МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ
ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ БЮДЖЕТНОЕ
ВЫСШЕГО ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ
«САНКТ-ПЕТЕРБУРГСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ
ЭКОНОМИКИ И ФИНАНСОВ»
КАФЕДРА ТЕОРИИ ЯЗЫКА И ПЕРЕВОДОВЕДЕНИЯ
Stylistics of English Language
Seminar exercises and tasks
«Стилистика английского языка»
САНКТ-ПЕТЕРБУРГСКОГО ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОГО УНИВЕРСИТЕТА
ЭКОНОМИКИ И ФИНАНСОВ
Stylistics of English Language. Seminar exercises and tasks по
дисциплине «Стилистика английского языка» : учебное пособие /
И.Ю. Вострикова. – СПб. : Изд-во СПбГУЭФ, 2011. – 63 с.
Данное учебное пособие предлагает подробный план семинарских
практических занятий по стилистике английского языка. План каждого
занятия включает обзор теоретического материала, задания для
самостоятельной работы, а также широкий спектр практических заданий,
включающих как упражнения, направленные на отработку отдельных
языковых навыков, так и развитие творческого письма на английском
языке в различных стилях.
Пособие предназначено для студентов-лингвистов гуманитарных
факультетов и вузов.
: канд. филол. наук, доцент В.Н. Бычков
канд. пед. наук, доцент В.В. Гончарова
© СПбГУЭФ, 2011
Introduction .................................................................................................. 4
Structure of seminar curriculum and tasks ................................................... 6
Group presentations ..................................................................................... 7
Exam tasks ................................................................................................... 8
Topics for term papers ................................................................................. 10
Seminar plans and tasks ............................................................................... 11
Seminar 1: Concepts of style and main terms of stylistics ........................... 11
Seminar 2: Intertextuality and interdiscoursivity ......................................... 14
Seminar 3: Tropes, figures and expressive means ....................................... 18
Seminar 4: Metaphors we live by................................................................. 21
Seminar 5: Publicist style: essays and oratory ............................................. 30
Seminar 6: Newspaper style ......................................................................... 34
Seminar 7: Official documents style ............................................................ 39
Seminar 8: Scientific style ........................................................................... 42
Seminar 9: Persuasiveness ........................................................................... 44
Seminar 10: Belle-letters and poetry style ................................................... 49
Appendix 1 ................................................................................................... 50
Appendix 2 ................................................................................................... 61
Literature ...................................................................................................... 63
Stylistics is Linguistic stylistics like other language branches has the
facts of the language as the main object (after Galperin).
But it has a
different subject of study which is the styles of speech, stylistic means and
devices and their correlation to the meaning they are expressing.
Nowadays stylistics is regarded from various angles but most of scholars
agree that it is generally applied to such notions as:
Aesthetic functions of the language
Expressive means of the language
Synonymous ways of thought expression
Emotive speech colouring
Stratification of the literary language into separate systems (speech
Individual manner of language usage (idiosyncrasy of a writer).
Expressive means differ from the notion of stylistic devices. For
example, a lot of grammatical means are sometimes used for stylistic
purposes, like the present continuous tense is used to denote an action in the
future, or present tenses sometimes imply the facts of the past. But usage of
these expressive means does not create a special stylistic category, they are
not that frequent and not exactly structured to claim them a stylistic device.
They are still the facts of grammar, because the grammar aims at describing
all possible ways of implication of language units. On the contrary, stylistic
devices are characterized by the deliberate adaptation or editing of language
The central term of stylistics is style. The term comes from Latin
‗stilus‘ – a pointed instrument which Romans used to write on wax tablets.
Later it came to express the manner, typical of a certain writer, then of a
certain author, literary school, some period in the development of literature.
Then it was carried to another spheres and started to indicate the style of a
painter/composer, the elegance of technique, or that individual quality that
distinguished the work of this writer from the work of another one.
The understanding of the notion of style varied under influence of
different philosophical schools. With time style obtained a connotation of the
speech embellishment which leads to separation of the form and the
meaning. Style was regarded as a complex of technical devices used
independently of the meaning.
A utilitarian point of view suggests style being a system of teaching
how to speak correctly.
Others describe style as an individually creative usage of language.
The most comprehensive concept of style introduces it as a quality
of speech, a language expression of a thought revealing the natural harmonic
correlation between the content and the form. In this regard a scholar shall
distinguish between literature and linguistic concepts of style.
Academician Vinogradov wrote that the content expressed by the
means of literary language can not be the subject of linguistic study. A
linguist is interested in the methods of the content expression or the
interrelation of the expressive means to the expressed content. However, in
the process of a scientific investigation the content can‘t be completely
Thus, style can be defined as a socially recognized and functionally
conditioned internally united complex of usage, selection and combination
means of speech communication of any national language, which
corresponds to the other similar means of expression used for different
purposes in the social speech practice of the given nation (Vinogradov and
Another important notion is functional style. А functional style of
language is а system of interrelated language means which serves а definite
aim in communication. А functional style is thus to bе regarded as the
product of а certain concrete task set bу the sender of the message.
Functional styles арреаг mainly in the literary standard of а language.
In the English literary standard Galperin distinguishes the following
major functional styles:
1) The language of belles-Letters.
2) The language of publicist literature.
3) The language of newspapers.
4) The language of scientific prose.
5) The language of official documents.
Irina Arnold develops only 4 functional styles:
Skrebyshev doesn‘t limit the number of functional styles.
Lapshina offers the following classification:
1) Belles-letters style
2) Publicist style
3) Oratory style
4) Scientific style
5) Official style
6) Newspaper style
7) Colloquial style.
A functional style is a specifically arranged methods of usage,
selection and combination of language means which can not be confused
with an individual style of an author.
Functional styles are not easy to distinguish due to the following
1) Functional style interrelate, interweave.
2) Functional styles are historically varying.
3) The notion of a functional style is very close to that of a genre.
A style can be consisted of different genres, e.g. the belles-letters
style covers the genres of novel, short story, poem etc. Styles are not isolated
from each other but they have a core and their own special parameters.
Functional styles are mostly divided into the literary processed styles
or written styles and the oratory or colloquial styles.
This book contains a thorough seminar plan for stylistics disciplines
including set of exercises covering all spheres of interest for stylistics, group
work projects, topics for course papers and exam tasks.
Structure of seminar curriculum and tasks
5 following points condition a student‘s admission to the final exam:
1. Attendance and good work on seminars.
2. Compulsory participation in a group presentation
format) on one of the topics offered. These topics cover the most urgent
problems of English stylistics and will definitely be introduced into exam
Students get united into groups of two or three, each
person of which arrange a presentation on the chosen topic. Each member of
the group shall speak up. Each presentation should contain abundance of
examples and illustrations apart from theoretical material, and be concluded
with a small test of 5 multiple choice tasks on the material presented).
Students are encouraged to use creative and illustrative approach
while making a presentation. Duration time is about 15 minutes.
Structure of a presentation
Definitions and terms
Main function of a notion described
Main features of a notion described
Examples and illustrations
Small test of 5 multiple choice tasks.
To match the laptop offered by the Chair, please, use the format of
PowerPoint 1997-2003. A more modern version of PowerPoint won‘t do at
Working language – English.
A report or small presentation by every student on a trope or a
stylistic device on choice.
4. All written tasks handed over and graded
by an agreed deadline
(about 7 written tasks per semester). All written tasks constitute a student’s
which is to be presented at the exam.
5. Term paper (kursovaya)
ready and handed over by an agreed
These topics are regarded the principal and most urgent in stylistics
at the present stage of scientific development:
1. Intertextuality and interdiscoursivity. History of terms. Various
approaches and points of view. Types. Examples. (Seminar 2)
2. Tropes, figures and expressive means. Differences. Structure of a
trope. Transfer of meaning in tropes. Classifications of devices.
Examples. (Seminar 3)
3. Metaphor. Types, classifications, functions. (Seminar 4)
4. Imagery. Types of images. Interrelation of a trope and imagery.
Structure of an image. Image and symbol. (Seminar 4)
5. Specifics of oratory style. (Seminar 5)
6. Foregrounding and its main types. (Seminar 5)
7. Specifics of newspaper style. (Seminar 6)
8. Creolized text. Types, classifications. (Seminar 6)
9. Specifics of official documentary: special features of business,
military, diplomatic and law substyles. (Seminar 7)
10. Specifics of scientific style. (Seminar 8)
11. Stylistic stratification of lexis. Classifications. What‘s a neutral
layer? Literary and colloquial strata (bookish words, historisms,
slang etc) (Seminar 8)
12. Persuasiveness. Types of influencing the reader (argumentation,
manipulation, suggestiveness, NLP). Strategy and tactics. Examples.
13. Specifics of English versification. Is there a poetic style? (Seminar
Tropes and Stylistic Devices to Be Specially Reported Of (individually):
General plan of a report on a trope or a stylistic device:
2. Structure and functions
3. Types, classifications
4. Examples and illustrations
List of Tropes and Stylistic Devices:
1. Metonymy (including: antonomasia, synecdoche)
2. Euphemism and dysphemism
5. Rhetorical question and other question constructions
6. Onomatopoeia and sound symbolism
7. Pun, paronomasia
10. Euphony (alliteration and assonance) and cacophony
11. Graphon and other graphic devices
12. Parallel constructions
1. Stylistics, object of study and objectives. Types of stylistics, field of
investigation for each type. Differences between types of stylistics.
2. Stylistics of decoding. Shennon‘s scheme of communication.
3. Varieties of language: spoken and written types. Features of each
4. Different concepts of style. Stylistic function.
5. Norm and neutrality.
6. Foregrounding and its types. Main functions of foregrounding.
7. Intertextuality, history of the term, types of intertextuality.
8. Interdiscoursivity, history of the term, main types.
9. Context and its types. Types of interrelation between word and
10. Tropes, stylistic figures and expressive means. Differences.
11. Tropes. Structure of a trope. Mechanisms of meaning transfer.
Classifications of metaphors. Examples of tropes.
12. Classifications of stylistic devices. Scientists‘ opinions. Examples of
phonetic, lexical and grammatical devices.
13. Phonetic stylistic devices. Sound instrumenting and its types.
14. English versification. Verse organization. Types of rhyme. Main
15. Lexical stylistic devices.
16. Stylistic morphology. Synonymy of morphemes and variability of
morphological categorical forms.
17. Stylistic syntax. Models of syntactic devices and their classification.
Models of reduction and expansion.
18. Stylistic syntax. Figures of repetition.
19. Stylistic phraseology. Stylistic devices in phraseology.
20. Stratification of English vocabulary. Different classifications.
Stylistically marked layers of word-stock. Problem of neutrality.
21. Special colloquial stratum. General characteristics and classes of
22. Special literary stratum. General characteristics and word classes.
23. Functional styles. Classifications by different scientists. Basic
features of functional styles.
24. Newspaper style and its substyles. Chief lexical, grammatical and
25. Oratory style. Chief lexical, grammatical and other characteristics.
26. Publicist style. Chief lexical, grammatical and other characteristics.
27. Official document style. Chief lexical, grammatical and other
28. Scientific style. Chief lexical, grammatical and other characteristics.
29. Emotive prose style. Chief lexical, grammatical and other
30. Image and imagery. Structure of an image. Classification of images.
Interrelation between tropes and images.
31. Creolized texts. Types, functions and main features.
32. Persuasiveness. Types of influencing the reader (argumentation,
manipulation, suggestiveness, NLP). Strategy and tactics. Examples.
33. Text qualities and categories. Category of expressiveness.
34. Text qualities and categories. Category of emotiveness.
Topics for Term Papers
Term papers are to be performed in Russian. No more than 2 students can
choose one and the same topic, in which case the materials intended for
analysis should differ.
1. Функционирование стилистических приемов в тексте рекламы.
2. Стилистические особенности построения креолизованного
3. Стилистические приемы персуазивности в тексте политических
4. Стилистические приемы персуазивности в тексте рекламы.
5. Стилистические приемы персуазивности в публицистике (на
материале современных газет и журналов).
экономической тематики (ex: The Moneychangers by
7. Стилистические особенности текста художественного фильма.
8. Особенности структуры жанра производственного романа (на
материале произведений Артура Хейли).
9. Функционирование стилистических приемов в текстах песен.
10. Особенности функционирования стилистических фонетических
приемов в поэзии.
11. Интернет-сайт как особый функциональный стиль.
12. Стилистические особенности написания заголовков газет и
13. Функционирование сленга в тексте художественного фильма.
14. Особенности передачи детской речи в художественной
15. Стилистические особенности художественных произведений
16. Стилистические особенности составления правовых документов
(на материале договоров о приеме на работу).
17. Маркеры интертекстуальности в художественной литературе.
18. Варианты проявления интердискурсивности в художественной
19. Стилистические особенности публицистических текстов на
20. Функционирование категории эмотивности в художественных
21. Маркеры категории эмотивности в текстах предвыборных
22. Аллитерационный стих в творчестве Дж.Р. Толкиена (иного
23. Стилистическая конвергенция в детективных романах.
24. Типы метафор в политической прессе.
25. Классификация метафор в газетных статьях экономической
26. Стилистические особенности построения креолизованного
текста политической карикатуры.
27. Стилистические особенности английского лимерика.
28. Особенности современного англоязычного стихосложения (на
материале белого стиха).
29. Особенности американского стихосложения в ХХ веке.
30. Стилистические особенности лексики интернет-чатов.
31. Роль каламбура в английской сатирической прозе.
32. Ирония как базовый стилистический прием театральных пьес.
33. Типы выдвижения в журнальных редакторских статьях.
34. Стилистические особенности текстов военной тематики.
Seminar Plans and Tasks
Seminar 1: “Concepts of style and main terms of stylistics”
. Demands to the quality of a theoretical paper,
discussion on the choice of the topic. Discussion on the group and
individual presentations and choice of topics.
2. Stylistics theory:
Subject and aims of stylistics. Speech stylistics. Language
Linguostylistics and literature stylistics. Phonostylistics.
Author‘s and reader‘s stylistics (or sender and recipient
stylistics). Stylistics of decoding and theory of information for
Various approaches to the notion of style. Difference between
style, genre and text type.
3. Practical exercises and homework:
synonymous ways of rendering
one and the same idea.
Transformation should be made on several levels:
- using different layers of synonymous lexis;
- using changes in grammatical constructions;
- introducing imagery through tropes and stylistic devices to describe the
Analyze the transformation of the sentence: ―Your letter
pleased me greatly‖, fulfill the second column of the table describing the
type of transformation in each case:
1. I was glad to get your letter
2. I was pleased by getting your letter
3. Getting your letter was a real pleasure for
4. Your letter was bear to my taste
5. Your letter made me jump from joy
6. Reading your letter was extremely pleasant
7. To read your epistle was a pure pleasure
8. Your letter is the best of what happened to
9. No words fail me to describe happiness I
felt, having received your letter
10. Your letter flattered me immensely
11. Your letter gratified me unmistakably
12. I can‘t find any radii to describe the circle
of the emotions I had, having received your
13. I cross heart that no radices of the square
array can‘t calculate the pleasure I felt
while reading your letter
14. My joy of reading your letter couldn‘t be
told in a tale or written with a pen
15. You should know what a wild delight
invaded me when I was reading your letter
16. I was reading your letter and believe me my
eyes were full of uncontainable happiness
17. My joy of reading your letter was like sea –
wide no ho
18. Your letter elucidated my drab existence
like a stream of light
19. Your letter was like a stream of light in the
kingdom of darkness
20. Your writing to me was the most delightful
21. Your letter was as honey for my heart
22. The message you have sent to me was
23. Ur msg made me LOL
24. Your letter warms the cockles of my heart
when I re-read it during cold evenings
25. I‘ve read your letter and I‘m ready to bend
my knee to the God to make him send me
one more message from you
26. Thx 4 ur line, it‘s cool
27. Oh, my friend, your letter
Made my mood go better!
28. The jocundity I felt having received your
epistle was considerable
29. Like rivers fill the sea with water, your
message filled my soul with pleasure
30. Your precious letter … How much it means
31. Not unpleasing was your epistle tome
32. Did your letter pleased me? Oh, it really
Are these real transformations? Do you see any flaws while
transformation in these examples?
33. Thank you for your letter
34. Every time I remember your letter I get
35. As soon as I‘ve read your letter, a strong
desire to answer you overwhelmed me
Transfer the following sentences (give at least 30 variants):
1. I liked going to the theater last Sunday.
2. A pretty girl smiled to me at the railway station.
3. Next week our family will go to Paris to visit friends.
4. China is a modern and rapidly growing economy in the post-crisis
5. Thank you for your pleasant gift for my birthday.
Seminar 2 “Intertextuality and interdiscoursivity”
1. Group presentation
―Intertextuality and interdiscoursivity. History
of terms. Various approaches and points of view. Types. Examples.‖
2. Stylistics theory:
Text, different views on text in stylistics. Properties and
characteristics of text.
Context. Types of context. Interrelation of a word and context.
3. Practical exercises:
make up an interdiscoursive text. In this case
we understand interdiscoursivity as interpenetration and interrelation
of styles and genres, a special case of stylization (e.g. a wedding
invitation in the shape of a newspaper article or a car race
announcement; political fairy-tale; political sermon etc).
make up an intertextual dialog using the main markers
of manifest intertextuality (quotes, allusions, footnotes, references,
antonomasia etc). Mind that these quotes and allusions should be
recognizable, otherwise, none will ever get that this is a quote and
this is a case of intertextuality. Dialog size - 20 lines.
Example of an intertextual dialog (by Alina Bolshakova, 2010):
Hi, Steven! What‘s wrong with you? You look like Luke
after one of those epic cosmic battles.
Why? Is it that obvious I‘m disappointed?
Your face, my thane, is as a book where men may read strange
I‘ve been to ―The Times‖ office trying to get a job. The place was a Babylon3
– everyone‘s running in all directions, screaming as if it‘s
sinking or something. Then there was this Cheshire Cat5
of a man, grinning at me while asking questions. Harry Potter6
would have found Snape’s 7
dungeons cosy and comfortable
compared to what I have experienced there. Naturally, I didn‘t get
the job. So I decided to go home to Mary, take her out to dine.
All you need is love8
, isn‘t it? Was she disappointed you din‘t get
To put it mildly, yes. She was like “hit the road, Jack!”9
not listen to me, and I feel this time it‘s actually over.
Thou too, Brutus?10
Cheer up, Steven! No one in the Earth is
worth your tears the one who deserves it will never let you cry.11
Well, I guess so. Love is a battlefield12
, and I seem to have just lost
this last battle. OK, I don‘t want to continue this conversation at the
moment, so please, stop blowing holes in my ship13
! Sorry, don‘t
be offended by anything I say today.
Friends will be friends14
, mate, don‘t worry. Maybe, all this is a
start of a new life? Who knows what the tide could bring?15
Thank you! I know it‘s gonna be OK. A man can be destroyed but
What are you going to do now? How about a Saturday night
? There will be Tony, and Alice, and Mike in the club. They
have been long willing to see you. You don‘t show up much.
No, not tonight, thank you. I‘m going home.
OK. But, Steven, you can't stay in your corner of the forest
waiting for others to come to you. You have to go to them
I will. But a little bit later, when this Armageddon19
in my life
So, don‘t forget, you can count on us!
I know. I‘ll get by with a little help from my friends20
. I‘ll call
Take care, Steven! See you.
Keys and references:
1. Star Wars.
2. William Shakespeare, Macbeth, act 1 scene 5.
3. In the Hebrew Bible, the name appears as
by Book of Genesis 11:9.
4. Titanic is a 1997 American disaster/romantic/drama film directed,
written, co-produced, and co-edited by James Cameron about the
sinking of the RMS Titanic.
5. The Cheshire Cat is a fictional cat popularised by Lewis Carroll's
depiction of it in Alice's Adventures in Wonderland. Known for his
distinctive mischievous grin, the Cheshire Cat has had a notable
impact on popular culture.
6. J. K. Rowling, Harry Potter.
7. J. K. Rowling, Harry Potter.
8. The Beatles, ―All you need is love‖.
9. Ray Charles, ―Hit the Road Jack‖.
10. Julius Caesar. ("Et tu, Brute?" (pronounced "Et tu, Bruté?") ("Even
you, Brutus?" or "And you, Brutus?" or "You too, Brutus?" or the
more linguistically antiquated "Thou too, Brutus?") is a Latin phrase
often used poetically to represent the last words of Roman dictator
Julius Caesar. Immortalized by Shakespeare's Julius Caesar, the
quotation is widely used in Western culture as an epitome of
11. Gabriel García Márquez, One Hundred Years of Solitude.
12. Movie ―From 13 to 30‖, a phrase by Jenna Rink.
13. Movie ―Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl‖, a
phrase by Captain Jack Sparrow.
14. Queen, ―Friends Will Be Friends‖.
15. Movie ―Cast Away‖, a phrase by Chuck Noland.
16. Ernest Hemingway, The Old Man and the Sea.
17. ―Saturday Night Fever‖ is a 1977 film starring John Travolta as
Tony Manero, an immature young man whose weekends are spent
visiting a local Brooklyn discothèque.
18. A.A.Milne , Winnie-the-Pooh.
19. The Greek New Testament.
20. The Beatles, ―With a Little Help from My Friends‖.
Example of an interdiscoursive exercise. Make up a text
interdiscoursivity reveals when two different functional styles overlap, for
example, a CV in the shape of a radio interview, a wedding invitation made
like a newspaper article or advertisement, a political satire but in the form of
a fairy-tale). You can invent combinations of your own, they are innumerous.
The important thing here is that in this combination the reader should easily
recognize both styles. For example, if you make a CV in the shape of an
advert, I should easily find out that it is not just some advert, or not just a bad
CV, but really a creatively made CV that uses the textual form of the advert. Exercise 3:
Analyze the intertextual and interdiscoursive features of the
following text (politically correct fairytale):
- analyze the features of both discourses
- analyze the function of italicized parts
- analyze the devices and features leading to creation of the humorous effect
- analyze the general effect and purpose of the text.
James Finn Garner “Little Red Riding Hood”
(from Politically Correct Bedtime Stories,
Macmillan Publishing Company, New York)
There once was a young person named Red Riding Hood who lived
with her mother on the edge of a large wood. One day her mother asked her
to take a basket of fresh fruit and mineral water to her grandmother‘s house –
not because this was womyn‘s work, mind you, but because the deed was
generous and helped engender a feeling of community. Furthermore, here
grandmother was not
sick, but rather was in full physical and mental health
and was fully capable of taking care of herself as a mature adult.
So Red Riding Hood set off with her basket through the woods.
Many people believed that the forest was a foreboding and dangerous place
and never set foot in it. Red Riding Hood, however, was confident enough in
her won budding sexuality that such obvious Freudian imagery did not
On the way to Grandma‘s house, Red Riding hood was accosted by
a wolf, who asked her what was in her basket. She replied, ―Some healthful
snacks for my grandmother, who is certainly capable of taking care of herself
as a mature adult.‖
The wolf said, ―You know, my dear, it isn‘t safe for a little girl to
walk through these woods alone.‖
Red Riding Hood said, ―I find your sexist remark offensive in the
extreme, but I will ignore it because of your traditional status as an outcast
from society, the stress of which has caused you to develop your won,
entirely valid, worldview. Now, if you‘ll excuse me, I must be on my way.‖
Red Riding Hood walked on along the main path. But, because his
status outside society had freed him from slavish adherence to linear,
Western-style thought, the wolf know a quicker route to Grandma‘s house.
He burst into the house and ate Grandma, an entirely valid course of action
for a carnivore such as himself. Then, unhampered by rigid, traditionalist
notions of what was masculine or feminine, he put on Grandma‘s
nightclothes and crawled into bed.
Red Riding Hood entered the cottage and said, ―Grandma, I have
brought you some fat-free, sodium-free snacks to salute you in your role of a
wise and nurturing matriarch.‖
From the bed, the wolf said softly, ―Come closer, child, so that I
might see you.‖
Red Riding Hood said, ―Oh, I forgot you are as optically challenged
as a bat. Grandma, what big eyes you have!‖
―They have seen much, and forgiven much, my dear.‖
―Grandma, what a big nose you have – only relatively, of course,
and certainly attractive in its own way.‖
―It has smelled much, and forgiven much, my dear.‖
―Grandma, what big teeth you have!‖
The wolf said, ―I am happy with who
I am and what
I am,‖ and
leaped out of bed. He grabbed Red Riding Hood in his claws, intent on
devouring her. Red Riding Hood screamed, no out of alarm at the wolf‘s
apparent tendency toward cross-dressing, but because of his willful invasion
of her personal space.
Her screams were heard by a passing woodchopper-person (or log-
fuel technician, as he preferred to be called). When he burst into the cottage,
he saw the melee and tried to intervene. But as he raised his ax, Red Riding
Hood and the wolf both stopped.
―And just what do you think you‘re doing?‖ asked Red Riding
The woodchopper-person blinked and tried to answer, but no words
came to him.
―Bursting in here like a Neanderthal, trusting your weapon to do
your thinking for you!‖ she exclaimed. ―Sexist! Speciesist! How dare you
assume that womyn and wolves can‘t solve their own problems without a
When she heard Red Riding Hood‘s impassioned speech, Grandma
jumped out of the wolf‘s mouth, seized the woodchopper-person‘s ax, and
cut his head off. After this ordeal, Red Riding Hood, Grandma, and the wolf
felt a certain commonality of purpose. They decided to set up an alternative
household based on mutual respect and cooperation, and they lived together
in the woods happily ever after.
DKNY case (slides at class).
Seminar 3: “Tropes, figures and expressive means”
1. Group presentations
―Tropes, figures and expressive means.‖ 2. Stylistics theory:
- Definitions. Differences between tropes, figures and expressive means.
- Types of tropes.
- Structure of a trope. Transfer of meaning in tropes. Examples.
- Analysis of a trope. 3. Practical exercises:
Exercise on a trope analysis. Define what trope
(metaphor, simile, synecdoche, antonomasia, metonymy) it is and
make an analysis:
- level of nomination,
- level of trope structure,
- level of interdiscoursivity.
Exercises 2, 5 and 6 (yellow textbook). Trope analysis.
Example of a comprehensive analysis of a trope.
1. From the point of view of nomination:
There are 2 levels of nomination – primary and secondary. Metaphor
always carries 2 senses and is based on the transfer of meaning between
The level of primary nomination (initial meanings of words in a
– a neutral word, primary meaning nominates a metal, but its
connotation brings the meaning of something heavy, non-transparent; curtain
– a word of neutral level defining a piece of tissue used for covering
or separating something.
The level of secondary nomination (new meaning emerged in a
trope): Neutral words iron and curtain
being combined together make up a
new meaning of a heavy, unfriendly and impenetrable wall or cover. We
know the sphere of application of this word combination which is politics, as
well as we know the author of it – Winston Churchill, British prime-minister
after the II World War. He used this word combination as a metaphorical
definition for hard and foe-likely relations between western democratic states
and eastern communist countries. The visual symbol of the iron curtain
became the Berlin Wall.
2. From the point of view of a trope structure (after I.V. Arnold):
Structure of a trope:
ground of comparison
technique of comparison
grammatical and lexical specifics of comparison (junctions
We should know the larger context for analysis of this kind – what is
compared to what.
Cold, unfriendly relations and division of the world into two
ideological camps are compared to an iron curtain.
The ground – heaviness of both notions (unfriendly relations and
heaviness of iron)
The technique – similarity (metaphor is a comparison and meaning
transfer by similarity)
The tenor is political relations between countries.
The vehicle is the image of ―iron curtain‖.
No special grammatical or lexical means are used (in cases of simile,
for example, we often use junctions ―like‖ or ―as‖; if it is so, you should
mention it in your analysis).
3. From the point of view of interdiscoursivity:
The phrase ―iron curtain‖ first emerged in a political speech and then
was fixed in it. This gives us the right to define it as a unit of political
discourse. Moreover, the attribute ―iron‖ really derives from the description
of the political situation. However, the symbol of curtain separating two
worlds comes from theatrical sphere where a curtain is to divide the audience
hall from the stage. Thus, we may speak of two discoursed represented in the
metaphor – interrelation of a political and theatrical discourses.
While writing an analysis, you are advised to use introductive words
like ―furthermore, however, thus, moreover, then‖ etc. These words help to
connect your ideas in the text and make your analysis look more scientific. Exercise 2:
Define the type of a trope and analyze it:
1. The suits on Wall Street walked off with most of our savings.
2. "I told you we could count on Mr. Old-Time Rock and Roll!" (Murray
referring to Arthur in Velvet Goldmine)
3. "I'm a myth. I'm Beowulf. I'm Grendel." (Karl Rove)
4. General Motors announced cutbacks.
5. "He was like a cock who thought the sun had risen to hear him crow."
(George Eliot, Adam Bede)
6. "Life is like an onion: You peel it off one layer at a time, and sometimes
you weep." (Carl Sandburg)
7. "It is all, God help us, a matter of rocks. The rocks shape life like hands
around swelling dough." (Annie Dillard, "Life on the Rocks: The
8. "Good coffee is like friendship: rich and warm and strong." (slogan of Pan-
American Coffee Bureau)
9. "The streets were a furnace, the sun an executioner." (Cynthia Ozick,
10. "But my heart is a lonely hunter that hunts on a lonely hill." (William
Sharp, "The Lonely Hunter").
Seminar 4: “Metaphors we live by”
1. Group presentation
―Metaphor as the main trope.‖ 2. Stylistics theory:
- Metaphor as the main trope, general definitions, various views.
- Structure, mechanisms of meaning transfer.
- Classification of metaphors.
- Main functions. 3
. Practical exercises and homework:
Read the article by George
Lakoff and Mark Johnson
―Metaphors we live by‖. Discussion, make
up a summary with the main ideas.
Metaphors We Live By George Lakoff, a linguist,
and Mark Johnson, a philosopher, suggest that metaphors not only make our
thoughts more vivid and interesting but that they actually structure our
perceptions and understanding. Thinking of marriage as a "contract
agreement," for example, leads to one set of expectations, while thinking of it
as "team play," "a negotiated settlement," "Russian roulette," "an indissoluble
merger," or "a religious sacrament" will carry different sets of expectations.
When a government thinks of its enemies as "turkeys‖ or "clowns" it does not
take them as serious threats, but if they are "pawns" in the hands of the
communists, they are taken seriously indeed.
Metaphors We Live By has led many readers to a new recognition of
how profoundly metaphors not only shape our view of life in the present but
set up the expectations that determine what life well be for us in the future.
"Metaphors We Live By" by George Lakoff and Mark Johnson
(the selection comprises chapters 1, 2, 3, and part of 4).
Concepts we live by
Metaphor is for most people device of the poetic imagination and the
rhetorical flourish--a matter of extraordinary rather than ordinary language.
Moreover, metaphor is typically viewed as characteristic of language alone, a
matter of words rather than thought or action. For this reason, most people
think they can get along perfectly well without metaphor. We have found, on
the contrary, that metaphor is pervasive in everyday life, not just in language
but in thought and action. Our ordinary conceptual system, in terms of which
we both think and act, is fundamentally metaphorical in nature.
The concepts that govern our thought are not just matters of the
intellect. They also govern our everyday functioning, down to the most
mundane details. Our concepts structure what we perceive, how we get
around in the world, and how we relate to other people. Our conceptual
system thus plays a central role in defining our everyday realities. If we are
right in suggesting that our conceptual system is largely metaphorical, then
the way we thinks what we experience, and what we do every day is very
much a matter of metaphor.
But our conceptual system is not something we are normally aware
of. in most of the little things we do every day, we simply think and act more
or less automatically along certain lines. Just what these lines are is by no
means obvious. One way to find out is by looking at language. Since
communication is based on the same conceptual system that we use in
thinking and acting, language is an important source of evidence for what
that system is like.
Primarily on the basis of linguistic evidence, we have found that
most of our ordinary conceptual system is metaphorical in nature. And we
have found a way to begin to identify in detail just what the metaphors are
halt structure how we perceive, how we think, and what we do.
To give some idea of what it could mean for a concept to be
metaphorical and for such a concept to structure an everyday activity, let us
start with the concept ARGUMENT and the conceptual metaphor
ARGUMENT IS WAR. This metaphor is reflected in our everyday language
by a wide variety of expressions:
ARGUMENT IS WAR
Your claims are indefensible.
every weak point in my argument.
His criticisms were right on target.
I've never won
an argument with him.
you disagree? Okay, shoot!
If you use that strategy,
he'll wipe you out.
He shot down
all of my arguments.
It is important to see that we don't just talk about arguments in terms of…
It is important to see that we don't just talk about arguments in terms
of war. We can actually win or lose arguments. We see the person we are
arguing with as an opponent. We attack his positions and we defend our own.
We gain and lose ground. We plan and use strategies. If we find a position
indefensible, we can abandon it and take a new line of attack. Many of the
things we do in arguing are partially structured by the concept of war.
Though there is no physical battle, there is a verbal battle, and the structure of
an argument – attack, defense, counter-attack, etc. – reflects this. It is in this
sense that the ARGUMENT IS WAR metaphor is one that we live by in this
culture; its structures the actions we perform in arguing. Try to imagine a
culture where arguments are not viewed in terms of war, where no one wins
or loses, where there is no sense of attacking or defending, gaining or losing
ground. Imagine a culture where an argument is viewed as a dance, the
participants are seen as performers, and the goal is to perform in a balanced
and aesthetically pleasing way. In such a culture, people would view
arguments differently, experience them differently, carry them out
differently, and talk about them differently. But we would probably not view
them as arguing at all: they would simply be doing something different. It
would seem strange even to call what they were doing "arguing." In perhaps
the most neutral way of describing this difference between their culture and
ours would be to say that we have a discourse form structured in terms of
battle and they have one structured in terms of dance. This is an example of
what it means for a metaphorical concept, namely, ARGUMENT IS WAR, to
structure (at least in part) what we do and how we understand what we are
doing when we argue. The essence of metaphor is understanding and
experiencing one kind of thing in terms of another.
. It is not that arguments
are a subspecies of war. Arguments and wars are different kinds of things –
verbal discourse and armed conflict – and the actions performed are different
kinds of actions. But ARGUMENT is partially structured, understood,
performed, and talked about in terms of WAR. The concept is metaphorically
structured, the activity is metaphorically structured, and, consequently, the
language is metaphorically structured.
Moreover, this is the ordinary way of having an argument and
talking about one. The normal way for us to talk about attacking a position is
to use the words "attack a position." Our conventional ways of talking about
arguments presuppose a metaphor we are hardly ever conscious of. The
metaphors not merely in the words we use – it is in our very concept of an
argument. The language of argument is not poetic, fanciful, or rhetorical; it is
literal. We talk about arguments that way because we conceive of them that
way – and we act according to the way we conceive of things.
The most important claim we have made so far is that metaphor is
not just a matter of language, that is, of mere words. We shall argue that, on
the contrary, human thought processes are largely metaphorical. This is what
we mean when we say that the human conceptual system is metaphorically
structured and defined. Metaphors as linguistic expressions are possible
precisely because there are metaphors in a person's conceptual system.
Therefore, whenever in this book we speak of metaphors, such as
ARGUMENT IS WAR, it should be understood that metaphor means
The systematicity of metaphorical concepts
Arguments usually follow patterns; that is, there are certain things
we typically do and do not do in arguing. The fact that we in part
conceptualize arguments in terms of battle systematically influences the
shape argument stake and the way we talk about what we do in arguing.
Because the metaphorical concept is systematic, the language we use to talk
about that aspect of the concept is systematic.
We saw in the ARGUMENT IS WAR metaphor that expressions
from the vocabulary of war, e.g., attack a position, indefensible, strategy, new
line of attack, win, gain ground, etc., form a systematic way of talking about
the battling aspects of arguing. It is no accident that these expressions mean
what they mean when we use them to talk about arguments. A portion of the
conceptual network of battle partially characterizes file concept of an
argument, and the language follows suit. Since metaphorical expressions in
our language are tied to metaphorical concepts in a systematic way, we can
use metaphorical linguistic expressions to study the nature of metaphorical
concepts and to gain an understanding of the metaphorical nature of our
To get an idea of how metaphorical expressions in everyday
language icon give us insight into the metaphorical nature of the concepts
that structure our everyday activities, let us consider the metaphorical
concept TIME IS Money as it is reflected in contemporary English.
TIME IS MONEY
This gadget will save you hours. I don't have the time to give you.
How do you spend your time these days? That flat tire cost me an hour.
I've invested a lot of time in her.
1 don't have enough time to spare for that. You're running out of time.
You need to budget your time. Put aside
aside some time for ping pong.
Is that worth your while?
Do you have much time left
He's living on I borrowed
You don't use your time, profitably
a lot of time when I got sick. Thank you for
Time in our culture is a valuable commodity. It is a limited resource
that we use to accomplish our goals. Because of the way that the concept of
work has developed in modern Western culture, where work is typically
associated with the time it takes and time is precisely quantified, it has
become customary to pay people by the hour, week, or year. In our culture
TIME IS MONEY in many ways: telephone message units, hourly wages,
hotel room rates, yearly budgets, interest on loans, and paying your debt to
society by "serving time." These practices are relatively new in the history of
the human race, and by no means do they exist in all cultures. They have
arisen in modern industrialized societies and structure our basic everyday
activities in a very profound way. Corresponding to the fact that we act as if
time is a valuable commodity--a limited resource, even money--we conceive
of time that way. Thus we understand and experience time as the kind of
thing that can be spent, wasted, budgeted, invested wisely or poorly, saved,
TIME IS MONEY, TIME IS A LIMITED RESOURCE, and TIME
IS A VALUABLE COMMODITY are all metaphorical concepts. They are
metaphorical since we are using our everyday experiences with money,
limited resources, and valuable commodities to conceptualize time. This isn't
a necessary way for human beings to conceptualize time; it is tied to our
culture. There are cultures where time is none of these things.
The metaphorical concepts TIME IS MONEY, TIME 1S A
RESOURCE, and TIME IS A VALUABLE COMMODITY form a single
system based on sub-categorization, since in our society money is a limited
resource and limited resources are valuable commodities. These sub
categorization relationships characterize entailment relationships between the
metaphors: TIME IS MONEY entails that TIME IS A LIMITED
RESOURCE, which entails that TIME 1S A VALUABLE COMMODITY.
We are adopting the practice of using the most specific metaphorical
concept, in this case TIME IS MONEY to characterize the entire system. Of
the expressions listed under the TIME IS MONEY metaphor, some refer
specifically to money (spend, invest, budget, probably cost), others to limited
resources (use, use up, have enough of, run out of), and still others to
valuable commodities (have, give, lose, thank you for). This is an example of
the way in which metaphorical entailments can characterize a coherent
system of metaphorical concepts and a corresponding coherent system of
metaphorical expressions for those concepts.
The very systematicity that allows us to comprehend one aspect of a
concept in terms terms of another (e.g., comprehending an aspect of arguing
in terms of battle) will necessarily hide other aspects of the concept. In
allowing us to focus on one aspect of a concept (e.g., the battling aspects of
arguing), metaphorical concept can keep us from focusing on other aspects of
the concept that are inconsistent with that metaphor. For example, in the
midst of a heated argument, when we are intent on attacking our opponent's
position and defending our own, we may lose sight of the cooperative aspects
of arguing. Someone who is arguing with you can be viewed as giving you
his time, a valuable commodity, in an effort at mutual understanding. But
when we are preoccupied with the battle aspects, we often lose sight of the
A far more subtle case of how a metaphorical concept can hide an
aspect of our experience can be seen in what Michael Reddy has called the
"conduit metaphor."' Reddy observes that our language about language is
structured roughly by the following complex metaphor:
IDEAS (Of MEANINGS) ARE OBJECTS.
LINGUISTIC EXPRESSIONS ARE CONTAINERS.
COMMUNICATION IS SENDING.
The speaker puts ideas (objects) into words (containers) and sends
them (along a conduit) to a bearer who takes the idea/objects out of the
word/containers. Reddy documents this with more than a hundred types of
expressions in English, which he estimates account for at least 70 percent of
the expressions we use for talking about language. Here are some examples:
THE CONDUIT METAPHOR
It's hard to get
that idea across to him.
you that idea.
Your reasons came through
It's difficult to put
my ideas into
When you have
a good idea, try to capture
it immediately in words.
Try to pack
more thought into fewer words.
You can't simply stuff
a sentence any old way.
The meaning is right there in
your meanings into
the wrong words.
His words carry
The introduction has a great deal of thought content.
Your words seem hollow.
The sentence is without
The idea is buried in
terribly dense paragraphs.
In examples like these it is far more difficult to see that there is
anything hidden by the metaphor or even to see that there is a metaphor here
at all. This is so much the conventional way of thinking about language that it
is sometimes hard to imagine that it might not fit reality. But if we look at
what the conduit metaphor entails, we can see some of the ways in which it
masks aspects of the communicative process.
First, the Linguistic EXPRESSIONS ARE CONTAINERS FOR
MEANINGS aspect of the conduit metaphor entails that words and sentences
have meanings in themselves, independent of any context or speaker. The
MEANINGS ARE OBJECTS part of the metaphor, for example, entails that
meanings have an existence independent of people and contexts. The part of
the metaphor that says LINGUISTICS EXPRESSIONS ARE CONTAINERS
FOR MEANING entails that words (and sentences) have meanings, again
independent of contexts and speakers. These metaphors are appropriate in
many situations--those where context differences don't matter and where all
the participants in the conversation understand the sentences in the same way.
These two entailments are exemplified by sentences like
―The meaning is right there in the words‖,
which, according to the CONDUIT metaphor, can correctly be said of any
sentence. But there are many cases where context does matter. Here is a
celebrated one recorded in actual conversation by Pamela Downing:
―Please sit in the apple-juice seat‖.
In isolation this sentence has no meaning at all, since the expression
"apple-juice seat" is not a conventional way of referring to any kind of object.
But the sentence makes perfect sense in the context in which it was uttered.
An overnight guest came down to breakfast. There were four place settings,
three with orange juice and one with apple juice. It was clear what the apple-
juice seat was. And even the next morning, when there was no apple juice, it
was still clear which seat was the apple-juice seat.
In addition to sentences that have no meaning without context, there
are cases where a single sentence will mean different things to different
―We need new alternative sources of energy‖.
This means something very different to the president of Mobil Oil
from what it means to the president of Friends of the Earth. The meaning is
not right there in the sentence--it matters a lot who is saying or listening to
the sentence and what his social and political attitudes are. The CONDUIT
metaphor does not fit cases where context is required to determine whether
the sentence has any meaning at all and, if so, what meaning it has.
These examples show that the metaphorical concepts we have
looked at provide us with a partial understanding of what communication,
argument, and time are and that, in doing this, they hide other aspects of
these concepts. It is important to see that the metaphorical structuring
involved here is partial, not total. If it were total, one concept would actually
be the other, not merely be understood in terms of it. For example, time isn't
really money. If you spend your time trying to do something and it doesn't
work, you can't get your time back. There are no time banks. I can give you a
lot of time, but you can't give me back the same time, though you can give
me back the same amount of time. And so on. Thus, part of a metaphorical
concept does not and cannot fit.
On the other hand, metaphorical concepts can be extended beyond
the range of ordinary literal ways of thinking and talking into the range of
what is called figurative, poetic, colorful, or fanciful thought and language.
Thus, if ideas are objects, we can dress them?n up in fancy clothes, juggle
them, line them up nice and neat, etc. So when we say that a concept is
structured by a metaphors we mean that it is partially structured and that it
can be extended in some ways but not others.
So far we have examined what we will call structural metaphors,
cases where one concept is metaphorically structured in terms of another. But
there is another kind of metaphorical concept, one that does not structure one
concept in terms of another but instead organizes a whole system of concepts
with respect to one another. We will call these orientational metaphors,
most of them have to do with spatial orientation: up-down, in-out, front-back,
on-off, deep-shallow, central-peripheral. These spatial orientations arise from
the fact that we have bodies of the sort we have and that they function as they
do in our physical environment. Orientational metaphors give a concept a
spatial orientation; for example, happy is up. The fact that the concept
HAPPY is oriented up leads to English expressions like "I'm feeling up
Such metaphorical orientations are not arbitrary. They have a basis
in our physical and cultural experience. Though the polar oppositions up-
down,in-out, etc., are physical in nature, the orientational metaphors based on
them vary from culture to culture. For example, in some cultures the future is
in front of us, whereas in others it is in back. We will be looking at up-down
spatialization metaphors, which have been studied intensively by William
Nagy, as an illustration. In each case, we will give a brief hint about how
such metaphorical concept might have arisen from our physical and cultural
experience. These accounts are mean, to be suggestive and plausible, not
HAPPY IS UP; SAD IS DOWN.
I'm feeling up. That boosted my spirits. My spirits rose. you're in high spirits.
Thinking about her always gives me a lift. I'm feeling down. I'm depressed.
He's really low these days. I fell into a depression. My spirits sank.
physical basis: Drooping Posture typically goes along with sadness and
depression, erect posture with a positive emotional state.
CONSCIOUS IS UP; UNCONSCIOUS IS DOWN
Wake up Wake up. I'm up already. He rises early in the morning. He fell
asleep. He dropped off to sleep. He's under hypnosis. He's under hypnosis.
He sank into a coma.
Physical basis: Humans and most other mammals sleep lying down
and stand up when they awaken.
HEALTH AND LIFE ARE UP
SICKNESS AND DEATH ARE DOWN
He's at the peak of health. Lazarus rose from the dead. He's in top shape. As
to his health, he's way up there. He fell ill. He's sinking fast. He came down
with the flu. His health is declining. He dropped dead.
Physical basis: Serious illness forces us to lie down physically. When you're
dead, you are physically down.
HAVING CONTROL OR FORCE IS UP
BEING SUBJECT TO CONTROL OR FORCE IS DOWN
I have control over her. I am on top of the situation. He's in a superior
position. He's at the height of his power. He's in the high command. He's in
the upper echelon. His power rose. He ranks above me in strength. He is
under my control. He fell from power. His Power is on the decline. He is my
social interior. He is low man on the totem pole.
Physical basis- Physical size typically correlates with physical strength, and
the victor in a fight is typically on top.
MORE IS UP; LESS 1S DOWN
The number of books printed each year keeps going up. His draft number is
high. My income rose last year. The amount of artistic activity in this state
has gone down in the past year. The number of errors he made is incredibly
low. His income fell last year. He is underage. If you're 100 hot, turn the heat
Physical basis: If you add more of a substance or of physical objects to a
container or pile, the level goes up.
FORESEEABLE FUTURE EVENTS ARE UP (AND AHEAD)
All upcoming events are listed in the paper. What's coming up this week? I'm
afraid of what's up ahead of us. What's up?
Physical basis: Normally our eyes look in the direction in which we typically
move (ahead, forward). As an object approaches a person (or the person
approaches the object), the object appears larger. Since the ground is
perceived as being fixed, the top of the object appears to be moving upward
in the person's field of vision.
HIGH STATUS IS UP; LOW STATUS IS DOWN
He has a lofty position. She'll rise to the top. He's at the peak of his
career.He's climbing the ladder. He has little upward mobility. He's at the
bottom of the social hierarchy. She fell in status.
Social and physical basis: Status is correlated with (social) power and
(physical) power is up.
GOOD IS UP; BAD IS DOWN
Things are looking up. We hit a peak last year, but it's been downhill ever
since. Things are at an all-time low. He does high-quality work.
Physical basis for personal well-being: Happiness, health, life, and control--
the things that principally characterize what is good for a person--all are up.
VIRTUE IS UP; DEPRAVITY IS DOWN
He is high-minded. She has high standards. She is up right. She is an up-
standing citizen. That was a low trick. Don't be underhanded. I wouldn't
stoop to that. That would be beneath me. He fell into the abyss of depravity.
That was a low-down thing to do.
Physical and social basis: GOOD IS UP for a person (physical basis),
together with SOCIETY IS A PERSON (in the version where you are not
identifying with your society). To be virtuous is to act in accordance with the
standards set by the society/person to maintain its well-being. VIRTUE IS
UP because virtuous actions correlate with social well-being from the
society/person's point of view. Since socially based metaphors are part of the
culture, it's the society/person's point of view that counts.
RATIONAL IS UP; EMOTIONAL IS DOWN
The discussion fell to the emotional level, but I raised it back up to the
rational plane. We put our feelings aside and had a high-level intellectual
discussion of the matter. He couldn't rise above his emotions.
Physical and cultural basis: In our culture people view themselves as being in
control over animals, plants, and their physical environment, and it is their
unique ability to reason that places human beings above other animals and
gives them this control. CONTROL IS UP thus provides a basis for MAN IS
UP and therefore RATIONAL IS UP.
Seminar 5: “Publicist style: essays and oratory”
1. Group presentation
―Specifics of oratory style‖; ―Foregrounding
and its main types‖
2. Stylistics theory:
- Publicist style and its specific features.
- Main functions and traits of an essay.
- Oratory style as a unique genre of the publicist style.
- Types, functions and devices of foregrounding and its usage in
3. Practical exercises:
Detailed stylistic analysis of the famous speech of Martin Luther
King ―I have a dream‖ according to the analysis scheme.
Try to count all metaphors in the text of M.L. King‘s speech ―I have
a dream‖. Give a brief analysis of each metaphor (tenor, vehicle,
ground, types of discourses present).
Make a thorough comparison of two prominent
speeches of American rhetoric: Martin Luther King‘s ―I have a
dream‖ and Barack Obama‘s ―Yes. We. Can‖. The classic stylistic
including stylistic analysis, beauty of language
(tropes, lexis, syntax) should be accomplished with such important
aspects as tactics of influencing the audience, extralinguistic context
- historical background, results of both speeches and their impact on
Scheme of extended stylistic analysis:
1. Start by responding to the text. Don‘t comment on features that
are missing unless there is a significant comment to make. Don‘t try to
include everything, comment on the most significant aspects of the text. Read
the text carefully, think, brainstorm and decide on the best order for your
points. You are aiming for an essay that is well ordered and clear. Is there a
sense of your own voice, originality or a personal response? Your essay
should not be vague, but firmly rooted in close textual examination. Always
include concise quotations as evidence. Show your specialist linguistic and
literary terms. Don‘t be repetititive.
2. Define the genre of an analyzed text. Are there recognizable genre
conventions, or does the writer break such conventions? What effect is
produced by these means? This might be a significant point to make early in
3. What is the text about? Analyze the content, the topic, the
4. Find out the author‘s intention, the purpose of the text:
entertain, persuade, instruct, advise, inform. This might affect the language.
For example, if it seeks to persuade the text may use emotive, connotative
language, and make value judgements. If it is informative, concrete nouns
and factual adjectives might dominate the text. If it is instructive, imperative
verbs are very likely. A story may have intensifiers and the nouns may be
heavily modified. An argumentative text may have tentative modals.
Remember that a text may have more than one intention.
5. In connection with the previous point, regard the authorial voice.
How conscious are you of the author? What is the perspective - first, second
or third person? Is the tone conversational or confessional? Does the writer
create a persona? Is s/he subjective or objective? What does the author
6. What is the audience the text is aimed at?
Age, sex, level of
education, specialist market? How does the intended audience affect the
language and how much knowledge is assumed? What other values/attitudes
of the reader are assumed? What is the language register used and why this
7. Form and structure. Analyze the headlines, fonts, italics, bold,
punctuation and deviations from the orthodox. But don‘t spend too long on
this, more attention should be paid to the inner structure and logical
architecture of the text. How is the content organized? Is it chronological?
Does it have flashbacks? Is there a logical development of argument (if, so,
therefore, thus, because)? Is there a juxtaposition of ideas? How is the text
introduced and concluded?
8. Style, stylistic devices and inner form. Formal, colloquial, use of
dialect, standard, non-standard. What characterizes the lexis (Latinate,
verbose, taciturn, field specific, laconic)? What about the syntax, are the
sentences simple or complex, or is there an unusual word order? Is there
dialogue, monologue or reported speech? Are nouns pre/post modified? Is the
tone ironic, humorous, sad angry, patronizing? Is the tone consistent or does
it shift? Does the text make use of shocking, taboo language? Are there any
rhetorical devices? Active or passive voice? Metaphors and other literary
techniques? More stylistic devices (alliteration, assonance, imagery, simile,
rhyme, pararhyme, personification) and the purpose of their use? Does the
textual structure include textual cohesion, reiteration, ellipsis, substitution,
collocation or deviant collocation?
9. Techniques of argumentation in the text: Persuasion, political
tract, sermon, advertisement. Is there evidence of bias, or does the writer
make concessions to the other side of the argument? Does the writer
anticipate the other side of the argument? Is there a plea to or sense of
camaraderie with the audience? Are there balanced two part sentences and
use of semi-colons? Is there a more sophisticated lexis?
10. Your own opinion on the subject and the text, other additional
comments. Exercise 2:
Task on foregrounding – make up three small texts of 10 lines
using one type of foregrounding in each.
Essay and foregrounding practice:
There are three types of foregrounding: coupling, convergence and effect of
defeated expectancy. Convergence
supposes a number of various devices gathered in a piece of
text (phrase, sentence, extract etc.) to produce a special effect.
Example: Doomsday is near; die all, die merrily. (Shakespeare)
This brief remark of only 7 words contains:
All these devices are collected to produce the strong emotional effect, express
vividly the state of mind of the speaking person, his rage and urge for
means similar elements in similar positions used to connect ideas
or a special effect throughout the text (phrase, sentence, passage etc).
Example: Obama’s speech “Yes. We. Can”(available in the yellow book)
The slogan is repeated throughout the entire speech connecting passages,
ideas and intensifying (=foregrounding) the main message. It is an example
of coupling on the level of macro-context. All parallel constructions (esp.
anaphora) could be classic examples of coupling. Effect of defeated expectancy
1) Talk all you like about automatic ovens and electric dishwashers,
there is nothing you can have around the house as useful as a
(Ph. McGinley Sixpence in Her Shoe
In this case husband is introduced in the same range as ovens and dishwashes
which is unexpected and produces humorous effect.
2) If I were a dead leaf …
If I were a swift cloud …
… (9 lines starting with “if”)
Oh, lift me as a wave, a leaf, a cloud!
I fall upon the thorns of life! I bleed!
(Ode, by Shelley)
Here we observe the violation of rhythm in the last line (although in previous
lines of the poem the author keeps going with well-established classical
iambic rhythm). This is also a syntactic form of defeated expectancy, as after
pursuing 9 lines starting with ―if‖, we suddenly break the established rhythm
and observe a totally different beginning – ―Oh‖, as well as the exclamation
phrases which hadn‘t occurred before.
All these types of foregrounding can work on different levels
on the level of micro-context (phrase or sentence)
on the level of macro- and mega-contexts (plot)
The task is
to make up an essay using all three types of foregrounding on
A good example could serve an evaluative article, humorous story or an
essay containing a detective story. First, you can use convergence and
coupling to produce the atmosphere of intensive stress and strain and
afterwards introduce the special ending which a reader can‘t predict. But
actually there is a great variety of other texts which your imagination may
give birth to.
30 lines minimum
Seminar 6: “Newspaper style”
1. Group presentation:
―Specifics of newspaper style‖, ―Creolized
text. Types, classifications.‖
2. Stylistics theory:
Linguistic features of newspaper style.
Main substyles (genres).
Abbreviations, acronyms and backronyms.
Creolized texts, main features, structure, classifications of
3. Practical exercises:
Epithet task (group work), abbreviation and
Make up a newspaper text (classified, brief news item or other)
using as much shortenings of all types as possible. Try to achieve
satirical or even absurd effect.
Make up an Editorial or Column article, expressing a personal
opinion. The article shall show your strong position on the chosen
point and arguments pro and con. Reveal your personality in the text
using as many stylistic devices as possible and all types of
Find especially interesting abbreviations for a class report.
Students are divided into groups of 3 or 4. Each group has to choose
an object to be characterized (a car, resort, restaurant, movie, museum,
laptop, perfume, drink or any other) and make up at least 3 epithets of each
type for the object elected. Types of epithets
Classification of conventional epithets by I.Arnold:
Постоянный эпитет (conventional or standing epithet): green wood, fair
lady. A constant epithet can be:
tautological (soft pillow),
estimating (bonny boy, bonnie ship),
or descriptive (silk napkin, silver cups).
Semantically based classification by A. Veselovsky:
Тавтологический эпитет (tautological epithet): sable night, wide
Пояснительный эпитет (explanatory epithet): grand style, unvalued
Метафорический эпитет (metaphorical epithet): angry sky,
Голофразис (holophrasis): I-am-not-that-kind-of-girl look, shoot-
Инвертированный эпитет (inverted epithet): an angel of a girl, a
miracle of a car, a jewel of a house.
After discussing the ready lists of epithets, each group is to produce
an advertising text for the product under consideration. Analyze the role of
epithets for expressiveness of a text. Exercise 2:
abbreviations, initialisms and acronyms. Exercise 3
pp. 30 – 31 (pink book). Exercise 3:
Backronymize the word FINEC. Make at least 5 variants.
Some urban legends give birth to quite credible stories
explaining etymology of this or that especially popular word. Such is the
situation with the most used slang swear words as ―shit‖ and ―fuck‖.
The Origin of the F-Word
Netlore Archive: In which we are asked to believe that the word
'fuck' originated as the acronym of 'Fornication Under Consent of the King,'
'Fornication Under Command of the King,' 'For Unlawful Carnal
Knowledge,' or some other variation thereof.
Folk etymology Circulating since:
The 1960s Status:
False Example #1: Email contributed by T. McInnis, March 22, 2001:
In ancient England a person could not have sex unless you had
consent of the King (unless you were in the Royal Family).
When anyone wanted to have a baby, they got consent of the
King, the King gave them a placard that they hung on their door
while they were having sex. The placard had F.*.*.*.
(Fornication Under Consent of the King) on it. Now you know
where that came from.
Example #2: From a Usenet posting, Nov. 1, 1990:
The word fuck comes from colonial times, when someone would
be punished for 'prostitution' It was an acronym for the words
'For Unlawful Carnal Knowledge'
FUCK was written on the stocks that held these criminals
because For Unlawful Carnal Knowledge was too long to go on
Example #3: From a Usenet posting, Oct. 12, 1990:
I always heard that "F.U.C.K." originated in the 1800's in
London, when they used to charge prostitutes "For Unlawful
Carnal Knowledge". So officer got sick and tired of writing
those, um, lessee, 26 characters, not including spaces, so it got
abbreviated FUCK and stuck.
Having consulted the definitive reference work on this subject
(yes, there is such a thing: The F-Word
by Jesse Sheidlower, published by
Random House in 1999), I feel confident in dismissing all the claims above
as imaginative bunk.
The word fuck
did not originate as an acronym. It crept, fully
formed, into the English language from Dutch or Low German around the
15th century (it's impossible to say precisely when because so little
documentary evidence exists, probably due to the fact that the word was so
taboo throughout its early history that people were afraid to write it down).
The American Heritage Dictionary
says its first known occurrence
in English literature was in the satirical poem "Flen, Flyss" (c.1500), where it
was not only disguised as a Latin word but encrypted — gxddbov
has been deciphered as fuccant
, pseudo-Latin for "they fuck."
According to Sheidlower, the earliest claims in print of supposed
acronymic origins for the F-word appeared during the 1960s. An
underground newspaper called the East Village Other
published this version
It's not commonly known that the word "fuck" originated as a
medical diagnostic notation on the documests of soldiers in the British
Imperial Army. When a soldier reported sick and was found to have V.D., the
abbreviation F.U.C.K. was stamped on his documents. It was short for
"Found Under Carnal Knowledge."
Two more variants appeared in a letter published in Playboy
magazine in 1970:
My friend claims that the word fuck originated in the 15th Century,
when a married couple needed permission from the king to procreate. Hence,
Fornication Under Consent of the King. I maintain that it's an acronym of a
law term used in the 1500s that referred to rape as Forced Unnatural Carnal
Undoubtedly the most famous use of this etymological travesty was
as the title of the 1991 Van Halen album, "For Unlawful Carnal Knowledge."
The Origin of the S-Word
Netlore Archive: In which we are told, and with a straight face, that
the word 'shit' originated as the acronym of 'Ship High in Transit,' a supposed
nautical phrase. Description:
Joke / Folk etymology Circulating since:
False Example #1:
Email contributed by V. Anderson, Aug. 28, 2002:
Subject: Fabulous bit of historical knowledge
Ever wonder where the word "shit" comes from. Well here it is:
Certain types of manure used to be transported (as everything
was back then) by ship. In dry form it weighs a lot less, but once
water (at sea) hit it. It not only became heavier, but the process of
fermentation began again, of which a by-product is methane gas.
As the stuff was stored below decks in bundles you can see what
could (and did) happen; methane began to build up below decks
and the first time someone came below at night with a lantern.
Several ships were destroyed in this manner before it was
discovered what was happening.
After that, the bundles of manure where always stamped with the
term "S.H.I.T" on them which meant to the sailors to "Ship High
In Transit." In other words, high enough off the lower decks so
that any water that came into the hold would not touch this
volatile cargo and start the production of methane.
Bet you didn't know that one.
Here I always thought it was a golf term.
Example #2 From a Usenet posting dated April 12, 1999:
Subject: origin of shit
In the 1800's, cow pie's were collected on the prarie and boxed
and loaded on steam ships to burn instead of wood. Wood was
not only hard to find, but heavy to move around and store.
When the boxes of cow pie's were in the sun for days on board
the ships, they would smell bad. So when the manure was boxed
up, they stamped the outside of the box, S.H.I.T....which means
Ship High In Transit.
When people came aboard the ship and said,"Oh what is that
smell!" They were told it was shit.
That is where the saying came from...It smells like shit! :-)
Clever as all that may be, whoever came up with it doesn't know
shit about "shit." According to my dictionary, the word is much older than the
1800s, appearing in its earliest form about 1,000 years ago as the Old English
. That is confirmed by lexicographer Hugh Rawson in his bawdily
edifying book, Wicked Words
(New York: Crown, 1989), where it is further
noted that the expletive is distantly related to words like science
, all of which derive from the Indo-European root skei-
"to cut" or "to split." You get the idea.
For most of its history "shit" was spelled "shite" (and sometimes still
is), but the modern, four-letter spelling of the word can be found in texts
dating as far back as the mid-1700s. It most certainly did not originate as an
acronym used by 19th-century sailors.
Apropos that false premise, Rawson observes that "shit" has long
been the subject of naughty wordplay, very often based on made-up
acronyms on the order of "Ship High in Transit." For example:
In the Army, officers who did not go to West Point have been known
to disparage the military academy as the South Hudson Institute of
Technology.... And if an angelic six-year-old asks, "Would you like to have
some Sugar Honey Iced Tea?", the safest course is to pretend that you have
suddenly gone stone deaf.
Students are divided into groups of 3 or 4. Each group is to write a brief news
item of any type (for template see Ex. 5, p. 35, pink book). Each group shall
choose a topic for their item – sport, arts, education, economy, glamour,
fashion, health etc. After the items are ready, all groups are united to
compose a full-fledged newspaper of their texts. By the way, don‘t forget to
invent a title for your collective newspaper, make it original using a
metaphor, pun or other stylistic device.
Seminar 7: “Official documents style”
1. Group presentation:
―Specifics of official documentary: special
features of business, military, diplomatic and law substyles.‖
2. Stylistics theory:
Linguistic features and stylistic specialties of official style, text
Business substyle (business letters, business plans, memos, CVs
Military substyle and its texttypes.
Diplomatic substyle (Agreements, Notes etc.)
Law substyle (contracts and specifics of legal language).
3. Practical exercises:
contract work group
Make up your own
business plan of a supposed
business you‘d like to have in future.
A CV: JUST FOR FUN – HOW NOT TO:
Here's a great CV-resume example published in The Financial Post, Toronto,
February 23rd, 2001.
Employment Wanted: Former Marijuana Smuggler
Having successfully completed a ten year sentence, incident-free, for
importing 75 tons of marijuana into the United States. I am now seeking a
legal and legitimate means to support myself and my family.
Owned and operated a successful fishing
business - multi vessel, one airplane, one island and one processing facility.
Simultaneously owned and operated a fleet of tractor-trailer trucks
conducting business in the western United States. During this time I also co-
owned and participated in the executive level management of 120 people
worldwide in a successful pot smuggling venture with revenues in excess of
US$100 million annually.
I took responsibility for my actions, and received a ten year sentence
in the untied states while others walked free for their cooperation.
I am an expert in all levels of security; I have extensive
computer skills, am personable, outgoing, well-educated, reliable, clean and
I have spoken in schools to thousands of kids and parent groups over
the past ten years on "the consequences of choice"
, and received public
recognition from the RCMP for community service.
I am well-travelled and speak English, French and Spanish. References
available from friends, family and the U.S. District
Attorney, etc. Exercise 2:
template business plan, make up one of your own and
present it in the shape of a business presentation
. Such business
presentation should be more persuasive than just a printed report due to
illustrative material, visual symbols, already visible logos, more structured
and highlighted information.
Business plan is an embracive multi-page document representing a
detailed description and thorough calculation of profits and expenses of a
A comprehensive business plan should have:
Brief introductory description
Targeted customers and markets section
Present time market research section
Novelty section, showing the new ideas in the project and the market
niche of the business-to-be
Careful forecast on all expenses
weaknesses, opportunities, threats).
See a template Business Plan for Take Five Sports Bar and Grill in the
Group work – Contract:
Students are divided into groups of 3 or 4. Each group is to compose a
contract on a selected topic. Introduce markers of interdiscoursivity and put
together a contract between Cinderella and Fairy Godmother, Jack the
Sparrow and pirates etc. Try to make especially visible contrast between
fairytale or movie discourse and straightforward legal language.
Contract embraces the following points
Heading stipulating the type of the document (rental contract,
commercial services agreement, hotel pre-opening contract etc.), the
date of signing and the number.
Initial standardized phrase introducing the Parties and their
A traditional set of paragraphs, number of paragraphs may vary
depending on the type of the contract (mind that in the section titles
all meaningful words start with capital letters):
a) Subject of the Contract
b) Terms and Definitions of the Contract (if necessary)
c) Rights and Obligations of the Parties
d) Price and Settlement Procedure
e) Dispute Settlement
f) Force Majeure (or Acts of God)
g) Appendix (if such).
Pay attention to peculiarities of legal English:
Utilization of specialized words, terms and phrases like: party (a
principal of the contract), action (lawsuit), execute (to sign to
Archaic lexis valid mostly for legal texts: herein, hereto, hereby,
heretofore, herewith, whereby, wherefore.
Use of doublets: null and void, fit and proper etc.
Unusual word order, for example: will at the cost of the
borrower forthwith comply with the same.
Frequent use of the verb ―shall‖ in its modal meaning.
See the example of a classic contract in Appendix 2.
Seminar 8: “Scientific style”
1. Group presentation:
―Specifics of scientific style‖, ―Stylistic
stratification of lexis. Classifications. What‘s a neutral layer?
Literary and colloquial strata (bookish words, historisms, slang
2. Stylistics theory:
Scientific style, scientific lexis, types of scientific texts.
Terms, their specifics and main functions.
Stylistic classification of lexis.
Superneutral style lexis (poetic words, foreignisms,
Subneutral style lexis (slang, jargon, cant, professionalisms,
3. Practical exercises:
transformation exercises, read and analyze a
scientific prose text, discuss specifics of Intertextuality in scientific
Transform the scientific fiction text from Exercise 2
into belle-letters style by avoiding terms, usage of descriptive and
emotional epithets, filling the text with tropes.
The groups having participated in Seminar 6 get reunited to
make up a list of relevant terms or highly literary words to describe the
products advertised before. Introducing such kind of lexis, introductory
phrases and prepositions and special conjuncts along with elimination of
vivid epithets students have to transform advertising texts into scientific-
Discuss the results. Exercise 2:
Read and analyze the text from popular scientific magazine
―National Geographic‖, describe the science fiction style:
What If the Biggest Solar Storm on Record Happened Today?
Repeat of 1859 Carrington Event would devastate modern world,
Richard A. Lovett for National Geographic News
Published March 2, 2011
On February 14 the sun erupted with the largest solar flare seen
in four years — big enough to interfere with radio communications and
GPS signals for airplanes on long-distance flights.
As solar storms go, the Valentine's Day flare was actually modest.
But the burst of activity is only the start of the upcoming solar maximum, due
to peak in the next couple of years.
"The sun has an activity cycle, much like hurricane season," Tom
Bogdan, director of the Space Weather Prediction Center in Boulder,
Colorado, said earlier this month at a meeting of the American Association
for the Advancement of Science in Washington, D.C.
"It's been hibernating for four or five years, not doing much of
anything." Now the sun is waking up, and even though the upcoming solar
maximum may see a record low in the overall amount of activity, the
individual events could be very powerful.
In fact, the biggest solar storm on record happened in 1859, during a
solar maximum about the same size as the one we're entering, according to
That storm has been dubbed the Carrington Event, after British
astronomer Richard Carrington, who witnessed the megaflare and was the
first to realize the link between activity on the sun and geomagnetic
disturbances on Earth.
During the Carrington Event, northern lights were reported as far
south as Cuba and Honolulu, while southern lights were seen as far north as
The flares were so powerful that "people in the northeastern U.S.
could read newspaper print just from the light of the aurora," Daniel Baker,
of the University of Colorado's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space
Physics, said at a geophysics meeting last December.
In addition, the geomagnetic disturbances were strong enough that
U.S. telegraph operators reported sparks leaping from their equipment—some
bad enough to set fires, said Ed Cliver, a space physicist at the U.S. Air Force
Research Laboratory in Bedford, Massachusetts.
In 1859, such reports were mostly curiosities. But if something
similar happened today, the world's high-tech infrastructure could grind to a
"What's at stake," the Space Weather Prediction Center's Bogdan
said, "are the advanced technologies that underlie virtually every aspect of
Seminar 9: “Persuasiveness”
1. Group presentation:
―Persuasiveness. Types of linguistic
influencing the audience. Strategy and tactics. Examples.‖
2. Stylistics theory:
Persuasiveness and general views on the notion.
Argumentation, manipulation, suggestiveness, NLP.
Pragmatic persuasive strategies and tactics.
3. Practical exercises:
Analysis of the best examples of American
oratory (yellow book) from the point of view of their persuasive
Compose a speech on a chosen topic (topics are
indicated in the Ex. 2) following the scheme of persuasive strategy
and tactics. Try to implement all possible tactics and devices to
make it bright and emotional. Use tips from Ex.1.
Persuasive strategy and tactics:
is a complex of argumentative and manipulative
methods and devices applied with the purpose of influencing the recipient.
The global persuasive strategy is implicated with the help of more precise
tactics and devices. Thus, a tactic is defined as a conceptual action, an
assembly of devices and forms aimed at achievement of a certain stage of the
For example, the political discourse is served by numerous multi-
purpose tactics, some of which are:
1. Positive self-representation and formation of the ―friend‖ field.
2. Discrimination of the opponent and formation of the ―foe‖ field.
3. Intimization of the exposition.
4. Effect of evidence and common knowledge for certain events
5. Promise and ready-solution offer.
The tactic of positive self-representation and formation of the
is the dominative one inherent to the entire political discourse
and all its text-types whereas it evokes the central political ―friend – foe‖
Some of the devices foregrounding the tactic are:
- Pronouns ―we / our‖ used in the inclusive function, uniting the
speaker and the audience, consolidating the addressor and the
addressee (e.g. phrases like ―we, Americans‖ or ―our American
- Abstract nouns denoting the national values and epithets of the
―friend‖ lexical field. The nominations of the speaker are used
in the context of positive connotation.
- Stylistic devices (metaphors, similes, epithets etc) express the
emotiveness and the evaluative character of the text.
- Reference to the authority is another important device within
the frameworks of the tactic. This device is actualized by means
of quotations and epigraphs. An opinion of a respectable person
can illustrate the speaker‘s point of view and give additional
proofs to the speaker‘s arguments.
The tactic of discrimination of the opponent and formation of
the “foe” field
is closely interwoven with the tactic mentioned above, only
with an opposite sign. The speaker uses the nominations of his/her opponents
and foes in the negative context, excluding them of the positive field
―speaker – audience‖.
The example from the 1996 Republican Party program illustrates
these two tactics:
Throughout this century, Republican presidents have worked hard to
preserve our national military preparedness. By contrast, during the Carter
administration, America‘s power and prestige around the world fell to an all-
By means of the tactic of intimization
the speaker seeks to address
directly the wide audience, mass recipient and make a close contact with it.
To attract the addressee‘s attention the tactic employs:
- Invitation of the recipient to the ―pseudo-dialog‖, creation of the
illusion of his active participation in the discussion using the
address (Dear friends, dear citizens, Americans, citizens of New
- Rhetorical questions
- Units of subjective modality (yes, of course, unfortunately,
fortunately, desperately), creating an effect of live colloquial
speech and optimizing the perception.
- Exclamatory sentences, e.g.:
Throughout most of this century, the United States has willingly
provided leadership for the free world!
The tactic creating the effect of evidence and common
knowledge for certain events and facts
is based on the usage of facts with
no back-ground and no arguments, the facts are presented just as they are.
The tactic involves:
- Passive constructions
- Adverbs (always, surely, of course)
- Frequent nominations of the recipient to connect him with the
- Impersonal pronouns (everybody, everyone) and personal
pronouns in the inclusive function (we, our). E.g.:
Our housing policy is a failure on a number of levels. Public housing
is the most obvious disaster. Many complexes, as everyone knows, are
The tactic of promise and ready-solution offer
is actualized with
the help of:
- Modal verbs (should, shall, would, must)
- Modal constructions (it is necessary, it is needed)
- Introductory phrases like we believe, we assume
E.g.: Limitations on privatizing airports should be removed.
Limitations on toll roads should be removed, and the user fees generated to
cover the costs of construction and operation should not be funneled through
the federal government. These steps would help channel infrastructure
development to those areas that transportation users have deemed the most
Read the article from www.public-speaking-advice.com and get
prepared for writing a funny persuasive speech of your own:
Funny Persuasive Speeches - How To Do It
Funny persuasive speeches are ones that aim to get your audience to
take action. It is often a persuasive emotional speech and covers speech ideas
like: Abortion, AIDS, Animal Welfare, Body Piercings, Church State Issues,
Dieting, Euthenasia, Fraud, Gambling, Gay Marriage, Global Warming,
Human Cloning, Illegal Drugs & Steriods, Iraq War, Marriage and Divorce,
Organ Donation, Politics, Recycling, Religion, Smoking, Student Debt,
Terrorism, Vaccinations etc.
It is not always appropriate to be funny in the speech, but used
carefully it can bring cheer to some heavy topics.
Here's an example of a quip to put in a funny persuasive speech:
"You don't realise how lucky you are until you get married - then it's
"I offered to donate blood, but they said they could not afford to
filter it to get the alcohol out of it!"
"Please God – send Superman" (from the Simpsons)
"Human cloning – imagine two of me ... oh heck, my wifes just
The core of funny persuasive speeches is to give over an argument
for or against a particular topic and convince the audience that they should
agree with you.
The audience is the key. You need to make sure you get them on
your side quickly and support the funny speech with facts and examples.
To make your speech compelling to your audience, you should
create an exciting title. Here are some examples of persuasive speech idea
titles: The case for organ donation, The need for recycling, Why the death
penalty should be abolished, The need for gun control, The dangers of taking
illegal steroids, How to pay off your credit card.
When making the persuasive speech you should:
1) Engage with your audience – make eye contact and be open with
your body language;
2) Keep to the facts – facts will convince your audience;
3) Use plenty of examples to illustrate your points;
4) Be funny where it is appropriate;
5) Encourage debate – if you can get other audience members on
your side, you can persuade the majority;
6) Be passionate about the persuasive speech idea – if you aren't
then your audience won't be either.
Be confident and you can begin to encourage your audience to
follow your funny persuasive speeches.
Here are 25 funny
speech topics. Use them to tickle your own
imagination. Vary on the speech topic ideas, public speaking themes,
entertaining and humorous subjects and issues. For instance think about
practical jokes or opposite statements. Turn things up side down, and you can
create a lot of ideas for funny speech topics of your own. Try to persuade you
listeners to agree the way you see things in a funny topic for a persuasive
1. What to do with good advice that actually isn't good?
2. How to use politically correct terms for embarrassing moments.
3. How to get rid of boring blind dates.
4. If you think you can, you can - or not.
5. How to laugh every day.
6. Bingo keeps grandmoms off the streets.
7. What is a funny topic or humorous speech anyway?
8. Why vegetarians don't love animals.
9. Limiting alternatives will make your choice easier.
10. Don't take life too seriously.
11. How to eat things you don‘t like to eat.
12. How to blame your dog for everything that goes wrong.
13. Banks have to ban sunglasses and hats to avoid robberies.
14. Ordering the world the funny way.
15. Blonds are not stupid.
16. Why fair play doesn't work.
17. How to annoy the passenger next to you on a flight.
18. How to handle unreadable Windows error messages.
19. What to do when you're stuck in an elevator.
20. Polite ways to ruin a reputation.
21. Humorous things to do with superglue.
22. How the rich stay rich and the poor poor.
23. The benificial effects of smoking.
24. How to set up practical jokes.
25. The search for The Holy Grail is nothing compared to my search for
a cheat sheet at the stylistics exam.
Seminar 10: “Belle-letters and poetry style”
1. Group presentation:
―Specifics of English versification. Is there a
poetic style?‖, ―Genres of belle-letters style (emotive prose,
detective stories, fantasy and special genres‖.
2. Stylistics theory:
Belle-letters style and its main features (lexis, devices used,
Specifics of poetic texts.
Blank verses, alliterative verses and special poetic genres.
Main functions of emotive prose texts.
3. Practical exercises:
exercise on creation of alliterative slogans,
stylistic analysis of poetic texts.
Analyze a poem using the scheme of stylistic analysis
adding analysis of poetic structure.
Group work – limerick and nursery rhyme practice. Exercise 2:
Used in ancient poetry, nowadays in ad slogans - alliteration is
still very popular. Role of alliteration is shown in the exercise on creation of
alliterative slogans. Make up at least 5 alliterative phrases to advertise a
product or products upon your choice. Exercise 3:
Stylistic analysis of fantasy genre text (e.g. Harry Potter).
Sports Bar Business Plan
Take Five Sports Bar and Grill
Take Five Sports Bar and Grill has established a successful presence
in the food and beverage service industry. The flagship location in suburban
Anytown (Medlock Bridge) will gross in excess of $2 million in sales in its
first year of operation. First year operations will produce a net profit of
$445,000. This will be generated from an investment of $625,000 in initial
capital. Since 10 months of operations have already been completed the
confidence level for final first year numbers is extremely high. The first 10
months of start-up costs, sales revenues, and operating expenses are actual.
Expansion plans are already underway. Owner funding and
internally generated cash flow will enable additional stores to open. Sales
projections for the next four years are based upon current planned store
openings. Site surveys have been completed and prime locations have been
targeted for store expansion.
The sales figures and projections presented here are based upon an additional
four store locations at the most premium sites available in the Anytown
Metro market area as well as a prime resort location in Destin, Florida.
Management has recognized the rapid growth potential made
possible by the quick success and fast return-on-investment from the first
location. Payback of total invested capital on the first location will be
realized in less than 18 months of operation. Cash flow becomes positive
from operations immediately and profits are substantial in the first year. 1.1 Objectives
Take Five has the objective of opening additional stores in Anytown
Metro at Ashford-Dunwoody, Lawrenceville, Buckhead, and East Cobb.
Additionally, a store will be opened on the beach at Destin, Florida, a year-
round resort destination.
The management of Take Five has demonstrated its concept,
execution, marketability, and controls, and feels confident of its ability to
successfully replicate the quick ramp-up of the Medlock Bridge location to
The following objectives have been established:
Have all five stores operational by Year 3 with a sequential time-line
Maintain tight control of costs and operations by hiring quality
management at each location and utilizing automated computer
Keep food cost under 32% of revenue.
Keep beverage cost under 21% of revenue.
Select only locations that meet all the parameters of success.
Grow each location to the $3 to $5 million annual sales level.
Take Five Sports Bar and Grill strives to be the premier sports theme
restaurant in the Southeast Region. Our goal is to be a step ahead of the
competition. We want our customers to have more fun during their leisure
time. We provide more televisions with more sporting events than anywhere
else in the region. We provide state-of-the-art table-top audio control at each
table so the customer can listen to the selected program of his or her choice
without interference from background noise. We combine menu selection,
atmosphere, ambiance, and service to create a sense of "place" in order to
reach our goal of over-all value in a dining/entertainment experience. 1.3 Keys to Success
The keys to success in achieving our goals are:
Product quality. Not only great food but great service.
Managing finances to enable new locations to open at targeted
Controlling costs at all times without exception.
Instituting management controls to insure replicability of operations
over multiple locations. This applies equally to product control and
to financial control.
The key elements of Take Five's restaurant store concept are as
Sports based themes
– The company will focus on themes that
have mass appeal.
Distinctive design features
– All stores will be characterized by
spectacular visual design and layout. Each store will display a
collection of authentic sports memorabilia.
High profile locations
– The company selects its store locations
based on key demographic indicators, including traffic counts,
average income, number of households, hotels, and offices within a
– The company stores will be distinguished by the
promotional activities of sports celebrities and by media coverage of
appearances and special events.
– Each store will include an integrated retail
store offering premium quality merchandise displaying the
company's logo design. In addition sports memorabilia will be sold.
– Each Take Five store will serve freshly prepared,
high quality, popular cuisine that is targeted to appeal to a variety of
tastes and budgets with an emphasis on reasonably and moderately
priced signature items of particular appeal to a local market.
– In order to maintain its unique image the
Company provides attentive and friendly service with a high ratio of
service personnel to customers and also invests in the training and
supervision of its employees.
2.1 Company History
Take Five Sports Bar and Grill was founded in 1995 by Joseph
Smith to capitalize on the ever growing market demand for high end
technology enhanced sports theme restaurants. Take Five has promoted its
brand through the operation of its existing location at Medlock Bridge Road
and State Bridge Road in Anytown, Georgia. The flagship location provides a
unique dining and entertainment experience in a high-energy environment.
Customer acceptance has been proven. Regular and repeat customers cross
many age demographics and families are frequent diners.
Take Five has promoted heavily with tie-ins to Anytown
professional teams and celebrities. Take Five Sports Bar and Grill is the radio
home for the live Monday Night XYZ Anytown Falcons coaches show
featuring June Jones and Jeff George. This show is broadcast during the hour
preceding the telecast of "Monday Night Football". In addition, Take Five
hosts the Anytown Hawks sports talk show on ABC 750 AM featuring guard
Steve Smith and the radio voice of the Hawks, Steve Holman. The Anytown
Braves celebrated their World Series championship party at Take Five the
night they won the Series.
Other Current Assets
Total Current Assets
Other Current Liabilities (interest $0
Total Capital and Liabilities
2.2 Company Ownership
Take Five Sports Bar and Grill is a privately held Georgia company.
Joseph A. Smith is the principal owner. It is Mr. Smith's intention to offer
limited outside ownership in Take Five on an equity, debt, or combination
basis in order to facilitate a more rapid expansion of the Take Five concept.
Mr. Smith holds an MBA in Finance from Anytown University. He
has held executive level positions in finance with General Electric and
Holiday Inn Worldwide. He is previously experienced in the restaurant
industry, having opened Smith's Italian Restaurant in 1993, which still
operates successfully under his ownership. 2.3 Company Locations and Facilities
The company units will range in size from 6,000 to 9,000 square feet
and will seat from 225 to 400 persons. Each Take Five Sports Bar and Grill
will feature authentic sports memorabilia such as Michael Jordan's game
jersey to Jimmy Connor's signed tennis racquet. Each store will be equipped
with state-of-the-art audio and video systems to enable the customer to enjoy
the game of their choice. Every restaurant will be built to existing
specifications, clean looking, open, and pleasing to the customer.
Unit locations are as follows:
– This unit is located at one of the busiest
intersections in North Fulton County. It is surrounded by four major
country clubs, upper middle class neighborhoods, office complexes,
and shopping. It encompasses 6,000 sq. ft. of space and has been
open since August 1995.
– This unit will open in late summer 1996.
Size will be 7,200 sq.ft. The location is one and one-half miles north
of Perimeter Mall. Within a three mile radius there is 20 million
square feet of professional office space. Also, an abundance of
upscale apartment complexes adjoins the unit. Major chain hotels
are located nearby. Perimeter Mall is one of the regional upscale
Lawrenceville (New Market)
– This site will occupy 6,500 square
feet and is scheduled to open in the Spring of 1997. It will be built
as a free standing building on a 2+ acre parcel at the intersection of
Rt. 120 and Rt. 316. Adjacent to the property is an 18 screen movie
theater opened by AMC in March 1996. This is the largest theater
AMC has built in the Anytown area. New Market Mall has as master
anchors Target, Home Depot, and Marshalls among others. The
demographics are very favorable with no competition from other
sports bar restaurants.
Peachtree and Piedmont (Buckhead)
– This unit will be in the
heart of Buckhead which is Anytown's most comprehensive
business and entertainment center. In addition to retail space being
constructed at this sight the unit will be adjacent to a 200+ room
America's Suite Hotel. Buckhead is one of the nation's largest and
fastest-growing mixed use urban areas. It includes a dynamic
combination of concentrated offices, retail, hotel, shopping,
restaurant/entertainment, and residential development.
Market Analysis, Strategy and Implementation Summary
Our strategy is based on serving our niche markets well. The sports
enthusiast, the business entertainer and traveler, the local night crowd, as well
as families dining out all can enjoy the Take Five experience.
What begins as a customized version of a standard product, tailored
to the needs of a local clientele, can become a niche product that will fill
similar needs in similar markets across the Southeast.
We are building our infrastructure so that we can replicate the
product, the experience, and the environment across broader geographic
lines. Concentration will be on maintaining quality and establishing a strong
identity in each local market. The identity becomes the source of "critical
mass" upon which expansion efforts are based. Not only does it add
marketing muscle but it also becomes the framework for further expansion
using both company owned and franchised store locations. Franchises will
first be marketed in late 1997 or early 1998. 4.1 Marketing Strategy
A combination of local media and event marketing will be utilized at each
location. Radio is most effective, followed by local print media. As soon as a
concentration of stores is established in a market, then broader media will be
The strategy of live broadcasting and pro sports tie-ins has been most
effective in generating free publicity for the flagship location which has been
more effective than any advertising that could have been purchased. 4.1.1 Marketing Programs
Take Five will create an "identity" oriented marketing strategy with
executions particularly in local media. Radio spots, print ads, and in-store
promotions are designed for transplantation to other markets. A portion of the
ad and promo budget is set aside to develop these programs. 4.1.2 Pricing Strategy
All menu items are moderately priced. An average customer ticket is between
$10 and $20 including food and drink. Tickets are considerably larger for
game day visitors. Our average customer spends more than the industry
average for moderately priced establishments. We tend to believe that this is
due to our creating an atmosphere that encourages longer stays and more
spending but still allows adequate table turns due to extended hours of
appeal. 4.1.3 Promotion Strategy
We promote sports, sports, and more sports. The universal appeal of sports
and sports marketing has never been higher. A high growth area such as
Anytown has an annual influx of new residents from many other parts of the
country. This trend is true in the Sunbelt in general.
Many new residents and many existing ones are fans of teams in other
markets. Take Five is a place for all. Each patron can watch his or her game
of interest. The enabling technology is the benchmark for Take Five.
Advertising budgets and sports event promotion is an on-going process of
management geared to promote the brand name and keep Take Five at the
forefront of sports theme establishments in each local marketing area.
In addition, funds are budgeted to launch franchise sales activity and lead
generation. These funds amount to 20% of projected franchise sales. 4.2 Sales Strategy
The sales strategy is to build and open new locations on schedule in order to
increase revenue. Each individual location will continue to build its local
customer base over the first three years of operation. The goal is $3 to $5
million in annual sales per unit. A unit will be considered mature once it has
passed the $3.5 million mark in annual sales.
The following sections illustrate the combined sales forecast: 4.2.1 Sales Forecast
The following chart and table shows the rapid sales ramp-up for our first
location in only its first twelve months of operation. The two million dollar
sales volume represents somewhat less than 50% of the revenue potential of
the location. All sales forecasts and projections have this first year as their
basis for each new store.
$1,026,242 $4,411,500 $7,497,000
$998,276 $4,238,500 $7,203,000
$2,042,444 $9,198,000 $16,084,000
Direct Cost of Sales
$349,013 $1,449,910 $2,548,980
Subtotal Direct Cost of Sales
$577,638 $2,531,380 $4,435,640
The following table lists important milestones, with projected dates,
management, and budget responsibility. The milestone schedule indicates our
emphasis on planning for implementation.
Budget Manager Department
8/1/1995 8/30/1995 $625,000
8/1/1996 8/30/1996 $700,000
12/1/1996 2/1/1997 $1,000,000
2/28/1997 6/1/1997 $700,000
7/1/1997 3/1/1998 $1,500,000
Open East Cobb
2/1/1998 6/1/1998 $600,000
At the present time Joseph Smith runs all operations for Take Five
Sports Bar and Grill. Other key personnel are the management at each
location. Candidates have already been identified for the first additional
Anytown area location. There is not expected to be any shortage of qualified
and available staff and management from local labor pools in each market
area. 5.1 Organizational Structure
Future organizational structure will include a director of store operations
when store locations exceed five and/or the Florida store opens. This will
provide a supervisory level between the executive level and the store
management level. A full time accountant has already been added. Also, a
sales/marketing director has been added to oversee the expansion effort both
to support the growth of existing business and to execute the franchise
expansion strategy. Their salaries are included in the projections.
Operations of individual stores will be the responsibility of the general
manager. 5.2 Management Team
U.S. Air Force--1971 to 1975, Vietnam veteran, Communication
Surveillance, Top Security Clearance
LaSalle University, MBA Finance, BS, Finance
Finance, Strategic Planning, Corporate Development
VP Finance, Electronic Systems Group
Holiday Inn Worldwide--1990-1993:
Strategic Planning and Corporate Development, reporting to the CFO
Resigned in 1993 to open and operate Smith's Italian Restaurant 5.3 Management Team Gaps
Specific opportunities exist in the store operations supervisory area (not
needed initially) and in franchise sales development (not needed initially).
It is expected that these people can be recruited when needed in the Anytown
market. Anytown is now home to more than 40 franchise company
Store managers are readily available when needed. Food service managers
are plentiful. 5.4 Personnel Plan
The following personnel table outlines the projected staff requirements for
the first three years of operation.
$484,800 $2,800,000 $4,850,000
Name or Title or Group
$484,800 $2,800,000 $4,850,000
The over-all financial plan for growth allows for use of the
significant cash flow generated by operations.
Equity/debt infusion of $1.5 to $2 million allows for more rapid
expansion of store starts than could be accomplished from cash flow alone.
Outside investment capital also allows a buffer of excess cash so that the
expansion plan can be revised on short notice. Every opportunity will be
seized to accelerate expansion past the critical dates in this plan if cash flow
from new stores exceeds projections.
It is management's intent to build equity in the brand name and in its
franchise. Other models exists in the recent past of successful IPO's on
similar concepts. 6.1 Important Assumptions
The financial plan depends on important assumptions, most of which
are shown in the following table. The key underlying assumptions are:
We assume a slow-growth economy, without major recession.
We assume access to equity capital and financing sufficient to
maintain our financial plan as shown in the tables.
We assume the continued popularity of sports in America and the
growing demand for sports theme venues.
6.2 Key Financial Indicators
The most important indicator in our case is inventory turnover. In
the restaurant business turnover exceeds 50, with product being purchased
and sold often within the week.
Food costs must be kept below 32%.
Beverage costs must be kept below 21%.
Above all, controls must be instituted and maintained over multiple
Take Five now uses state-of-the-art restaurant management control
and inventory systems. All systems are computer based that allow for
accurate off-premises control of all aspects of food and beverage service
business. The systems used are point-of-sale from HSI and inventory and
recipe management from VIP. Both systems are PC based and have become
understanding of the importance of these control systems. 6.3 Break-even Analysis
The break even analysis is based upon fixed costs at the Medlock
Bridge location. This location exceeded required volume to break even in
only its second month of operation.
At $15 per average ticket the break even volume at Medlock Bridge
is attained less than one full seating per day. The industry average is between
3 and 4 turns of seating capacity.
Monthly Revenue Break-even
Average Percent Variable Cost
Estimated Monthly Fixed Cost
6.4 Projected Profit and Loss
We project rapid expansion of sales and profits. Net profits remain
above 16% of sales even in the most aggressive expansion period.
Pro Forma Profit and Loss
Direct Cost of Sales
Other Costs of Sales
Total Cost of Sales
Gross Margin %
Total Operating Expenses
Profit Before Interest and Taxes
6.5 Projected Cash Flow
We expect to manage cash flow with an additional investment
totaling $1.5 to $2 million. All additional requirements can be met from
internally generated funds. With investment coming in during late 1996 and
mid 1997 there is no point at which future cash flow appears to be in danger. 6.6 Projected Balance Sheet
As shown in the balance sheet in the table, we expect a healthy
growth in net worth, from approximately $1 million at present to more than
$8 million by the end of the third year of operations.
Contract of Educational Services
Date: September 1st, 2011
International Business School, here and after referred to as the
Employer, represented by Director General Tamara Ivanova, acting on the
basis of the Statutes, on the one hand, and Stanford Economics Institute, here
and after referred to as the Executor represented by President Dr. John F.
Steinmann, acting on the basis of the Statutes, on the other hand, both
hereinafter referred to as ―Parties‖, have agreed to the following:
Subject of the Contract
1.1. The Executor hereby agrees to provide educational services and
conduct a course of workshops for the Employer in accordance with the
terms and conditions set forth in this Contract.
1.2. The Employer hereby agrees to pay the services provided by the
Executor in accordance with the terms and conditions set forth in this
2. Rights and Obligations of the Parties
2.1. The Executor shall arrange 3 sessions of 10 workshops for
economics students studying under the Employer‘s supervision.
2.2. The Executor shall supply the Employer with the curriculum 30
days before the commencement of the first session.
2.3. The Executor is rightful to introduce changes in the agreed
curriculum during the abovementioned sessions having received beforehand
the Employer‘s concord in writing.
2.4. The Employer shall pay the Executor‘s services in accordance
with the invoice issued by the Executor in 10 day period after the termination
of the last session.
2.5. The Employer is obligated to provide the Executor‘s
representatives with premises and equipment necessary for conducting
3. Price and Settlement Procedure
The Parties agreed that the price of the Contract shall be equal to 3
000 (three thousand) Euro.
4. Dispute Settlement
4.1. Shall any disputes emerge, the Parties resolve them by
negotiating in accordance with the terms and conditions of the Contract.
4.2. This agreement shall be interpreted according to the laws of the
State of Russian Federation.
5. Force Majeure
The Parties are not liable for failure to perform their obligations if
such failure is as a result of Acts of God (natural disaster, war, terrorist
This Contract shall become effective on September 1, 2009 and shall
continue in effect until December 30, 2009. Either Party may cancel this
Contract on thirty days notice to the other party in writing, by certified mail
or personal delivery
7. Signatures and Bank Details
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Гальперин И.Р. Очерки по стилистике английского языка. – М., 1958.
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Вострикова Ирина Юрьевна
Stylistics of English Language. Seminar exercises and tasks
«Стилистика английского языка»
Редактор О.А. Масликова
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