46837

Independent elements of the sentence

Доклад

Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

Independent elements of the sentence s the term implies generlly re not grmmticlly dependent on ny prticulr prt of the sentence but s rule refer to the sentence s whole. Only occsionlly they my refer to seprte prt of the sentence. Its position is more free thn tht of ny other prts of the sentence nd ccordingly it my occur in different positions in the sentence.

Английский

2013-11-25

32.5 KB

6 чел.

Independent elements op the sentence

§113. Independent elements of the sentence, as the term implies, generally are not grammatically dependent on any particular part of the sentence, but as a rule refer to the sentence as a whole. Only occasionally they may refer to a separate part of the sentence. The independent element may consist of a word or a phrase. Its position is more free than that of any other parts of the sentence and accordingly it may occur in different positions in the sentence.

There are two groups of independent elements:

I. Direct address. A direct address is the name of a person (or occasionally a non-person) to whom the rest of the sentence is addressed. It may be emotionally charged or neutral, but semantically it does not influence the sentence.

I'm sorry, Major, we had an arrangement.

Jenny, darling, don't say such things.

How's the world, good friend?

II. Parenthesis. As to its meaning the parenthesis may be of several types:

a) It may express the speaker's attitude to the relation between what is expressed in the sentence and reality (perhaps, maybe, certainly, of course, evidently, oh,  Goodness Gracious, etc.).

Undoubtedly you are both excellent engineers.

Surely he had too wide a mouth.

The cottages were, in fact, boxlike and rather towny.

Oh, we can't go.

b) It may connect the sentence it belongs to with the preceding or the following one expressing different relations (first, firstly, secondly, finally, after all, moreover, besides, by the way, on the contrary, that is (i.e.), for example (eg), etc.).

I was listening and thinking. Besides, 1 wanted to tell you something.

After all, he'd only been doing his duty.

Finally the whole party started walking.

c) It may specify that which is said in the sentence or express a comment (according to my taste, in my opinion, to tell the truth, in other words, as is known, by the way, etc.).

According to your theory, we're in a mighty soulful era.

To tell you the truth, the total was more than a thousand francs.

As a rule a parenthesis refers to the sentence (or clause) as a whole.

Frankly speaking, he had been amazed at his failure.

This streak of light was, in all likelihood, a gleam from a lantern.

Sometimes, however, a parenthesis refers only to a secondary part of the sentence.

Miss Barlett might reveal unknown depths of strangeness, though not, perhaps, of meaning.

As to its morphological nature, a parenthesis can be expressed by:

1. A modal word:

perhaps, no doubt, indeed, certainly, in fact, evidently, maybe, etc.

Perhaps they would go soon.

2. An interjection:

oh, ah, eh, dear me, by God, Good heavens, etc.

You like the outfit, eh?

Dear me, I had no idea you were such a determined character.

3. A conjunct (that is, an adverb combining the function of a parenthesis with that of a connector):

finally, anyway, consequently, besides, moreover, otherwise, etc.

But there's no chance here. Besides, he couldn't make two ends meet on the job.

4. A prepositional phrase:

in my opinion, in short, by the way, on the other hand, on the contrary, at least, to one's surprise, etc.

In my opinion you are wrong.

You can't make me! In short, I won't do it.

5. An infinitive phrase:

to tell the truth, to be sure, to begin with, to do smb justice, etc.

That was, so to speak, another gift for you.

To do that lady justice, Miss Spencer bore the ordeal very well.

6. A participial phrase:

frankly speaking, strictly speaking, generally speaking, etc.

Generally speaking I think you're right.

7. A clause (see the item on parenthetical clauses).
As
it was, Nell departed with surprising docility.


 

А также другие работы, которые могут Вас заинтересовать

16623. Осадка на плоских бойках 441 KB
  Лабораторная работа № 3 Осадка на плоских бойках Цель работы. Выявить влияние контактных условий на неравномерность деформации осаживаемых образцов. Оборудование инструмент образцы. Кривошипный пресс усилием 6301000 кН с регулируемой длиной шатуна штангенциркуль...
16624. ОТЧЕТ О ЛАБОРАТОРНОМ ПРАКТИКУМЕ ПО СРЕДЕ ПРОГРАММИРОВАНИЯ DELPHI 297.76 KB
  ОТЧЕТ О ЛАБОРАТОРНОМ ПРАКТИКУМЕ ПО СРЕДЕ ПРОГРАММИРОВАНИЯ DELPHI Лабораторная работа № 1 где x = 6251; y = 0827 ; z = 25001 . unit lab1; interface uses Windows Messages SysUtils Variants Classes Graphics Controls Forms Dialogs StdCtrls; type TForm1 = classTForm Label1: TLabel; Label2: TLabel; Label3: TLabel;
16625. Принципиально-технологическая схема производства хлебобулочных изделий 107.05 KB
  Отчёт По лабораторной работе № 1 Тема: Принципиальнотехнологическая схема производства хлебобулочных изделий. Цель: Разработать принципиальную технологическую схему производства в соответствии с вариантом. Ход работы: Ознакомиться с видами технолог...
16626. Принципиально-технологическая схема производства мороженого 121.33 KB
  Лабораторная работа Тема: €œ Принципиальнотехнологическая схема производства мороженого€. Цель работы: Разработать принципиальную технологическую схему производства мороженного. Ход работы: Ознакомиться с видами технологических схем производств Раз...
16627. Принципиально-технологическая схема производства бензина 92.5 KB
  Лабораторная работа Тема: €œ Принципиальнотехнологическая схема производства бензина€. Цель работы: Разработать принципиальную технологическую схему производства мороженного. Ход работы: Ознакомиться с видами технологических схем производств Разобр...
16628. Разработка принципиально-технологической схемы производства парфюмерной продукции 141.65 KB
  Отчёт По лабораторной работе № 1 Тема: Разработка принципиально-технологической схемы производства Цель работы: Разработать принципиальную технологическую схему производства парфюмерной продукции. Вариант 16. Ход работы: Ознакомиться с видами техно
16629. Разработка принципиально-технологической схемы производства детского питания 60.03 KB
  Отчёт По лабораторной работе № 1 Тема: Разработка принципиальнотехнологической схемы производства Цель работы Цель: Разработать принципиальную технологическую схему производства детского питания.Вариант №14 Ход работы: Ознакомиться с видами техн...
16630. Разработка технологии выполнения сварных соединений технологических трубопроводов 185.5 KB
  Лабораторная работа Разработка технологии выполнения сварных соединений технологических трубопроводов выбор способа сварки типа шва способа разделки кромок и их подготовки к сварке выбор способа сборки и фиксации кромок при сборке выбор сварочных материалов