Gerund. Gerund clauses
Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика
Tsiolkovsky 18571935 Mnkind will not remin on erth forever. Tsiolkovsky ws selftught mn. The min problem Tsiolkovsky hd been working t for mny yers ws creting theory of interplnetry trvel. 1 It ws Tsiolkovsky who suggested the ide of multistge rocket nd of mnmde stellite which could serve s lbortory for studying the universe.
Grammar: Gerund; Gerund clauses
TEXT 16 A
K. E. Tsiolkovsky (1857-1935)
"Mankind will not remain on earth forever." These words, an axiom of the new science of astronautics, were spoken at the beginning of the century by K.E.Tsiolkovsky.
Tsiolkovsky was a self-taught man. In his childhood he lost his hearing but this did not prevent him from acquiring knowledge. With endless patience his mother went on teaching him, and after her death he began studying by himself.
On having reached a point where reading books at home could teach no more, the sixteen year old boy went to Moscow where he continued his studies in libraries and lecture rooms.
For three years he studied physics, astronomy, mechanics and geometry with the problems of flights and interplanetary travel in his mind. Having come across the law of action and reaction and the law of persistence of the centre of gravity he realized that these two laws together constituted the solution of cosmic flight problems. Seventy years before the appearance of the multi-stage rocket it was a tremendous step forward.
After having completed courses, he obtained the post of mathematics master at school where he taught for nearly 40 years.
The main problem Tsiolkovsky had been working at for many years was creating a theory of interplanetary travel. At the time when man first rose into the air, he proposed rockets for interplanetary communi cation. In his work “The study of cosmic space by rocket engines” which is often referred to by many scientists everywhere in the world, K.Tsilkovsky put forward a scientifically will-founded theory of cosmic flights. The ideas presented in this work served as basis for the development of astronautics. He laid the foundation of all subsequent rocket theories, proved the rocket to be the very ship upon which the man would be able to leave the earth penetrating into boundless spaces and outlined his design of the first jet-driven flying machine. 1 It was Tsiolkovsky who suggested the idea of a multi-stage rocket and of a man-made satellite which could serve as a laboratory for studying the universe.
This man who had neither forerunners nor experience, who had no model to follow, nevertheless succeeded in producing a workable design for a liquid-cooled rocket combustion chamber. 2 And the first man-made satellite was taken into the skies by a type of a rocket designed by Tsiolkovsky many years ago. Moreover, the orbit along which the satellite sped had been also calculated by him. Realization of many of the project due to Tsilkovsky became possible only in our days. His dream thut “man kind must not remain eternally on the earth” is now a reality. Tsiolkovsky understood that to realize his dream the efforts of many people were necessary.
The rocket the shape of which he had shown to the world was produced in practical form by his successors: scientists, designers and engineers.
1. jet-driven flying machine реактивний літак;
2. liquid-cooled rocket combustion chamber камера згорання з рідинним охолодженням;
3. to bring to completion закінчити.
Answer the questions:
1. Whose words became an axiom of astronautics?
2. Where and how did Tsiolkovsky acquire knowledge?
3. What were the two laws that constituted the solution of cosmic flight problems?
4. What was the main problem Tsiolkovsky had been working at for many years?
5. What was his contribution in the development of astronautics?
I Translate the following words paying attention to the suffixes:
act - action - active - activate;
found - foundation - founder;
experience - experiment - experimental;
produce - producer - production - productive;
calculate - calculated - calculation - calculator;
work - workable - worker - working;
serve - servant - service.
II Translate these words paying attention to the negative prefixes and suffixes:
unable - helpless - dissimilar - illogical - senseless - irregular - unproductive - disrupt- improper - misunderstand.
III Form new words using the prefix "inter-":
national, connection, action, communication, dependence, planetary.
IV Form words after the models and translate them:
verb+-ion; verb+-ation; verb+-ence.
realize; examine; differ; describe; exclaim; possess; protect.
V Form words with opposite meaning by adding the prefixes:
-un; -dis; -im; -in; -ir.
charge; real; mobile; removable; significant; prove; similar; reasonable; probable.
VI Translate the following words and state their part of speech:
competence; measurable; historic; appliance; installation; effectiveness.
VII Form adjectives adding the suffixes to the following nouns:
VIII Translate the following word-combinations:
a self-taught man; to prevent from; to acquire knowledge; to outline the design; to lay a foundation; to obtain a post; to speed along the orbit; to come across; to reach a point; a step forward; endless patience; the problems of flight and interplanetary travel; the law of persistence of the centre of gravity; to constitute the solution of the problem; subsequent rocket theories; jet-driven flying machine.
IX Make up sentences using the following models:
It was ... who ...
After (having done) … we (did)...
X Translate into English the words given in brackets:
1. Radiо (звязок) is constantly carried on with the pilot during the flight.
2. At the beginning of the 20th century (людство) was shown the road to the stars.
3. Tsiolkovsky put forward the idea of building (штучний) satellites.
4. Only after having risen into the space, we understood how (безмежний) it was.
5. The necessity of (супутники) for interplanetary (польоти) is now recognized by all specialists.
6. The early works by Tsiolkovsky were followed by a number of very important works in the field of (космонавтикa).
7. Tsiolkovsky paid great attention to the importance of using (рідкий) fuel.
8. Such a problem as the (проект) of a space ship consisting of several rockets was dealt by him.
XI Fill in the blanks with the words given below:
Installed prevent problems
Complete suggested reach
1. Modern computers have been ___ in our laboratory to increase the effectiveness of the work.
2. Having solved the _____ of flights mankind is gradually developing the universe.
3. His industriousness and thirst for knowledge helped Tsiolkovsky ___ courses and obtain the post of mathematics master.
4. The failure in the first experiment did not ___ the scientists from continuing their work.
5. Realization of many of the projects ___ by Tsiolkovsky became possible only at the end of the 20th century.
XII Finish the sentences with the words given below and translate them:
a) the surface of a planet;
b) they were not fully understood during his lifetime;
c) what has already been achieved;
d) what laws operate in the universe;
e) understand what you will do;
f) provide heat;
g) experimental work;
h) creating artificial satellites of the earth.
3. The scientist studied the conditions for the take-off of a spaceship from ....
4. In 1895 Tsiolkovsky proposed the idea of... .
5. Some of his ideas were so far in advance of his age that....
6. Fuels are substances we burn in order to ... .
7. The future of astronautics will be a logical continuation of... .
8. Before beginning an experiment carefully read the instruction in order to ... .
XIII Translate the following international words:
orbit; astronautics; design; physics; satellite; cosmic; rocket; atomic; atmosphere; axiom.
XIV Make up pairs of the following words and translate them into Ukrainian:
1. interplanetary a) man
2. man-made b) courses
3. self-taught c) knowledge
4. step d) travel
5. boundless e) space
6. complete f) gravity
7. acquire g) satellite
8. centre of h) forward
XV Choose the correct English equivalent:
a) take a course
закінчити b) come into being
a) come across
зіткнутися b) come about
a) take a step
досягати точки b) reach a point
a) take steps
крок вперед b) keep in step
a) lay a foundation
закласти основу b) lay down the law
XVI Fill in the blanks using the following prepositional verbs:
Looking ... books on physics Tsiolkovsky came across two laws which presented the solution of cosmic flight problems. 2. Tsiolkovsky is looked ... as one of the most outstanding scientists in the world. 3. Looking ... the answer to the question, he tried various types of models. 4. When a child, he was often left alone with his books as there was nobody to look ... him. 5. Looking ... modern rockets, we notice that they look ... the rockets suggested by Tsiolkovsky.
TEXT 16 B
Scan the text and find the answers to the following questions:
1. What is a major trend in modern radio electronics?
2. What possibilities does molecular electronics open up?
1. The reduction of radio instruments to miniature proportions and even smaller is a major trend in modern radio electronics. The significance of this research has grown especially in connection with space research. It is impossible to equip a rocket for flights to other worlds without light, small and economical electronic apparatuses. The space rockets will carry a large amount of miniature equipment, systems for contact with the Earth, radars, computers for calculating flight trajectories, life-support systems, etc.
2. Bulky electronic equipment will have no place in the future. It will be unsuitable for automation of production, transport or domestic use.
3. Semiconductors and printed circuits have helped to reduce the size of apparatus considerably. The semiconducting instruments which have replaced electronic valves are much smaller and lighter, consume less power, are reliable and more durable.
The development of micromodules tiny ceramic plates with a metallized coating has opened up big possibilities for making miniature electronic instruments. Semiconductors compressed into this plate are hundreds of times smaller than electronic valves. A radio receiver assembled of micromodules does not weigh more than 50 grammes.
4. Molecular electronics opens up new possibilities. The crystalline lattice can be changed by tantalum or titanium being added to semiconductors to obtain crystals with the required electrical properties.
At present, a radio-receiving set is assembled of separate, ordinary-size parts. The radio sets based on semiconductors or micromodules are also assembled of separate parts but tens and hundreds of times as small. The germanium or silicon plates will not operate like separate resistors or condensers, but as complete circuits as generators or amplifiers.
5. All this might sound fantastic, but a scientist is looking still further ahead. Present research programmes are taking the development of even more miniature parts. We can say that when superminiature elements are developed, it will become possible to place approximately 200 million of these "parts" within one cubic centimetre. The density is approximately that of the human brain.
6. Cybernetics machines assembled of these units will memorize tremendous volumes of information and will give man invaluable assistance in diverse fields of life.
I Say where the reduction of radio instruments is especially significant.
II Find the information about semiconductor instruments.
III Think of the most suitable title for paragraph 3 out of the given ones:
2. Semiconductor Devices a Big Step in the Direction of Miniaturization.
3. Steps of Miniaturization.
IV Give reasons for the development of micromodules.
V Say what new possibilities molecular electronics opens up.
VI Which paragraph contains the information directly connected with the title of the text.
TEXT 16 C
Application of electric-propulsion system
Translate the text using a dictionary:
An electrically powered spacecraft will probably be used for a round trip to some distant planet. A comparison between an electric and a conventional system for a proposed trip to Mars will show definite advantages of an electric system. For an eight-man crew to go on a 500-day trip to Mars, the weight of the electric and conventional system would be 450,000 and 8,000,000 pounds respectively. Both systems would have to be assembled in an Earth orbit. It would, however, take only two boosters to lift the material for the electric system while forty boosters would be needed for the conventional one. Electric power propulsion and all other needs would be generated by a nuclear-fission turbo-electric system.
There is, however, one problem that has not yet been discussed - the radiator equipment. Vapour exhausted from the turbine must be cooled and condensed before it returns to heat exchanger and the cycle is repeated. The cooling is accomplished with a radiator. This creates a weight problem, since a great deal of surface area is required for efficient heat exchange. Besides, to make the electric system practical, a large number of engines would be required because present designs are for engines generating only a small amount of thrust.
Much research has been conducted on electric propulsion systems as they can produce such low thrusts and can run for long periods. This means a high degree of reliability will have to be attained for such systems. Even with the large amount of research already accomplished, the electric system is still in a stage of development. Lighter and more powerful units must be developed if we want such systems to fulfil the promise they offer for interplanetary travel.
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