THE NUMERAL
The numeral denotes an abstract number or the order of thing in succession. In accordance with this distinction the numerals fall into two groups cardinal numerals (cardinals) and ordinal numerals (ordinals).
Among the cardinals there are simple, derived, and compound words. The cardinals from one to twelve, hundred, thousand, million are simple words; those from thirteen to nineteen are derived from the corresponding simple ones by means of the suffix teen; the cardinals denoting fens are derived from the corresponding simple ones by means of the suffix ty. The cardinals from twentyone to twentynine, from thirtyone to thirtynine, etc. and those over hundred are compounds. In cardinals including hundreds and thousands the words denoting units and tens are joined to those denoting hundreds, thousands, by means of the conjunction and: The words for common fractions are also composite. They are formed from cardinals denoting the numerator and substantivized ordinals denoting the denominator. If the numerator is a numeral higher than one, the ordinal in the denominator takes the plural form. The numerator and denominator may be joined by means of a hyphen or without it: 1/3  onethird (one third), In mixed numbers the numerals denoting fractions are joined to the numerals denoting integers (whole numbers) by means of the conjunction and: 3 1/5  three and onefifth, Among the ordinals there are also simple, derivative and compound words.
The simple ordinals are first, second and third.
The derivative ordinals are derived from the simple and derivative cardinals by means of the suffix th:
fourfourth, tententh, sixteensixteenth, twentytwentieth, etc.
Before the suffix th the final у is replaced by ie:
thirty  thirtieth, etc.
Mind the difference in the spelling of the stems in the following cardinals and ordinals:
fivefifth, nineninth.
The compound ordinals are formed from composite cardinals. In this case only the last component of the compound numeral has the form of the ordinal:
twentyfirst, fortysecond, sixtyseventh, one hundred and first, etc.
. Numerals do not undergo any morphological changes, that is, they do not have morphological categories. In this they differ from nouns with numerical meaning. Thus the numerals ten (десять), hundred (сто), thousand (тысяча) do not have plural forms: two hundred and fifty, four thousand people, etc., Numerals combine mostly with nouns and function as their attributes, usually as premodifying attributes. If a noun has several premodifying attributes including a cardinal or an ordinal, these come first, as in:
three tiny green leaves, seven iron men, the second pale little boy, etc.
The only exception is pronoun determiners, which always begin a series of attributes:
his second beautiful wife;
these four rooms;

her three little children;
every second day, etc.

If both a cardinal and an ordinal refer to one headnoun the ordinal comes first:
the first three tall girls, the second two grey dogs, etc.
Nouns premodified by ordinals are used with the definite article:
The first men in the moon, the third month, etc.
When used with the indefinite article, they lose their numerical meaning and acquire that of a pronoun (another, one more), as in:
a second man entered, then a third
(вошел еще один человек, потом еще).
Postmodifying numerals combine with a limited number of nouns. Postmodifying cardinals are combinable with some nouns denoting items of certain sets of things:
pages, paragraphs, chapters, parts of books, acts and scenes of plays, lessons in textbooks, apartments Postmodifying ordinals occur in combinations with certain proper names, mostly those denoting the members of wellknown dynasties:
King Henry VIII  King Henry the Eighth, 1) prepositional phrases:
the first of May, one of the men, two of them, etc.
2) pronouns:
every three days, all seven, each fifth, etc.
3) adjectives:
the best three of them, the last two weeks, etc.
4) particles:
just five days ago, only two, only three books, he is nearly sixty, etc.
^ Note:
The numeral first may combine with the particle very:
the very first of them.
When they have the function of subject or predicative the numerals are combinable with link verbs, generally the verb to be:
ten were present,
the first was my father

we are seven,
she is the second.

Occasionally they are combinable with some other link verbs:
Though cardinals and ordinals have mainly similar syntactic functions they differ in certain details.
The most characteristic function of both is that of premodifying attribute:
two rooms, the third person, etc
Both cardinals and ordinals may have the functions of subject, object, predicative and adverbial modifier of time:
Three of us went home..
However, in all these cases a noun is always implied, that is, the numeral functions as a substitute for the noun either mentioned in the previous context, or selfevident from the situation. The only case in which the numerals (cardinals) can really have the function of subject, object or predicative is when they are used with their purely abstract force:
five is more than three; two plus two is four, etc.
