Modal verbs. Nouns as attribute
Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика
II Prctise reding twosyllble words with the stress on the first syllble rdr rnging hrbour lnding trvel mesure becon presence wether echo signl timer system object constnt mountin strongest portion during. Prctise reding the following word combintions: cpble of determining the presence of objects their chrcter ll of them ultrhigh frequency rdio wve energy directionl ntenn in bem visul redble signls within the field of view of rdr the use of these timed pulses t the constnt velocity the fluorescent screen...
Grammar: . Modal verbs;
. Nouns as attributes.
I. Practise reading the following one-syllable words:
II Practise reading two-syllable words with the stress on the first syllable
radar, ranging, harbour, landing, travel, measure, beacon, presence, weather, echo, signal, timer, system, object, constant, mountain, strongest, portion, during.
III Practise reading two-syllable words with the stress on the second syllable
across, appear, equip, complete, desired, direct, consist, entire, present, install, reflect, rotate, translate, within.
IV Practise reading the following many-syllable words:
determination, equipment, capable, direction, character, recognize, essential, component, transmitter, receiver, antenna, indicator, frequency, fluorescent, interval, predetermined, synchronizer, velocity, accuracy, azimuth, elevation.
V. Practise reading the following word combinations:
capable of determining, the presence of objects, their character, all of them, ultra-high frequency radio wave energy, directional antenna, in a beam, visual readable signals, within the field of view of radar, the use of these timed pulses, at the constant velocity, the fluorescent screen, predetermined interval, the accuracy of the range, with the help of a radar set, location of an object, entirely safe, regardless of night or weather, to fly over mountain ranges.
VI. Memorize the spelling and pronunciation of the following words:
harbour ['ha:bə] гавань, порт
transmitter [trænz'mItə] передавач
asimuth ['æzIməθ] азимут
synchronizer ['sIηkrənaIzə] синхронізатор
measure ['meZə] 1. міра; 2. вимірювати
fluorescent [fluə'resnt] флуоресцентний
essential [I'sen∫əl] істотний,головний
frequency ['fri:kwənsI] 1. частота; 2.частотність
dimension [dI'men∫ən] вимір, розмір
The word “radar” means Radio Determination and Ranging. Radar equipment is capable of determining by radio echoes the presence of objects, their direction, range and recognizing their character.
There are several types of radar sets, all of them consist of six essential components, namely: a transmitter, a receiver, an antenna system, an indicator, a timer, and, of course, a power supply.
A radar set detects objects by sending out short powerful pulses of ultra-high frequency radio wave energy from a highpower transmitter. The directional antenna takes this energy from the transmitter and radiates it in a beam (similar to that of a searchlight).
As the transmitted energy strikes an object, a portion of it is reflected back. The receiver picks up the returning echo through its antenna and translates it into visual readable signals on a fluorescent screen. The appearance of these signals shows the presence of an object within the field of view of radar.
The electron beam sweeps across the fluorescent screen in somewhat the same way as a hand sweeps across the face of a clock. Just as the hand of a clock completes its sweep in sixty seconds, the electron beam can be made to travel across any desired portion of the screen in some predetermined interval of time. It is the timer, which is the synchronizer of the whole system, that times the transmitter pulse and the indicator. The use of these timed pulses and the fact that the radio waves travel at the constant velocity of light gives a simple means of measuring range. The accuracy with which time is measured determines the accuracy of the range.
How then is the direction in which an object lies to be found? Both azimuth and elevation can be determined by means of the directional antenna. The antenna may be rotated as the pulses are sent out and the strongest signal appears on the screen when the antenna points directly at the object. The direction of the antenna enables the determination of azimuth and elevation. Thus, with the help of a radar set we can get a three-dimensional location of an object.
The wide use of radar sets in our everyday life will make air and sea entirely safe. Radars may be installed on every ship at sea as well as in every large harbour. They will prevent collisions in fog and aid a ship to sail safely into any harbour, regardless of night or weather. Similarly airplanes will be able to fly over mountain ranges in storms and effect blind landing during poor visibility.
Answer the questions:
1. What can be determined by the use of radar equipment? 2. What are the essential components of a radar set? 3. How does radar detect an object? 4. What gives a simple means of measuring range? 5. What location of an object can we get with the help of radar? 6. How is radar used?
I State the parts of speech of the following words and translate them
similarly, visibility, entirely, dimensional, appearance, presence, direction, transmitter, receiver, indication, timer, powerful, frequency, directional, readable, location, synchronizer, elevation, determination, equipment.
II Add the prefix “in-“ or its variant “im-“ (before “m”, “p”), “ir-“ (before “r”), “il-“ (before “l”) to the following words. Translate them into Ukrainian:
direct, visible, active, possible, comparable, complete, measurable, resistible, responsible, logical.
III Translate the following international words:
radar, object, antenna, system, component, indicator, timer, detect, energy, echo, signal, second, portion, interval, pulse, fact, azimuth, location, safe, storm, effect.
IV Make up pairs of the following words and translate them into Ukrainian:
V Translate the following groups of words of the same root:
VI Find nouns of the same root in the text. Translate them into Ukrainian:
to equip, accurate, directional, to determine, useful, to set up, to translate, to receive, to indicate, frequent, visible, to transmit.
VII Fill in the blanks with the words given below:
detects, beam, determined, antenna, radar sets, collisions, safe, three-dimensional, pulses, highpower, the returning echo, frequency.
VIII Finish the sentences:
IX Make up questions to the following answers:
X Translate the sentences paying attention to different meanings of “as”:
XI Translate the following word combinations:
ultra-high frequency radio wave energy; ground controlled radar; low frequency signalling current; straight-line wave length, long distance radio station; load carrying capacity; hand control system; daily current consumption.
XII Translate the following words paying attention to the meaning of the prefix “pre-“:
predetermined, presupposed, prefabricated, pre-established, pre-war, prehistorical, prerevolutionary.
TEXT 6 B
RADAR GUIDES HARBOUR TRAFFIC
Give a summary of the text.
A number of worlds largest ports have already installed radar systems in their harbours. Radars survey ship traffic in fog and bad weather. They are designed not only to assist ships entering and leaving the harbour during poor visibility, but also to provide continuous observation of shipping and give immediate information on the location of ships in the harbour.
From a radio control room having the necessary transmitting appliance of ship-to-shore communication, with a radar unit set at a certain range, the operator can observe the harbour and give necessary orders immediately to ships.
TEXT 6 C
Read the text. Find out the main information of the text.
During the last few decades, a subtle change has occurred which none of our senses can register. Radio waves, bearing messages in many tongues, flow ceaselessly around us, through us and above us. We can only hear and see them if we convert them to other waves to which our ears and eyes are receptive.
Radio waves are the longest members of the family of electromagnetic waves. In the spectrum, in which the waves are arranged in order of increasing wavelength, they lie beyond the infrared waves. Their wavelengths range from about three hundredths of a centimetre to about 300 kilometers. Radio broadcasts today are made by two different methods known as AM (amplitude modulation) and FM (frequency modulation). The frequencies of the waves used are expressed in kilocycles or megacycles. The vibrating current is fed into an antenna from which the radio waves are broadcast into space.
Microwaves are the smallest radio waves. In the spectrum of electromagnetic waves they lie between infrared rays and the long radio waves. The shortest microwaves have a wavelength of about three hundredths of a centimetre and a frequency of one million megacycles. The longest microwaves have a wavelength of about three metres and a frequency of one hundred megacycles.
The first microwaves made by man were the two-foot waves produced by Heinrich Hertz. It is interesting that they were the last to be put to a practical use. Long waves were easier to produce and send out over long distances. Scientists had to return to the use of short waves in order to solve a problem that came up during World War II. The problem was “How can you detect an approaching enemy plane while it is still far away?” A possible answer to the problem was to send a beam of radio waves. Long radio waves could not be used for this purpose because they fan out too quickly from the broadcasting antenna. Very short waves were necessary to make the radar system work. So new transmitters and receivers were designed to make and use microwaves.
1. none of our senses жодне з наших почуттів
2. bearing messages in many tongues які несуть повідомлення на багатьох мовах
3. in order of increasing wavelength щоб збільшити довжину хвилі
4. in order to solve a problem щоб вирішити проблему.
Find answers to the following questions:
. Can we hear and see radio waves? 2. What place do radio waves occupy in the spectrum of electromagnetic waves? 3. Who produced the first microwaves? 4. Were the microwaves the first to be put to a practical use? 5. What kind of problem came up during World War II?
Speak about the characteristics of radio waves and microwaves.