Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

The crdinls from twentyone to twentynine from thirtyone to thirtynine etc.The derivtive ordinls re derived from the simple nd derivtive crdinls by mens of the suffix th:fourfourth tententh sixteensixteenth twentytwentieth etc.Before the suffix th the finl у is replced by ie:thirty thirtieth etc. In this cse only the lst component of the compound numerl hs the form of the ordinl:twentyfirst fortysecond sixtyseventh one hundred nd first etc.



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The numeral denotes an abstract number or the order of thing in succession.
In accordance with this distinction the numerals fall into two groups
cardinal numerals (cardinals) and ordinal numerals (ordinals).

Among the cardinals there are simple, derived, and compound words.
The cardinals from
one to twelve, hundred, thousand, million are simple words; those from thirteen to nineteen are derived from the corresponding simple ones by means of the suffix -teen; the cardinals denoting fens are derived from the corresponding simple ones by means of the suffix -ty.
The cardinals from
twenty-one to twenty-nine, from thirty-one to thirty-nine, etc. and those over hundred are compounds.
In cardinals including
hundreds and thousands the words denoting units and tens are joined to those denoting hundreds, thousands, by means of the conjunction and:
The words for common fractions are also composite. They are formed from cardinals denoting the numerator and substantivized ordinals denoting the denominator. If the numerator is a numeral higher than one, the ordinal in the denominator takes the plural form. The numerator and denominator may be joined by means of a hyphen or without it:
1/3 -
one-third (one third),
In mixed numbers the numerals denoting fractions are joined to the numerals denoting integers (whole numbers) by means of the conjunction
3 1/5 -
three and one-fifth,
the ordinals there are also simple, derivative and compound words.

The simple ordinals are
first, second and third.

The derivative ordinals are derived from the simple and derivative cardinals by means of the suffix

four-fourth, ten-tenth, sixteen-sixteenth, twenty-twentieth, etc.

Before the suffix
-th the final у is replaced by ie:

thirty - thirtieth, etc.

Mind the difference in the spelling of the stems in the following cardinals and ordinals:

five-fifth, nine-ninth.

The compound ordinals are formed from composite cardinals. In this case only the last component of the compound numeral has the form of the ordinal:

twenty-first, forty-second, sixty-seventh, one hundred and first, etc.

. Numerals do not undergo any morphological changes, that is, they do not have morphological categories. In this they differ from nouns with numerical meaning. Thus the numerals ten (десять), hundred (сто), thousand (тысяча) do not have plural forms:
two hundred and fifty, four thousand people, etc.,
Numerals combine mostly with nouns and function as their attributes, usually as premodifying attributes. If a noun has several premodifying attributes including a cardinal or an ordinal, these come first, as in:

three tiny green leaves, seven iron men, the second pale little boy, etc.

The only exception is pronoun determiners, which always begin a series of attributes:

his second beautiful wife;

these four rooms;

her three little children;

every second day, etc.

If both a cardinal and an ordinal refer to one head-noun
the ordinal comes first:

the first three tall girls, the second two grey dogs, etc.

Nouns premodified by ordinals are used with
the definite article:

The first men in the moon, the third month, etc.

When used with the indefinite article, they lose their numerical meaning and acquire that of a pronoun (another, one more), as in:

a second man entered, then a third

вошел еще один человек, потом еще).

Postmodifying numerals combine with a limited number of nouns. Postmodifying cardinals are combinable with some nouns denoting items of certain sets of things:

pages, paragraphs, chapters, parts of books, acts and scenes of plays, lessons in textbooks, apartments
Postmodifying ordinals occur in combinations with certain proper names, mostly those denoting the members of well-known dynasties:

King Henry VIII - King Henry the Eighth,
1) prepositional phrases:

the first of May, one of the men, two of them, etc.

2) pronouns:

every three days, all seven, each fifth, etc.

3) adjectives:

the best three of them, the last two weeks, etc.

4) particles:

just five days ago, only two, only three books, he is nearly sixty, etc.

^ Note:

The numeral
first may combine with the particle very:

the very first of them.

When they have the function of subject or predicative the numerals are combinable with link verbs, generally the verb
to be:

ten were present,

the first was my father

we are seven,

she is the second.

Occasionally they are combinable with some other link verbs:

Though cardinals and ordinals have mainly similar syntactic functions they differ in certain details.

The most characteristic function of both is that
of premodifying attribute:

two rooms, the third person, etc

Both cardinals and ordinals may have the functions of
subject, object, predicative and adverbial modifier of time:

Three of us went home..

However, in all these cases a noun is always implied, that is, the numeral functions as a substitute for the noun either mentioned in the previous context, or self-evident from the situation. The only case in which the numerals (cardinals) can really have the function of subject, object or predicative is when they are used with their purely abstract force:

five is more than three; two plus two is four, etc.


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