Objects and tasks of grammar
Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика
ech form is product of the grmmrins nlysis nd process grmmr is lso key vrint in the procces of lnguge. We think of mny wys tht grmmr is deployed in communiction. how we use it Grmmr consists of 2 fundmentl ingredients syntx rrgenments of elements nd morphology. study of grmmr revels structure nd regulrity which enble us to tlk bout the lnguge system.
Grammar is not a single homogenious object. Two perspectives: product (it is static. the emphasis is on the component parts of the language system. divided up into several forms. each form is a product of the grammarians analysis) and process (grammar is also a key variant in the procces of language. We think of many ways that grammar is deployed in communication. how we use it)
Grammar consists of 2 fundamental ingredients syntax (arragenments of elements) and morphology. They help to identify the grammatical form, that enhance and sharpen logical meaning. A study of grammar reveals structure and regularity which enable us to talk about the language system.
Grammar is essentially a limited set of devices for expressing certain kinds of necessary meanings that cannot be expressed by referential vocabulary only.
Objects and tasks of grammar.
From the practical point of view grammar is the art of language. The main object is to help students acquire mastery. There is a rule, so follow it.
From the theoretical point of view grammar
The task is to provide insight to the structure of language. persues analytical aims.
Two periods: pre-scientific and scientific.
Pre -scientific from the 16 up to 20 century. Early descriptive grammarians merely described language phenomena. william bullokar, who was 16th century printer, who devised the 40 letter phonetic alphabet for the English language. His 1st publishing of the english grammar appeared in 1586. By the middle of the 18th century descriptive grammar gave way to prescriptive grammar, which stated strict grammar rules. Robert Lowth was a bishop of the church of England and a professor of poetry in Oxford. In 1762 he published a short introduction to english grammar. This textbook remained in use until the early 20th century. It wasn't written for children. But it was also adapted for the use in schools. The main drawback of prescriptive grammar is that it criticised many constructions and forms used by educated people.
Scientific grammar- starts in 1891 with the appearence of the grammar textbook book by Henry Sweet. He was an english philologist, phonetician and grammrian. His first described received pronunciation (high english). He published several grammar books. He gave scientific explanation if some grammatical phenomena. Till the 40 there were only 2 types of grammar: prescriptive and retroscriptive
But then appeared structural, communicatevly, symantecally, textual, cognitive grammar and so on.the aim of structural grammar is to give a formalised description of language system as it exists, without being concerned with questions of correct and incorrect usage. Charles Fries (i:). Transformational grammar (harris/ chomsky) shows how different sentences are derived from a few kernel/nuclear sentences. the door opened/did the door open?/
Communicativly orientated grammar (mathesius/firbas) studies the theme-rheme integration in a sentence. (Fillmore/chafe) semantically orientated grammar concentrates attention on semantical structure of the S. pragmatically orientated grammar focuses its attention on the functional styles of units (austin/ searle). Textual grammar ( van Dijk, halliday) places text in focus and the authors suggest different methods of text analysis. Halliday makes an attemtp of making theoretical basis on text grammar.
Historical, comparative, general grammar.