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The formation of prices. Prices in the wholesale and retail trade. The impact of inflation on the price

Доклад

Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

Today we discuss such question «The formation of prices. Prices in the wholesale and retail trade. The impact of inflation on the price.» . Price - a monetary expression of value of goods, the amount of money paid per unit of product or service. In general, demand, supply, price - key variables that characterize the market. They are closely linked and mutually influence each other, creating a market mechanism for self-regulation

Английский

2013-11-14

19.21 KB

2 чел.

.№ 3

«Ціни в ринковій економіці». Питання для обговорення: Формування ціни. Зв'язок ціни, попиту і пропозиції. Ціни в оптовій та роздрібній торгівлі.  Вплив інфляції на ціну.

Today we discuss such question «The formation of prices. Prices in the wholesale and retail trade. The impact of inflation on the price.» . Price - a monetary expression of value of goods, the amount of money paid per unit of product or service. In general, demand, supply, price - key variables that characterize the market. They are closely linked and mutually influence each other, creating a market mechanism for self-regulation. The behavior of buyers describes the category of "demand", the behavior of producers and sellers - the category of "suggestion." The market price is determined as a result of complex interaction of producers and sellers and buyers. Demand - a demand for a product that provided the money. Supply - a combination of products that are represented on the market. Supply and demand - these are two opposite forces that cause the growth and decline in prices. A change in price every time balances supply and demand. Wholesaling is a part of marketing system. It provides channels of distribution which help to bring goods to the market. Generally, indirect channels are used to market manufactured consumer goods. It could be from the manufacturer to the wholesaler, from the retailer to the consumer or through more complicated channels. A direct channel moves goods from the manufacturer or producer to the consumer. Retailing is selling goods and services to the ultimate consumer. Thus, the retailer is the most expensive link in the chain of distribution. Being middlemen, they make their profit by charging the customer 25 to 100% more than the price they paid for the item. The retailers operate through stores, mail-order houses vending-machine operators. There are different types of retail stores, discount houses, cooperatives, single line retailers. Inflation is generally defined as a persistent rise in the general price; level with no corresponding rise in output, which leads to a corresponding fall in the purchasing power of money. Inflation occurs in many countries but at different rates. There are different rates of inflation  from creeping inflation to galloping or hyper-inflation.

Summary

Вплив зміни курсів валют на економіку країни

The main idea of the article is influence of exchange rate on the economy. The purpose of the article is to study currency regulation in industrial countries and in countries with transitional economy. Author of the text emphasizes that in industrial countries where the currency is fully convertible, high liquidity central banks use market principles to maintaining the required exchange rate. And in countries with transition economy authorities use close to the administrative methods of control. Also the article gives a review of devaluation. Finally the author justifies the need for focus attention of the state on increasing GDP by developing domestic production, increase exports and accumulate reserves.

Додаток  до  білета № 3

  1.  What is the reason of the rapid spread of these companies?
  2.  Have successful tech companies been led by visionary leaders – such as Gates, Jobs, Page?
  3.  Will food shortages become a harsh reality in the next few decades?
  4.  What industries have all found success in international markets?
  5.  What businesses that are well positioned for growth will offer ?
  6.  What companies are well positioned across the world to reap the profits of the growing demand of farmers who are increasingly required to maximize their productivity?

№4

Ви представник рекламного відділу. Вашим завданням є створення реклами для товарів, які щойно були створені компанією; які вже є на ринку і мають середні показники продажу, і ті, продаж яких занепадає. Якому виду реклами  ви надаєте перевагу в кожному окремому випадку? Поясніть свій вибір.

 Advertising - any paid form of communication by the individual intended to promote products, services or ideas. There are eight principal media for advertising. Perhaps the most basic medium is the newspaper which offers advertiser’s large circulations, a readership located close to the advertiser’s place of business.

Magazines, the other chief print medium, may be of general interest or they may be aimed at specific audience and offer the manufacturers of products of particular interest the chance to make contact with their most likely customers. In Western industrial nations the most pervasive media are television and radio. The other advertising media include direct male, which can make a highly detailed and personalized appeal; outdoor billboards and posters; transit advertising which can reach the millions of users of mass. Other media include advertising in movie theatres and on airline movie screens.

Advertising for products that have just been created by: 

- Commercials on TV

- Outdoor Advertising;

- Advertising in popular newspapers and magazines;

Advertising for products that are already on the market and with average sales:

-Repeated in newspapers and magazines (those who read your potential customers or partners);

· Direct mail

· Advertising on the radio;

· Participation in exhibitions;

· Television advertising (effective, but its high cost can absorb your profit)

Summary

Аналіз стану державного боргу України

The article deals with the state debt of Ukraine. The purpose of the article is to explore the theoretical positions the concept of ‘debt’, reliably determine the causes and consequences of government debt in Ukraine, to analyze the level of debt for 2005-2011 years. The article discusses government debt as the total amount of government liabilities in return received and outstanding loans.  The particular attention is paid to domestic and external public debt. Author identifies the  following objectives: improve legislation, developing reasonable strategies to attract loans (internal and external, long-term and short-term) in Ukraine's economy, which should be given priorities, tools and approaches to partner banks;

Додаток  до  білета № 4

  1.  What is the Marks & Spencer?
  2.  Has M&S  been international for many years?
  3.  In what company's success is based on?
  4.  Have M&S suppliers to pass very strict quality control inspections?
  5.  Is the programme create 5,000 jobs and increase retail space by 33 per cent?
  6.  Were M&S are looking to consolidate their position?


 

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