worth and be first in line when a full-time position does open up. Working as a consultant or independent contractor in a company can also eventually lead to steady, full-time employment.

Say it clearly. When sending out résumés, catch the prospective employer’s attention with a brief and concise cover letter that spells out clearly how your qualifications match the job requirements. Connect the dots for the reader, making it obvious why you’re the perfect candidate for the job.

Keep careful records. Keeping track of the progress of your job search is important. Maintain a detailed record of all the jobs you have applied to, including communications, interviews, referrals, and follow-up actions. This will help you build a network of valuable contacts both for your current job search and any future ones.

Be persistent. Job searching is hard work and there are times when you will become discouraged. Just keep in mind that everyone has been through the same grind at one point. Try to keep a positive attitude about the whole process and look at your job hunt as an exciting challenge. Your perfect job is out there somewhere. Good luck!

3. Multitasking.

From the earliest time people have been trying to do several things simultaneously. They can read a book, cook dinner, talk on the phone and do many other things at the same time. As cars have become available, the time of multitasking has increased.

Now an arsenal of new technology makes it possible for everyone to multitask all day.

The computer industry introduced the word ‘multitasking’ into the vocabulary. Mainframe computers that handled networks were the original multitaskers. Apple’s and Microsoft’s software turned millions of personal computers into multitaskers.

While multitasking is not bad for computers, it may be a bad thing for some people. Psychologists say it is possible for the human brain to process two or more tasks at the same time, but only one of them receives full attention. Experts say that although a lot of people believe that multitasking enhances their productivity, in fact it can reduce it.

Because of the limitation of the human brain, multitaskings can lead to many mistakes. Indeed, a person who is doing several things at a time may put the wrong number in a spreadsheet or send a message to the wrong e-mail address. Moreover, people on the other end of the line don’t usually like to talk to a person who is doing something else while talking to them. It may alienate the people from the multitasker.

Multitaskers also like to do more than one thing at once even in their leisure time. They cannot watch television without reading a newspaper or have dinner without watching TV.

Now multitasking takes place nearly everywhere. A lot of businessmen and managers are never far from their notebook computers and cellular telephones. They are almost always doing two or three things at once, driving and dialing, speaking and typing on their computers. On airplanes they are using their notebook computers to answer e-mail messages. “Why wait?” they ask. “That’s the world we live in right now.”

4. International Business

Nobody actually wants to cause offence but as business becomes ever more international, it is increasingly easy to get it wrong. There may be a single European market but it does nit mean that managers behave the same in Greece as they do in Denmark.

In many European countries handshaking is an automatic gesture. In France good manners require that on arriving at a business meeting a manager shakes hands with everyone present. This can be a demanding task and in a crowded room may require gymnastic ability if the farthest hand is to be reached.

Handshaking is almost as popular in other countries – including Germany, Belgium and Italy. But Northern Europeans, such as the British and Scandinavians, are not quite so fond of physical demonstrations of friendliness.

In Europe the most common challenge is not the content of the food, but the way you behave as you eat. Some things are just not done. In France it is not good manners to raise tricky questions of business over the main course. Business has its place: after the cheese course. Unless you are prepared to eat in silence you have to talk about something – something, that is, other than the business deal which you are continually chewing over in your head.

Italians give similar importance to the whole process of business entertaining. In fact, in Italy the biggest fear, as course after course appears, is that you entirely forget you are there on business. If you have the energy, you can always do the polite thing when the meal finally ends and offer to pay. Then after a lively discussion, you must remember the next polite thing to do – let your host pick up the bill.

In Germany, as you walk sadly back to your hotel room, you may wonder why your apparently friendly hosts have not invited you out for the evening. Don’t worry, it is probably nothing personal. Germans do not entertain business people with quite the same enthusiasm as some of their European counterparts.

The German are also notable for the amount of formality they bring to business. As an outsider, it is often difficult to know whether colleagues have been working together for 30 years or have just met in the lift. If you used to call people by their first names, this can be a little strange. To the Germans, titles are important. Forgetting that someone should be called Herr Doctor or Frau Direktoring might cause serious offence. It is equally offensive to call them by a title they do not possess.

In Italy the question of title is further confused by the fact that everyone with a university degree can be called Dottore – and engineers, lawyers and architects may also expect to be called by their professional titles.

5. We Europeans

For new countries joining the European Union, and older ones getting used to their burgundy passports, becoming “Europeans” is a bit like marrying into a large, eccentric, diverse family.

Europeans have a lot in common but their differences, not their similarities attract the attention of sociologists and market researchers, and are more interesting.

35% of Germans live alone; but only 9% of Spaniards. Perhaps this explains why Spaniards lead in Europe in the habit of going out for a drink.

The British attend more adult evening classes than anyone else in Europe, and the Belgians least. So it can’t just be the dark evenings. There are no figures on how many Britons go for a drink afterwards. If there were, they might be up at the top with Spain!

The British think black cats are lucky. Every other European country regards them as unlucky.

The Dutch and Germans are the greatest caravanners, but the Germans like bigger beds in their caravans.

The French are most athletic Europeans. Next come the Dutch. But the Belgians, just over the border, play fewest sports.

The Germans spend twice as much on heating as the Spaniards. Well, of course they do, it’s colder.

Dutch husbands do the household shopping a lot more often than Italians or Spaniards. Women, you have been warned!

Only the British put their knives and forks at 06.30 on the plate when they are finished. Everyone else puts them between 09.15 and 07.25. The British also put salt in the pot with the single hole. This causes visitors considerable confusion.

The French are the champion public transport commuters (people who travel a long distance from home to work every day) of Europe. If you hate commuting, go and live in the Netherlands, where journeys to work are shorter than anywhere else.

The amount of direct eye-contact between strangers is three times greater among Spaniards than it is among the British or Swedes. Sharing a lift is torture for both the British and the Swedish.

No European country really agrees with any other about how to make good coffee. German, Belgian, French, Italian, Greek and Spanish roasting methods are all different.

There are exceptions to all these rules. Approach them in the spirit of my 8-year-old daughter. “If you don’t understand each other’s language, you just laugh a lot, and eat; and point at things.” Vive l’Europe!

These cultural challenges exist side by side with the problems of doing business in a foreign language. Language, of course, is full of difficulties – disaster may be only a syllable way. But the more you know of the culture of the country you are dealing with, the less likely you are to get into difficulties. It is worth the effort. It may be hard to explain that the reason you lost the contact was not the product or the price, but the fact that you offended your hosts in a light-hearted comment. Good manners are admired: they can also make or break the deal.

6. Internet

The Internet, a global computer network, which embraces millions of users all over the world, began in the United States in 1969 as a military experiment. It was designed to survive a nuclear war. Information sent over the Internet takes the shortest path available from one computer to another. Because of this, any two computers on the Internet will be able to stay in touch with each other as long as there is a single route between them. This technology is called packet swithing. Owing to this technology, if some computers on the network are knocked out, information will just route around them. One such packet-swithing network, which has already survived a war is the Iraqi computer network which was not knocked out during the Gulf War.

Most of the Internet host computers are in the United States, while the rest are located in more than 100 other countries. Although the number of host computers can be counted fairly accurately, nobody knows exactly how many people use the Internet, there are millions worldwide, and their number is growing by thousands each month.

In many developing countries the Internet may provide businessmen with a reliable alternative to the expensive and unreliable telecommunications systems of these countries. Commercial users can communicate cheaply over the Internet with the rest of the world. When they send e-mail messages, they only have to pay for phone calls to their local service providers, not for calls across their countries or around the world. But who actually pays for sending e-mail messages over the Internet long distances, around the world? The answer is very simple; users pay their service provider a monthly or hourly fee. Part of this fee goes towards its costs to connect to a larger service provider, and part of the fee received by the larger provider goes to cover its cost of running a worldwide network of wires and wireless stations.

But saving money is only the first step. If people see that they can make money from the Internet, commercial use of this network will drastically increase. For example, some western architecture companies and garment centers already transmit their basic designs and concepts over the Internet into China, where they are reworked and refined by skilled – but expensive – Chinese computer – aided – design specialists.

However, some problems remain. The most important is security. When you send an e-mail message to somebody, this message can travel through many different networks and computers. The data is constantly being directed towards its destination by special computers called routers. However, because of this, it is possible to get into any of the computers along the route, intercept and even change the data being sent over the Internet. In spite of the fact that there are many good encoding programs available, nearly all the information being sent over the Internet is transmitted without any form of encoding i.e. “in the clear”. But when it becomes necessary to send important information over the network, these encoding programs may be useful. Some American banks and companies even conduct transactions over the Internet. However, there are still both commercial and technical problems which will take time to be resolved.

7. E-Mail Etiquette

Introduction

This document is intended to offer guidance to users of electronic mail (e-mail) systems.

This is not a "how-to" document, but rather a document that offers advice to make you more computer-worthy (probably more worthy than you desire) and to prevent you from embarrassing yourself at some point in the near future.

To, Cc and Bcc

With only three choices for addressing an e-mail, i.e. the 'To', 'Cc' and 'Bcc' fields, you would think addressing would be trouble free. Unfortunately, that's not the case.

First, there are the users who have no idea that the 'Cc' exists. Every address is listed in the 'To' even if the email is only directed to one person. In cases such as this the receivers have no clue as to who should take action so either they all do something or they all do nothing.

Secondly, there are users who feel that every single e-mail should be copied to their entire address book whether it's relevant to those receiving it or not. These are the 'cry for attention' crowd.

Lastly, there are users who never read the names of the people who receive a copy of an e-mail. They are the 'Did you see this?' crowd. For example, person X sends an e-mail to persons A, B and C. C immediately forwards it to A and B with the question 'Did you see this?' not bothering to see that X already sent A and B copies.

In summary, here's a rough guide on how to populate the address fields:

The addresses in the 'To' are for the people you are directly addressing.

The addresses in the 'Cc' are for the people you are indirectly addressing. They are the FYI-ers or CYA-ers. Don't over do it here. Copy only those who need to be copied; not your entire universe of contacts.

The addresses in the 'Bcc' are like 'Cc' except that the addresses in 'To' and 'Cc' do not know that the addresses in the 'Bcc' are included in the conversation. The 'To' and 'Cc' addresses are blind to the 'Bcc' addresses. As you can imagine, use of the 'Bcc' is somewhat unethical and therefore its use is discouraged.

Reply To All

The 'Reply to All' button is just a button, but it can generate tons of unnecessary e-mails. For example, if I send a dozen people an e-mail asking if they are available at a certain time for a meeting I should get a dozen replies and that's it. However, if each person hits the "Reply to All' button not only do I get a dozen replies, but so does everyone else for a total of 144 messages!

I'm not saying that the 'Reply to All' button should not be used. I'm saying that it should be used with care.

Don't Be A Novelist

Messages should be concise and to the point. Think of it as a telephone conversation, except you are typing instead of speaking. Nobody has ever won a Pulitzer Prize for a telephone conversation nor will they win one for an e-mail message.

It's also important to remember that some people receive hundreds of e-mail messages a day (yes, there are such people), so the last thing they want to see is a message from someone who thinks he/she is the next Dickens.

Too Much Punctuation!!!

Don't get caught up in grammar and punctuation, especially excessive punctuation. You'll see lots of e-mail messages where people put a dozen exclamation points at the end of a sentence for added emphasis. Big deal. Exclamation points (called "bangs" in computer circles) are just another form of ending a sentence.

If something is important it should be reflected in your text, not in your punctuation.

Abbreviations

Abbreviation usage is quite rampant with e-mail. In the quest to save keystrokes, users have traded clarity for confusion (unless you understand the abbreviations). Some of the more common abbreviations are listed in the table below. I would recommend that you use abbreviations that are already common to the English language, such as 'FYI' and 'BTW'. Beyond that, you run the risk of confusing your recipient.

This

Means This

OBO

or best offer

BCNU

be seeing you

ROTFL

rolling on the floor laughing

BTW

by the way

RTFM

read the funny manual

FWIW

for what it's worth

TNSTAAFL

there's no such thing as a free lunch

FYI

for your information

TTFN

ta ta for now

IMHO

in my humble opinion

TTYL

talk to you later

Smilies

Part of the nature of a good one-on-one conversation is the use of visual cues. How important are facial expressions and body gestures to a conversation? A simple eye movement can mean the difference between "yes" and "YES". What about auditory cues? The results are the same.

Since there are no visual or auditory cues with e-mail, users have come up with something called "smilies". They are simple strings of characters that are interspersed in the e-mail text to convey the writer's emotions (cues). The most common example is :-). Turn your head to the left and you should see a happy face (the colon are the eyes, the dash is the nose and the parentheses is the mouth). Here are some more examples.

This

Means This

This

Means This

:-)

Smiley face

:-P

Wry smile

;-)

Wink (light sarcasm)

;-}

Leer

:-|

Indifference

:-Q

Smoker

:->

Devilish grin (heavy sarcasm)

:-e

Disappointment

8-)

Eye-glasses

:-@

Scream

:-D

Shock or surprise

:-O

Yell

:-/

Perplexed

:-*

Drunk

:-(

Frown (anger or displeasure)

:-{}

Wears lipstick

Please don't ask me to interpret, because I don't understand them all.

They are typically found at the end of sentences and will usually refer back to the prior statement.

I would recommend you use these sparingly. There are hundreds of these things and their translations are by no means universal (a miss-interpreted smilie could lead to a flame).

Salutations

The question here is "How personal is too personal?" or to be more specific, how do you open your e-mail: "Dear Sir", "Dear Mr. Smith", "Joe" or none of the afore-mentioned.

If you posed this question to Miss Manners, I expect she would come back with a quick answer - use the standard formalities -- but I don't know that I would agree.

In a non-business situation, I would recommend that you bypass the standard formalities. At most, I would only include something along the lines of "Dear Virgil" or just "Virgil".

In the business situation, things are much more complicated. Each situation will need to be evaluated on its on, but in general, I would use the following as a guide: If you normally address a person as Miss/Mrs./Ms./Mr. Smith then that's the way I would initially address them in e-mail. If you normally call them by their first name then I would either omit the salutation or follow the guideline specified in the prior paragraph. If you are unsure, stick to the formal salutation. It's the safest bet.

Signatures

If you had to guess what a signature was (the e-mail version), you would probably be close.

On a paper document (save a tree, send e-mail) it's typical to close the document with the following:

Gene Wicker, Jr.

I Will Follow... Services

Since it's not possible (yet) to sign your e-mail, users will sometimes include the same information (minus the signature) at the bottom of their e-mail messages.

I would highly recommend this practice because the originator is not always clear to the recipient. Lots of companies use abbreviated names or numbers for employee e-mail addresses and those abbreviations or numbers will mean little to someone not familiar with their significance.

I would also recommend that you included your e-mail address in this information. Sometimes it can be very difficult to locate your e-mail address in the information that's a part of transmission, especially if it's going across the Internet.

If your e-mail address is a business address, I would include your title and company name in the signature. Normally, this might be part of a letterhead, but in the e-mail world letterheads are not used (wasted space).

You will sometimes run across a user's signature that contains a quote (as in "...the secret to life is that there is no secret.") after the person's name. This has become a fairly common practice. If you choose this option I would recommend that the quote be something that is a reflection of yourself. Keep it short. You don't want the quote to be longer than the message.

Also you will run across signatures that contain images built out of keyboard characters. These are kind of hard to describe unless you've seen one, but you will surely know one when you see it. As with the quote, the image should be a reflection of the person.

Whether you choose to add a quote, an image or both, I would recommend that you keep the total number of lines for the signature down to four or less.

Attachments

Back in dial-up days I would have recommended that all attachments be held to 1MB in size. However, in today's ever expanding broadband world, things are a little different.

For users on dial-up, the 1MB limit still applies. For users on broadband or a direct connection, I would up the limit to 5MB. HOWEVER, this is not a blanket recommendation to send attachments of this size. Even if user is on broadband or a direct connection, there is no guarantee that their mailbox can handle it. With limits this small you can see that sending someone a 5MB attachment will quickly fill their mailbox and cause other e-mails to bounce.

Generally, the only time I send attachments of the 5MB size is when I know the other party is expect it.

Threads

Once you send that first e-mail, you will probably get a response. If you want to reply to that response what should you do? The wrong thing to do is to start a new e-mail message. This breaks the link (called a "thread") between the original message and your soon-to-be-created response. Without the link, it can get difficult for the users on each end to follow the sequence of messages, especially after several exchanges. This becomes an even larger problem when you are dealing with newsgroups (more later) where several people may be replying to messages and trying to follow the thread of exchanged information. The correct thing to do is to reply, which is essentially the same thing as creating a new message, but maintains the thread.

Quotes

Nothing is more wasteful than to reply to an e-mail by including a complete copy of the original with the words "I agree", "Okay" or "Ditto" at the bottom.

The correct method is to use quoting. This is best explained by an example:

>and do you agree with the proposal to hire Ms. Ross to

>handle our legal services?

Yes. Please make the necessary arrangements.

The '>' in front of the text indicates to the recipient that this is quoted material from his/her last e-mail message. The second sentence is your response to the quoted material. The key with quoting is to include enough material in the quote so that it will be relevant to the recipient. Imagine that the original message was a hundred lines long and the only question that required a response was located in the last sentence. Why send the whole message back in the reply? That would cause the recipient to scroll through the hundred line message again just to find your response at the bottom.

Quoting can occur again and again as in the example:

>>and do you agree with the proposal to hire Ms. Ross to

>>handle our legal services?

>>Yes. Please make the necessary arrangements.

Arrangements made. Our first meeting is scheduled for tomorrow morning.

From this we see both two level quoting (>>) and one level quoting (>). The (>>) indicate that the sender is quoting your quote and the (>) is a quote of part of your message you sent in reply.

Don't get hung up in quoting. After so many levels, all you end up with is a bunch of ">" and very little substance.

Save A Tree

Sometimes I think that the best thing that could happen would be for someone to take away the printer. Why? Every time I send an e-mail out to a large group, a third of the group will print the message even before reading it, a third will read it and then print it, and the last third will simply delete it.

One of the goals for e-mail usage is to eliminate (or greatly reduce) the shuffling of paper, but what chance does that have if a significant number of people are going to print every message they receive. I'm not saying that all messages should not be printed. I'm saying that too many messages are printed for no reason (a lot are printed and never retrieved from the printer).

Unless you have a very primitive e-mail system, it probably has some system (usually called "folders") that can be used to permanently store messages for recall at any time in the future. If the same people who print messages for paper file systems would create the same structure in the e-mail system with folders, it would accomplish the same goal, but would save an enormous amount of paper (and trees).

Privacy, Are You Kidding?

Stop right where you are and set aside a couple of brain cells for the following statement: there is no such thing as a private e-mail. I don't care what anybody says, states, swears or whatever, there is just no such thing as private e-mail. The reason? Keep reading.

With some e-mail systems, the e-mail administrator has the ability to read any and all e-mail messages. If this is the case where you are located you better hope that there is a honest and respectable person in that position.

Some companies monitor employee e-mail (I consider this one of the worst forms of censorship). The reasons for this obtrusive behavior range from company management wanting to make sure users are not wasting time on frivolous messages to making sure that company secrets are not being leaked to unauthorized sources.

E-mail software is like all software in that occasionally things go wrong. If this happens, you may end up receiving e-mail meant for another person or your e-mail may get sent to the wrong person. Either way, what you thought was private is not private anymore.

Somewhere in the world there is a person (usually a hacker) who is able to read your e-mail if he/she tries hard enough. Of course "Tries hard enough" is the key. It's not that simple to read another person's e-mail (usually). There are (usually) security measures in place to prevent this from happening, but no security is one hundred percent hacker-proof. I have "usually" in parenthesis in the prior two sentences because I'm making the assumption that the person/persons who install and operate your e-mail system have taken the necessary precautions. Of course, the same must also be true for the person/persons on the receiving end of your e-mail.

So where does this leave us. First, let me reiterate the initial statement: there is no such thing as a private e-mail. Got it? Second, don't send anything by e-mail that you would not want posted on the company bulletin board. If it's safe enough for the bulletin board, it's safe enough for e-mail. Finally, if you are debating whether or not to send something personal by e-mail, either deliver it by hand or send it by snail mail.

If You Send It From the Office, It Comes From The Office

Personal e-mails sent from the office are regarded as official company communications regardless of content and could possibly expose you and your company to unnecessary risk. Scary, huh?

Flames

What is a "flame" or specifically what does it mean "to be flamed?" To be flamed means that you've sent an e-mail to a person(s) that has caused that person(s) to respond in many, not-so-nice words. It's basically a verbal attack in electronic form. I would provide examples, but I'm not too sure of the age of my audience and I, in turn, do not want to end up getting flamed from the readers of this document.

Sometimes the reason for a flame is quite obvious (keep reading), but in other cases you just never know. You might send what you think is a harmless e-mail to ten people. Nine people respond in a rational tone while number ten sends you a flame. Just remember that everyone sees the world differently. You may be lucky and spend your whole life dealing only with the people in the group of nine, but I'll bet that sooner or later you will run into person ten.

How do you respond to flame? Tough question. The best answer would be to ignore it and go about your life as logical and rational human being. If this is not your first reaction, it probably will be after you've been flamed a couple dozen times. You will find out that responses just aren't worth the effort. Remember that old saying about "You can please some of the people...".

If you do choose to respond you will probably end up in what is known as a "flame war". This is where two or more people end up exchanging flames for an extended period of time, usually to the point that users start making references to one's mother, one's mental capability, etc... At some point, all those participating in the war will eventually forget what originally started it and go back to being normal human beings.

Never been flamed? Well if you are begging for it, I would suggest one of the following:

Send an e-mail in all UPPER-CASE. Use of upper-case words is the equivalent of shouting in some one's ear. ONLY use upper-case words when trying to make a point (such as I just did). Even at that, you should be careful with who you are exchanging messages.

Make a comment about grammar or punctuation. Nobody wants to feel like they are exchanging e-mail with their eighth-grade English teacher.

Send a mass-mailing advertisement. This is numero uno on the don'ts list and will generate more flames than the devil himself.

Think about the amount of junk mail you receive everyday by snail mail. Even though you don't want it, you find you must look through all of it because somewhere in that stack of unwanted advertisements and wasted paper could be your monthly water bill. The same principle applies to the e-mail. Would you want to search through a mailbox full of advertisements simply to find that all-important message from your boss?

Request computer help without providing system-specific information. For example, if I submitted an e-mail that stated "I've got this problem with Word...". Well is that Word 97, Word 98, Word 2000, Word for XP or Word for 2003? Tell them the version and if there are any service releases installed.

Remember, the world (and its users) is made up of every kind of computer imaginable, from PCs to Macs to Linux workstations to the one your neighbor assembled in his garage.

The correct method would be to list all the system specifics first, then describe the problem or question. For example, if I were seeking answers to questions about Microsquish Word for my computer at home, I would list Windoze 2000 with SP5, Orfice 2000 with SR3, HP Kawack, dual Pentium IIs, 512MB of RAM and 4GB SCSI hard drive and then state the problem in detail.

Better Than Snail Mail

You would think that since e-mail is electronic and electronic information is suppose to move at the speed of light, your e-mail message would arrive seconds after you send it. If you're sending e-mail to the person in the office next to yours it might happen that way. In most cases, however, the message will probably take anywhere from a couple of minutes (majority of the time) to a couple of days (in which case there is usually a problem).

Think of it this way. Sending e-mail locally is as easy as delivering it by hand. Following that premise, if you had to hand deliver mail to some one clear across the country, doesn't that take a little more effort?

The reason it takes longer is that in the transmission of a message from point A to point B, the message may pass across one, two, or up to who-knows-how-many different types of mail systems before it reaches its destination. Remember my earlier statement? All computers (and e-mail systems) are not the same.

No matter how far away you are sending your e-mail message I'll guarantee that it will beat snail mail. On top of that you save the cost of a stamp.

A Blessing And A Curse

E-mail is a conversation that does not require an immediate response (like a telephone). If someone calls you on the telephone, you pick it up (unless you have an answering machine, voice mail or you are just plain rude) and the conversation begins. This is an interactive conversation.

With e-mail you send a message and then wait for a response. The response may come in five minutes or the response may come in five days. Either way it's not an interactive conversation.

If a hundred people send you e-mail in one day, so what? You didn't have to talk with all one hundred. Just think of all the hellos, good-byes and other unnecessary chit-chat you avoided. With e-mail you only deal with their messages (which usually omit hellos, good-byes and such) and you deal with them on your own time. That's the blessing.

Now for the curse.Too many users assume that the minute someone receives an e-mail it, the person will read it.

Bad assumption.

If you schedule a meeting for an hour from now and send an e-mail to each attendee, the chance that all the attendee's will read that message within the hour will be pretty small. On the other hand, if you schedule the meeting for the next day, the chance that they will read the message will be pretty high. Remember, e-mail is not designed for immediacy (that's why you have a telephone), it's designed for convenience.

Some (not all) e-mail systems have features that try to combat this problem. These features (usually called "notification") will notify you when a person has received your e-mail and may also notify you when the person has read it (really all it can do is assume you that the person has looked at the first screen of the message -- it has no way to know if the person has read the message word for word). Referring back to the example in the last paragraph, you could check to see who has checked their e-mail before the meeting and then telephone those who have not read it.


APPENDIX 1

Irregular Verbs List

This is a list of some irregular verbs in English. Of course, there are many others, but these are the more common irregular verbs.

V1

Base

Form

V2

Past Simple

V3

Past Participle

V1

Base Form

V2

Past Simple

V3

Past Participle

awake

awoke

awoken

keep

kept

kept

be

was, were

been

know

knew

known

become

became

become

lay

laid

laid

begin

began

begun

lead

led

led

bet

bet

bet

learn

learned/learnt

learned/learnt

bite

bit

bitten

leave

left

left

blow

blew

blown

lend

lent

lent

break

broke

broken

let

let

let

bring

brought

brought

lie

lay

lain

broadcast

broadcast

broadcast

lose

lost

lost

build

built

built

make

made

made

burn

burnt

burnt

mean

meant

meant

buy

bought

bought

meet

met

met

catch

caught

caught

pay

paid

paid

choose

chose

chosen

put

put

put

come

came

come

read

read

read

cost

cost

cost

ride

rode

ridden

cut

cut

cut

ring

rang

rung

dig

dug

dug

rise

rose

risen

do

did

done

run

ran

run

draw

drew

drawn

say

said

said

drive

drove

driven

see

saw

seen

drink

drank

drunk

sell

sold

sold

eat

ate

eaten

send

sent

sent

fall

fell

fallen

shut

shut

shut

feel

felt

felt

sing

sang

sung

fight

fought

fought

sit

sat

sat

find

found

found

sleep

slept

slept

fly

flew

flown

speak

spoke

spoken

forget

forgot

forgotten

spend

spent

spent

forgive

forgave

forgiven

stand

stood

stood

freeze

froze

frozen

swim

swam

swum

get

got

gotten

take

took

taken

give

gave

given

teach

taught

taught

go

went

gone

tear

tore

torn

grow

grew

grown

tell

told

told

hang

hung

hung

think

thought

thought

have

had

had

throw

threw

thrown

hear

heard

heard

understand

understood

understood

hide

hid

hidden

wake

woke

woken

hit

hit

hit

wear

wore

worn

hold

held

held

win

won

won

hurt

hurt

hurt

write

wrote

written

Verb to be

Positive and negative sentences:    Questions:

I

am/am not

hot

Am

I

hot?

What

Who

When

Where

When

Why

How

am

I

you

are/ aren’t

Are

you

is

he

she

it

he

she

it

is/isn’t

Is

he

she

it

are

we

you

they

we

you

are

are/ aren’t

Are

we

you

they

e.g. He is a policeman.      Is he a policeman?     He isn’t policeman.

Active Voice

Use

Simple

Present

ask/asks

go/goes

V1

(he,she,it)V+s

              They go to school.

         Do they go to school?

When do they go to school?

             She goes to school.

       Does she go to school?

every day

usually

always

often

sometimes

Past

asked/

went

V2 (ed)

        They asked about her.

   Did they ask about her?

         They went to school.

   Did they go to school?

last month

yesterday

ago

in the past

Future

will ask

will + V1

       He will go to school.

Will he go to school?

next year

soon

in future

Continuous

Present

am

is     +Ving (going)

are

I am going to school now.

She is going to school now.

They are going to school.

now,

at the moment

Past

was / were +Ving

She was going to school when I saw her.

at that moment

Future

will be +Ving

She will be going to school when I see her.

at the moment

Perfect

Present

have / has +V3 (ed)

They have just gone.

She has just gone.

just

already

yet

this year

Past

had + V3 (ed)

He had already gone

when we came.

before,

by the time

Future

will have +V3 (ed)

He will have already gone

when we come.

before,

by the time

Passive Voice

Simple  (be+V3)

Present

am

is   +asked/told

are

He is asked many questions. Ему задают много вопросов.

Is he asked any questions?

We are asked questions. Нам задают вопросы.

Are we asked questions

Past

was /

were+asked/told

He was asked questions.

We were asked questions.

Future

will be asked/told

He will be asked soon. Его спросят скоро.

Continuous (be+being+V3)

Present

am

is    +being asked/told

are

She is being asked  now. Её спрашивают сей час.

Past

was /

were+being asked/told

She was being asked when I came.

Её спрашивали, корда я пришёл

Future

Perfect (be+been+V3)

Present

have / has been +asked/told

She has just been asked  Её только что спросили.

Past

had been+ asked/told

She had been asked when I came.

Её уже спросили, когда я пришел.

Future

will have been+asked/told

She will have been asked when I come.

Её уже спросят, когда я приду.


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es Representative

1 parent company NESTLÉ

2______________

Perrier-Vittel S.A.

3______________

Perrier, Nestle Pure Life

5______________ North America, Europe, South America

4. ____________

Frits van Dijk

Sales Representative

President

Chief of the Credit Department

______________

Frits van Dirk

Sales Manager

Product Research Manager

Branch A

Manager

Branch B

Manager

Vice-President

Production Manager

Sales Representative

Sales Representative

Public sector

Nationalized company

Private sector

Sole trader

Partnership

Limited Company

Unlimited Company

Private limited company

Public limited company

Company limited by shores

Company limited by guarantee

Management

styles

Autocratic

Democratic

Laissez Faire

Consultative

BUSINESS

TRIP

Arranging

a trip

Airport

Hotel

Free time

Traveller’s cheques

Before the

flight

Reservation

Before the flight

During the flight

Room

After the flight

Business centre

Other services