Electrical engineering


Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

Electricаl engineering sometimes referred to s electricl nd electronic engineering is professionl engineering discipline tht dels with the study nd ppliction of electricity electronics nd electromgnetism. The field first becme n identifible occuption in the lte nineteenth cent ury with the commerciliztion of the electric telegrph nd electricl power supply . The term electricl engineering my or my not encompss electronic engineering. Where distinction is mde electricl engineering is considered to del with the problems ssocited with...



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10 билет. Electrical engineering (sometimes referred to as electrical and electronic

engineering) is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the study and

application of electricity, electronics and electromagnetism. The field first became an

identifiable  occupation in the late nineteenth cent ury with the commercialization of the

electric telegraph and electrical power supply . The field now cove rs a range of sub-disciplines including those that deal with power,  optoelectronics, digital electronics,

analog electronics , artificial intelligence, control system s, electronics, signal processing

and telecommunications.

 The term electrical engineering may or may not  encompass  electronic

engineering. Where a distinction is made, electrical engineering is considered to deal

with the problems associated with  large-scale  electrical systems such as power

transmission and motor control , whereas electronic engineerin g deals with the study of

small-scale electronic systems including computers and  integrated circuits. Another

way of looking at the distinc tion is that electrical engineers are usually concerned with

using electricity to transmit energy, while electronics engine ers are concerned with using

electricity to transmit information.

Early developments

 Electricity has been a subject of scientific interest since at least the 17th century,

but it was not until the 19th century that research into the subject started to intensify.

 Notable developments in this century include the work of George Ohm, who in 1827

quantified the relationship between the  electric current  and potential difference in a

conductor,  Michael Faraday, the discoverer of  electromagnetic induction in 1831,

and  James Clerk Maxwell, who in 1873 published a unified theory of electricity and

magnetism in his treatise on  Electricity and Magnetism .  

 During these years, the study of electricity was larg ely considered to be a

subfield of physics. It was not  until the late 19th century that universities started to offer

degrees in electrical engineering. The Darm stadt University of Technology founded the

first chair and the first faculty of electric al engineering worldwide in 1882. In 1883

Darmstadt University of Technology and Corn ell University introduced the world's first

courses of study in electrical engineering an d in 1885 the University College in London

founded the first chair of elect rical engineering in the Unit ed Kingdom. The University

of Missouri subsequently  established the first department of electrical engineering in

the United States in 1886.  

 During this period, the work concerning electrical engi neering increased

dramatically. In 1882, Edison  switched on the world's first large-scale  electrical supply

network  that provided 110 volts  direct current to fifty-nine  customers in lower

Manhattan. In 1887, Nikola Tesla filed a number of patents related to a competing form

of power  distribution known as  alternating current. In the following years a bitter

rivalry  between Tesla and Edison, known as the " War of Currents", took place over

the preferred method of distribution. AC  eventually replaced DC for generation and

power distribution, enormously extending  the range and improving the safety and

efficiency of power distribution.

 The efforts of the two did much to further electrical engineering—Tesla's work

on induction motors  and polyphase systems  influenced the field for years to come,

while Edison's work on telegraphy and his development of the stock ticker  proved

lucrative  for his company, which ultimately became  General Electric. However, by the

end of the 19th century, other key figures in the progress of electr ical engineering were

beginning to emerge.  

 Modern developments (Emergence of radio and electronics)   

During the development of radio, many  scientists and inventors contributed to

radio technology and electronics . In his classic UHF  experiments of 1888,  Heinrich

Hertz transmitted (via a  spark-gap transmitter ) and detected radio waves using

electrical equipment. In 1895, Nikola Tesl a was able to detect signals from the

transmissions of his New York lab at West  Point (a distance of 80.4 km). In 1897,  Karl

Ferdinand Braun introduced the  cathode ray tube as part of an  oscilloscope, a crucial

enabling technology for electronic television. John Fleming invented the first radio

tube, the  diode, in 1904. Two years later,  Robert von Lieben  and  Lee De Forest

independently developed the amplifier tube, called the  triode . In 1920  Albert Hull

developed the magnetron  which would eventually lead  to the development of the

microwave oven  in 1946 by  Percy Spencer. In 1934 the British military began to make

strides towards  radar  (which also uses the magnetron), under the direction of  Dr

 Wimperis culminating in the operation of the fi rst radar station at Bawdsey in August


 In 1941  Konrad Zuse  presented the Z3, the world's first fully functional and

programmable computer. In 1946 the  ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and

Computer)  of  John Presper Eckert and John Mauchly followed, beginning the

computing era. The arithmetic performance  of these machines a llowed engineers to

develop completely new technologies and ach ieve new objectives, including the Apollo

missions and the NASA moon landing.  

 The invention of the transistor in 1947 by  William B. Shockley,  John Bardeen

and  Walter Brattain opened the door for more compact devices and led to the

development of the  integrated circuit  in 1958 by  Jack Kilby and independently in

1959 by  Robert Noyce. In 1968  Marcian Hoff invented the first  microprocessor  at

Intel and thus ignited the development of the  personal computer. The first realization of

the microprocessor was the Intel 4004, a 4-bit  processor developed in 1971, but only in

1973 did the Intel 8080, an 8-bit processor,  make the building of the first personal

computer, the Altair 8800, possible.


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