The compound sentence, its characteristic features. The types of coordinate connection


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A compound sentence consists of two or more clauses of equal rank which form one syntactical whole in meaning and intonation. Clauses that are parts of a compound sentence are called coordinate, as they are joined by coordination



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36.The compound sentence, its characteristic features. The types of coordinate connection.

A compound sentence consists of two or more clauses of equal rank which form one syntactical whole in meaning and intonation. Clauses that are parts of a compound sentence are called coordinate, as they are joined by coordination.

Coordinate clauses may be linked together with or without a connector; in the first case they are joined syndetically.

Yesterday I bought a penny fiddle

And put it to my chin to play,

But I found its strings painted,

So I threw my fiddle away.

in the second, case - asyndeticaily:

Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall,

Humpty Dumpty had a great fall;

All the king's horses, and all the king's men

Cannot put Humpty Dumpty together again.

Syndetic coordination is realized with a number of connectors - conjunctions, such as and, but, or, nor, for, etc., or with conjunctive adverbs, such as moreover, besides, however, yet, still, otherwise, therefore, etc.

In writing coordinate clauses may be marked off by a comma, a semicolon, a colon or occasionally a dash. Sometimes they are not separated graphically at all. In speaking they are separated by pauses.

§ 138. The main semantic feature of the compound sentence is that it follows the flow of thought; thus the content of each successive clause is related to the previous one. Hence come two syntactical features of the compound sentence which distinguish it from the complex sentence.

The first is as follows. The opening clause mostly plays the leading role, and each successive clause is joined to the previous clause.

The second feature is that the clauses are sequentially fixed. Thus a coordinate clause cannot change place with the previous one without changing or distorting the meaning of the whole sentence, as in:

It was pitch dark, for the fog had come down from London in the night, and all Surbiton was wrapped in its embraces.

From the point of view of the relationship between coordinate clauses, we distinguish four kinds of coordinate connection: copulative, adversative, disjunctive and causative-consecutive. The type of connection is expressed not only by means of coordinating connectives, but also by the general meaning of clauses conveyed by their lexical and grammatical content. This accounts for asyndetic coordination and for various uses of the conjunction and, when it expresses other relations - that of contrast or consequence.

Copulative coordination implies that the information conveyed by coordinate clauses is in some way similar.

The copulative connectors are: the conjunctions and, nor, neither... nor, not only... but (also), as well as, and the conjunctive adverbs then, moreover, besides.

The events described in copulative coordinate clauses may be simultaneous or successive.

The front door to the house opened, and a man and a woman stepped out on the wooden porch. (succession)

Adversative coordination joins clauses containing opposition, contradiction or contrast. Adversative connectors are: the conjunctions but, while, whereas, the conjunctive adverbs however, yet, still, nevertheless, and the conjunctive particle only. Adversative coordination may also be realized asyndetically. The main adversative conjunction is but, which expresses adversative connection in a very general way. The clause introduced by but conveys some event that is opposite to what is expected from the contents of the first clause.

The story was amusing, but nobody laughed.

Disjunctive coordination implies a choice between two mutually exclusive alternatives. The disjunctive conjunctions are or, either... or, the conjunctive adverbs are else (or else), otherwise.

You can join us at the station, or we can wait for you at home.

Саusative-consecutive coordination joins clauses connected in such a way that one of them contains a reason and the other - a consequence. The second clause may contain either the reason or the result of the event conveyed by the previous clause. The only causative coordinating conjunction is for.

The days became longer, for it was now springtime.

A causative clause may be also joined asyndetically.

Consecutive connectives are conjunctions so, so that, and conjunctive adverbs therefore, hence, then, thus.

The weather was fine, so there were many people on the beach.


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