1848

CCNP SWITCH 642-813 Quick Reference

Презентация

Информатика, кибернетика и программирование

Campus Network Design. VLAN Implementation. Implementing High Availability. Campus Network Security. Wireless LANs in a Campus Network. Voice and Video in a Campus Network.

Английский

2013-01-06

1.56 MB

35 чел.

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Chapter 1:
Campus Network Design........................4

Chapter 2:
VLAN Implementation...........................12

Chapter 3:
Spanning Tree........................................29

Chapter 4:
CCNP SWITCH 642-813
InterVLAN Routing ................................49
Quick Reference
Chapter 5:
Implementing High Availability............59

Chapter 6:
First Hop Redundancy ..........................72

Chapter 7:
Denise Donohue
Campus Network Security...................79
Chapter 8:
Voice and Video 
in a Campus Network ...........................91

Chapter 9:
Wireless LANs 
in a Campus Network .........................102

ciscopress.com

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CCNP SWITCH 642-813 Quick Reference
by Denise Donohue
About the Author
Denise Donohue, CCIE No. 9566, is a senior solutions architect for ePlus Technology. She consults with companies to
design updates or additions to their data and VOIP networks. Prior to this role, she was a systems engineer for the data
consulting arm of SBC/AT&T. Denise has been a Cisco instructor and course director for Global Knowledge and did
network consulting for many years. Her CCIE is in Routing and Switching.
About the Technical Editor
‘Rhette (Margaret) Marsh has been working in the networking and security industry for more than ten years, and has
extensive experience with internetwork design, IPv6, forensics, and greyhat work. She currently is a design consultant for
Cisco in San Jose, CA, and works primarily with the Department of Defense and contractors. Prior to this, she worked
extensively both in the financial industry as a routing and switching and design/security consultant and also in an attack
attribution and forensics context. She currently holds a CCIE in Routing and Switching (No. 17476), CCNP, CCDP,
CCNA, CCDA, CISSP and is working towards her Security and Design CCIEs. In her copious free time, she enjoys
number theory, arcane literature, cycling, hiking in the redwoods, sea kayaking, and her mellow cat, Lexx.
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CCNP SWITCH 642-813 Quick Reference
by Denise Donohue
Icons Used
Router
Route/Switch 
Multilayer
Workgroup 
PC
Processor
Switch
Switch
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CHAPTER 1
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by Denise Donohue
Campus Network Design
Chapter 1
Campus Network Design
An enterprise campus generally refers to a network in a specific geographic location. It can be within one building or
span multiple buildings near each other. A campus network also includes the Ethernet LAN portions of a network outside
the data center. Large enterprises have multiple campuses connected by a WAN. Using models to describe the network
architecture divides the campus into several internetworking functional areas, thus simplifying design, implementation,
and troubleshooting.
The Hierarchical Design Model
Cisco has used the three-level Hierarchical Design Model for years. The hierarchical design model divides a network into
three layers:
Access: Provides end-user access to the network. In the LAN, local devices such as phones and computers access
the local network. In the WAN, remote users or sites access the corporate network.
n
High availability via hardware such as redundant power supplies and redundant supervisor engines. Software
redundancy via access to redundant default gateways using a first hop redundancy protocol (FHRP).
n
Converged network support by providing access to IP phones, computers, and wireless access points. Provides
QoS and multicast support.
n
Security through switching tools such as Dynamic ARP Inspection, DHCP snooping, BPDU Guard, port-security,
and IP source guard. Controls network access.
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Campus Network Design
Distribution: Aggregation point for access switches. Provides availability, QoS, fast path recovery, and load balancing.
n
High availability through redundant distribution layer switches providing dual paths to the access switches and to
core switches. Use of FHRP protocols to ensure connectivity if one distribution switch is removed.
n
Routing policies applied, such as route selection, filtering, and summarization. Can be default gateway for access
devices. QoS and security policies applied.
n
Segmentation and isolation of workgroups and workgroup problems from the core, typically using a combination
of Layer 2 and Layer 3 switching.
Core: The backbone that provides a high-speed, Layer 3 path between distribution layers and other network
segments. Provides reliability and scalability.
n
Reliability through redundant devices, device components, and paths.
n
Scalability through scalable routing protocols. Having a core layer in general aids network scalability by provid-
ing gigabit (and faster) connectivity, data and voice integration, and convergence of the LAN, WAN, and MAN. 
n
No policies such as ACLs or filters that would slow traffic down.
A set of distribution devices and their accompanying access layer switches are called a switch block.
The Core Layer
Is a core layer always needed? Without a core layer, the distribution switches must be fully meshed. This becomes more
of a problem as a campus network grows larger. A general rule is to add a core when connecting three or more buildings
or four or more pairs of building distribution switches. Some benefits of a campus core are:
n Adds a hierarchy to distribution switch connectivity
n Simplifies cabling because a full-mesh between distribution switches is not required
n Reduces routing complexity by summarizing distribution networks
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Campus Network Design
Small Campus Design
In a small campus, the core and distribution can be combined into one layer. Small is defined as fewer than 200 end
devices. In very small networks, one multilayer switch might provide the functions of all three layers. Figure 1-1 shows a
sample small network with a collapsed core.
FIGURE 1-1
User Access Layer
A Small Campus
Network 
Backbone (Collapsed
Core/Distribution Layers)
Server Access Layer
Medium Campus Design
A medium-sized campus, defined as one with between 200 and 1000 end devices, is more likely to have several distribu-
tion switches and thus require a core layer. Each building or floor is a campus block with access switches uplinked to
redundant multilayer distribution switches. These are then uplinked to redundant core switches, as shown in Figure 1-2.
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Campus Network Design
FIGURE 1-2
Building Access Layer
Building Access Layer
A Medium-Sized
Campus Network
Building
Building
Distribution
Distribution
Layer
Layer
Core Layer
Data Center
Data Center Design
The core layer connects end users to the data center devices. The data center segment of a campus can vary in size from
few servers connected to the same switch as users in a small campus, to a separate network with its own three-layer
design in a large enterprise. The three layers of a data center model are slightly different:
Core layer: Connects to the campus core. Provides fast switching for traffic into and out of the data center.
Aggregation layer: Provides services such as server load balancing, content switching, SSL off-load, and security
through firewalls and IPS.
Access layer: Provides access to the network for servers and storage units. Can be either Layer 2 or Layer 3
switches.
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Campus Network Design
Network Traffic Flow
The need for a core layer and the devices chosen for the core also depend on the type of network traffic and traffic flow
patterns. Modern converged networks include different traffic types, each with unique requirements for security, QoS,
transmission capacity, and delay. These include:
n IP telephony signaling and media 
n Core Application traffic, such as Enterprise Resource Programming (ERP), Customer Relationship Management
(CRM)
n Multicast multimedia
n Network management
n Application data traffic, such as web pages, email, file transfer, and database transactions
n Scavenger class traffic that requires less-than-best-effort treatment
The different types of applications also have different traffic flow patterns. These might include:
n Peer-to-Peer applications such as IP phone calls, video conferencing, file sharing, and instant messaging provides
real-time interaction. It might not traverse the core at all, if the users are local to each other. Their network require-
ments vary, with voice having strict jitter needs and video conferencing using high bandwidth.
n Client-Server applications require access to servers such as email, file storage, and database servers. These servers
are typically centralized in a data center, and users require fast, reliable access to them. Server farm access must also
be securely controlled to deny unauthorized users.
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Campus Network Design
n Client-Enterprise Edge applications are located on servers at the WAN edge, reachable from outside the company.
These can include email and web servers, or e-commerce servers, for example. Access to these servers must be
secure and highly available.
Service-Oriented Network Architecture
Service-Oriented Network Architecture (SONA) attempts to provide a design framework for a network that can deliver
the services and applications businesses need. It acknowledges that the network connects all components of the business
and is critical to them. The SONA model integrates network and application functionality cooperatively and enables the
network to be smart about how it handles traffic to minimize the footprint of applications.
Figure 1-3 shows how SONA breaks down this functionality into three layers:
Network Infrastructure: Campus, data center, branch, and so on. Networks and their attached end systems
(resources such as servers, clients, and storage.) These can be connected anywhere within the network. The goal is to
provide anytime/any place connectivity. 
Interactive Services: Resources allocated to applications, using the network infrastructure. These include:
n
Management
n
Infrastructure services such as security, mobility, voice, compute, storage, and identity
n
Application delivery
n
Virtualization of services and network infrastructure
Applications: Includes business policy and logic. Leverages the interactive services layer to meet business needs.
Has two sublayers:
n
Application layer, which defines business applications
n
Collaboration layer, which defines applications such as unified messaging, conferencing, IP telephony, video,
instant messaging, and contact centers
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Campus Network Design
FIGURE 1-3
The SONA Model
Application
Business Applications
Collaboration
Collaboration Applications
Layer
Layer
Application Delivery/Application-Oriented Networking
Infrastructure
Services
Layer
Infrastructure Services
Network—Campus, Branch, Data Center, Enterprise Edge, WAN, MAN, Teleworker
Infrastructure
Layer
Servers
Clients
Storage
Planning a Network Implementation
It is important to use a structured approach to planning and implementing any network changes or new network compo-
nents. A comprehensive life-cycle approach lowers the total cost of ownership, increases network availability, increases
business agility, and provides faster access to applications and services.
The Prepare, Plan, Design, Implement, Operate, and Optimize (PPDIOO) Lifecycle Approach is one structure that can be
used. The components are:
Prepare: Organizational requirements gathering, high-level architecture, network strategy, business case strategy
Plan: Network requirements gathering, network examination, gap analysis, project plan
Design: Comprehensive, detailed design
Implement: Detailed implementation plan, and implementation following its steps
Operate: Day-to-day network operation and monitoring
Optimize: Proactive network management and fault correction
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Campus Network Design
Network engineers at the CCNP level will likely be involved at the implementation and following phases. They can also
participate in the design phase. It is important to create a detailed implementation plan that includes test and verification
procedures and a rollback plan. Each step in the implementation plan should include a description, a reference to the
design document, detailed implementation and verification instructions, detailed rollback instructions, and the estimated
time needed for completion. A complex implementation should be done in sections, with testing at each incremental
section.
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CHAPTER 2
CCNP SWITCH 642-813 Quick Reference
by Denise Donohue
VLAN Implementation
Chapter 2
VLAN Implementation
VLANs are used to break large campus networks into smaller pieces. The benefit of this is to minimize the amount of
broadcast traffic on a logical segment.
VLAN Overview
A virtual LAN (VLAN) is a logical LAN, or a logical subnet. It defines a broadcast domain. A physical subnet is a group
of devices that shares the same physical wire. A logical subnet is a group of switch ports assigned to the same VLAN,
regardless of their physical location in a switched network. VLAN membership can be assigned either statically by port,
or dynamically by MAC address or username. 
Two types of VLANs are:
End-to-end VLAN: VLAN members reside on different switches throughout the network. They are used when hosts
are assigned to VLANs for policy reasons, rather than physical location. This provides users a consistent policy and
access to resources regardless of their location. It also makes troubleshooting more complex because so many
switches can carry traffic for a specific VLAN, and broadcasts can traverse many switches. Figure 2-1 shows end-to-
end VLANs.
Local VLAN: Hosts are assigned to VLANs based on their location, such as a floor in a building. 
This design is more scalable and easier to troubleshoot because the traffic flow is more deterministic. It enables
more redundancy and minimizes failure domains. It does require a routing function to share resources between
VLANs. Figure 2-2 shows an example of local VLANs. 
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VLAN Implementation
FIGURE 2-1
End-to-End VLANs
HR
IT
Department
Department
4th Floor
3rd Floor
2nd Floor
1st Floor
FIGURE 2-2
HR
IT
Department
Department
Local VLANs
4th Floor
3rd Floor
2nd Floor
1st Floor
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VLAN Implementation
When planning a VLAN structure, consider traffic flows and link sizing. Take into account the entire traffic pattern of
applications found in your network. For instance, IP voice media traffic travels directly between phones, but signaling
traffic must pass to the Unified Communications Manager. Multicast traffic must communicate back to the routing
process and possibly call upon a Rendezvous Point. Various user applications, such as email and Citrix, place different
demands on the network.
Application flow influences link bandwidth. Remember that uplink ports need to handle all hosts communicating concur-
rently, and although VLANs logically separate traffic, traffic in different VLANs still travels over the same trunk line.
Benchmark throughput for critical application and user data during peak hours; then analyze the results for any bottle-
necks throughout the layered design.
User access ports are typically Fast Ethernet or faster. Access switches must have the necessary port density and can be
either Layer 2 or Layer 3. Ports from user Access to the Distribution layer should be Gigabit Ethernet or better, with an
oversubscription ratio of no more than 20:1. Distribution switches should be multilayer or Layer 3. Links from Distribution
to the Core should be Gigabit Etherchannel or 10-Gig Ethernet, with an oversubscription of no more than 4:1. 
VLAN Planning
Before beginning a VLAN implementation, you need to determine the following information:
n VLAN numbering, naming and IP addressing scheme
n VLAN placement—local or multiple switches
n Are any trunks necessary and where?
n VTP parameters
n Test and verification plan
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VLAN Implementation
Creating a VLAN and Assigning Ports
VLANs must be created before they can be used. Creating VLANs is easy—in global configuration mode just identify the
VLAN number and optionally name it!
(config)# vlan 12
(config-vlan)# name MYVLAN
Delete a VLAN by using the same command with no in front of it. There is no need to include the name when deleting.
When statically assigning ports to VLANs, first make the interface an access port, and then assign the port to a VLAN. At
the interface configuration prompt:
(config-if)# switchport mode access
(config-if)# switchport access vlan 12
Verifying VLAN Configuration
To see a list of all the VLANs and the ports assigned to them, use the command show vlan. To narrow down the informa-
tion displayed, you can use these keywords after the command: briefidvlan-number, or name vlan-name:
ASW# show vlan brief
VLAN Name  Status  Ports
—— ———————————————— ————- ———————————————
1  default  active  Fa0/1, Fa0/2, Fa0/3,
Fa0/10,Fa0/11,Fa0/12
20  VLAN0020  active  Fa0/5,Fa0/6,Fa0/7
21  VLAN0021  active  Fa0/8,Fa0/9
1002 fddi-default  active
1003 trcrf-default  active
1004 fddinet-default  active
1005 trbrf-default  active
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VLAN Implementation
Other verification commands include:
show running-config interface interface no: Use the following to verify the VLAN membership of the port:
ASW# show run interface fa0/5
Building configuration...
Current configuration 64 bytes
interface FastEthernet 0/5
switchport access vlan 20
switchport mode access
show mac address-table interface interface-novlan-vlan no: Use the following to view MAC
addresses learned through that port for the specified VLAN:
ASW# show mac address-table interface fa0/1
Mac Address Table
—————————————————————
Vlan  Mac Address   Type       Ports
——  —————-   ——       ——-
1    0030.b656.7c3d DYNAMIC     Fa0/1
Total Mac Addresses for this criterion: 1
show interfaces interface-noswitchport: Use the following to see detailed information about the port
configuration, such as entries in the Administrative Mode and Access Mode VLAN fields:
ASW# show interfaces fa0/1 switchport
Name: Fa0/1
Switchport: Enabled
Administrative Mode: dynamic desirable
Operational Mode: static access
Administrative Trunking Encapsulation: negotiate
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VLAN Implementation
Operational Trunking Encapsulation: native
Negotiation of Trunking: On
Access Mode VLAN: 1 (default)
Trunking Native Mode VLAN: 1 (default)
Trunking VLANs Enabled: ALL
Pruning VLANs Enabled: 2-1001
Protected: false
Unknown unicast blocked: false
Unknown multicast blocked: false
Broadcast Suppression Level: 100
Multicast Suppression Level: 100
Unicast Suppression Level: 100
VLAN Trunking
A trunk is a link that carries traffic for more than one VLAN. Trunks multiplex traffic from multiple VLANs. They 
typically connect switches and enable ports on multiple switches to be assigned to the same VLAN.
Two methods of identifying VLANs over trunk links are:
Inter-Switch Link (ISL): A Cisco proprietary method that encapsulates the original frame in a header, which
contains VLAN information. It is protocol-independent and can identify Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) and bridge
protocol data unit (BPDU) frames.
802.1Q: Standards-based, tags the frames (inserts a field into the original frame immediately after the source MAC
address field), and supports Ethernet and Token Ring networks.
When a frame comes into a switch port, the frame is tagged internally within the switch with the VLAN number of the
port. When it reaches the outgoing port, the internal tag is removed. If the exit port is a trunk port, its VLAN is identified
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VLAN Implementation
in either the ISL encapsulation or the 802.1Q tag. The switch on the other end of the trunk removes the ISL or 802.1Q
information, checks the VLAN of the frame, and adds the internal tag. If the exit port is a user port, the original frame is
sent out unchanged, making the use of VLANs transparent to the user.
If a nontrunking port receives an ISL-encapsulated packet, the port cannot remove the ISL header. By default, the system
installs ISL system CAM entries and drops ISL packets. In special, rare circumstances, these CAM entries are installed
for every active VLAN in the switch. To prevent such collisions, enter the no-isl-entries enable command on
switches connected to other switches. If the ISL header and footer cause the MTU size to be exceeded, it might be
counted as an error. 
If a nontrunking port receives an 802.1Q frame, the source and destination MAC addresses are read, the tag field is
ignored, and the frame is switched normally at Layer 2.
Configuring a Trunk Link
Ports can become trunk ports either by static configuration or dynamic negotiation using Dynamic Trunking Protocol
(DTP). A switch port can be in one of five DTP modes:
Access: The port is a user port in a single VLAN.
Trunk: The port negotiates trunking with the port on the other end of the link.
Non-negotiate: The port is a trunk and does not do DTP negotiation with the other side of the link.
Dynamic Desirable: Actively negotiates trunking with the other side of the link. It becomes a trunk if the port on
the other switch is set to trunkdynamic desirable, or dynamic auto mode.
Dynamic Auto: Passively waits to be contacted by the other switch. It becomes a trunk if the other end is set to
trunk or dynamic desirable mode.
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VLAN Implementation
Configure a port for trunking at the interface configuration mode:
(config-if)#switchport mode {dynamic {auto | desirable} | trunk}
If dynamic mode is used, DTP negotiates the trunking state and encapsulation. If trunk mode is used, you must specify
encapsulation, and you can disable all DTP negotiation:
(config-if)#switchport trunk encapsulation {isl | dot1q | negotiate}
(config-if)# switchport nonnegotiate
If you use 802.1Q, specify a native VLAN for the trunk link with the command:
(config-if)# switchport trunk native vlan vlan-no
Frames from the native VLAN are sent over the trunk link untagged. Native VLAN must match on both sides of the trunk
link. VLAN 1 is the default native VLAN for all ports, but best practice is to set the native VLAN to one not assigned to
users. This practice also decreases the danger of having a large spanning tree instance in VLAN1.
VLANs Allowed on the Trunk
By default, a trunk carries traffic for all VLANs. You can change that behavior for a particular trunk link by giving the
following command at the interface config mode:
switchport trunk allowed vlan vlans
Make sure that both sides of a trunk link enable the same VLANs.
Verifying a Trunk Link
Two commands you can use to verify your trunk configuration are
show running-config
show interfaces [interface no.] switchport | trunk
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VLAN Implementation
Using the trunk keyword with the show interfaces command gives information about the trunk link:
show interfaces fastethernet 0/1 trunk
Port    Mode     Encapsulation Status    Native vlan
Fa0/1  desirable   n-802.1q     trunking   1
Port   Vlans allowed on trunk
Fa0/1   1-150
<further output omitted>
Best Practices for Trunking
n Change the Native VLAN to one not assigned to any users.
n On links that should be trunks, turn off trunking negotiation by setting the mode to trunk, specifying the encapsula-
tion type, and adding the nonnegotiate command.
n On links that should never be trunks, turn off trunking negotiation by setting the switchport mode to host. This sets
it as an access port, enables Portfast, and disables EtherChannel negotiation.
n Limit the VLAN traffic carried by the trunk to only those VLANs it needs to carry. 
VLAN Trunking Protocol 
VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP) is a Cisco-proprietary protocol that runs over trunk links and synchronizes the VLAN
databases of all switches in the VTP domain. A VTP domain is an administrative group; all switches within that group
must have the same VTP domain name configured, or they do not synchronize databases.
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by Denise Donohue
VLAN Implementation
VTP works by using Configuration Revision numbers and VTP advertisements:
n All switches send out VTP advertisements every five minutes or when there is a change to the VLAN database
(when a VLAN is created, deleted, or renamed).
n VTP advertisements contain a Configuration Revision number. This number is increased by one for every VLAN
change.
n When a switch receives a VTP advertisement, it compares the Configuration Revision number against the one in its
VLAN database.
n If the new number is higher, the switch overwrites its database with the new VLAN information and forwards the
information to its neighbor switches.
n If the number is the same, the switch ignores the advertisement.
n If the new number is lower, the switch replies with the more up-to-date information contained in its own database.
VTP Switch Roles
A switch can be a VTP:
Server: The default VTP role. Servers can create, delete, and rename VLANs. They originate both periodic and trig-
gered VTP advertisements and synchronize their databases with other switches in the domain.
Client: Clients cannot make VLAN changes. They originate periodic VTP advertisements and synchronize their
databases with other switches in the domain.
Transparent: It can create, delete, and rename VLANs, but its VLANs are only local. It does not originate adver-
tisements or synchronize its database with any other switches. It forwards VTP advertisements out its trunk links,
however.
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CHAPTER 2
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by Denise Donohue
VLAN Implementation
The two versions of VTP are Version 1 and Version 2. To use Version 2, all switches in the domain must be capable of
using it. Configure one server for Version 2, and the information is propagated through VTP. Version 2 has the following
added features:
n It supports Token Ring VLANs.
n Transparent switches pass along messages from both versions of VTP.
n Consistency checks are performed only when changes are configured through the CLI or SNMP.
Configuring VTP
VTP configuration is done at the global config mode. To configure the switch’s VTP mode:
(config)# vtp {server | client |transparent}
To configure the VTP domain name:
(config)# vtp domain name
To configure a VTP password (all switches in the domain must use the same password):
(config)# vtp password password
To configure the switch to use VTP Version 2:
(config)# vtp version 2
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CHAPTER 2
CCNP SWITCH 642-813 Quick Reference
by Denise Donohue
VLAN Implementation
Verifying and Monitoring VTP
To get basic information about the VTP configuration, use show vtp status. The example shows the default settings:
show vtp status
VTP Version  : 1
Configuration Revision  : 0
Maximum VLANs supported locally  : 1005
Number of existing VLANs  : 5
VTP Operating Mode  : Server
VTP Domain Name  :
(config)#
VTP Pruning Mode  : Disabled
VTP V2 Mode  : Disabled
VTP Traps Generation  : Disabled
MD5 digest  :
Adding a New Switch to a VTP Domain
Adding a new switch in client mode does not prevent it from propagating its incorrect VLAN information. A server
synchronizes to a client if the client has the higher configuration revision number. You must reset the revision number
back to 0 on the new switch. To be safe, follow these steps:
Step 1.
With the switch disconnected from the network, set it as VTP transparent and delete the vlan.dat file from its
flash memory.
Step 2.
Set it to a fake VTP domain name and into client mode.
Step 3.
Reboot the switch.
Step 4.
Configure the correct VTP settings, such as domain, password, mode, and version.
Step 5.
Connect the switch to the network, and verify that it receives the correct information.
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CHAPTER 2
CCNP SWITCH 642-813 Quick Reference
by Denise Donohue
VLAN Implementation
EtherChannels
An EtherChannel is a way of combining several physical links between switches into one logical connection. Normally,
Spanning Tree blocks redundant links; EtherChannels get around that and enable load balancing across those links.
Traffic is balanced between the channel links on the basis of such things as source or destination MAC address or IP
address. The EtherChannel load-balancing method is configured at global configuration mode.
(config)# port-channel load-balance type
A logical interface—called the Port Channel interface—is created. Configuration can be applied to both the logical and
physical interfaces.
Some guidelines for EtherChannels follows:
n Interfaces in the channel do not have to be physically next to each other or on the same module.
n All ports must be the same speed and duplex.
n All ports in the bundle should be enabled.
n None of the bundle ports can be a SPAN port.
n Assign an IP address to the logical Port Channel interface, not the physical ones, if using a Layer 3 EtherChannel.
n Put all bundle ports in the same VLAN, or make them all trunks. If they are trunks, they must all carry the same
VLANs and use the same trunking mode.
n The configuration you apply to the Port Channel interface affects the entire EtherChannel. The configuration you
apply to a physical interface affects only that interface.
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by Denise Donohue
VLAN Implementation
Configuring an EtherChannel
Basically, you should configure the logical interface and then put the physical interfaces into the channel group:
(config)# interface port-channel number
![any additional configuration, such as trunking for a Layer 2 EtherChannel]
For a Layer 3 EtherChannel, add the following:
(config-if)# no switchport
(config-if)# ip address address mask
Then, at each port that is part of the EtherChannel, use the following:
(config)# interface { number | range interface – interface}
(config-if)# channel-group number mode {auto | desirable | on}
Putting the IP address on the Port Channel interface creates a Layer 3 EtherChannel. Simply putting interfaces into a
channel group creates a Layer 2 EtherChannel, and the logical interface is automatically created.
The Cisco proprietary Port Aggregation Protocol (PAgP) dynamically negotiates the formation of a channel. There are
three PAgP modes:
On: The port channels without using PAgP negotiation. The port on the other side must also be set to On.
Auto: Responds to PAgP messages but does not initiate them. Port channels if the port on the other end is set to
Desirable. This is the default mode.
Desirable: Port actively negotiates channeling status with the interface on the other end of the link. Port channels if
the other side is Auto or Desirable.
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CHAPTER 2
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by Denise Donohue
VLAN Implementation
Link Aggregation Control Protocol (LACP) is an IEEE standard protocol, IEEE 802.3ad, which does the same thing.
LACP modes follow:
On: The port channels without using LACP negotiation. The port on the other side must also be set to On.
Active: Port actively negotiates channeling with the port on the other end of the link. A channel forms if the other
side is Passive or Active.
Passive: Responds to LACP messages but does not initiate them. A channel forms only if the other end is set to
Active.
If you want to use LACP, specify it under the interface and put the interface in either active or passive mode:
(config-if)# channel-protocol lacp
(config-if) channel-group number mode {active passive}
Verifying an EtherChannel
Some typical commands for verifying include the following:
# show running-config interface number
# show interfaces number etherchannel
# show etherchannel number port-channel
# show etherchannel summary
show etherchannel load-balance
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CHAPTER 2
CCNP SWITCH 642-813 Quick Reference
by Denise Donohue
VLAN Implementation
Troubleshooting VLAN Issues
Configuration problems can arise when user traffic must traverse several switches. The following sections list some
common configuration errors. But before you begin troubleshooting, create a plan. Check the implementation plan for any
changes recently made, and determine likely problem areas. 
Troubleshooting User Connectivity
User connectivity can be affected by several things:
Physical connectivity: Make sure the cable, network adapter, and switch port are good. Check the port’s link LED.
Switch configuration: If you see FCS errors or late collisions, suspect a duplex mismatch. Check configured speed
on both sides of the link. Make sure the port is enabled and set as an access port.
VLAN configuration: Make sure the hosts are in the correct VLAN.
Allowed VLANs: Make sure that the user VLAN is allowed on all appropriate trunk links.
Troubleshooting Trunking
When troubleshooting trunking, make sure that physical layer connectivity is present before moving on to search for
configuration problems such as
n Are both sides of the link in the correct trunking mode?
n Is the same trunk encapsulation on both sides?
n If 802.1Q, is the same native VLAN on both sides? Look for CDP messages warning of this error.
n Are the same VLANs permitted on both sides?
n Is a link trunking that should not be?
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CHAPTER 2
CCNP SWITCH 642-813 Quick Reference
by Denise Donohue
VLAN Implementation
Troubleshooting VTP
The following are some common things to check when troubleshooting problems with VTP:
n Make sure you are trunking between the switches. VTP is sent only over trunk links.
n Make sure the domain name matches on both switches. (The name is case sensitive.)
n If the switch is not updating its database, make sure it is not in transparent mode.
n If using passwords, make sure they all match. To remove a password, use no vtp password.
n If VLANs are missing, check the Revision number for a possible database overwrite. Also check the number of
VLANs in the domain. There might be too many VLANs for VTP to update properly.
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CHAPTER 3
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by Denise Donohue
Spanning Tree
Chapter 3
Spanning Tree
Ethernet network design balances two separate imperatives. First, Ethernet has no capacity for detecting circular paths. If
such paths exist, traffic loops around and accumulates until new traffic is shut out. (This is called a broadcast storm.)
Second, having secondary paths is good preparation for inevitable link failure.
Spanning Tree is a protocol that prevents loop formation by detecting redundant links and disabling them until needed.
Designers can therefore build redundant links, and the protocol enables one to pass traffic and keep the other in reserve.
When the active link fails, the secondary link is enabled quickly.
Understanding the Spanning Tree Protocol
Switches either forward or filter Layer 2 frames. The way they make the forwarding/filtering decision can lead to loops in
a network with redundant links. Spanning Tree is a protocol that detects potential loops and breaks them.
A Layer 2 switch is functionally the same thing as a transparent bridge. Transparent bridges:
n Learn MAC (Media Access Control) addresses by looking at the source address of incoming frames. They build a
table mapping MAC address to port number.
n Forward broadcasts and multicasts out all ports except the one in which they came. (This is called flooding.)
n Forward unknown unicasts out all ports except the one in which they came. An unknown unicast is a message bound
for a unicast MAC address that is not in the switch’s table of addresses and ports.
n Do not make any changes to the frames as they forward them.
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Spanning Tree
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) works by selecting a root bridge and then selecting one loop-free path from the root bridge
to every other switch. (STP uses the term bridge because it was written before there were switches.) Consider the follow-
ing switched network (see Figure 3-1).
FIGURE 3-1
A
000c.1111.0011
Example Switched
Topology
100
10
Mbps
Mbps
1000
Mbps
B
C
000c.2678.1010
000c.321a.bcde
10
100
Mbps
Mbps
D
000c.8181.1122
0/1
0/2
100
100
Mbps
Mbps
E
000c.2679.2222
Spanning Tree must select
n One root bridge
n One root port per nonroot bridge
n One designated port per network segment
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CHAPTER 3
CCNP SWITCH 642-813 Quick Reference
by Denise Donohue
Spanning Tree
Spanning Tree Election Criteria
Spanning Tree builds paths out from a central point along the fastest available links. It selects paths according to the
following criteria:
n Lowest root bridge ID (BID)
n Lowest path cost to the root
n Lowest sender bridge ID
n Lowest sender port ID (PID)
When reading the path selection criteria, remember the following:
Bridge ID: Bridge priority: Bridge MAC address.
Bridge priority: 2-btye value, 0–65,535 (0–0xFFFF).
Default priority: 32,768 (0x8000).
Port ID: Port priority: port number.
Port priority: A 6-bit value, 0–63, default is 32.
Path cost: This is the cumulative value of the cost of each link between the bridge and the root. Cost values were
updated in 2000, and you should see only new cost values, but both are given in the following table (see Table 3-1).
Old and new switches work together.
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CHAPTER 3
CCNP SWITCH 642-813 Quick Reference
by Denise Donohue
Spanning Tree
Table 3-1
Spanning Tree Costs
Link Speed
Previous IEEE Specification
Current IEEE Specification
10 Mb/s
100
100
100 Mb/s
10
19
1 Gbps
1
4
10 Gbps
1
2
The STP Election
Spanning Tree builds paths out from a starting point, the “root” of the tree. The first step in selecting paths is to identify
this root device. Then each device selects its best path back to the root, according to the criteria laid out in the previous
sections (lowest root BID, lowest cost, lowest advertising BID, lowest port ID).
Root Bridge Election
Looking at Figure 3-1, first select the root bridge. Assume each switch uses the default priority.
n Switch A BID = 80–00–00–0c-11–11–00–11
n Switch B BID = 80–00–00–0c–26–78–10–10
n Switch C BID = 80–00–00–0c-32–1a-bc-de
n Switch D BID = 80–00–00–0c-81–81–11–22
n Switch E BID = 80–00–00–0c–26–79–22–22
Switch A has the lowest BID, so it is the root. Each nonroot switch must now select a root port.
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CHAPTER 3
CCNP SWITCH 642-813 Quick Reference
by Denise Donohue
Spanning Tree
Root Port Election
The root port is the port that leads back to the root. Continuing with Figure 3-1, when A is acknowledged as the root, the
remaining bridges sort out their lowest cost path back to the A:
Switch B: Uses the link to A with a cost of 19 (link speed of 100 Mb/s).
Switch C: The connected link has a cost of 100 (Ethernet), the link through B has a path cost of 38 (two 100-Mb/s
links), and so B is chosen.
Switch D: The link through B has a path cost of 119, the path cost through C to A is 119, the path through C then B
is 57, so C is chosen.
Switch E: The lowest path cost is the same for both ports (76 through D to C to B to A). Next check sender BID—
sender for both ports is D so that it does not break the tie. Next check sender Port ID. Assuming default port priority,
the PID for 0/1 is lower than the PID for 0/2, so the port on the left is the root port.
Designated Port Election
Designated ports are ports that lead away from the root. Obviously, all ports on the root bridge are designated ports (A–B
and A–C in Figure 3-1).
Segment B–D: B has the lowest path cost to root (19 versus 119), so it is designated for this segment.
Segment C–D: C has the lowest path cost to the root (100 versus 119), so it is designated for this segment.
Segment B–C: B has the lowest path cost to the root (19 versus 100), so it is designated for this segment.
Both segments D–E: D has the lowest cost to the root (57 versus 76), so it is designated for both segments.
Now the looped topology has been turned into a tree with A at the root. Notice that there are no more redundant links.
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CHAPTER 3
CCNP SWITCH 642-813 Quick Reference
by Denise Donohue
Spanning Tree
FIGURE 3-2
A
The Active Topology
After Spanning Tree 
Is Complete
B
C
D
E
Bridge Protocol Data Units 
Switches exchange Bridge Protocol Data Units (BPDU). The two types of BPDUs are Configuration and Topology
Change Notification(TCN). Configuration BPDUs are sent every two seconds from the root toward the downstream
switches. They:
n Are used during an election
n Maintain connectivity between switches
n Send timer information from the root
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CHAPTER 3
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Spanning Tree
TCN BPDUs are sent by a downstream switch toward the root when:
n There is a link failure.
n A port starts forwarding, and there is already a designated port.
n The switch receives a TCN from a neighbor.
When a switch receives a TCN BPDU, it acknowledges that with a configuration BPDU that has the TCN
Acknowledgment bit set.
When the root bridge receives a TCN, it starts sending configuration BPDUs with the TCN bit set for a period of time
equal to max age plus forward delay. Switches that receive this change their MAC table aging time to the Forward Delay
time, causing MAC addresses to age faster. The topology change also causes an election of the root bridge, root ports, and
designated ports.
Some of the fields in the BPDU include:
Root bridge ID: The BID of the current root
Sender’s root path cost: The cost to the root
Sender’s bridge ID: Sender’s priority concatenated to MAC
Sender’s port ID: The port number, transmitted as final tie-breaker
Hello time: Two seconds by default
Forward Delay: Fifteen seconds by default
Max Age: Twenty seconds by default
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CHAPTER 3
CCNP SWITCH 642-813 Quick Reference
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Spanning Tree
Spanning Tree Port States
When a port is first activated, it transitions through the following stages shown in Table 3-2.
Table 3-2
Spanning Tree Port States
Port State
Timer
Action
Blocking
Max Age (20 sec)
Discards frames, does not learn MAC addresses, receives BPDUs
Listening
Forward Delay (15 sec)
Discards frames, does not learn MAC addresses, receives BPDUs to determine its
role in the network
Learning
Forward Delay (15 sec)
Discards frames, does learn MAC addresses, receives and transmits BPDUs
Forwarding
Accepts frames, learns MAC addresses, receives and transmits BPDUs
Per-VLAN Spanning-Tree
The IEEE’s version of STP assumes one common Spanning-tree instance (and thus one root bridge) regardless of how
many VLANs are configured. With the Cisco Per-VLAN Spanning-Tree (PVST+) there is a different instance of STP for
each VLAN. To derive the VLAN BID, the switch picks a different MAC address from its base pool for each VLAN.
Each VLAN has its own root bridge, root port, and so on. You can configure these so that data flow is optimized, and
traffic load is balanced among the switches by configuring different root bridges for groups of VLANs.
PVST+ is enabled by default on Cisco switches.
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Spanning Tree
Configuring Spanning Tree
To change the STP priority value, use the following:
Switch (config)# spanning-tree vlan vlan_no. priority value
To configure a switch as root without manually changing priority values, use the following:
Switch (config)# spanning-tree vlan vlan_no. root {primary | secondary}
To change the STP port cost for an access port, use the following:
Switch(config-if)# spanning-tree cost value
To change the STP port cost for a VLAN on a trunk port, use the following:
Switch(config-if)# spanning-tree vlan vlan_no. cost value
To display STP information for a VLAN, use the following:
Switch# show spanning-tree vlan vlan_no.
To display the STP information for an interface, use the following:
Switch # show spanning-tree interface interface_no. [detail]
To verify STP timers, use the following:
Switch # show spanning-tree bridge brief
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CHAPTER 3
CCNP SWITCH 642-813 Quick Reference
by Denise Donohue
Spanning Tree
Portfast
Portfast is a Cisco-proprietary enhancement to Spanning Tree that helps speed up network convergence. It is for access
(user) ports only. Portfast causes the port to transition directly to forwarding, bypassing the other STP states. Connecting
a switch to a Portfast port can cause loops to develop. Configure Portfast on an interface or interface range:
(config-if)# spanning-tree portfast
It can also be configured globally:
(config)# spanning-tree portfast default
Rapid Spanning Tree
Rapid Spanning Tree (RSTP) 802.1w is a standards-based, nonproprietary way of speeding STP convergence. Switch
ports exchange an explicit handshake when they transition to forwarding. RSTP describes different port states than
regular STP, as shown in Table 3-3.
Table 3-3
Comparing 802.1d and 802.1w Port States
STP Port State
Equivalent RSTP Port State
Disabled
Discarding
Blocking
Discarding
Listening
Discarding
Learning
Learning
Forwarding
Forwarding
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CHAPTER 3
CCNP SWITCH 642-813 Quick Reference
by Denise Donohue
Spanning Tree
RSTP Port Roles
RSTP also defines different Spanning Tree roles for ports:
Root port: The best path to the root (same as STP)
Designated port: Same role as with STP
Alternate port: A backup to the root port
Backup port: A backup to the designated port
Disabled port: Not used in the Spanning Tree
Edge port: Connected only to an end user
BPDU Differences in RSTP
In regular STP, BPDUs are originated by the root and relayed by each switch. In RSTP, each switch originates BPDUs,
whether or not it receives a BPDU on its root port. All eight bits of the BPDU type field are used by RSTP. The TC and
TC Ack bits are still used. The other six bits specify the port’s role and its RSTP state and are used in the port handshake.
The RSTP BPDU is set to Type 2, Version 2. PVST is done by Rapid PVST+ on Catalyst switches.
RSTP Fast Convergence
The Rapid Spanning Tree process understands and incorporates topology changes much quicker than the previous version:
RSTP uses a mechanism similar to BackboneFast: When an inferior BPDU is received, the switch accepts it. If
the switch has another path to the root, it uses that and informs its downstream switch of the alternative path.
Edge ports work the same as Portfast ports: They automatically transition directly to forwarding.
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Spanning Tree
Link type: If you connect two switches through a point-to-point link and the local port becomes a designated port, it
exchanges a handshake with the other port to quickly transition to forwarding. Full-duplex links are assumed to be
point-to-point; half-duplex links are assumed to be shared.
Backup and alternate ports: Ports that can transition to forwarding when no BPDUs are received from a neighbor
switch (similar to UplinkFast).
If an RSTP switch detects a topology change, it sets a TC timer to twice the hello time and sets the TC bit on all BPDUs
sent out its designated and root ports until the timer expires. It also clears the MAC addresses learned on these ports.
Only changes to the status of non-Edge ports cause a TC notification.
If an RSTP switch receives a TC BPDU, it clears the MAC addresses on that port and sets the TC bit on all BPDUs sent
out its designated and root ports until the TC timer expires. Enable and verify Rapid STP with the commands:
Switch(config)# spanning-tree mode rapid-pvst
Switch# show spanning-tree
A version of PVST+ is used with Rapid Spanning Tree, called Per-VLAN Rapid Spanning Tree (PVRST+). You should
still configure root and secondary root bridges for each VLAN when using RSTP.
Multiple Spanning Tree
With Multiple Spanning Tree (MST), you can group VLANs and run one instance of Spanning Tree for a group of
VLANs. This cuts down on the number of root bridges, root ports, designated ports, and BPDUs in your network.
Switches in the same MST Region share the same configuration and VLAN mappings. Configure and verify MST with
these commands:
(config)# spanning-tree mode mst
(config)# spanning-tree mst configuration
(config-mst)# name region_name
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Spanning Tree
(config-mst)# revision number
(config-mst)# instance number vlan vlan_range
(config-mst)# end
show spanning-tree mst
To be compatible with 802.1Q trunking, which has one common Spanning Tree (CST) for all VLANs, MST runs one
instance of an Internal Spanning Tree (IST). The IST appears as one bridge to a CST area and is MST instance number 0.
The original MST Spanning Trees (called M-Trees) are active only in the region; they combine at the edge of the CST
area to form one.
Spanning Tree Stability Mechanisms
Spanning Tree has several additional tools for tuning STP to protect the network and keep it operating properly. They
include:
n PortFast (discussed previously)
n UplinkFast
n BackboneFast
n BPDU Guard
n BPDU Filtering
n Root Guard
n UDLD
n Loop Guard
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Spanning Tree
UplinkFast
UplinkFast is for speeding convergence when a direct link to an upstream switch fails. The switch identifies backup ports
for the root port. (These are called an uplink group.) If the root port fails, one of the ports in the uplink group is
unblocked and transitions immediately to forwarding; it bypasses the listening and learning stages. It should be used in
wiring closet switches with at least one blocked port.
The command to enable uplinkfast is shown next. Please note that uplinkfast is enabled globally, so the command affects
all ports and all VLANs.
(config)# spanning-tree uplinkfast
BackboneFast
BackboneFast is used for speeding convergence when a link fails that is not directly connected to the switch. It helps the
switch detect indirect failures. If a switch running BackboneFast receives an inferior BPDU from its designated bridge, it
knows a link on the path to the root has failed. (An inferior BPDU is one that lists the same switch for the root bridge and
designated bridge.)
The switch then tries to find an alternate path to the root by sending a Root Link Query (RLQ) frame out all alternate
ports. The root then responds with an RLQ response, and the port receiving this response can transition to forwarding.
Alternate ports are determined in this way:
n If the inferior BPDU was received on a blocked port, the root port and any other blocked ports are considered alternates.
n If the inferior BPDU was received on the root port, all blocked ports are considered alternates.
n If the inferior BPDU was received on the root port and there are no blocked ports, the switch assumes it has lost
connectivity with the root and advertises itself as root.
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Spanning Tree
Configure this command on all switches in the network:
(config)# spanning-tree backbonefast
BPDU Guard
BPDU Guard prevents loops if another switch is attached to a Portfast port. When BPDU Guard is enabled on an inter-
face, it is put into an error-disabled state (basically, shut down) if a BPDU is received on the interface. It can be enabled
at either global config mode—in which case it affects all Portfast interfaces—or at interface mode. Portfast does not need
to be enabled for it to be configured at a specific interface. The following configuration example shows BPDU guard
being enabled and verified.
(config)# spanning-tree portfast bpduguard default
(config-if)# spanning-tree bpduguard enable
show spanning-tree summary totals
BPDU Filtering
BPDU filtering is another way of preventing loops in the network. It also can be enabled either globally or at the interface
and functions differently at each. In global config, if a Portfast interface receives any BPDUs, it is taken out of Portfast
status. At interface config mode, it prevents the port from sending or receiving BPDUs. The commands are:
(config)# spanning-tree portfast bpdufilter default
(config-if)# spanning-tree bpdufilter enable
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Spanning Tree
Root Guard
Root Guard is meant to prevent the wrong switch from becoming the Spanning Tree root. It is enabled on ports other than
the root port and on switches other than the root. If a Root Guard port receives a BPDU that might cause it to become a
root port, the port is put into “root-inconsistent” state and does not pass traffic through it. If the port stops receiving these
BPDUs, it automatically reenables itself. To enable and verify Root Guard use the following commands:
(config-if)# spanning-tree guard root
show spanning-tree inconsistentports
Unidirectional Link Detection
A switch notices when a physical connection is broken by the absence of Layer 1 electrical keepalives. (Ethernet calls
this a link beat.) However, sometimes a cable is intact enough to maintain keepalives but not to pass data in both direc-
tions. This is a Unidirectional Link. Operating at Layer 2, Unidirectional Link Detection (UDLD) detects a unidirectional
link by sending periodic hellos out to the interface. It also uses probes, which must be acknowledged by the device on the
other end of the link. 
UDLD has two modes: normal and aggressive. In normal mode, the link status is changed to Undetermined State if the
hellos are not returned. In aggressive mode, the port is error-disabled if a unidirectional link is found. Aggressive mode is
the recommended way to configure UDLD.
To enable UDLD on all fiber-optic interfaces, use the following command:
(config)# udld [enable | aggressive]
Although this command is given at global config mode, it applies only to fiber ports.
To enable UDLD on nonfiber ports, give the same command at interface config mode.
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Spanning Tree
To control UDLD on a specific fiber port, use the following command:
(config-if)# udld port {aggressive | disable}
To reenable all interfaces shut by UDLD, use the following:
udld reset
To verify UDLD status, use the following:
show udld interface
Loop Guard
Loop Guard prevents loops that might develop if a port that should be blocking inadvertently transitions to the forwarding
state. This can happen if the port stops receiving BPDUs (perhaps because of a unidirectional link or a software/configu-
ration problem in its neighbor switch). When one of the ports in a physically redundant topology stops receiving BPDUs,
the STP conceives the topology as loop-free. Eventually, the blocking port becomes designated and moves to forwarding
state, thus creating a loop. With Loop Guard enabled, an additional check is made.
If no BPDUs are received on a blocked port for a specific length of time, Loop Guard puts that port into “loop inconsis-
tent” blocking state, rather than transitioning to forwarding state. Loop Guard should be enabled on all switch ports that
have a chance of becoming root or designated ports. It is most effective when enabled in the entire switched network in
conjunction with UDLD.
To enable Loop Guard for all point-to-point links on the switch, use the following command:
(config)# spanning-tree loopguard default
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Spanning Tree
To enable Loop Guard on a specific interface, use the following:
(config-if)# spanning-tree guard loop
Loop Guard automatically reenables the port if it starts receiving BPDUs again.
Troubleshooting STP
Some common things to look for when troubleshooting Spanning Tree Protocol include:
Duplex mismatch: When one side of a link is half-duplex and the other is full-duplex. This causes late collisions
and FCS errors.
Unidirectional link failure: The link is up but data flows only in one direction. It can cause loops.
Frame corruption: Physical errors on the line cause BPDUs to be lost, and the port incorrectly begins forwarding.
This is caused by duplex mismatch, bad cable, or cable too long.
Resource errors: STP is implemented in software, so a switch with an overloaded CPU or memory might neglect
some STP duties.
Port Fast configuration errors: Connecting a switch to two ports that have Port Fast enabled. This can cause a
loop.
STP tuning errors: Max age or forward delay set too short can cause a loop. A network diameter that is set too low
causes BPDUs to be discarded and affects STP convergence.
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Spanning Tree
Identifying a Bridging Loop
Suspect a loop if you see the following:
n You capture traffic on a link and see the same frames multiple times.
n All users in a bridging domain have connectivity problems at the same time.
n There is abnormally high port utilization.
To remedy a loop quickly, shut redundant ports and then enable them one at a time. Some switches enable debugging of
STP to help in diagnosing problems. The following commands are useful for isolating a bridging loop:
show interfaces
show spanning tree
show bridge
show process cpu
debug spanning tree
show mac address-table aging-time vlan#
show spanning-tree vlan vlan# detail
Spanning-Tree Best Practices
To optimize data flow in the network, design and configure Spanning Tree in the following ways:
n Statically configure switches to be the primary and secondary root bridges by setting priority values.
n Consider which interfaces will become designated and root ports (possibly set port priorities/path cost).
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Spanning Tree
n Tune STP using the tools detailed in this section.
n Enable UDLD aggressive mode on all fiber interfaces.
n Design STP domains that are as simple and contained as possible by using multilayer switches and routed links.
n Use PVRST+ or MST for the fastest convergence times.
Confused by all the acronyms and STP features? Figure 3-3 shows the STP tools you might use in your network and
where you might use them.
FIGURE 3-3
Example Switched
Root Bridge
Topology
UDLD
UDLD
UDLD,
UDLD
LoopGuard
UplinkFast
RootGuard,
RootGuard,
UDLD
UDLD
UDLD,
UDLD
LoopGuard
BackboneFast,
BPDU Filter
PortFast,
BPDU Guard
Forwarding
Blocking
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CHAPTER 4
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by Denise Donohue
InterVLAN Routing
Chapter 4
InterVLAN Routing
VLANs divide the network into smaller broadcast domains but also prohibit communication between domains. To enable
communication between those groups–without also passing broadcasts–routing is used.
InterVLAN Routing Using an External Router
A Layer 2 switch can connect to a router to provide reachability between VLANs. This can be done either via separate
physical links for each VLAN or via a trunk link from the switch to the router. A trunk link is most common and this type
of setup is frequently called Router on a Stick. 
When using a trunk link you must create separate subinterfaces on the router’s physical interface—one subinterface for
each VLAN plus one for the native VLAN. This can work with any kind of switch and the implementation is straightfor-
ward, but the router becomes a single point of failure for all users, and the trunk link might become congested.
The router’s configuration would look similar to the following:
interface FastEthernet0/1
no ip address
duplex auto
speed auto
!
interface FastEthernet0/1.20
description Voice VLAN
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InterVLAN Routing
encapsulation dot1Q 20
ip address 10.1.20.1 255.255.255.0
!
interface FastEthernet0/1.99
description Native VLAN
encapsulation dot1Q 99 native
ip address 10.1.99.1 255.255.255.0
!
interface FastEthernet0/1.120
description Data VLAN
encapsulation dot1Q 120
ip address 10.1.120.1 255.255.255.0
InterVLAN Routing Using Multilayer Switches
A multilayer switch can do both Layer 2 switching and Layer 3 routing between VLANs. This section walks you through
the switching process and focuses on order of operations. The order in which things happen is extremely important for
two reasons. First, the order of events is good test material. Second, understanding the processing order allows you to
evaluate how the various filtering and forwarding mechanisms interact. (Examples include error checking, access-lists,
VLAN access-lists, routing, and QoS.)
The Layer 2 and Layer 3 Forwarding Process
A multilayer switch does Layer 2 forwarding when the destination MAC address is mapped to one of its interfaces. The
steps involved in Layer 2 forwarding are as follows:
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InterVLAN Routing
Input
1. Receive frame
2. Verify frame integrity
3. Apply inbound VLAN ACL (VLAN Access Control List)
4. Look up destination MAC (Media Address Code)
Output
1. Apply outbound VLAN ACL
2. Apply outbound QoS ACL
3. Select output port
4. Place in port queue
5. Rewrite
6. Forward
A multilayer switch does Layer 3 forwarding when the destination MAC address is one of the switch’s own addresses.
The steps involved in Layer 3 forwarding are as follows:
Input
1. Receive frame.
2. Verify frame integrity.
3. Apply inbound VLAN ACL.
4. Look up destination MAC.
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InterVLAN Routing
Routing
1. Apply input ACL
2. Switch if entry is in CEF cache
3. Identify exit interface and next-hop address using routing table
4. Apply output ACL
Output
1. Apply outbound VLAN ACL.
2. Apply outbound QoS ACL.
3. Select output port.
4. Place in interface queue.
5. Rewrite source and destination MAC, IP checksum and frame check sequence, and decrement TTL (Time to Live
field in the IP header).
6. Forward.
Understanding the Switching Table
Multilayer switches use Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC) to forward packets at wire speed. The Content
Addressable Memory (CAM) table, used for Layer 2 switching, is created by recording the source MAC address and
ingress port of each frame. It contains binary values (0 or 1) and must find an exact match to have a hit. 
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InterVLAN Routing
In comparison, Multilayer Switching (MLS) uses aa Ternary Content Addressable Memory (TCAM) table to store infor-
mation needed by Layer 3 and higher processing. This might include QoS and ACLs. Values in the TCAM table include
ternary values (0, 1, or wildcard). An exact match is not required—the longest match is considered a hit. 
MLS Interfaces
A multilayer switch can have the following types of interfaces:
Layer 2 Interface: Either an access port assigned to a VLAN or a trunk port.
Switch Virtual Interface (SVI): A virtual, software interface for the VLAN itself. Can be either a Layer 2 interface
or a Layer 3 interface.
Routed Interface: A physical interface that is not associated with a VLAN and acts like a router port.
SVI Configuration
A default SVI for VLAN 1 is automatically created in the switch. To create an SVI use the command interface vlan#.
Configure an IP address on the SVI to make it a Layer 3 interface. SVIs are used to:
n Route or fallback bridge between VLANs.
n Provide a default gateway for users in that VLAN.
n Route traffic into or out of its associated VLAN.
n Provide an IP address for connectivity to the switch itself.
n Provide an interface for routing protocols.
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InterVLAN Routing
An SVI is considered “up” as long as at least one port in its associated VLAN is active and forwarding. If all ports in the
VLAN are down, the interface goes down to avoid creating a routing black hole. You might not want the status of a
particular port (one not connected to a host) to affect the SVI’s status. Some Cisco switches enable you to use the follow-
ing command on that interface. 
Switch(config-if)# switchport autostate exclude
To configure InterVLAN routing using a Layer 3 SVI, you need to:
n Enable IP routing.
n Create the VLANs.
n Create the SVIs.
n Associate an IP address with each SVI.
n Configure a dynamic routing protocol if needed.
Switch(config)#ip routing
Switch(config)# vlan 3
Switch(config)# interface vlan 3
Switch(config-if)#ip address 10.3.3.3 255.255.255.0
Routed Switch Port Configuration
To configure an interface as a routed port, you must remove the Layer 2 functionality with the no switchport interface
command. Then you can add an IP address and configure routing as needed:
sw1(config)# int fa 1/0/5
sw1(config-if)# no switchport
sw1(config-if)# ip address 10.5.5.5 255.255.255.0
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InterVLAN Routing
To verify your configuration, use the commands show ip interface briefshow interface, or show running-config inter-
face 
int-#.
Understanding Switch Forwarding Architectures
Packets entering a router or multilayer switch are handled by one of three types of switching:
Process Switching: Each packet must be examined by the CPU and handled in software. Slowest method, used in
routers only.
Fast Switching: CPU process switches the first packet in each flow, then caches that information, and switches
subsequent packets in hardware. Faster than process switching, used in routers and multilayer switches. Also called
route caching.
Cisco Express Forwarding (CEF): A table is prebuilt with adjacency information for all destinations in the routing
table. Fastest method, is the default for Cisco routers and multilayer switches. Also called topology-based switching.
CEF Switching
Multilayer Switching (MLS) is a switch feature that enables the switch to route traffic between VLANs and routed inter-
faces in a highly optimized and efficient manner. Cisco Express Forwarding (CEF) is used to facilitate MLS (see Figure
4-1). Cisco Express Forwarding (CEF) does the following:
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InterVLAN Routing
FIGURE 4-1
Address
Prefix
AS-Path
Next-Hop
Communities
Other Attr.
Cisco Express
BGP Table
10.0.0.0
/8
42 13
1.2.3.4
37:12
Forwarding
...
...
...
...
...
BGP Tab ...
le  Map
Protocol
Address
Prefix
Next-Hop
Outgoing Interface Precedence QoS Group
IP Routing
BGP
10.0.0.0
/8
1.2.3.4

3
7
Table
OSPF
1.2.3.0
/24
1.5.4.1
Ethernet 0


Conn.
1.5.4.0
/24

Ethernet 0


Address
Prefix
Adjacency Pointer
Precedence QoS Group
FIB Table
10.0.0.0
/8
1.5.4.1
3
7
(CEF Cache)
...
...
...
...
...
ARP Cache
IP Address
Layer 2 Header
IP Address
MAC Address
Adjacency
1.5.4.1
MAC Header
1.5.4.1
0c.00.11.22.33.44
Table
...
...
...
...
n Separates control plane hardware from data plane hardware.
n Controls plane runs in software and builds FIB and adjacency table.
n The data plane uses hardware to forward most IP unicast traffic.
n Uses TCAM table.
n Can be centralized or distributed.
Not all types of traffic can be handled by CEF. Some types that are punted (sent to the processor for handling) are:
n Packets with IP header options
n Tunneled traffic
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n 802.3 (IPX) or other unsupported encapsulation types
n Packets with an expiring TTL
n Packets that must be fragmented
Configuring and Troubleshooting CEF
By default, CEF is on and supports per destination load sharing.
To disable CEF
4500: Use (config)# no ip cef.
3500/3700: On each interface, use (config)# no ip route-cache cef.
n 6550 with policy feature card, distributed FC, and multilayer switch FC: cannot be disabled.
View CEF information with the following:
show interface fastethernet 2/2 | begin L3
View switching statistics with the following:
show interface fastethernet 2/2 | include switched
View FIB with the following:
show ip cef {interface} {detail}
View detailed CEF FIB entry with the following:
show ip cef fastethernet 2/2 10.0.0.1 detail
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InterVLAN Routing
Troubleshoot CEF drops with the following:
show cef drop
Troubleshoot CEF adjacencies with the following:
show adjacency
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CHAPTER 5
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Implementing High Availability
Chapter 5
Implementing High Availability
A highly available network is the goal of every network engineer. Having a highly available network makes the job easier
because it helps to prevent network outages and minimize downtime. 
Components of High Availability
There are five components to high availability: redundancy, technology, people, processes, and tools. The first two can be
obtained through network design; the last three are more difficult to implement and control.
Redundancy
Redundancy attempts to eliminate single points of failure by providing duplicate devices and links. This costs more, so
the added cost must be balanced against the added benefit. Add redundancy where it will have the most impact on avail-
ability, in the core of your network, data center, or e-commerce module. Critical WAN or ISP connections are another
possible location. 
A redundant network has path diversity with multiple links between multiple devices. It can have geographic diversity,
with data centers in multiple sites. Networks frequently have dual core and distribution switches, with dual uplinks to
each. Dual WAN providers, with dual WAN edge routers, are commonly used. Companies can design their networks with
connections to dual Telco central offices and power substations to achieve additional redundancy.
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Implementing High Availability
Technology
Some of the technologies found in Cisco routers and Layer 3 switches enhance availability by providing routing continu-
ity, fast failure detection to trigger a failover, and fast routing convergence. These include:
n Cisco Nonstop Forwarding (NSF)
n Stateful Switchover (SSO)
n Stackwise technology on 3750 switches
n Virtual Switch System (VSS)
n Monitoring tools such as SNMP and Syslog
n IP Service Level Agreement (SLA)
Each of these technologies is discussed in later sections of this chapter.
Some other technological features that enhance availability include server load balancing, firewall stateful failover, and
fast routing convergence.
People
Although the “people” part of high availability is not usually under the control of the network engineer, it is an important
part of the equation. The following items should be considered:
Staff work habits: Staff should pay attention to detail, and their work should be reliable and consistent to make
troubleshooting easier.
Staff skills and technical training: A knowledgeable staff understands the network technologies and configures
devices correctly. A company lab enables failover scenarios to be tested before incorporating them into the network
and allows network engineers to practice their skills.
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Communication and documentation: There should be good communication between teams responsible for the
network, security, servers, and applications. There should also be communication with users. Good documentation,
readily available, is critical to understanding how the network is designed and how it should behave during a failure.
Sufficient time to accomplish a task: Not having enough time to accomplish a network-related task leads to impor-
tant components, such as testing and documentation, being left out. The design target should be a better than just
“adequate” network.
Align staff with the services they support: This helps ensure clear lines of responsibility for the different segments
of the network. Be sure to include the people responsible for a segment in the planning for its high availability.
Processes
Companies that build repeatable processes and design templates have more cohesive networks and save time in trou-
bleshooting problems. Process documentation should include configuration change procedures, failover and lab testing
procedures, and network implementation procedures. These should be regularly reviewed and improved as part of the
PPDIOO process.
A lab that reflects the current production network enables thorough testing and validation of such changes as new config-
urations and IOS versions and ensures that the staff thoroughly understands network failover processes.
Having a meaningful change control process includes the complete testing of all changes and how they affect failover
within the entire network before they are implemented. Changes must be well planned with a roll-back strategy in place.
A risk analysis can also help determine if the change is worthwhile.
Network management processes are often overlooked. These should include:
n Capacity audits
n IOS version management
n Corporate best-practice design compliance
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n Disaster recovery and business continuity plans
n Evaluating the security impact of a proposed change
Tools
A well-designed, highly available network can have a failure without it being noticed by users. It is important to have
tools in place to monitor the network and send alerts when a failover occurs. Monitoring can also help spot problems as
they begin to occur, enabling you to be proactive in your network management. There are many third-party tools available
for this; some IOS tools are discussed in later sections of this chapter. 
Good documentation is a critical tool to have. Good documentation includes up-to-date network diagrams with network
addresses, VLAN information, and interface information. Important servers, applications, and services should be noted.
Document not only HOW the network is designed, but also WHY it is designed that way. 
Resiliency and High Availability
A highly available network is a resilient network. A resilient network employs various methods to allow it to recover and
continue operating in the event of a failure. Resiliency leads to high availability through the following components:
Network-level resiliency (the focus of this book): This includes redundant links and redundant devices, but it
doesn’t stop there. Those devices must be configured so they fail between devices, or links, quickly. 
System-level resiliency: This includes redundancy within the hardware, such as dual power supplies, and cold-
standby parts, such as extra stackable switches or switch modules. It also includes features within the hardware that
enable fast failover.
Network management and monitoring: You need to detect a failure immediately and be informed of the actions
taken automatically to remediate it.
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Implementing High Availability
Network Level Resiliency
Redundant links were discussed in Chapter 2. STP blocks a redundant link by default so that they are in an active/backup
configuration. Etherchannels enables multiple links to be active. If a failure occurs they distribute traffic across the
remaining links. 
Configure your devices for fast convergence to avoid traffic drops when a link fails. RSTP is preferred over 802.1D STP
because it provides faster failover. Use routing protocols such as EIGRP that have fast convergence times. You might need
to tune the Layer 2 and Layer 3 protocol timers.
For accurate monitoring statistics, it is important that network clocks are synchronized. Use NTP for this. Syslog, SNMP,
and IP SLA are some tools that help you monitor and track your network’s resiliency. They are discussed in more detail
in a future section.
Fast Failover
When measuring network resiliency, you must consider how long it takes for failover and convergence at all layers of the
OSI stack, not just Layers 1–3. Table 5-1 outlines some of the typical convergence times.
Table 5-1
Convergence Times for Network Components
Network Component
Convergence Time
Rapid Spanning Tree
Subsecond for minor failures, 1–2 seconds for major failures.
Etherchannel
Approximately 1 second to redirect traffic to a different link in the channel.
First Hop Redundancy Protocols 
Default of 10 seconds. Recommended tuning of hello time to 1 second and hold time to 
such as HSRP, VRRP, or GLBP
3 second yields a 3 second convergence time.
Routing Protocols
Subsecond for OSPF and EIGRP with recommended tuning of timers. 
Switch Service Modules
Typically 3–5 seconds. Exception is Cisco Application Control Engine (ACE) with 1
second failover in active/active configuration.
Computer/Server TCP Stacks
9-second session teardown for Windows, longer for other OSs.
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Implementing High Availability
Optimizing Redundancy
You should be aware that redundancy does not always equal resiliency. Too much redundancy can increase the network
complexity to a point that it becomes harder to troubleshoot and actually leads to a less-available network. There are too
many paths for the data to follow, so it becomes less deterministic. The cost is much higher, also.
NSF with SSO
Layers 2–4 convergence time is enhanced in Cisco 4500 and 6500 series switches with redundant route processors (RP)
by using NSF with SSO. When using this, only one RP is active. The standby RP synchronizes its configuration and
dynamic state information (such as CEF, MAC, and FIB tables) with the active RP. When the active RP fails, SSO
enables the standby RP to take over immediately. NSF keeps the switch forwarding traffic during the switchover, using
the existing route and CEF tables. The goal of NSF with SSO is to prevent routing adjacencies from resetting, which
prevents a routing flap. The switchover to the new RP must be completed before routing timers expire, or the router’s
neighbors will tear down their adjacency and routing will be disrupted. 
When the new RP is up, the old routes are marked as stale, and the RP asks its routing peers to refresh them. When
routing is converged, it updates the routing and CEF tables on the switch and the linecards.
NSF is supported with EIGRP, OSPF, ISIS, and BGP. An NSF-capable router supports NSF; an NSF-aware router does
not support NSF but understands it and continues forwarding traffic during SSO. 
Use NSF with SSO in locations where you do not have a duplicate switch for failover, such as at the user access or
Enterprise network edge. Otherwise it can actually cause longer convergence. Routing protocols timers can be tuned very
short to provide fast convergence. With SSO, the switchover to the standby RP might not occur before the tuned routing
Dead timer expires, and the adjacency would be reset. 
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Implementing High Availability
Designing for Redundancy
Figure 5-1 shows where you would typically use redundancy within a campus network. Access switches are either
chassis-based with dual Supervisor engines and dual power supplies or are stackable switches. They have redundant, fully
meshed links to redundant distribution switches, which, in turn, have redundant links to redundant core switches.
Distribution and core switch pairs are connected via a Layer 2 or Layer 3 link. This design minimizes single points of
failure and enables the network to recover from a link or switch failure. 
FIGURE 5-1
Designing for
Single Switches
Redundancy
Access
with Dual SUPs,
or Stackable
Switches
Redundant Links
Distribution
Redundant Switches
Redundant Links
Redundant Switches
Core
Layer 2 Versus Layer 3 Access Design
You can use a Layer 2 or a Layer 3 access layer. When using L2, VLANs can either be distributed across multiple
switches or local to each switch. Figure 5-2 shows L2 access switches with VLAN 10 on both of them. This design is not
recommended. The FHRP Active switch and the STP Root must be statically configured as the same switch. STP blocks
one uplink per access switch. RSTP helps speed convergence.
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Implementing High Availability
FIGURE 5-2
L2 Trunk
L3
HSRP Active
Layer 2 Access
Distribution
and STP Root
Switches with
Distributed VLANs
STP
Blocked
Links
L2
Access
VLAN 10
VLAN 10
There must be a physical link between distribution switches, and it should be a L2 trunk. Without that link, any traffic
between switches must go through an access switch. Additionally, failure of one of the access-to-distribution uplinks
causes packets to be dropped until the FHRP dead timer expires. 
Figure 5-3 shows the recommended design when using L2 access switches. Each VLAN is local to one switch. The
FHRP Active and STP Root must still be the same switch. They are still statically configured per VLAN so that traffic
flow will be deterministic. Because the link between distribution switches is L3, there are no L2 loops. Thus no links are
blocked by STP. However, traffic does not load balance between links because each switch forwards traffic only over the
link to its HSRP Active and STP Root switch. RSTP is still used for faster convergence. 
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FIGURE 5-3
L3
Distribution
Layer 2 Access
L3 Link
HSRP Active
and STP Root,
Switches with Local
HSRP Active
VLAN 20
and STP Root,
VLANs
VLAN 10
L2 Access
RSTP
VLAN 10
VLAN 20
In Figure 5-4 the access switches are L3. This gives the faster convergence and is easiest to implement. All links between
switches are L3. There is no need for HSRP, although STP should still be enabled in case of a misconfiguration. Access
switches can load balance traffic across both uplinks. The access switches either run a routing protocol or use static
routes. The distribution switches summarize routes for the access VLANs. 
FIGURE 5-4
L3
L3 Link
Distribution
Layer 3 Access
Route
Route
Summarization
Switches 
Summarization
L3 Links
Routing
Protocol
L3 Access
or Static
Routes
VLAN 10
VLAN 20
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Implementing High Availability
Using Nonchassis Based Access Switches
Using more than one stand-alone switch, such as the Cisco 3560 or 3750, in an access closet requires special design
consideration. You can either daisy-chain the switches or use the Cisco Stackwise technology. When you daisy-chain
switches, the top and bottom members of the chain typically uplink to one distribution switch each. You must add a link
(or loopback cable) between the top and bottom switch. Otherwise, a failure in the link between two access switches
might cause return traffic to be blackholed. Alternatively you can configure the link between the distribution switches as
an L2 trunk.
Stackwise switches enable you to manage each group of access switches as one. Two stack member switches uplink to
the distribution switches. Special cables connect the switches, and you should still connect the top and bottom members
of the stack using a Stackwise cable. The link between distribution switches can then be an L3 link without worry of
blackholing return traffic.
Network Management for High Availability
Network administrators use network management tools:
n To verify network performance
n To characterize, or baseline, network performance
n To understand amount and direction of traffic flow within the network
n To troubleshoot network problems
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Implementing High Availability
Syslog
Cisco devices produce system logging (or syslog) messages that can be output to the device console, VTY connection,
system buffer, or remote syslog server. If sent to a syslog server, messages are sent on UDP port 514. You are probably
familiar with the syslog message %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from console by console, for instance. A syslog
message always starts with the percent sign and has the following format:
%FACILTY-SUBFACILITY-SEVERITY-MNEMONIC: message text
Each portion of a syslog message has a specific meaning:
FACILITY-SUBFACILITY: This tells the protocol, module, or process that generated the message. Some examples
are SYS for the operating system, OSPF, IF for an interface, and IP.
SEVERITY: A number from 0 to 7 designating the importance of the action reported. The levels are:
n
Emergency: 0
n
Alert: 1
n
Critical: 2
n
Error: 3
n
Warning: 4
n
Notice: 5
n
Informational: 6
n
Debugging: 7
MNEMONIC: A code that identifies the action reported.
n
A plain-text description of the event that triggered the syslog message.
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Implementing High Availability
SNMP
An SNMP manager collects information from SNMP agents residing on network devices, either through regular polling
or by event-generated traps. The information is stored on the local device in a Management Information Base (MIB).
Access to the MIB is controlled by SNMP community strings. Access can be read-only (RO) or read-write(RW).
There are three versions of SNMP. Versions 1 and 2 send the community strings in clear text. They cannot authenticate
the source of a message or encrypt a message. Therefore they should be used only for read-only access. SNMPv3 adds
three security levels:
n noAuthNoPriv: Neither authenticates nor encrypts
n authNoPriv: Authenticates the sender but does not encrypt the message
n authPriv: Both authenticates the sender and encrypts the message
The following configuration creates a standard access list that allows only traffic sourced from the host at 10.1.1.1. Two
community-strings are created, “ccnp” for read-only access and “c1sc0” for read-write access. Read-write access is
permitted only from the host specified in access list 1. Next, the SNMP server address is given, along with the command
to send traps messages to that server. Because SNMP version 3 is used, the username “admin” is needed.
sw1(config)# access-list 1 permit 10.1.1.1
sw1(config)# snmp-server community ccnp ro
sw1(config)# snmp-server community c1sc0 rw 1
sw1(config)# snmp-server host 10.1.1.2 traps admin
IP SLA
IP SLA is a feature that enables a Cisco router or switch to simulate specific types of traffic and send it to a receiver,
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called a responder. IP SLA probes can simulate various types of traffic, such as HTTP, FTP, DHCP, UDP jitter, UDP
echo, HTTP, TCP connect, ICMP echo, ICMP path echo, ICMP path jitter, and DNS, and can report statistics such as
path jitter. It has highly granular application configuration options such as TCP/UDP port numbers, TOS byte, and IP
prefix bits. This is useful for measuring application performance end-to-end across your network. It can also be used to
track reachability and then decrement HSRP priority values or bring up secondary links. Additionally, IP SLA can also be
used as a measure of reliability and continuous availability. SNMP traps can be generated from events such as connection
loss, timeout, roundtrip time threshold, average jitter threshold, one-way packet loss, one-way jitter, and one-way latency. 
To enable IP SLA, configure the source to send the required type of data probes. The receiver can be a computer, or it can
be another Cisco device. The configuration of a Cisco responder is simple. Use the global ip sla responder command.
One benefit of using a Cisco device as the responder is that it can add time stamps to help measure latency and jitter.
These time stamps take into account the device processing time so that the measurement reflects only network latency.
The configuration of the IP SLA source is more complex. You must create a monitor session, list the traffic type, respon-
der IP address, and any other desired variables such as DSCP value. Then you schedule the probes. Optionally configure
tracking using the IP SLA session. The following commands set up an IP SLA session that measures UDP jitter for a
voice port. Traffic is sent every 120 seconds, starting when the last command is given and continues until it is manually
stopped. 
sw1(config)#ip sla 1
sw1(config-ip-sla)#udp-jitter 10.1.1.3 65422 codec g729a
sw1(config-ip-sla-jitter)#frequency 120
sw1(config-ip-sla-jitter)#exit
sw1(config)#ip sla schedule 1 life forever start-time now
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First Hop Redundancy
Chapter 6
First Hop Redundancy
Specifying a default gateway leads to a single point of failure. Proxy Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is one method
for hosts to dynamically discover gateways, but it has issues in a highly available environment. With Proxy ARP:
n Hosts ARP for all destinations, even remote.
n Router responds with its MAC.
n Problem: Slow failover because ARP entries take minutes to timeout.
Instead of making the host responsible for choosing a new gateway, router redundancy protocols enable two or more
routers to support a shared MAC address. If the primary router is lost, the backup router assumes control of traffic
forwarded to that MAC. This section refers to routers but includes those multilayer switches that can also implement
Layer 3 redundancy.
Hot Standby Router Protocol
Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP) is a Cisco proprietary protocol.
With HSRP, two or more devices support a virtual router with a fictitious MAC address and unique IP address. Hosts use
this IP address as their default gateway and the MAC address for the Layer 2 header. The virtual router’s MAC address is
0000.0c07.ACxx, in which xx is the HSRP group. Multiple groups (virtual routers) are allowed.
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The Active router forwards traffic. The Standby is backup. The standby monitors periodic hellos (multicast to 224.0.0.2,
UDP port 1985) to detect a failure of the active router. On failure, the standby device starts answering messages sent to
the IP and MAC addresses of the virtual router.
The active router is chosen because it has the highest HSRP priority (default priority is 100). In case of a tie, the router
with the highest configured IP address wins the election. A new router with a higher priority does not cause an election
unless it is configured to preempt—that is, take over from a lower priority router. Configuring a router to preempt also
ensures that the highest priority router regains its active status if it goes down but then comes back online again.
Interface tracking reduces the active router’s priority if a specified circuit is down. This enables the standby router to take
over even though the active router is still up.
HSRP States
HSRP devices move between these states:
Initial:
Note:
HSRP is not running.
The Learn state is not
Learn: The router does not know the virtual IP address and is waiting to hear from the active router.
actually seen in debugs
of HSRP. 
Listen: The router knows the IP and MAC of the virtual router, but it is not the active or standby router.
Speak: Router sends periodic HSRP hellos and participates in the election of the active router.
Standby: Router monitors hellos from active router and assumes responsibility if active router fails.
Active: Router forwards packets on behalf of the virtual router.
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First Hop Redundancy
Configuring HSRP
To begin configuring HSRP, use the standby group-number ip virtual-IP-address command in interface configuration
mode. Routers in the same HSRP group must belong to the same subnet/virtual LAN (VLAN.) Give this command under
the interface connecting to that subnet or VLAN. For instance, use the following to configure the router as a member of
HSRP group 39 with virtual router IP address 10.0.0.1:
Router(config-if)# standby 39 ip 10.0.0.1
HSRP authentication helps prevent unauthorized routers from seeing user traffic:
Router(config-if)# stand 2 authentication md5 key-string cisco
Tune HSRP with four options: Priority, Preempt, Timers, and Interface Tracking.
Manually select the active router by configuring its priority higher than the default of 100:
Router(config-if)# standby 39 priority 150
Along with configuring priority, configure preempt to enable a router to take over if the active router has lower priority,
as shown in the following commands. This helps lead to a predictable data path through the network. The second
command shown delays preemption until the router or switch has fully booted and the routing protocol has converged.
Time how long it takes to boot and add 50 percent to get the delay value in seconds:
Router(config-if)# standby 39 preempt
Router(config-if)# standby 39 preempt delay minimum 90
Speed convergence by changing the hello and hold times. The following sets the hello interval to 1 second and the hold
time to 3 seconds. They can be set between 1–255 seconds (the default hello is 3 seconds and hold time is 10 seconds):
Router(config-if)# standby 39 timers 1 3
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Tracking an interface can trigger an election if the active router is still up but a critical interface (such as the one to the
Internet) is down. In the following, if serial 1/0/0 is down, the router’s HSRP priority is decremented by 100 (the default
value to decrement is 10):
Router(config-if)# standby 39 track s1/0/0 100
Another way to track an indirect connection is to use IP SLA (described in Chapter 5). With IP SLA tracking, HSRP can
failover to the standby router if any connection on the path to a remote location fails or exceeds link-quality thresholds.
The following sample configuration shows how to add tracking an IP SLA session number 5 to an existing HSRP inter-
face configuration.
Router(config)#ip sla 5
Note:
The standby router must
Router(config-ip-sla)# udp-jitter 172.17.1.2 16000
be configured with the
Router(config)#track 10 rtr 5
preempt command for it
Router(config-if)# int fa 1/0/15
to take control.
Router(config-if)# stand 2 track 10 decrement 50
Multiple HSRP standby groups can be configured, and the same router can be active for some groups and standby for
others by adjusting priorities. You can have a maximum of 255 groups. When using Layer 3 switches, configure the same
switch as the primary HSRP router and the Spanning Tree root.
Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol
Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP) is similar to HSRP, but it is an open standard (RFC 2338). Two or more
devices act as a virtual router. With VRRP, however, the IP address used can be either a virtual one or the actual IP
address of the primary router. VRRP is supported only on Cisco 4500 and 6500 series switches.
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First Hop Redundancy
The VRRP Master router forwards traffic. The master is chosen because  it owns the real address, or it has the highest
priority. (The default is 100.) If a real address is supported, the owner of real address must be master. A Backup router
takes over if the master fails, and there can be multiple backup routers. They monitor periodic hellos multicast by the
master to 224.0.0.18, using UDP port 112, to detect a failure of the master router.
Multiple VRRP groups are allowed, just as with HSRP.
Routers in the same VRRP group must belong to the same subnet/VLAN. To enable VRRP, give this command vrrp
group-number ip virtual-IP-address under the interface connecting to that subnet or VLAN:
Router(config-if) # vrrp 39 ip 10.0.0.1
Control the master and backup elections by configuring priority values from 1–255. If a master VRRP router is shut
down, it advertises a priority of 0. This triggers the backup routers to hold an election without waiting for the master’s
hellos to time out.
Router(config-if)# vrrp 39 priority 175
VRRP uses the following timers:
n Advertisement, or hello, interval in seconds. Default is 1 second.
n Master down interval. Equals 3 x advertisement interval plus skew time. Similar to a hold or dead timer.
n Skew time. (256–priority) / 256. This is meant to ensure that the highest priority backup router becomes master
because higher priority routers have shorter master down intervals.
To change the timers on the master, use the following command because it is the router that advertises the hellos:
Router(config-if)# vrrp 39 timers advertise 5
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by Denise Donohue
First Hop Redundancy
To change the timers on the backup routers, use the following command because they hear the hellos from the master:
Router(config-if)# vrrp 39 timers learn
VRRP cannot track interfaces but can track IP SLA object groups.
GLBP
One issue with both HSRP and VRRP is that only the primary router is in use; the others must wait for the primary to fail
before they are used. These two protocols use groups to get around that limitation. However, Gateway Load Balancing
Protocol (GLBP) enables the simultaneous use of up to four gateways, thus maximizing bandwidth. With GLBP, there is
still one virtual IP address. However, each participating router has a virtual MAC address, and different routers’ virtual
MAC addresses are sent in answer to ARPs for the virtual IP address. GLBP can also use groups up to a maximum of
1024 per physical interface. GLBP is supported only on Cisco 4500 and 6500 series switches.
The load sharing is done in one of three ways:
Weighted load balancing: Traffic is balanced proportional to a configured weight.
Host-dependent load balancing: A given host always uses the same router.
Round-robin load balancing: Each router MAC is used to respond to ARP requests in turn.
GLBP routers elect an Active Virtual Gateway (AVG). It is the only router to respond to ARPs. It uses this capacity to
balance the load among the GLBP routers. The highest priority router is the AVG; the highest configured IP address is
used in case of a tie.
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First Hop Redundancy
The actual router used by a host is its Active Virtual Forwarder (AVF). GLBP group members multicast hellos every 3
seconds to IP address 224.0.0.102, UDP port 3222. If one router goes down, another router answers for its MAC address.
Configure GLBP with the interface command glbp group-number ip virtual-IP-address, as shown:
Router(config-if)# glbp 39 ip 10.0.0.1
To ensure deterministic elections, each router can be configured with a priority. The default priority is 100:
Router(config-if)# glbp 39 priority 150
Hello and hold (or dead) timers can be configured for each interface with the command glbp group-number timers
[msec] 
hello-time [msec] hold-time. Values are in seconds unless the msec keyword is used.
GLBP can also track interfaces just as with HSRP. If a tracked interface goes down, another router answers for the first
router’s MAC address.
Planning Router Redundancy Implementation
Before configuring first-hop redundancy, determine which protocol is best in your network. If you have the same VLAN
on multiple access switches, use HSRP or VRRP. If you use local VLANs, contained to a single switch, GLBP is an
option.
Before configuring HSRP or VRRP on a multilayer switch, determine which switch is the root bridge for each VLAN.
The root bridge should be the active HSRP/VRRP router. Determine priorities to be used, and whether you need tracking
or timer adjustment.
After your implementation, verify and test. To view the switch’s standby status, use the show standby interface interface
command or show standby brief. To monitor standby activity, use the debug standby command. 
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Campus Network Security
Chapter 7
Campus Network Security
Attention has traditionally been paid to network perimeter security, such as firewall, and to mitigating Layer 3 attacks.
However, networks must be protected against Layer 2 attacks, too. These are launched from devices inside the network by
either a rogue device or a legitimate device that has been compromised. Rogue devices might be placed maliciously or
might just be connected to an access switch by an employee wanting more switch port or wireless access. They include:
n Wireless routers or hubs
n Access switches
n Hubs
A switch might become the Spanning Tree root bridge and disrupt user traffic. Use root guard and bpdu guard
commands to prevent this. (Spanning Tree security is discussed later in this chapter.)
The following are four typical types of attacks against a switched network:
MAC address-based attacks: MAC address flooding
VLAN-based attacks: VLAN hopping and attacks against devices on the same VLAN
Spoofing attacks: DHCP spoofing, MAC spoofing, Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) spoofing, and Spanning
Tree attacks
Attacks against the switch: Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) manipulation, Telnet attacks, and Secure Shell (SSH)
attacks
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MAC Address-Based Attacks
Common MAC address-based attacks rely on flooding the CAM table and can be mitigated by using port security and
port-based authentication.
MAC Address Flooding 
In a MAC address flooding attack, the attacker fills the switch’s Content Addressable Memory (CAM) table with invalid
MAC addresses. After the table is full, all traffic with an address not in the table is flooded out all interfaces. This has two
bad effects: more traffic on the LAN and more work for the switch. This can also cause the CAM tables of adjacent
switches to overflow. Additionally, the intruder’s traffic is also flooded, so they have access to more ports than they would
normally have. After the attack stops, CAM entries age out and life returns to normal. However, meanwhile the attacker
might have captured a significant amount of data.
Port security and port-based authentication can help mitigate MAC address attacks.
Port Security
Port security limits the number of MAC addresses allowed per port and can also limit which MAC addresses are allowed.
Allowed MAC addressed can be manually configured or the switch can sticky learn them. Table 7-1 lists port security
commands; these are given at the interface.
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TABLE 7-1
Port Security Commands
Command
Description
switchport port-security
Enables port security on that interface.
switchport port-security
Specifies the max MAC addresses allowed on this port. Default is 1.
maximum value
switchport port-security
Configures the action to be taken when the maximum number is reached and a MAC address
violation {shutdown |
not associated with the port attempts to use the port, or when a station whose MAC address
restrict protect}
is associated with a different port attempt to access this port. Default is shutdown.
switchport port-security
Statically associates a specific MAC address with a port.
mac-address mac-address
switchport port-security
Enables the switch port to dynamically learn secure MAC addresses. MAC addresses learned
mac-address sticky
through that port, up to the maximum number, if a maximum is configured, are treated as
secure MAC addresses.
show port security [interface
Verifies port security actions.
interface address]
The following commands show how to verify the port security configuration:
Switch# show port-security interface fa 1/0/15
Port Security       
: Enabled
Port Status        
: Secure-Up
Violation Mode       
: Shutdown
Aging Time         
: 0 mins
Aging Type         
: Absolute
SecureStatic Address Aging 
: Disabled
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Maximum MAC Addresses   
: 2
Total MAC Addresses    
: 0
Configured MAC Addresses  
: 0
Sticky MAC Addresses    
: 0
Last Source Address:Vlan  
: 0000.0000.0000:0
Security Violation Count  
: 0
Port-Based Authentication
802.1x authentication requires a computer (called a client) to be authenticated before it is allowed access to the LAN.
This can be combined with port security to enable only authenticated clients with specified MAC addresses to access a
port. When a computer connects to a switch port configured for 802.1x authentication, it follows these steps:
Step 1.
The port is in the unauthorized state, allowing only 802.1x EAP over LAN (EAPOL) traffic.
Step 2.
The client connects to the port. The switch either requests authentication or the client sends an EAPOL frame
to begin authentication.
Step 3.
The switch relays authentication information between the client and a RADIUS server that acts in proxy for
the client.
Step 4.
If authentication succeeds, the port transitions to the authorized state, and normal LAN traffic is allowed
through it.
Table 7-2 shows commands to configure 802.1x authentication on a switch.
Table 7-2
Configuring 802.1x Port Authentication
Command
Description
(config)#aaa new-model
Enables AAA on the switch
(config)#aaa authentication 
Creates a AAA method list that says to use 802.1x authentication by default, using 
dot1x default group radius
a RADIUS server (configured separately)
(config)#dot1x system-auth-control
Globally enables 802.1x authentication on the switch
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Table 7-2
Configuring 802.1x Port Authentication
Command
Description
(config-if)#dot1x port- control
Enables 802.1x authentication on an interface of the switch and sets default port state
[auto force-authorized 
force-unauthorized]
show dot1x
Verifies 802.1x authentication
VLAN-Based Attacks
VLAN-based attacks include VLAN hopping, in which a station can access a VLAN other than its own. This can be done
with switch spoofing or with 802.1Q double-tagging.
Switch Spoofing
Switch spoofing involves a station configured to negotiate a trunk link between itself and the switch. By default, switches
dynamically negotiate trunking status using Dynamic Trunking Protocol (DTP). If a computer can use DTP to establish a
trunk link to the switch, it receives all traffic bound for every VLAN allowed on that trunk. By default, all VLANs are
allowed on a trunk.
You can mitigate this by turning off DTP on all ports that should not become trunks, such as most access ports, using the
interface command switchport nonegotiate. If the port should be an access port, configure it as such with the interface
command switchport mode access and turn off CDP on that port. Additionally, shut down all unused ports and assign
them to an unused VLAN. The commands to do this are:
Switch(config)# interface interface
Switch(config-if)# switchport mode access
Switch(config-if)# switchport access vlan vlan
Switch(config-if)# shutdown
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802.1Q Double-Tagging
A double-tagging attack is possible because 802.1Q trunking does not tag frames from the native VLAN. In this attack,
the attacking computer negotiates a trunk port between itself and the switch and then generates frames with two 802.1Q
tags. The first tag matches the native VLAN of the trunk port, and the second matches the VLAN of a host it wants to
attack, as shown in Figure 7-1. The first switch in the path strips off the first 802.1Q tag and forwards it to adjacent
switches. The next switch forwards the frame based on the VLAN listed in the second tag. 
The double-tagging method of a VLAN hopping attack works even if trunk ports are set to off, if the trunk has the same
VLAN as the attacker.
FIGURE 7-1
802.1Q
802.1Q
802.1Q
Data
Data
Data
VL 200
VL100
VL  200
VLAN Hopping by
802.1Q Double-
Native
Switch A
Native
Switch B
VL AN 100
VL AN 100
Tagging
Attacker
Target in
VLAN 200
Switch A removes the first tag for VLAN 100 because it matches the native VLAN for that link. It forwards the frame out
all links with the same native VLAN, including its link to Switch B. Switch B sees the frame come in with an 802.1Q tag
for VLAN 200, so it forwards it out the VLAN 200 link to the victim computer.
To mitigate this type of attack, use the same strategies used for switch spoofing. You can also use VLAN access control
lists, called VACLs, or implement Private VLANs.
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VACLs
Cisco switches support of various kinds of ACLs:
n Traditional Router ACL (RACL)
n QoS ACL
n VACL
VLAN access control lists (VACL) are similar to route-maps because they are composed of statements that contain match
and set conditions. In a VACL, the “set” conditions are called “actions.” Actions include forwarddrop, and redirect.
Like route-maps, VACL statements are numbered for ordering. After configuration, VACLs are applied to traffic to speci-
fied VLANs.
The following is a sample VACL that instructs the switch to drop traffic matching ACL 101 (not shown) and forward all
other traffic:
Switch(config)# vlan access-map Drop101 10
Switch(config-access-map)# match ip address 101
Switch(config-access-map)# action drop
!
Switch(config-access-map)# vlan access-map Drop101 20
Switch(config-access-map)# action forward
!
Switch(config)# vlan filter Drop101 vlan-list 10
To view VACL settings, use the commands show vlan access-map vacl_name or show vlan filter access-map
vacl_name.
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Private VLANs
Private VLANs (PVLAN) enable large companies or service providers to isolate users into separate multiaccess domains.
Using a VLAN for each group is not scalable. For instance, the switch’s maximum VLANs would limit the number of
customers an ISP can have. Each VLAN requires a separate IP subnet, which could also be a limiting factor.
PVLANs divide a VLAN into secondary VLANs, letting you isolate a set of ports from other ports within the same
VLAN. There are two types of secondary VLANs:
Community VLANs: Ports can communicate with other ports in the same community VLAN.
Isolated VLANs: Ports cannot communicate with each other.
Ports within a private VLAN can be one of three types:
Community: Communicates with other community ports and with promiscuous ports
Isolated: Communicates only with promiscuous ports
Promiscuous: Communicates with all ports
Table 7-3 shows the commands to configure a primary private VLAN, secondary PVLANs, and their associated ports.
Table 7-3
Configuring Private VLANs
Command
Description
vlan vlan-id
Enters VLAN configuration mode.
private-vlan {community 
Configures the VLAN as a private VLAN and specifies the type. Repeat this 
isolated primary}
command to configure all primary and secondary VLANs.
vlan primary-vlan-id
Enters configuration mode for the primary VLAN.
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Table 7-3
Configuring Private VLANs
Command
Description
private-vlan association
Associates secondary VLANs with the primary one. Separate the secondary VLAN 
secondary_vlan_list
numbers with a comma, no spaces.
switchport mode private-vlan
Configures a port as either a host port (for community or isolated) or a
{host promiscuous}
promiscuous port.
switchport private-vlan
Associates a host port with its primary and secondary PVLANs.
host-association
primary_vlan_ ID 
secondary_vlan_ID

private-vlan mapping primary_ 
Associates a promiscuous port with its primary and secondary PVLANs.
vlan_ID secondary_vlan_list
show interfaces
Verifies the VLAN configuration.
interface switchport
show interfaces 
Verify the private VLAN configuration.
private-vlan mapping
Protected Ports
On some lower-end switches, protected ports can provide a simple version of private VLANs. Traffic from a protected
port can access only an unprotected port. Traffic between protected ports is blocked. Configure port protection at the
interface:
Switch(config-if)# port protected
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Spoof Attacks
Spoof attacks include DHCP spoofing, MAC address spoofing, and ARP spoofing.
DHCP Spoofing
Note: 
A DHCP spoofing attacker listens for DHCP requests and answers them, giving its IP address as the client default
DHCP snooping configu-
gateway. The attacker then becomes a “man-in-the-middle” as all off-net traffic flows through it.
ration is user impacting
because the switch drops
DHCP snooping can prevent DHCP spoofing attacks. When DHCP snooping is enabled, only ports that uplink to an
all DHCP requests until
authorized DHCP server are trusted and allowed to send all types of DHCP messages. All other ports on the switch are
the ports are configured.
untrusted and can send only DHCP requests. If a DHCP response (or “offer”) is seen on an untrusted port, the port is shut
You should do this
down. The switch can also be configured to send information, such as port ID, using DHCP option 82.
during off hours or
during a maintenance
Configure DHCP snooping with the following commands, either globally or for a particular VLAN. Configure only indi-
window.
vidual ports that uplink to DHCP servers as trusted ports.
Switch(config)# ip dhcp snooping
Switch(config)# ip dhcp snooping information option
Switch(config)# ip dhcp snooping vlan number number
Switch(config-if)# ip dhcp snooping trust
Switch(config-if)# ip dhcp snooping limit pkts-per-second
Switch# show ip dhcp snooping
IP Source Guard
To extend the protection further, IP Source Guard tracks the IP addresses of the host connected to each port and prevents
traffic sourced from another IP address from entering that port. The tracking can be done based on just an IP address or
on both IP and MAC addresses.
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Enable IP Source Guard for both IP and MAC addresses on host access interfaces with the command ip verify source
port-security.

ARP Spoofing
In an ARP spoofing attack, the attacker sends out gratuitous (unsolicited) ARP messages giving the IP address of the local
default gateway, with its own MAC address as the Layer 2 address. Local devices overwrite their existing correct ARP
information with the incorrect one, and, thus, they forward off-net traffic to the attacker (it becomes a “man-in-the-
middle”). If the attacker then forwards it on to the legitimate router, this type of attack might go undetected by the users.
Dynamic ARP Inspection (DAI) can work with DHCP spoofing to stop ARP spoofing. DAI defines trusted and untrusted
interfaces. It intercepts ARP messages on untrusted ports and checks them against the IP address/MAC address bindings
in the DHCP snooping database. They must match for the switch to forward the traffic. Access ports should be configured
as untrusted, and ports that connect to other switches or to a router should be trusted.
Enable DAI on a VLAN, or multiple VLANs, and configure trusted interfaces. You can optionally configure a rate limit or
configure which addresses DAI matches against. (The default is IP and MAC address.) The basic commands are
Switch(config)# ip arp inspection vlan vlan_id
Switch(config-if)# ip arp inspection trust
Securing Your Switch
Here are some basic security suggestions for network devices:
n Use passwords that are not susceptible to a dictionary attack. Add numbers or substitute numbers and symbols for
letters.
n Limit Telnet access using access lists.
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n Use SSH instead of Telnet.
n Physically secure access to the device.
n Use banners that warn against unauthorized access.
n Remove unused services, such as finger, the TCP and UDP small servers, service config, and HTTP server.
n Set up and monitor Syslog.
n Disable automatic trunking on all nontrunk ports.
n Disable CDP on ports where it is not needed. 
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Voice and Video in a Campus Network
Chapter 8
Voice and Video in a Campus Network
Voice over IP (VoIP) has become common in the business world, and now Video over IP is becoming more integrated into
networks. Neither should be added to a network without advance planning to ensure good voice and video quality. Some
benefits of converging voice, video, and data networks include:
Consolidating network expenses: Only one wire and one switch port are needed per user. One network to provision
and manage.
More efficient bandwidth use: Bandwidth can be used for data when there is not an active voice/video session.
Lower telephony costs: Internal calls use the data network, rather than the PSTN.
Innovative services: Ability to unify a company’s various methods of communication.
For service providers, the ability to sell new services: Can lead to increased revenue, flexibility in pricing, and
access to new communication devices.
Voice, video, and data have different network requirements. Voice requirements include low bandwidth, little delay, small
amounts of jitter (variable delay), small amounts of packet loss, a highly available network, and PoE. Security require-
ments are about average, but management is highly important.
Video requirements depend on whether it is a one-way stream or an interactive video session. One-way streams use a
fairly steady amount of bandwidth but in interactive sessions the bandwidth varies widely. Typical requirements include
high bandwidth, little delay, small amounts of jitter, and little packet loss. High availability is not as important, and PoE is
not needed. Security and management needs are medium.
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Voice and Video in a Campus Network
Data requirements typically include high bandwidth, but delay and jitter are not crucial. A highly available network is
needed, but PoE is not. Data security should be high, with medium management levels.
VoIP in a Campus Network
Figure 8-1 shows some components of a VoIP system, which can include the following:
IP phones: Provide voice and applications to the user
Cisco Unified Communications Manager (UCM): Serves as an IP PBX. Registers phones, controls calls
Voice gateways: Translates between PSTN and IP calls and provides backup to the Cisco UCM (IP PBX, or Call
Agent)
Gatekeepers: An optional component that can do call admission control, allocate bandwidth for calls, and resolve
phone numbers into IP addresses
Video conferencing unit: Allows voice and video in the same phone call
Multipoint control unit: Allows multiple participants to join an audio and/or video conference call
Application server: Provides services such as Unity voice mail and Presence
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Voice and Video in a Campus Network
FIGURE 8-1
UCM
Unity Server
Server
Some Components of
a VoIP System
Video Conferencing
Camera
WAN
Power over
User PC
IP Phone
Voice and WAN
Ethernet Switch
Gateway
PSTN
VoIP traffic consists of two types: voice bearer and call control signaling. Voice bearer traffic is carried over the UDP-
based Real Time Protocol (RTP). Call control uses one of several different protocols to communicate between the phone
and UCM and between the UCM and the voice gateways.
Preparing the Network for VoIP
When adding voice or video to an existing network, you should examine several things in advance to provide the high
level of availability users expect in their phone system:
What features are needed?: Power for IP phones, security for voice calls, and Quality of Service (QoS) to control
bandwidth, delay, jitter, and packet loss.
The physical plant: Cabling at least CAT-5.
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Voice and Video in a Campus Network
Electrical power for the IP phones: Use either PoE from Catalyst switch or power inline module, or a power brick. 
Bandwidth: Commit no more than 75 percent of bandwidth. Consider all types of traffic: voice, video, and data.
Have more than enough bandwidth if possible. Include both voice and call-control traffic in your planning.
Network management: Monitor and proactively manage the network so that it is always available. Need voice
VLANs on the switches and DHCP for the phones.
High availability: Provide redundant hardware links. Need uninterruptible power supply (UPS) with auto-restart,
monitoring, and four-hour response contract. Might need generator backup. Maintain correct operating temperatures.
Network and Bandwidth Considerations
The network requirements for VoIP include:
n Maximum delay of 150–200 ms (one-way)
n No more than 1 percent packet loss
n Maximum average jitter of 30 ms
n Bandwidth of 21–106 kbps per call, plus approximately 150 bps per phone for control traffic
A formula to use when calculating bandwidth needed for voice calls is as follows:
(Packet payload + all headers) * Packet rate per second
Voice VLANs
Cisco switches can be configured to dynamically place IP telephones into a Voice, or auxiliary, VLAN separate from the
data VLANs. They can do this even when the phone and PC are physically connected to the same switch port. Voice
VLANs enable phones to be dynamically placed in a separate IP subnet from hosts, to have QoS (using 802.1Q/p
headers) and security policies applied, and make troubleshooting easier.
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Cisco IP phones have a small internal switch that places an 802.1q tag on voice traffic and marks the Class of Service
(CoS) bits in the tag. Data traffic is sent untagged over the native VLAN. The switch port does not actually become a
trunk and still can be configured as an access port. It is considered a multi-VLAN access port.
Power over Ethernet (PoE) Switches
IP phones can receive power from PoE switches, eliminating the need for an electrical plug.
Two power standards are the Cisco Inline PoE and the IEEE’s 802.3af standard. Both have a method for sensing that a
powered device is connected to the port. 802.3af specifies a method for determining the amount of power needed by the
device. Cisco devices, when connected to Cisco switches, can additionally use CDP to send that information. Most IP
phones require no more than 15 W of power specified in 802.3af, but some new phones, access points, and surveillance
cameras require more. The 802.3at standard will specify up to 30 W of power. Some Cisco switches can currently supply
up to 20 W. 
Because a switch assumes 15.4 W of power until the connected device tells it the amount needed (via CDP), calculate
your power budget based on 15.4 W for all devices because if the switch reboots, all ports will ask for 15.4 W until they
get the correct information. Non-CDP devices always get allocated 15.4 W.
Cisco PoE switches automatically detect and provide power. To disable this function, or to reenable it, use the interface
command power inline {never | auto}. To view interfaces and the power allotted to each, use show power inline [inter-
face
].
QoS for VoIP
QoS gives special treatment to certain traffic at the expense of others. Using QoS in the network has several advantages:
n Prioritizes access to resources so that critical traffic can be served
n Allows good management of network resources
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n Allows service to be tailored to network needs
n Allows mission-critical applications to share the network with other data
People sometimes think that there is no need for QoS strategies in a LAN. However, switch ports can experience conges-
tion because of port speed mismatches, many people trying to access the switch backbone, and many people trying to
send traffic to the same switch port (such as a server port). Voice and video traffic contends with, and can be affected by,
data traffic within both the WAN and the LAN.
QoS Actions
Three QoS strategies are commonly implemented on interfaces in which traffic enters the switch:
Classification: Distinguishing one type of traffic from another. After traffic is classified, other actions can be
performed on it. Some classification methods include access lists, ingress interface, and NBAR.
Marking: At Layer 2, placing an 802.1p CoS value within the 802.1Q frame tag. At Layer 3, setting IP Precedence
or Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP) values in the packet’s IP header.
Policing: Determining whether a specific type of traffic is within preset bandwidth levels. If so, it is usually allowed
and might be marked. If not, the traffic is typically marked or dropped. CAR and class-based policing are examples
of policing techniques.
Other QoS techniques are typically used on outbound interfaces:
Traffic shaping and conditioning: Attempts to send traffic out in a steady stream at a specified rate. Buffers traffic
that goes above that rate and sends it when there is less traffic on the line.
Queuing: After traffic is classified and marked, one way it can be given special treatment is to be put into different
queues on the interface to be sent out at different rates and times. Some examples include priority queuing, weighted
fair queuing, and custom queuing. The default queuing method for a switch port is FIFO.
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Dropping: Normally interface queues accept packets until they are full and then drop everything after that. You can
implement prioritized dropping so that less important packets are dropped before more important ones, such as with
Weighted Random Early Detection (WRED).
DSCP Values
Differentiated services provide levels of service based on the value of certain bits in the IP header or the 802.1Q tag.
Each hop along the way must be configured to treat the marked traffic the way you want; this is called per-hop behavior
(PHB).
In the Layer 2 802.1q tag, you use the three 802.1p bits to set the CoS value. Voice is usually set to 5 and video to 4.
In the Layer 3 IP header, you use the 8-bit ToS field. You can set either IP Precedence using the top 3 bits or
Differentiated Services Code Points (DSCP) using the top 6 bits of the field. The bottom 2 bits are set aside for conges-
tion notification. The default DSCP value is 0, which corresponds to best-effort delivery.
The six DSCP bits can be broken down into two sections: The first 3 bits define the DiffServ Assured Forwarding (AF)
class, and the next 2 bits define the drop probability within that class. The sixth bit is 0 and unused. AF classes 1–4 are
defined, and within each class, 1 is low drop probability, 2 is medium, and 3 is high (meaning that traffic is more likely to
get dropped if there is congestion). These are shown in Table 8-1. 
Table 8-1
DSCP Assured Forwarding Values
Low Drop
Medium Drop
High Drop
Class 1
AF11
AF12
AF13
Class 2
AF21
AF22
AF23
Class 3
AF31
AF32
AF33
Class 4
AF41
AF42
AF43
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Voice bearer traffic uses an Expedited Forwarding value of DSCP 46 to give it higher priority within the network. 
Trust Boundaries
When IP traffic comes in already marked, the switch has some options about how to handle it. It can:
n Trust the DSCP value in the incoming packet, if present.
n Trust the IP Precedence value in the incoming packet, if present.
n Trust the CoS value in the incoming frame, if present.
n Classify the traffic based on an IP access control list or a MAC address access control list.
Mark traffic for QoS as close to the source as possible. If the source is an IP telephone, it can mark its own traffic. If not,
the building access module switch can do the marking. If those are not under your control, you might need to mark at the
distribution layer. Classifying and marking slows traffic flow, so do not do it at the core. All devices along the path should
then be configured to trust the marking and provide a level of service based on it. The place where trusted marking is
done is called the trust boundary.
Configuring VoIP Support on a Switch
Before implementing VoIP, plan the following:
1. PoE: Ensure that enough power is available for all phones, with a UPS backup.
2. Voice VLAN: Determine the number of VLANs needed and the associated IP subnets. Add DHCP scopes for the
phones, and add the phone networks to the routing protocol.
3. QoS: Decide which marking and queues will be used. Implement AutoQoS and then tune as needed.
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4. Fast Convergency: To enhance high availability, tune the routing and HSRP/VRRP/GLBP timers.
5. Test Plan: Test the voice implementation thoroughly before converting users to it. Check that both the phone and PC
get the correct IP addresses, that the phone registers with the UCM, and that calls to and from the phone succeed.
Manual Configuration
To associate a voice VLAN with a switch port, use the following:
Switch(config-if)# switchport voice vlan vlan-ID
To configure an IOS switch to trust the markings on traffic entering an interface, use the following:
Switch(config-if)# mls qos trust {dscp | cos}
To configure the switch to trust the traffic markings only if a Cisco phone is connected, use the following:
Switch(config-if)# mls qos trust device cisco-phone
To set a COS value for frames coming from a PC attached to the phone, use the following:
Switch(config-if)# switchport priority extend cos cos-value
To verify the interface parameters, use the following:
Switch(config-if)# show interfaces interface switchport
To verify the QoS parameters on an interface, use the following:
Switch(config-if)# show mls qos interface interface
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Using AutoQoS
When AutoQoS is enabled, the switch configures its interfaces based on a best-practices template. AutoQoS has the
following benefits:
n Automatic discovery and classification of network applications.
n Creates QoS policies for those applications.
n Configures the switch to support Cisco IP phones and network applications. Manual configuration can also be done
afterward.
n Sets up SNMP traps for network reporting.
n Configures consistently across your network when used on all routers and switches.
CDP must be enabled for AutoQoS to function properly with Cisco IP phones.
AutoQoS commands for switches running Native IOS are shown in Table 8-3.
Table 8-3
AutoQoS Commands for IOS
Command
Description
(config-if)#auto qos voip trust
Configures the port to trust the COS on all traffic entering the port.
(config-if)#auto qos voip
Configures the port to trust traffic markings only if a Cisco phone is connected to 
cisco-phone
the port. Requires that CDP be enabled.
#show auto qos
Shows the AutoQoS configuration. Does not show any manual QoS configuration:
[interface interface]
Use show run to see that.
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Video over IP
Video traffic roughly falls into one of three categories: many-to-many, many-to-few, and few-to-many.
Many-to-many includes interactive video, such as Telepresence, Webex, desktop video conferencing, and other peer-to-
peer video and collaboration applications. The data flow is client-to-client, or MCU-to-client. Bandwidth needs for high
definition video vary during the session but are high-up to 12 Mb/s per location, with compression.
Many-to-few sessions represent IP surveillance cameras. The video flow is from the camera source to a storage location,
from storage to a client, or from the source to a client. These typically require up to 4 Mb/s of bandwidth per camera.
Few-to-many describes the typical streaming video, either from an internal company source or an Internet source. It also
applies to digital signage media. This is the most predictable of all video streams and users typically tolerate less-than-
perfect quality. Traffic flows are from storage-to-client or from server-to-client.
QoS Requirements for Video
Video traffic should be compressed because of its high bandwidth needs, but this causes a lot of variation in network
traffic. A picture that does not change much can compress well, resulting in fairly low bandwidth use. But when there are
a lot of changes in the picture, such as when someone moves or shares a new document, compression does not work as
well, which results in high bandwidth use. In contrast, voice traffic is fairly steady.
Video should be placed in its own queue and might be prioritized depending on company requirements. Consider placing
interactive and streaming video into different queues. Aim to provide no more than 200 ms of latency for most video
applications. 
Make sure that there is sufficient bandwidth in the network before adding video applications.
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Wireless LANs in a Campus Network
Chapter 9
Wireless LANs in a Campus Network
Wireless LANs (WLAN) transmit and receive data using radio or infrared signals, sent through an access point (AP), and
are not usually required to have radio frequency (RF) licenses. WLANs are local to a building or a campus and are an
extension of the wired network.
Cisco Unified Wireless Network
The Cisco Unified Wireless Network concept has five components that work together to create a complete network, from
client devices to network infrastructure, to network applications. Cisco has equipment appropriate to each component.
Table 9-1 lists components and equipment.
Table 9-1
Cisco Unified Wireless Network Components
Component
Description and Device
Client devices
Cisco client and Cisco compatible third-party vendor clients
Mobility platform
APs and bridges using LWAPP
Network unification
Leverages existing wired network. Includes WLAN controllers and switch and router modules
Network management
Visualize and secure the WLAN. WCS for location tracking, RF management, wireless IPS, and WLC
management
Mobility services
Applications such as wireless IP phones, location appliances, and RF firewalls
Cisco wireless IP phones have the same features as Cisco wired IP phones and can use LEAP for authentication.
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The Cisco Compatible Extensions Program tests other vendors’ devices for compatibility with Cisco wireless products.
Using products certified by this program ensures full functionality of Cisco enhancements and proprietary extensions. 
Characteristics of Wireless LANs
WLANs function similarly to Ethernet LANs with the access point providing connectivity to the rest of the network as
would a switch. The physical layer is radio waves, rather than wires. IEEE 802.11standard defines the physical and data
link specifications, including the use of MAC addresses. The same protocols (such as IP) and applications (such as IPsec)
can run over both wired and wireless LANs.
The following lists some characteristics of wireless LANs and the data transmitted over wireless networks.
n WLANs use Carrier Sense Multi-Access/Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA). 
n Wireless data is half-duplex. CSMA/CA uses Request to Send (RTS) and Clear to Send (CTS) messages to avoid
collisions.
n Radio waves have unique potential issues. They are susceptible to interference, multipath distortion, and noise. Their
coverage area can be blocked by building features, such as elevators. The signal might reach outside the building and
lead to privacy issues.
n WLAN hosts have no physical network connection. They are often mobile and often battery-powered. The wireless
network design must accommodate this.
n WLANs must adhere to each country’s RF standards.
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Service Set Identifiers (SSID)
An SSID maps to a VLAN and can be used to segment users into groups requiring different security or QoS treatment.
SSIDs can be broadcast by the access point or statically configured on the client, but the client must have the same SSID
as the AP to register with it. SSID names are case sensitive. When multiple SSIDs/VLANs are used on an AP, the wired
connection back to the network must be a trunk to carry all the VLANs.
WLAN Topologies
The use of wireless products falls into three categories:
n Client access, which allows mobile users to access the wired LAN resources
n Wireless connections between buildings
n Wireless mesh
Wireless connections can be made in ad-hoc mode or infrastructure mode. Ad-hoc mode (or Independent Basic Service
Set [IBSS]) is simply a group of computers talking wirelessly to each other with no access point (AP). It is limited in
range and functionality. Infrastructure mode’s BSS uses one AP to connect clients. The range of the AP’s signal, called its
microcell, must encompass all clients. The Extended Service Set (ESS) uses multiple APs with overlapping microcells to
cover all clients. Microcells should overlap by 10–15 percent for data and 15–20 percent for voice traffic. Each AP should
use a different channel. “Pico” cells, with even smaller coverage areas, can also be used.
Workgroup bridges connect to devices without a wireless network interface card (NIC) to allow their access to the wire-
less network.
Wireless mesh networks can span large distances because only the edge APs connect to the wired network. The interme-
diate APs connect wirelessly to multiple other APs and act as repeaters for them. Each AP has multiple paths through the
wireless network. The Adaptive Wireless Path (AWP) protocol runs between APs to determine the best path to the wired
network. APs choose backup paths if the best path fails.
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Client Connectivity
Clients associate with an access point as follows:
Access points send out beacons announcing information such as SSID, unless configured not to.
Step 1.
The client sends a probe request and listens for beacons and probe responses.
Step 2.
The AP sends a probe response.
Step 3.
The client initiates an association to the AP. 802.1x authentication, and any other security information is sent
to the AP.
Step 4.
The AP accepts the association. SSID and MAC address information is exchanged.
Step 5.
The AP adds the client’s MAC address to its association table.
Clients can roam between APs, but the APs must be configured with the same SSIDs/VLANs and security settings. Layer
2 roaming is done between APs on the same subnet and managed by the switches using a multicast protocol: Inter-Access
Point Protocol (IAPP). Layer 3 roaming is done between APs on different subnets and is managed by the wireless LAN
controllers. The switch connected to the AP updates its MAC address table when a client roams.
Short roaming times are needed for VoIP to reduce delay. A client will attempt to roam (or associate with another AP)
when
n It misses too many beacons from the AP.
n The data rate is reduced.
n The maximum data retry count is exceeded.
n It is configured to search for another AP at regular intervals.
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Cisco Wireless Network Components
Cisco supports two types of wireless solutions: one using autonomous access points, and one using lightweight (or
“dumb”) access points in combination with WLAN controllers. The wired network infrastructure is the same for both
types: switches and routers.
Access points can receive their power from Power over Ethernet (PoE) switches, routers with PoE switch modules, or
midspan power injectors, thus alleviating the need for electrical outlets near them. APs require up to 15 W of power, so
plan your power budget accordingly. 
Autonomous (Stand-alone) APs
Autonomous APs run Cisco IOS, are programmed individually, and act independently. They can be centrally managed
with the CiscoWorks Wireless LAN Solution Engine (WLSE), can use Cisco Secure Access Control Server (ACS) for
RADIUS and TACAS+ authentication, and Wireless Domain Services (WDS) for RF management. Redundancy consists
of multiple APs.
Network Design for Autonomous APs
When using stand-alone APs, the traffic flow is from client to AP to connected switch, and from there into the rest of the
network. Plan the SSIDs and VLANs that will be on each AP, keeping in mind any roaming that users might do.
Autonomous APs support Layer 2 roaming only, so SSIDs and VLAN must be statically configured on every AP in which
a user might roam. Make sure to include a management VLAN on the AP.
Ensure that the AP has a power source, either a PoE switch or a power injector. Configure the switch interface connected
to the AP as a trunk if the AP has multiple VLANs.
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Lightweight Access Points
Lightweight APs divide the 802.11 processing between the AP and a Cisco Wireless LAN Controller (WLC). This is
sometimes called “split MAC,” because they split the functions of the MAC layer, Layer 2. Their management compo-
nents also include the Wireless Control System (WCS) and a location-tracking appliance. Redundancy consists of multi-
ple WLCs. The AP handles real-time processes, and the WLC handles processes such as:
n Authentication
n Client association/mobility management
n Security management
n QoS policies
n VLAN tagging
n Forwarding of user traffic
The Lightweight Access Point Protocol (LWAPP) supports the split MAC function in traffic between a lightweight AP
and its controller. LWAPP uses AES-encrypted control messages and encapsulates, but does not encrypt, data traffic. 
Controllers and APs can also use a new IETF-standard protocol to communicate with each other: the Control and
Provisioning of Wireless Access Points (CAPWAP) protocol. CAPWAP operates very much like LWAPP.
Both LWAPP and CAPWAP operate over UDP. The controller does not have to be in the same broadcast domain and IP
subnet, just IP reachable. Lightweight APs follows this process to discover their controller:
Step 1.
The AP requests a DHCP address. The DHCP response includes the management IP address of one or more
WLCs.
Step 2.
The AP sends an LWAPP or CAPWAP Discovery Request message to each WLC.
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Step 3.
The WLCs respond with an LWAPP or CAPWAP Discovery Response that includes the number of APs
currently associated to it.
Step 4.
The AP sends a Join Request to the WLC with the fewest APs associated to it.
Step 5.
The WLC responds with a Join Response message; the AP and the controller mutually authenticate each
other and derive encryption keys to be used with future control messages. The WLC then configures the AP
with settings, such as SSIDs, channels, security settings, and 802.11 parameters.
Network Design for Lightweight APs
When using lightweight APs the traffic flow is from the AP, through the network, to the controller, and from there out to
the rest of the network. User traffic is tunneled between the AP and the controller. Make sure that the AP and controller
have Layer 3 connectivity. 
The controller placement can be distributed, with a controller in each building or at each site, if no roaming between
buildings is needed. A centralized design, with redundant controllers placed together, such as in a data center, simplifies
management and increases user mobility.
SSIDs and VLANs must be planned, just as with an autonomous AP. But the configuration is done on the controller.
Clients are placed into VLANs based either on the controller they connect to or an authentication process. The manage-
ment VLAN is mapped to the controller. Controllers support both Layer 2 and Layer 3 roaming. 
The link between a lightweight AP and the switch is an access port, assigned to a VLAN. The link between the controller
and its connected switch is a trunk link. Controllers with several switch links can create an Etherchannel to the switch to
increase bandwidth. Link aggregation is recommended for the 4400 series and is required on the WiSM and the 3750G
integrated controllers.
Ensure that the AP has a power source, either a PoE switch or a power injector.
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Wireless LAN Controllers
Cisco WLAN controllers can be either an appliance, a module, or integrated into a 3750G switch. In the appliance line,
the 5500 series is meant for large deployments and, as of this writing, supports up to 250 APs. The 4400 series is for
medium-sized deployments and supports from 12 APs to 100 APs. The 2100 series is for small deployments and supports
from 6 APs to 25 APs. 
The WLAN controller integrated into a Cisco 3750G switch can support up to 25 APs per switch,or 100 per switch stack.
The Wireless Services Module (WiSM) can be installed into Cisco 6500 and 7600 series switches for large deployments
that need support for up to 300 APs. Cisco ISR routers have a WLAN controller module that can support up to 25 APs for
small deployments. 
Hybrid Remote Edge Access Point (H-REAP)
Wireless controllers need not be in the same physical location as their associated APs. However, having an AP and its
controller separated by a WAN link can lead to some inefficiencies and problems. Two clients in the remote location that
need to connect would have their traffic tunneled over the WAN to the controller and back again. Additionally, the AP
would lose functionality if the WAN were down.
H-REAP addresses these problems:
Connected mode: When the controller is reachable, the AP transmits user authentication to the controller. It sends
traffic in specified WLANs (usually local traffic) to its local switch, however, rather than tunneling it back to the
controller. The connection from the AP to switch needs to be a trunk link if the AP handles multiple VLANs. Traffic
bound to remote networks is still tunneled over the WAN to the controller.
Disconnected mode: When the controller is not reachable, the AP authenticates clients itself. It still sends client to
its connected switch, but of course remote locations will not be reachable if the WAN is down. 
H-REAP is configured at the controller for any APs that operate in this mode.
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Wireless LANs in a Campus Network
Integrating Wireless into the LAN
This section covers configuring your switches for wireless APs and controllers, and planning your installation. 
Switch Configuration
When the switch port connects to a stand-alone AP, configure it as an access port if the AP has only one VLAN and a
trunk port if it has multiple VLANs. Trust CoS if the link is a trunk. Set the trunk native VLAN to the AP’s management
VLAN. Prioritize voice if you use wireless phones.
When the switch port connects to a controller-based AP, the port should be an access port. The port should be placed into
the management VLAN because it is used for traffic between the AP and the controller. Trust DSCP on the port. If using
wireless IPT, also set up QoS to prioritize voice. 
The switch port connecting to a WLAN controller should be configured as a trunk link. Limit the trunk to wireless and
management VLANs. Trust CoS and prioritize voice if you use wireless IP phones.
Links to a 4400 series controller might be aggregated into a Layer 2 Etherchannel. The 4400 cannot negotiate aggrega-
tion, so it is important to set the channel-group mode to “On”. Otherwise, the configuration is the same as with any other
Etherchannel. Configure the channel as a trunk, allow only the management and wireless VLANs, and trust CoS.
The WiSM requires a separate VLAN for its management. This VLAN should be assigned only to the module’s service
port and should not be used outside of the switch. Assign the VLAN to the service port with the global command wism
service-vlan 
vlan. Assign an IP address to the VLAN interface; this IP address is used to communicate with the WiSM.
The WiSM contains eight logical ports that connect to the switch fabric in two Etherchannel bundles. It also contains two
separate controllers. Bundle configuration is done at each controller, using the wism module slot# controller controller#
set of global commands. 
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by copyright. Please see page 112 for more details.

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[ 111 ]
CHAPTER 9
CCNP SWITCH 642-813 Quick Reference
by Denise Donohue
Wireless LANs in a Campus Network
Planning for a Wireless Implementation
In planning a wireless implementation, first gather requirements. Some questions to ask include the following:
n How many APs and where will they be installed?
n Stand-alone or controller-based?
n If controller-based, where will the controllers be located?
n Is PoE available?
n What VLANs and SSIDs will be used?
n What are the bandwidth requirements?
n What are the QoS requirements?
n Do you need security such as ACLs or Radius server?
n Do you need UPS for controllers?
When the requirements are gathered, create an implementation plan with details such as:
n Total needs, from the requirements that were previously gathered
n Any changes needed to the network design
n Any additional equipment needed
n Implementation steps
n Testing plan
The test plan might include checking that the AP and its clients get a DHCP address, that the AP is reachable from a
management station, that clients can reach the network and Internet, and that the controller can reach the Radius server if
used. To troubleshoot problems with wireless connectivity, review the steps for an AP to register with a WLC and a client
with an AP.
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by copyright. Please see page 112 for more details.

9781587140112.qxd  11/23/09  11:35 AM  Page 112
CCNP SWITCH Quick Reference 
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