44733

Word Order in the Simple Sentence. Types of Questions. The Noun: the Category of Number. The Use of Articles. Present, Past, Future Simple (Active Voice)

Конспект урока

Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

Mn is lso the cretor of the innumerble spiritul tresures of mnkind: the wonderful works of rt literture nd science. The mchine system mde it possible to include science in production on lrge scle. We live in the epoch when science becomes direct productive force of society. spred of informtion of knowledge of science поширення інформації знань науки 12.

Английский

2013-11-13

56 KB

7 чел.

6

Unit 1

Grammar:

1.Word Order in the Simple Sentence. Types of Questions.

2.The Noun: the Category of Number.                             

3.The Use of Articles.

4.Present, Past, Future Simple (Active Voice).

READING   EXERCISES

1. Practise reading the following words. Mind the pronunciation of the vowels in stressed position:

man, thanks, than, gas, inhabit, expanses, began, attach, actual; change, made, shale, take, creator,   labour, later,  became, nature, automation, inflation; art, large, start, harness, remarkable;

cloth, stop, beyond, belong, complex, profit; role, mode, ago, over, control, social; worth, work, world; more;

but, under,   usher,   judge, construct,   production, multitude; use, fusion, produce, nuclear, computer;   turn;

sense, engine, mental, benefit, century, development; even, these; service, interpret, observe, material;

spin, bring, fission, limit, system,   physical, recognition; time, wide, type, crisis; first; fire.

2. Practise reading the following words:

wheel         steam       spread        learn      

speed         peat          weapon      earth

between     weave       treasure     year

automation      road     achieve

autumn           goal       believe

because          coal       relieve

3. Memorize the spelling and pronunciation of the following words:

people [’pi:pl], build [bIld], machine [mq∫i:n], desert I’dezqt], eyes [aIz], touch [tΛt∫], great [greIt], era [’i qrq], full [full], give [gIv], consequence [’kOnsIkw qns], broad [brO:d], wonderful [‘wΛndqf(u)l], hydropower [haidrI’pau q].guide [gaId], relieve [ri’li:v], horizon [hq’raIzn].

4. Learn the pronunciation of the -(e)s suffix in the following types of words:

obliterates     belongs         gives        uses

stops            determines    brings      passes

works           becomes       goes         freezes

5. Practise reading the words with the -ed suffix:

passed       learned       proved      created        irrigated

attached     changed     ushered    inhabited     invented

worked       turned        freed        constructed interpreted

6.Practise reading the word combinations:

in the course of; man gradually learned; constructed roads, plants and irrigated deserts; the steam engine; were put into service; in the mode of production; made his work easier; time for creative work; he had to start them; correct errors; an entirely new era; of all production operations; can relieve; opens up broad horizons; the innumerable spiritual treasures.

TEXT 1 A

 SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL PROGRESS

In the course of his historic development man gradually learned to use the forces of nature and created our civilization. He managed to change the earth beyond recognition: inhabited vast expanses of wilderness, constructed roads, plants and irrigated deserts. Man is also the creator of the innumerable spiritual treasures of mankind: the wonderful works of art, literature and science. All this became possible thanks to man’s labour, his ability to learn, to understand and explain different phenomena of the material world.

In this progressive advance of man a particularly significant role belongs to energy.

First man learned to use the energy of fire. Many thousand years passed before man learned to use the energy of wind, water and steam, and later — electricity. For producing electricity man discovered and began to use different energy resources: coal, oil, gas, peat, shale, hydropower and nuclear energy.

Not so long ago man invented and put into service the steam engine and steam locomotives. Then he attached the steam engine to looms and to various wheels and so work began to speed up.

The steam engine worked a revolution in the mode of production. The discovery and use of electricity brought about the industrial revolution. A multitude of machines — mechanical,   steam and electrical — began to do man’s difficult and complex work. But man’s brain still controlled the machines doing the work. He started them, guided them and stopped them. He judged their work and corrected errors. His eyes, ears and sense of touch did the observing, and his brain interpreted their information. Then people invented machines and electronic computers which freed the worker not only of the performance of all production operations but even of control.

The machine made a great contribution to the spread of information and the advance of learning. The machine system made it possible to include science in production on a large scale. But it was a long and a hard way. It took the steam engine more than a century to develop its tremendous capacity to the full. The industrial revolution, brought about by the discovery and use of electricity, took some 50—60 years to run its course.

The second half of the 20th century begins an entirely new era — the era of the scientific and technological revolution. It is due to complex mechanization and full automation.

The discovery of the chain reaction of nuclear fission and the reaction of thermonuclear fusion promises mankind a practically unlimited source of energy. Now scientists began to study and use outer space for Man’s benefit.

All this is possible thanks to a wide introduction of scientific discoveries in production.

We live in the epoch when science becomes direct productive force of society. All-round automation determines the social consequences of the scientific-technological progress. Automation will take over man’s manual work and electronic computers will relieve him of much of his mental work, leaving him time for creativity. It obliterates the distinctions between physical and mental labour.

 NOTES

1. In the course of — у ході, у процесі; протягом

2. beyond recognition — до невпізнання

3. thanks to (due to, owing to) — завдяки, внаслідок, в результаті

4. to put into service — поставити на службу

5. to judge smth.— давати оцінку, судити

6. (steam engine) worked a revolution — (паровий двигун) зробив революцію

7. mode of production — cnociб виробництва

8. to bring about — викликати, бути причиною

9. sense of touch (of hearing, of sight, of smell, of taste) — чуття (дотику, слуху, зору, нюху, смаку)

10. to make (a great) contribution — зробити (великий) внесок

11. spread of information (of knowledge, of science) — поширення інформації (знань, науки)

12. advance of learning — розвиток освіти

13. to usher in a new era — сповіщати (відкривати) нову еру

14. chain reaction — ланцюгова реакція

15. nuclear fission — поділ ядра; розщеплення (атомного ядра)

16. thermonuclear fusion — термоядерна реакція

17. to take over — брати на себе, заміняти

Answer the questions:

l. How has man changed the earth? 2. Who is the creator of the material and spiritual treasures of mankind? 3. What sources of energy did man discover and use in his life activity? 4. When did the first industrial revolution begin? 5. What made man’s work easier and gave him time for creative work?6.When does science become a direct productive force of society? 7. What are the consequences of the scientific-technological revolution? 8. What is the great progress of science illustrated by? 9. Did man use first energy of fire or atom? 10. The machine made a great contribution to the spread of information, didn’t it?

EXERCISES

I. Form words after the models and translate them into Ukrainian:

a) V + -ment:  to move — movement

to achieve, to employ, to advance, to attach, to treat, to judge, to equip, to establish;

b) V + -ion (-tion, -ation): to recognize — recognition

to observe, to inform, to irrigate, to obliterate, to interpret, to react, to civilize, to construct, to invent, to contribute;

c) V + -er (-or): to weave — weaver

to create, to construct, to irrigate, to use, to produce, to discover, to invent, to build, to control, to observe, to contribute, to give, to perform, to compute, to turn;

d) A + -al: historic — historical

electric, physic, mechanic, mathematic, technologic, scientific, electronic, automatic.

II. Form words with opposite meaning by adding the prefixes un-, dis-,   im-, in-, ir- to the proper group of words:

regular, advantage, appear, important, usual, able, direct, possible, probable, progressive, productive, significant, limited, easy, qualified, natural, complete.

III. Translate the following words into Ukrainian and state their part of speech:

science — scientist — scientific — scientifically;

 physics — physicist — physical — physically;

conduct — conductor — conductive — conductivity;

to  discover — discoverer — discovery;

 to consider — consideration — considerable — considerably;

to create — creator —creation — creative — creativity.

IV. Write and read the plural form of the following nouns:

instrument, ability, oil, shale, gas, sheep, energy, fish, loom, engine, deer, life, tooth, touch, phenomenon, force, apparatus, nucleus, datum, crisis, radius, analysis, thesis.

V. Read and explain the meaning of “s” in the following words:

roads, horizons, plants, reads, works, physics, looms, years, mathematics, weapons, cybernetics, opens, speaks, colours, scissors, trousers, electronics, news, mechanics.

VI. Read the following international words and give their Ukrainian equivalents:

construction; civilization, irrigation, literature, progressive, locomotive, machine, revolution, production, control, contribution, introduction, correction, complex, source, horizon, role, constructive, destructive.

VII. Choose English equivalents of the following Ukrainian words:

галузь                           a number of

винахід                         wide

наука                             knowledge

широкий                      science

вчений                          branch

декілька (ряд)              world

знання                          scientific

світ                                phenomenon

науковий                     scientist

явище                           achievement

досягнення                  invention

VIII.Arrange the following words in pairs according to:

a) similar meaning (synonyms): important, vast, beautiful, significant, large, unlimited, wonderful, limitless;

b) opposite meaning (antonyms): direct, simple, impossible, indirect, complex, difficult, possible, easy, unproductive, to start, to ruin, to stop, productive, to build.

IX. Form and memorize the pronunciation of the Past   Simple and the Past Participle of the following verbs:

to learn, to understand, to become, to put, to bring, to build, to find, to draw, to break, to found, to think, to know, to produce, to create, to start.

X. Insert articles before nouns where necessary:

1. ... importance of ... scientific research and... discoveries is growing with every... year. 2. Due to... achievements of ... world science ... lot of ... things are brought to ... life. 3. Science opens broad ... opportunities for ... development of ... country’s productive force. 4. All ... scientists of ...  world value ... our scientists for their brilliant discoveries. 5. ... state should provide scientific and educational institutes with all necessary ...equipment and facilities. 6. ... role of... science increases in all spheres of our ... life because it became ... direct productive force.

     XI. Put the verbs in brackets in the correct tense form and translate the sentences into              Ukrainian:

                              THE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY OF SCIENTISTS

The new scientific revolution (to raise) in a most acute form ethical questions of the social responsibility of scientists. How far (to be) scientists responsible for the application of their work? If they (to be), how can they best (to fulfil) this responsibility?

Basically, we (to study) nature because knowledge of nature (to give) us the power (to use and control) nature. Scientists always (to point out) the mutual interdependence of the progress of production and science. Science (to help) us (to understand) our world. This (to determine) the most important and most fruitful aspect of the social role of science and as a result the social responsibility of scientists (to grow). It (to be) cynical if not a crime to be indifferent as to whether people (to be) better or worse off as a result of scientific achievement.

XII. Put questions to the words in bold type and translate them into Ukrainian:

1. V. I. Vernadsky was Ukraine’s great scholar of encyclopedic knowledge.

2. Albert Einstein compared the discovery of atomic energy with the discovery of fire.3.The steady progress of science and technology ushered in an entirely new era of supersonic speeds.4.Science today is an instrument in planning and promoting scientific, technological and social progress.5.Science becomes a direct productive force only if its discoveries are introduced in the process of production.

XIII. Translate into English using words and expressions from the text:

1.Люди є творцями всіх матеріальних і духовних цінностей людства.

2.Людина відкрила секрети природи і навчилася використовувати їх у повсякденному житті.

3. Люди винайшли безліч різноманітних машин, що полегшують їхню фізичну i розумову працю.

4. Автоматизація i EOM згладжують різницю між фізичною i розумовою працею.

    5.В епоху науково-технічного прогресу наука перетворилася на безпосередню виробничу силу суспільства.

     6.Українські вчені роблять значний внесок у розвиток світової науки i в технічний прогрес людства.

    7. Прогресивні вчені борються за мирне використання наукових відкриттів.

 TEXT  1 B

Engineers in the 21st Century

Translate the text using a dictionary and answer the questions: Do you share this vision of an accomplished 21 st century engineer? What should you do to achieve this aim?

 MOST of us choose engineering as a profession because we like to solve problems and build things. We are the modern-day renaissance men and women, like Edison and DaVinci. These men could invent and create. They were artists who had a broad view of the world and saw possibilities that no one had seen before. There is no reason why we can’t be like them and do even more. We understand more science and have modern tools like computers and lasers to design and build things, plus we can use information technology to gather data when we have knowledge gaps. The point is that, once we have a clear picture of who we want to be, now more than ever before, that vision is obtainable, and that vision becomes a self-fulfilling prophesy if we choose to act on it. Certainly, if we think we cannot do it, we won’t.

  Successful engineers are people who take an early interest in science and engineering. They have alert minds and a natural curiosity for everything around them. They do things for the love of it, not simply for monetary rewards, but for the pride and personal satisfaction that comes with doing something particularly well. Over time, they develop a clear intuition for excellence that drives them to produce quality in whatever they do. They mix well in society because they also take an interest in people and the dynamics of human interaction. Personally, they are self-confident but not ego-driven and have respect for other human beings. With the broad knowledge base they build over time, they can come up with fantastic ideas for solving just about any kind of problem, and they are able to build marvelous things or great companies by working with other people. The success that naturally goes with all that also makes them highly respected in society. That’s the kind of successful individual we can be! And, we can have a profound impact on our community at large.

So what do you do when you’re just starting out?                                                         

  •  Develop an interest in learning. Once you become curious about a subject, learning comes        naturally. With an attitude of learning, everyone and everything can be your teacher

      if you let them. People develop incredible insights about their interests and passions, and    most are willing to share what they know. You can pick up what they’ve learned over a lifetime just by listening.

  •  Build a strong foundation in basic science as well as a broad range of technologies to allow you to come up with creative solutions to problems. This breadth of knowledge helps you become aware of what you don’t know and gives you a sense of where to look for solutions.
  •  Pick one particular subject area in which to specialize. A Ph.D. dissertation is an invaluable vehicle for learning how to be thorough. The particular topic is not so important because once you know how to dig deeply you can do so quickly on any subject that interests you.
  •  Put a high value on your time, and only take on projects for which you have passion. Being satisfied with “It’s just a job” robs you of the real opportunities. Work hard and develop a habit of completing whatever you do. What you learn in solving specific technical or people problems often enables you to tackle even bigger projects.
  •  Do explicit long-range planning. Decide on what you want to accomplish in life, and look at the trends in your particular area of interest to decide what you need to do to get there. Modify your plans periodically as you gather new information. You are more likely to be your own master and less likely to be reactive to other people’s agenda.
  •  Pay attention to attitude and self-awareness early on. Success is naturally optimized when you make the best use of available resources. Since уou are your own most valuable resource, you’ll need to understand how you operate in order to apply yourself most effectively. An objective understanding of your own strengths and weaknesses will give you the self-confidence to take on the right project and bring in people with the needed skills that you do not possess.
  •  Practice building strong relationships because you need other people to help you succeed. Study subjects in liberal arts to understand what makes people tick. As you develop an understanding and appreciation for what other people do, you will naturally respect them as individuals. Respect begets respect because reciprocity is the basis of human relationships. Be helpful to people and you’ll get plenty in return over time.


 

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