Technologies of the aircraft systems refilling by the special liquids

Лабораторная работа

Астрономия и авиация

Technologies of the ircrft systems refilling by the specil liquids The purpose of work is to study the technologicl equipment nd fetures of its ppliction technology for refilling of the ircrft onbord systems by the specil liquids Brief theoreticl dt 1. Servicer by the specil liquids ZSG66 is intended for refilling of the ircrft onbord systems by synthetic nd minerl oils oil mixtures strting fuel gsoline hydrulic mixtures. Servicer by the specil liquids cn crry out the following procedures: refilling of own tnks by the own pump; ...



4.27 MB

4 чел.

Laboratory work 1.4.

Technologies of the aircraft systems refilling by the special liquids

The purpose of work is to study the technological equipment and features of its application technology for refilling of the aircraft on-board systems by the special liquids

Brief theoretical data

1. Intention, design and operation of the ЗСЖ-66.

Servicer by the special liquids ZSG-66 is intended for refilling of the aircraft on-board systems by synthetic and mineral oils, oil mixtures, starting fuel (gasoline), hydraulic mixtures.

Servicer by the special liquids can carry out the following procedures:

- refilling of own tanks by the own pump;

- refilling of the on-board aircraft systems by the special liquids;

- scavenging of working liquids from the dispensing hoses;

- warming up of mineral and synthetic oils.

Servicer by the special liquids ЗСЖ-66 (fig.1.4.1.) consists of the base vehicle ГАЗ-66 and the special equipment placed on its carbody. Carbody is made from sheet steel and has heat insulation made of foamed polyurethane. There are four tanks for the special liquids two of which have the heat insulation in the center of carbody. For convenient maintenance of the system in the side and rear walls of the carbody there are compartments which are closed by cowls with locks.

In the compartments of starboard wall placed: distributing gear box with electromagnetic couplings, the ГСР-6000А generator, power closet, executive block of the fire extinguishing system, main pumps of all systems, and also special equipment of the systems of oil and oil mixtures, which includes intake hoses with tips, booster pump ЭЦН-10А, fine filters, three-way cocks with an electric drive, safety-valves and pipelines systems. Under the compartments of starboard wall the storage battery of carbody heater is placed. In the rear part of carbody there is a control panel, where the vehicle engine controls are placed, bulk meters – liter meters,  flow governors,  pressure regulators and controls and indicators of all systems, and also drums with gun dispensers.

In the compartments of port side wall the equipment of the refilling systems by a liquid for hydraulic system and starting gasoline is placed, composition of which similar to the systems of oil and oil mixtures. Under the compartments of port side wall there is the ОЗОА carbody heater.

On the ЗСЖ-66 the flameless warming up of the oil and oil mixtures is applied, which consists in pumping of oil under the pressure up to 17MPa (170 kgs/sm2) through a worm-pipe, which has the large hydraulic resistance located inside the tank. Fire extinguishing system – is self-operated, with warning with the special fire-extinguishers УБШ-2-1, refilled in by freon 114 V2. 

2. Technical specifications of ЗСЖ-66

Chassis                                    vehicle ГАЗ-66                              

Overall dimensions, mm:                                     

length      5720   

width  2430              

height                                   2440
Mass, kg                                                                            

unladen                                         5430

laden                                             6030

Speed of movement on roads,          km/hour 

           with hard pavement                   50

           ground                                        30   

Fig.1.4.1. External view of ЗСЖ-66

3. Equipment of special liquids servicer.

 Servicer by the special liquids consists of the following main systems and components: carbody, power-plant, system of refilling by hydraulic mixture, system of refilling by a starting fuel, systems of refilling by an oil, systems of refilling by an oil mixture, systems of carbody heating , control systems, fire prevention systems and electrical equipment.

Carbody of servicer intended for placing and mounting of all systems and protection of them from influencing of atmospheric precipitations. There are two-part of a carbody: top and frame, connected between themselves along a contour by screw-bolts. The top of carbody is welded framework made of steel formers and skin. For access to the units, to the systems and control panels a carbody has the hatches with lids which can be locked. The frame of carbody is of welded design made of steel formers and pipes where outriggers for fastening of units and assemblies of the systems are placed.

The power-plant is intended for the driving of ГСР-6000А generator, two hydraulic pumps ГМ-37М, the НШ-39 pump, fuel pump and sensor of tachometer. It consists of engine, the gear boxes, power takeoff gear boxes and distributing gear box where assemblies are installed. Torque moment from the truck engine (fig.1.4.2.) through the gear box and cardan shaft is transferred into the power takeoff gear box 2.

The launch up of distributing gear box is carried out from driver's cab in remote way by the lever 3. Engine shaft rotation speed is detected by the sensor of the tachometer 2. Torque  moment from the power takeoff gear box through the cardan shaft 4 is transferred on to a distributing gear box 5 for driving of a generator 6, two pumps ГМ-37М (7 and 8), pump 661А (9), the НШ-39 pump (10). The launch up and shutdown of pumps is performed by means the electromagnetic couplings 11.

Refilling system by hydraulic mixture intended for refilling of hydraulic system of aircraft by working liquids (see table. 1.4.1.)

Table 1.4.1.


Refilling  system

by a hydraulic mixture

by a gasoline

by an oil

by an oil mixture

Capacity of tank, m3 (l)

Working liquid

Booster pump

Main pump: type sign

Delivery of distributing system, m3/s (l/s)

Pressure of distributing system, MPa (kgs/sm2)

Pressure in the system with warming up of oil (oil mixture), MPa (kgs/sm2)

Temperature of oil warming up, Со

Time of warming up, minutes.

Fineness of filtration, micrometers

Distributing hoses:  amount, pcs.

                            length, m

                            diameter, mm

Intake hoses: amount, pcs.

                                          length, m

                                          diameter, mm

0,115  (115)




gear pump


6,65*10-4 (40)

0,1-0,6 (1-6)











0,270 (270)



gear pump


6,65*10-4 (40)

0,1-0,6 (1-6)











0,215 (215)



axial-piston pump

ГМ-37М 6,65*10-4 (40)

0,1-0,6 (1-6)

to 17 (170)

to 65









0,215 (215)

75% MK-8+ 25%МС-20


axial-piston pump


6,65*10-4 (40)

0,1-0,6 (1-6)

to 17 (170)

to 65









Fig.1.4.2 Principle kinematics chart of the ЗСЖ-66 power-plant.

Fig. 1.4.3 Principle chart of the refilling system of hydraulic mixture.

The special equipment of the system allows to carry out the following operations (fig.1.4.3.):

- refilling of aircraft hydraulic system;

- refilling of the tank by an own pump;

- refilling of the tank by external pumping facilities;

- short circuiting and scavenging the liquid from a distributing hoses.

During refilling of hydraulic system of aircraft the pump 15 intakes a liquid from a tank 13 and delivers it in aircraft through a filter 16, selector (sliding) valve 17, filter 31, bulk meter 29, three way valve 26, reel 22, distributing hose 25 and distributing valve 24. In case of the closed refilling a liquid is supplied in aircraft through a connector 23, which is connected to the on-board receptacle of aircraft. The connector 23 is installed on a distributing valve 24 using an adaptor. Refilling by a liquid can be performed with a different performance. Pressure of refilling is being controlled by the pressure governor 28. The monitoring of lower level of liquid in the tank 13 is carried out by means level warning device 9, which while reaching  the maximum value delivers a signal for shut down of the pump 15. For the check of filter 31 pollution a differential pressure gauge 32 is foreseen in the system. When the pressure difference of 0,5 MPa is reached the gauge sensor will be triggered, and a light on a control panel will be illuminated.

During refilling of the tank by an own pump a liquid is sucked in from an external tank through a hose 5 by a pump 2 and delivered by a pipeline through a check valve 1 and three way cock 7 in the tank 13. Suction hose 5 is attached to the on-board receptacle, and intake valve 6 is put into a external tank with a liquid. The monitoring of the top level of liquid in a tank is performed by warning device of level 10, which while attaining the preset level in the tank 13 delivers out a signal for pump shut down 2 and closing of the valve 7. The amount of liquid in a tank is monitored by the level gauge 11 and the level indicator 13.

 Fig.1.4.4 Principle chart of system of refilling by the starting fuel

For refilling of tank by external pumping facilities they must be connected with the on-board connector 4. A liquid in the tank 13 is delivered through a check valve 3 and the valve 7. Filling of tank will proceed until a liquid will attain a top maximum level when warning gauge of the level 10 delivers a signal for closing of the valve 7 of a pressure pipeline.

During scavenging of liquid from a distributing hose the pump 2 sucks a liquid from a hose 25 through a reel 22, valve 26, check valve 30 and delivers it in a tank 13 through a check valve 1 and the valve 7. If a distributing hose is equipped by a connector for the closed refilling, it is connected with an on-board connector 18 and by rate of liquid sucking the free volume of distributing hose is filled by air which enters it from the tank 13.

Short circuiting of the system is carried out at intermixing of liquid in a tank and at taking of test samples of working liquid for verification of its cleanness. In this case the pump 15 sucks in a liquid from a tank 13 and delivers it through a filter 16, selector (sliding) valve 17, filter 31, bulk meter 29, valve 26, reel 22, distributing hose 25, distributing valve 24, connector 23, on-board valve 18 back in the tank 13. The sampling of liquid is carried out in special sampler 27 by a connector 19 or the connector located on a distributing dispenser. If necessary a liquid from the tank 13 can be drained through the valve 8.

System of refilling by a starting fuel intended for refilling of aircraft by the gasoline B-70 by opened and closed ways. Composition of the system and its principle chart are shown on fig.1.4.4.

Fig. 1.4.5. Principle chart of the refilling system by oil

System work is similar to work of the refilling system by hydraulic mixture except for work in the mode of aircraft replenishment, which has some difference.

During refilling of aircraft working liquid from a tank 13 through the three way cock 7 is sucked in by a pump 4 and delivered under surplus pressure to the suction inlet of the pump 31. Attaining pressure of 0,06 MPa the pressure sensor 32 closes the contact of relay, an electromagnetic coupling is turned on and pump 31 begins to work. It delivers a working liquid through a filter 30, selector valve 29, filter 28, bulk meter 25, three way cock 24, reel 22, distributing hose 20 and the valve 19. During the opened refilling a liquid is delivered from a distributing valve 19 in the filling mouth of aircraft fuel tank, during the closed refilling - through a connector 18, connected with the on-board receptacle of aircraft, in the fuel system of aircraft. Monitoring of liquid lower level in the tank 13 is carried out by the level gauge 9. The amount of the liquid refilled in aircraft is counted by the liquid bulk meter ЩЖУ-25-16. Refilling can be carried out with a different performance, from minimum doses up to maximal, equal 40 l/minute. Pressure on an outlet from a distributing hose for the closed refilling is regulated in the range from 0,1 up to 0,6 MPa by means the pressure governor 26.

The system of refilling by an oil is intended for opened and closed refilling of aircraft by an oil, both with mineral, and synthetic basic substance. Composition of the system and its principle chart is shown on the fig. 1.4.5.

The special equipment of the system allows carrying out of the following procedures:

- refilling of the aircraft lubricating systems;

- refilling of the tank by an own pump;

- refilling of the tank by external pumping facilities;

- heating of the oil in a tank;

- short circuiting and scavenging of oil from a distributing hose.

During refilling of the lubricating systems of aircraft oil flow direction in the system, position of three way cocks and other devices are the same as refilling system by a starting fuel during its work in the refilling mode.

Refilling of the tank by own and external devices, shirt circuiting and oil scavenging from a distributing hose is carried out the same way, as well as the proper procedures of the refilling system by hydraulic mixture during its work in similar modes.

During the oil heating the pump 4 sucks in a working liquid from a tank 17 through a three way cock 9 and delivers it under surplus pressure in intake manifold of the pump 38. Under reaching pressure a 0,06 MPa pressure sensor 2 closes the contacts of relay, as a result there is the electromagnetic coupling is turned on and pump 38 begins to work. A pump delivers the working liquid back in a tank 17 through an electromagnetic valve 37 and the worm-pipe 18. A worm-pipe has a high hydraulic resistance, therefore a working liquid, passing through it under great pressure (up to 17,0 MPa), is heated. This method of working liquid warming up is named as flameless. The monitoring of working liquid temperature, which is heated, is carried out by the indications of the thermometer 13. For the gradual loading of the pump 38 and saving of oil refilling system from the surplus pressure increase during warming of oil up in the system the regulation safety-valve 24 is installed.

The refilling system by oil mixture by design and operational principle is similar to the system of refilling by a oil.

4. Design of the basic assemblies of ЗСЖ-66

Tanks for the proper liquids are mounted on the servicer, the do not have considerable differences in design, except for geometrical dimensions. A tank for hydraulic mixture is of the welded design of rectangular shape, made of the sheet material АМцМ. For inflexibility its side surfaces have the ribs. From top of the tank the filling mouth, liquid level sensor and connector are located. On a side surface, level gauges and window for tank washing, closed by lids, are located. A tank for a starting fuel structurally does not differ from a tank for hydraulic mixture. Tanks for an oil and oil mixture have identical design and equipment. Unlike tanks for hydraulic mixture and starting fuel they have on an external surface the thermal insulation made of spraying of polyurethane foam plastic. In addition, into a tank for a oil (oil mixture) a worm-pipe for warming of working liquids up is mounted. An oil tank has the same accessories, that and hydraulic tank has. On the filling mouths of all tanks respiratory valves which are triggered when pressure in tanks more than 0,003 MPa and undercharge in tanks more than 0,007 MPa are reached.

Pumps. For implementation of working procedures in the servicer systems the ЭЦН-10А, НШ-39, 661А, ГM-37М pumps are used.

The pump ЭЦН-10А (fig.1.4.6.) is intended for refilling of servicer tanks by working liquids, for scavenging of working liquids from distributing hoses and creation of necessary pressure on the inlet in pumps ГМ-37М, 661А.

Fig.1.4.6. The pump ЕЦН-10А:

1 – casing;  2 – impeller; 3 – compacting unit;4 – diffuser; 5 – mouth; 6- pre-intake fan

Pump ЭЦН-10А of the centrifugal type with is driven from the electric power motor with direct current. Pump and electric power motor are mounted in one single casing. The pressure difference, created by a pump, is equal to 0,185 MPa, its performance is 120 liters/minutes. A pump consists of casing 1, impeller 2, compacting unit 3, diffuser 4, mouths 5 and the pre-intake fan 6. Impeller 2 with a pre-intake fan 6 by means the key are immovably fastened on the shaft of electric power motor which is simultaneously the shaft of the pump.

The pump НШ-39 (fig.1.4.7) is intended for delivery of working liquid in to the aircraft hydraulic system.

Pump of gear type is mounted on a power distributing gear box. Maximal pumping pressure is equal to 150 MPa, permissible losses are no more than 10 sm3/hour. The main components of the pump are: casing 1 with a cover 4, driven pinion 2, supports 3 and 5, spigot 8, driving pinion 7, coupling 10, needle 6 and the stuffing-box 9.

Fig.1.4.7. The pump НШ-39

1 – casing; 2,7 – driven pinions; 3,5 – supports; 4 – cover; 6 – needle;

8 – spigot; 9 – stuffing-box; 10 - coupling

Fig.1.4.8. Pump ГМ-37М

Pump 661А intended for delivery of working liquid in the fuel system of aircraft and is installed on a power distributing gear box. By the design and principle of work it is similar to the НШ-39 pump.

Pump ГМ-37М (fig.1.4.8.) is intended for delivery of working liquid in to aircraft lubricating system, and also for creation of necessary pressure during work in the mode of working liquid warming up.

Pump ГМ-37М of piston type is installed on a power distributing gear box. Maximal pumping pressure is equal to 23,0 MPa, permissible losses are no more than 10 sm3/hours.

Working principle of the pump consists in that the shaft of the pump 1, revolving, through the cardan shaft 26 drives the cylinders block 11, which, sliding on the mirror of selector slide-valve 14, in turn order connects piston chambers both with the suction line, or with pumping line. So as an axis of cylinders block has some incline in relation to the axis of shaft 1, during the rotation of shaft and cylinders block connected to it, pistons carry out reverse-forward motions in chambers. Thus in those chambers, where pistons are pulled out from a block, there is suction of working liquid, and in chambers,  where pistons are pushed in a block - spewing of it under the pressure in to delivery pipeline

Fig.1.4.9. Reel.

1 – pipe; 2 – distributing hose; 3 – casing; 4 – axis; 5 – ratchet; 6 – spring; 7 – pin; 8 – adapter; 9 – pipe; 10 – self-locking latch

Reel (fig.1.4.9.) is intended for placing and mechanized winding of distributing hose 2,  which is winded on the welded tubular frame fastened on hub 3.

Hub is freely mounted on the immobile hollow axis 4. The delivery of liquid to the hose 2 is carried out through an intake pipe 1, opening in an axis 4 and connection of the hub 3 with the revolving axis 4. Connection of hub 3 is tightened by the compact rings. Mechanized stowing of distributing hose is carried out by the spring of clock type. During unwinding of the hose the spring 6 is winded up and the torque moment is created directed on winding of hose on a reel. The spontaneous winding of the hose is prevented by a ratchet gear which consists of ratchet 5, fastened on an axis 4, and self-locking latches 10, fastened on a frame. During winding of hose of the self-locking latch 10 is disengaged from a ratchet to 5 by the light pulling of the hose 2 and spring 6, revolving a frame, winds a hose on it.

The dispensing gun (fig.1.4.10.) is intended for delivery of working liquid during refilling of aircraft system tanks.

Working principle of the dispensing gun consists in that at pressing on the lever 8, valve 5, overcoming resistance of spring 4, goes away from the case seat 1, providing the passage-way of liquid from the cavity of T-shaped branch box 6 in the cavity of casing 1, and then through the delivery pipe 10 in the aircraft system, which is refilled. Increasing or diminishing effort of pressure on a lever 8, we can control the liquid amount which is passed through dispensing gun. Restraining of the handle 8 in the released position is carried out by the ledge of the hook.

Fig.1.4.10. Dispensing gun.

1-casing; 2-box; 3-rope; 4-spring; 5-valve; 6- T-shaped branch box; 7-valve for sampling; 8-lever; 9-adapter; 10-delivery pipe; 11-spring; 12-cap.

From the side of liquid inlet in distributing gun a T-shaped branch box 6 is screwed in  with the sampling valve 7, and from the side of outlet there is an adaptor 9, where the delivery pipe 10 is installed  (in case of the open refilling) or tip of the type 6245А (for the closed refilling). For removing of static electricity, the box 2 is connected with a wire 3 with plug.

A bulk meter is intended for accounting of the working liquid amount which was delivered by servicer. Pinion-type liquid bulk meter ШЖУ-25-16 is of volume type with oval pinions. The volume metering device (sensor) and accounting gear are made in a single unit. The rotation transmission from a metering device to the accounting gear is carried out by a magnetic coupling.

Sampling valve С5-277 is intended for sampling during cleanness inspection of working liquids by the closed method. Sampling valve consists of box, valve, neddle valve, cap and fly-wheel.

5. System of carbody heating

System of carbody heating is mounted in the suspended compartment on the left side of a carbody. The heating plant ОЗОА, gasoline delivery governor, fuel tank, frame and control panel are invilved in the equipment of the heating system. For mounting convenience, heater, a control panel, pump and fuel tank are fastened on a common frame. A fuel for a heater is delivered from a tank by means of the pump. For the electric power supply of the heating plant the battery of the truck is used. When the heating plant is turned on external air comes in heater, there it is heated and delivered in a carbody through a expanding pipe.

Heater of ОЗОА type with heating performance 3000 kcal/hour provides warming of a 120 m3 air up in 1 hour with the temperatures difference of the air heated and warmed-up not less 80°C. A heater consumes 0,6 liter of motor-car gasoline for 1 hour.  Capacity of fuel tank is 5 l.

6. Control system

The control and supervision of servicer work is performed from the proper control panels. In addition, the control and supervision is carried out by the devices mounted directly in the systems.

The control system consists of:

- control panel of hydraulic- and gasoline refilling systems;

- control panel of oil refilling system;

- control panel of generator of the ГСР-6000А and pyrocartridge of fire prevention system;

- control panel by the system of heating;

- panel of draining of working liquids;

- pressure warning indicator of СДУЧА-0,65;

- level warning indicator of СУЗ-2 and СУЗ-2А;  

- thermometer ТПП-28;

- sensor BM118-A and level indicator UV-26D-26Д.

7. System of fire prevention

The system of fire prevention is intended for extinguishing of fire sources, which can outbreak during servicer operation. It has: two fire-extinguishers УБШ-2-1, nine warning sensors ДВС-1АГ; three longitudinal and one transversal manifolds, connecting pipelines, two fire-extinguishers ОУ-2.

In the case of fire outbreak a carbody sensors will give up a signal on an executive unit and relay system, herein the closing of pyrocartridge circuit occurs and fire indicating lights are illuminated. With the delivery of electric impulse the pyrocartridge is exploded and opens a valve, fire-extinguishing agent from a vessel under action of air pressure by pipelines is delivered in to manifolds and through opening-nozzles and is sprayed in a carbody. In the case of sensors failure the system can be triggered by means the buttons located near to the warning lights.

PAGE  10


А также другие работы, которые могут Вас заинтересовать

47385. Разработка маркетинговой стратегии развития организации на примере ООО “Антарес” 170.01 KB
  Раздел 1 Маркетинг как философия производства Содержит анализ литературных источников посвященных рассмотрению теоретических аспектов маркетинга классификации услуг анализ потребителей и их потребностей сегментации рынка услуг по пошиву одежды особенностям стимулирования сбыта в данной отраслевой группе влияние рекламы как основного элемента коммуникационного воздействия на потребителя.1 Понятие маркетинга особенности маркетинга услуг.2 Эффективность внедряемой услуги 655 Правовая часть...
47386. Влияние самооценки на успешность обучения в младшем школьном возрасте 383.5 KB
  Широкое распространение феномена оценки в учебновоспитательном процессе школы послужило причиной того что оценивание учителем результатов учебной деятельности учащихся и самооценивание выделилось в последние годы в самостоятельное направление. Согласно теории учебной деятельности оценочная деятельность порождает потребность ученика или учителя получить информацию о том соответствует или нет качество знаний и умений учащихся по предмету требованиям программы. Целью оценочной деятельности является таким образом контроль успеваемости...
47387. Разработка миссии и целей компании «Ultra» 254.18 KB
  В первую очередь целевое начало в деятельности организации возникает потому что организация это объединение людей преследующих определенные цели. так же как и те кто являются хозяевами организации или работают в организации преследуя свои собственные цели при взаимодействии с организацией придают ее существованию определенную направленность и тем самым развивают целевое начало в деятельности организации. Цели и задачи исследования. Первая глава посвящена теоретическому осмыслению понятий миссия цели система целей и др.
47388. Технологічний процес визначення оптимальних змішаних стратегій автотранспортного підприємства 412 KB
  Особлива увага приділяється автомобільному транспорту бо саме він є самим мобільним і швидко реагує на зміни ринкового середовища тому саме цьому виду транспорту надають перевагу наші підприємці при здійсненні внутрішніх перевезень і перевезень в країни ближнього зарубіжжя. Україна росташована в центрі Європи на перетині важливих торгівельних шляхів і тому особливу увагу слід приділяти розвитку транспорту щоб не лишень забезпечувати власні потреби але й виводити цю галузь господарства на міжнародний рівень. Застарілі методи...
47389. Отграничение вандализма от смежных составов преступления 101.77 KB
  В соответствии с ч.1 статьи 214 Уголовного Кодекса Российской Федерации:- вандализм, то есть осквернение зданий или иных сооружений, порча имущества на общественном транспорте или в иных общественных местах,- (наказывается штрафом в размере до 40 тысяч рублей или в размере заработной платы или иного дохода осужденного за период до 3 месяцев, либо обязательными работами на срок от 120 до 180 часов, либо исправительными работами на срок от 6 месяцев до 1 года, либо арестом на срок до 3 месяцев).
47390. Строительство в г. Абакан, расчет и архитектурные особенности 2.07 MB
  Недостатком является стесненность площадки что не позволяет оптимально разместить на ней механизмы и материалы необходимые для проведения работ. Варианты фундаментов: ленточный работающий как балка на упругом основании; столбчатый под колонны. Данный дипломный проект был разработан при помощи ЭВМ. Методы проверки качества маркировка и транспортирование пиломатериалов должно производится по ГОСТ 656463 укладка и хранение – по ГОСТ 3808 поверхностная антисептическая обработка – по ГОСТ 1095064.
47391. Специфика патриотического воспитания дошкольников с отклонениями в эмоционально-личностном развитии и поведении 99.95 KB
  Они делают акцент на приобщение детей к культурному наследию народа. Куликова предлагают одним из решений проблемы воспитания патриотизма детейдошкольников познание ими РодиныРоссии. разработать комплекс занятий для детей с отклонениями направленных на патриотическое воспитание. Уровень патриотического воспитания детей дошкольного возраста с отклонениями в развитии и поведении станет выше если в процессе работы будут использованы игровые словесные наглядные экскурсионные методы и формы функционирования воспитательной системы...
47393. Рисование как средство коррекции недостатков развития умственно отсталых детей 47.16 KB
  Развитие изобразительной деятельности связано с формированием у ребенка активного интереса к окружающему миру и предоставляет возможность ребенку отражать действительность. Лепка является первым основополагающим видом занятий необходимых для умственно отсталого ребенка на начальных этапах формирования изобразительной деятельности. В ходе выполнения аппликаций также создаются условия для формирования целенаправленной деятельности и развития общих интеллектуальных умений.