46892

Англійська мова. Додатки до білетів

Доклад

Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

Account holders have discovered that the good old days were not always the best ways of transacting business, especially when managing corporate and personal finances. Before the advent of the Internet, consumers had to visit a local branch bank to make deposits, withdraw funds, or order checks

Английский

2013-11-26

35.34 KB

1 чел.

Додаток  до  білета № 1

1. Read and translate the text into Ukrainian.  Put six questions to the text.

 Individuals and businesses use Internet bank accounts for convenience and cost savings. Web-based banking has revolutionized the way the world does business and created a more secure environment in which to conduct financial transactions. Businesses can handle paying bills, making payroll, and paying suppliers and vendors electronically without leaving the office. Individuals can bank while watching television or making a home-cooked meal. Home-based business owners can transfer money from one fund to another and check balances without getting dressed and trying to find parking or maneuver through the subway to get to a branch office.

Account holders have discovered that the good old days were not always the best ways of transacting business, especially when managing corporate and personal finances. Before the advent of the Internet, consumers had to visit a local branch bank to make deposits, withdraw funds, or order checks. Businesses and individuals could easily accumulate mounds of paper – cancelled checks, withdrawal and deposit receipts, and bank statements –  by the end of each quarter. Withdrawing funds at an ATM or standing in a teller's line only served to make banking a burden rather than a convenience. And when financial institutions closed for holidays or promptly at five o'clock, account holders were often left without an alternative means of getting ready cash. But thanks to the Worldwide web and Internet bank accounts, businesses and individuals don't have to put up with outmoded and inconvenient financial transactions. Transferring funds and managing money is simple, quick and efficient with web-based banking

 

 Додаток  до  білета № 2

1. Read and translate the text into Ukrainian.  Put six questions to the text.

This past decade has proven that businesses that expand to international markets tend to fare better than purely domestic ones. The most well-known American companies – such Coca-Cola, Nike and McDonald’s – all have significant overseas footprints. Many of the products sold in America are also produced overseas. For the 21st century, countries are inextricably linked to one another in trade, taking advantage of exchange rates to import and export with maximum profitability. The international market is currently four times the size of the American one and growing, making it an essential part of any company’s expansion strategy.

Multiple free-trade agreements now exist between global participants that help fuel the rapid pace of globalized businesses. Organizations such as the WTO and cross-country agreements such as NAFTA and GATT reduce and eliminate trade barriers and tariffs, which are seen as detrimental to global corporate growth. Participating countries benefit from importing goods by acquiring a wider variety of available products, which increases local competition and in turn improves quality and decreases prices. This ideally produces a self-sustaining system in which only the best quality products sold at the lowest price survive, forcing companies to refine their production capabilities repeatedly to remain competitive. What are some examples of industries that have evolved from domestic businesses into international powerhouses?

WTO –   World Trade Organization

NAFTA –  North American Free Trade Agreement 

GATT –  General Agreement on Tariffs and Tr

 Додаток  до  білета № 3

1. Read and translate the text into Ukrainian.  Put six questions to the text.

The titans of the tech industry are strong examples of successful global entrepreneurship. Companies such as Microsoft, Apple, Google and Yahoo all evolved from small startups with limited funding into massive multinational corporations. The reason for the rapid spread of these companies is that the demand for these technologies – operating systems, search engines, office software and smartphones – is universal in developed nations. Successful tech companies have all been led by visionary leaders – such as Gates, Jobs, Page or Yang – who are able to look a decade into the future to predict the evolving needs of customers.

Large chemical companies – such as Monsanto and DuPont – are also successful due to their ability to cut through the noise of the markets to draft out a long-term business plan. With the global human population increasing at an unsustainable rate, food shortages will become a harsh reality in the next few decades. Agricultural companies, which produce fertilizer and bio-engineered crops, are well positioned across the world to reap the profits of the growing demand of farmers who are increasingly required to maximize their productivity.

Other industries, such as fast food restaurants, apparel retailers and miners have all found success in international markets. The two characteristics that these all share are universal demand and long-term business forecasts. Businesses that are well positioned for growth will offer detailed calculations of the anticipated growth in demand for its target market. Common target countries and considerations include China, Latin America and developing third world nations, which lack infrastructure but are rich in natural resources.

 

Додаток  до  білета № 4

1. Read and translate the text into Ukrainian.  Put six questions to the text.

Ask most British people about Marks & Spencer (or M&S as it is affectionately known) and they will probably talk about its high quality food or underwear. M&S, Britain's largest retailer, has been international for several years – many European cities have a local M&S store. New plans for expansion mean that M&S will become a truly global retailer.

MARKS & SPENCER, recently announced a £2.1 billion expansion programme. The programme is to create 5,000 jobs and increase retail space by 33 per cent, including town centre department stores, edge-of-town superstores and smaller food stores. Many of these new outlets will be in the company's emerging foreign markets such as Europe, the Far East and North America. Three years from now, a quarter of the group's floorspace will be outside the UK, making M&S a truly global operator.

The company's success is based on its reputation for quality, value and service. All M&S suppliers have to pass very strict quality control inspections and all its customers are free to return any goods they find unsatisfactory. Another reason for the success is the company's Britishness. Over 80 per cent of the company's suppliers are British and its customers, both at home and abroad, seem more than happy to buy British products.

With the new expansion plan, M&S are looking to consolidate their position in the UK while increasing their global profile. They are also investing in their financial services operations and catalogue business. With profits having already doubled in the last six years, it looks as if M&S will go from strength to strength.

Додаток  до  білета № 5

1. Read and translate the text into Ukrainian.  Put six questions to the text.

Sales figures are often used as evidence of the general health of the economy. In a recession, any rise in high street sales is quoted by government ministers as evidence of the increase in consumer confidence that is the first step on the road back to economic growth.

In free market terms, sale figures reflect the state of local market forces at any one place and at any one time. They show the amount of a product that the public wants to buy at the current price.

To a large extent, this is true. At times of falling sales, high street shops are forced to reduce prices – with out-of-season sales, special offers and even "closing down" sales. Newspapers are full of advertisements for special offers on consumer durables, cars, for example, or computers and video recorders.

In recessions come job losses, with job losses comes an increased reluctance to spend; it is expensive luxuries such as videos that are the first items to be cut from household budgets. People feel the need to save against the possible future loss of income. In recessions, a greater proportion of the public's income is saved than in times of economic growth.

The effect of all this on manufacturers can easily be seen. Falling sales lead to production cut-backs. This results in the under-capacity of plant and machinery. Since fixed overheads remain basically the same, other ways of cutting back on costs and thus of reducing prices have to be found. Almost always, this is achieved through cutting back on jobs.

Додаток  до  білета № 6

1. Read and translate the text into Ukrainian.  Put six questions to the text.

Customers prefer   to transact business using a cash point machine than facing a teller across the counter. Speed, efficiency and convenience seem to be the key factors in retail banking nowadays. As competition between banks increases, the ability to provide new and more flexible products and services distinguishes winners from losers in the market. Banking by telephone is set to become the norm for most personal clients within the next decade; the customer need never enter his or her local branch.

However, there is a price to be paid for these changes. Thousands of jobs have been lost in the banking sector, and more are likely to go. The image of banking has become tarnished; along with many complaints about impersonal service and computer error, many people dislike the more obvious sales role of banking staff.

So where does banking go from here? The industry is changing so rapidly that it would need a brave man to answer that question with any degree of confidence. Two things are, however, certain. Firstly, the information revolution that is taking place in all sectors of the industry will continue to have far-reaching effects within financial institutions. Secondly, as a result of those changes, a bank of the twenty-first century will bear little resemblance to its historical forebears founded six hundred years ago.

Додаток  до  білета № 7

1. Read and translate the text into Ukrainian.  Put six questions to the text.

What is a Sole Proprietorship?

With more than 17 million operating in the United States, nearly 70 percent of businesses operate as sole proprietorships. In addition to the relative simplicity compared to large corporations, opening a sole proprietorship is a low-cost method of entering into the business world. From consultants and free lancers to independent contractors, nearly anyone can create a sole proprietorship.

As the name suggests, “sole proprietorship” refers to a business that is owned by a single owner and should not be confused with a corporation. There are no corporate taxes involved and the sole proprietor pays income tax on the profits generated. The person who organized the business pays personal income taxes on the profits made. This makes the accounting procedure relatively simple for the sole proprietor, who also enjoys complete autonomy in terms of making business decisions.

Setting up a sole proprietorship is easy. One of the main steps is to obtain a local business license (a sales tax permit may also be required). For certain businesses, such as restaurants or legal practices, you may need additional local or state licenses. Legal regulations and licenses aside, there are other major factors to consider when setting up a sole proprietorship. You will have to create a business plan, develop marketing and advertising campaigns, set up a budget, and find ways to fund your business.

Додаток  до  білета № 8

1. Read and translate the text into Ukrainian.  Put six questions to the text.

Advantages and Disadvantages of a sole proprietorship

Many business owners choose to operate as a sole proprietorship to alleviate the difficult tax procedures that go along with other forms of operation. As a sole proprietor, you would simply have to file an individual income tax return (IRS Form 1040) including your business losses and profits. There are no restrictions on the number of people you can hire, and from the tax and legal perspective there is no distinction between you and your business. You can therefore hire as many people as you want and also recruit independent contractors if need be. Being in complete control of their business, sole proprietors make all the business decisions keeping law in mind.

Sole proprietorship is not for every business owners especially business owners that are not willing to assume all risks. Unlike a corporation or LLC, your business doesn’t exist as a separate legal entity. All your personal wealth and assets are linked to the business. Another downside is the inability to raise capital easily. Proprietors cannot sell shares the way other corporations do, so they have to seek out alternative methods to raise the necessary capital to expand their business.

Choosing the best business structure will ultimately impact the success of your business. Setting up a sole proprietorship is the easy and quick way to setup a business, but may not be the best structure for your operation. Make sure you weigh all the pros and cons before deciding if this structure will work for you.

Додаток  до  білета № 9

1. Read and translate the text into Ukrainian.  Put six questions to the text.

Business Finance

Owning a business can be one of the most rewarding and satisfying ways of meeting financial goals and ensuring that a person’s future is secure and fulfilling. Today’s economy yields many opportunities to people with different skills and strengths. One of the most basic aspects of running a business that is often left by the wayside is that of financial management. Usually only an afterthought, it is the financial management of a company that determines success. The perfect product or service doesn’t mean anything if the money generated goes into the business only to be misused or unaccounted for. Spending the money earned wisely and knowing when to save or invest in growth should be of paramount concern for a business.

Everyone is aware of the fact that most businesses fail within their first year of operation. Often a major contributing factor that leads to failure is poor financial management. A review of the financial information for many failed businesses shows that the business would have actually been quite successful if the owners had just made sound financial decisions in all aspects of the business. It is always recommended to employ the help of a professional like a banking institution, financial planner or accountant. However, a business owner should understand, at the very least, the basic principles regardless of whether a professional is hired or not. This protects the business and the business owner from fraudulent activities. Keeping up to date with the finances and being aware of the principles involved will also beneficially affect other aspects of running a business.

Додаток  до  білета № 10

1. Read and translate the text into Ukrainian.  Put six questions to the text.

A business can be set up in a variety of ways, ranging from a sole-proprietorship to a general partnership, an LLC to a corporation. Corporations are remarkably different from other forms of businesses in the sense that it is an independent legal entity that is separate from the people who own, control and manage it. Due to this recognition as an individual entity, it is viewed as a legal “person” in the view of tax laws, and can thus be engaged in business and contracts, can initiate lawsuits and itself  be sued. It also must pay taxes.

A C corporation is a business term that is used to distinguish this type of entity from others, as its profits are taxed separately from its owners under subchapter C of the Internal Revenue Code. In an S corporation, the profits are passed on to the shareholders, and are taxed based on personal returns. This is done under subchapter S of the Internal Revenue Code.

A C corporation is owned by shareholders, who must elect a board of directors that make business decisions and oversee policies. In most cases, a C corporation is required to report its financial operations to the state attorney general. Because a corporation is treated as an independent entity, a C corporation does not cease to exist when its owners or shareholders change or die.

Another major advantage of a C corporation is that its owners have limited liability. Thus, they do not stand personally liable for debts incurred by the corporation. They cannot be sued individually for corporate wrongdoings.

Додаток  до  білета № 11

1. Read and translate the text into Ukrainian.  Put six questions to the text.

Tax Issues Related to Your Business

Small businesses must withhold federal income taxes from their employee’s wages and pay them directly to the IRS (Internal Revenue Service). The amount depends on the size of the payments, the number of exemptions claimed by each employee, their marital status, and the frequency of the payments. Each employee must complete a W-4 form to determine withholding exemptions.

Employers must also withhold 6.2% of each employee’s income for Social Security and 1.45% of each employee’s income for Medicare, in addition to the matching contribution that the employer makes. Most employers are also required to pay federal and state unemployment taxes under the Federal Unemployment Tax Act.

An excise tax is a tax paid for the sale or manufacture of certain commodities. For example, environmental taxes, communications taxes, or fuel taxes could be excise taxes levied on a particular business. Depending on what the business manufactures or sells, some businesses might not be required to pay these at all.

A sole proprietorship is a company with only one owner that is not registered with the state as a limited liability company or corporation. The owner does not pay income tax separately for the company, but he/she reports business income or losses on his/her individual income tax return. The owner is inseparable from the sole proprietorship, so he/she is liable for any business debts. Employers are also required to make quarterly estimated tax payments if they expect their business to earn more than $1,000.

Додаток  до  білета № 12

1. Read and translate the text into Ukrainian.  Put six questions to the text.

Entrepreneur Success Stories (1)

For many people, the dream of owning their own business and becoming their own boss motivates them to take action. Some turn to the internet and technology-based business plans while others seek more traditional paths to entrepreneurship. Here’s a sampling of success stories from a variety of entrepreneurs.

Andrew and Daryl Grant of Australia started out as over-worked employees of large corporations. They were making a lot of money, but they were working all the time. They started thinking about ways to make money without having to work as many hours and tried a number of different business models across several different industries from real estate to finance to business consulting. At one point, they tried using their existing skills and consulting for businesses, and while they were great at what they did and were still able to bring in a lot of money – they were still directly trading their time for money. They later discovered how to generate passive income through selling e-books and other information products online, and through the creation of membership sites.

Income earned through selling information products and receiving membership fees from website visitors is considered passive income because the products are created once – listed for sale – and then can be sold over and over again without the need for doing additional work. Orders are filled automatically through technology and the couple spends their time setting up marketing strategies to bring new potential buyers to each of their product websites. Their first year selling e-books resulted in $250,000 in sales

Додаток  до  білета № 13

1. Read and translate the text into Ukrainian.  Put six questions to the text.

Entrepreneur Success Stories (2)

For many people, the dream of owning their own business and becoming their own boss motivates them to take action. Some turn to the internet and technology-based business plans while others seek more traditional paths to entrepreneurship. Here’s a sampling of success stories from a variety of entrepreneurs.

David and Erin Oliveira – a Massachusetts couple currently living in upstate New York, decided to take a more traditional route to entrepreneurship. Instead of looking to the internet for a business opportunity, the couple decided to purchase a Dunkin’ Donuts Franchise. The husband and wife team worked as general managers, store managers and bakery managers within an existing operation of Dunkin’ Donuts shops – to gain experience under a man who owns 14 Dunkin’ locations in upstate NY and is the owner or partial owner of several more in the Massachusetts area. Once they learned the business operations inside and out, the couple purchased half ownership of their own Dunkin’ Donuts shop from the man they had been working for; and will later buy out the rest as the store continues to generate income. 

And one more story about three young adults who had been friends since high school. They  decided to create an internet publishing company. Will, Lynn and Greg established Killer Aces Media, and the very successful Wisebread.com was created in December 2006. The concept of Wisebread, and several other internet entities they own, is to provide quality content by multiple bloggers – while paying the contributing bloggers a competitive compensation for their efforts.

Додаток  до  білета № 14

1. Read and translate the text into Ukrainian.  Put six questions to the text.

Rates and Outsourcing

There was a time, decades ago, that “Made in the U.S.A” meant well-made products that you could be patriotically proud of. Today, “Made in the U.S.A” usually means paying high labor costs, dealing with labor unions and earning hopelessly tiny profits. It was due to this that outsourcing – or shifting your production base to another country – became attractive. Lower material and labor costs in a country with a weaker currency boosts profits considerably.

Multinational corporations, such as Wal-Mart, tend to exploit this business model to the fullest, creating extremely cheap goods in China., The goal of this business model is to use high sales volume to offset its low profit per product. A more immediate goal is to undercut any local competitors, who are physically unable to match those low prices due to the lack of an outsourcing infrastructure, and wipe them out with a pricing war. After all these local competitors have been eliminated, Wal-Mart is free to raise prices again, since it has established itself as a local monopoly.

As a small business, it’s nearly impossible to protect yourself from this kind of assault. If you want to stand your ground and fight, then the best strategy is to ally yourself with other local businesses and pool your resources. Offer free cross-advertising campaigns and attack the large multinational threat together. While you can’t offer discounts on all your products to fight back, offering rotating sales on select products can attract customers.

Додаток  до  білета № 15

1. Read and translate the text into Ukrainian.  Put six questions to the text.

The Importance of Quality Over Quantity

Quality over quantity – it’s a simple concept taught to us throughout our formative years. The reason that it’s so hard to emphasize quality over quantity  now  is simple – businesses are established to make money as quickly as possible and at the highest possible margins. Crafting single high quality products tends to be expensive and time consuming, and must be sold at much higher, less attractive prices to the average consumer in order to be profitable. Lower quality work, produced quickly in outsourced factories with a minimal time commitment per product, tends to be far more profitable, with higher margins as well as a lower, more attractive price point for consumers. Well-known adopters of this business model are Wal-Mart and Target.

However, business managers shouldn’t entirely overlook the importance of quality over quantity. If your product becomes known for its shoddy construction – and due to the Internet, word travels fast – your overall sales will be quickly damaged. Modern consumers are likely to scout out opinions online before purchasing goods – wouldn’t you rather that they be greeted by a stream of favorable comments as opposed to a flood of angry ones? If your product is too cheap, it can also get easily lost in the bargain bin at Wal-Mart alongside a plethora of shoddy, similarly named foreign-made products.

Додаток  до  білета № 16

1. Read and translate the text into Ukrainian.  Put six questions to the text.

The IMF was founded more than 60 years ago toward the end of World War II. The founders aimed to build a framework for economic cooperation that would avoid a repetition of the disastrous economic policies that had contributed to the Great Depression of the 1930s and the global conflict that followed.

Since then the world has changed dramatically, bringing extensive prosperity and lifting millions out of poverty, especially in Asia. In many ways the IMF's main purpose – to provide the global public good of financial stability – the same today as it was when the organization was established. More specifically, the IMF continues to provide a forum for cooperation on international monetary problems facilitate the growth of international trade, thus promoting job creation, economic growth, and poverty reduction; promote exchange rate stability and an open system of international payments; and lend countries foreign exchange when needed, on a temporary basis and under adequate safeguards, to help them solve payments problems.

The IMF's way of operating has changed over the years and has undergone rapid change since the beginning of the 1990s  in order to adapt to the changing needs of its expanding membership in a globalized world economy. Most recently, the IMF's Managing Director has launched an ambitious reform agenda, aimed at making sure the IMF continues to deliver the economic analysis and multilateral consultation that is at the core of its mission—ensuring the stability of the global monetary system.

IMF –  International Monetary Fund

Додаток  до  білета № 17

1. Read and translate the text into Ukrainian.  Put six questions to the text.

Managing Small Business Growth

Small business owners generally love the word “growth” since when used in relation to a business, it usually means success. A growing business is a thriving business, or so most people believe. Unfortunately, many small business owners discover the hard way that business growth may result in problems if your business isn’t equipped to handle that growth – and can even kill your business all together!

All growing businesses eventually reach their limit. You might run out of employees to handle the new volume of orders or customers. You might not have enough product to meet demand. Most small businesses struggle to manage operational issues during a growth phase, and it can be hard to decide whether it’s time to hire additional employees or if this is just a short-term spike in sales or customer volume.

For most business owners, growth is welcomed but it’s important to keep your growth in check. When you start generating more sales than you had previously, it can be tempting to spend more money than you’re able to – perhaps you decide to upgrade computer or technology, or hire more staff to handle the new business growth. Both are excellent uses of business income, but if you’re not careful you may spend more than you can afford and then your financial stability could be damaged. The growth phase that should have resulted in higher profits could easily turn around and cause a cash flow problem if you aren’t careful to keep the growth of the business in check.


 

А также другие работы, которые могут Вас заинтересовать

49982. ОПРЕДЕЛЕНИЕ ГЛАВНОГО ФОКУСНОГО РАССТОЯНИЯ ТОНКИХ ЛИНЗ 266 KB
  Приборы и принадлежности: оптическая скамья с набором рейтеров осветитель с источником питания экран собирающая и рассеивающая линзы. Ее вершины О1 и О2 в этом случае можно считать совпадающими в точке О называемой оптическим центром линзы. Причем ось проходящая через оптический центр линзы и центры кривизны ее преломляющих поверхностей называется главной оптической осью линзы прямая РР рис. Если направить луч света параллельно главной оптической оси вблизи нее то преломившись он пройдет через точки F1 или F2 в зависимости от...
49983. ИССЛЕДОВАНИЕ ЯВЛЕНИЯ ДИСПЕРСИИ 472.5 KB
  В качестве диспергирующих элементов используются спектральные призмы действие которых основано на явлениях преломления и дисперсии света дисперсионные призмы. Ширина спектральной линии определяется дифракцией света на оправе призмы или на краях диафрагмы ограничивающей световой поток падающий на призму. Качество спектра определяется угловой дисперсией и разрешающей способностью призмы.
49984. ИССЛЕДОВАНИЕ ИНТЕРФЕРЕНЦИИ СВЕТА ПРИ НАБЛЮДЕНИИ КОЛЕЦ НЬЮТОНА 747 KB
  Приборы и принадлежности: микроскоп МБС10 светофильтры источник белого света микрометр окулярный винтовой МОВ116Х или окуляр со шкалой объект – микрометр ячейка для получения колец Ньютона блок питания для лампы осветителя. Оно окружено системой чередующихся светлых и темных колец ширина и интенсивность которых постепенно убывают по мере удаления от центрального пятна. Светлые кольца соответствуют d для которых...
49986. ИССЛЕДОВАНИЕ ЯВЛЕНИЯ ДИФРАКЦИИ СВЕТА 252.5 KB
  Световые лучи испытывают дифракцию на щели S2 или на нити находящейся в этой же плоскости. Ширину щели S2 можно регулировать микровинтом. Выберите для начала ширину щели S2 достаточно большую например 1 2 мм. Поместите микроскоп М в такое положение которое позволяет наблюдать резкое изображение щели S2 находящееся в центре шкалы.
49987. ИЗУЧЕНИЕ ДИФРАКЦИОННОЙ РЕШЕТКИ 337 KB
  Рассчитать основанные характеристики решетки: период d число штрихов N дисперсию D и разрешающую способность R. Если через обозначить ширину щели а через b ширину непрозрачного промежутка то величину d = b называют периодом или постоянной дифракционной решетки. Из теории колебаний известно что для тех направлений для которых в разности хода укладывается целое число длин волн  = k возникают максимумы интенсивности которые называют главными и тогда основная формула для дифракционной решетки имеет вид...
49988. ПОЛУЧЕНИЕ И ИССЛЕДОВАНИЕ СВЕТА С РАЗЛИЧНЫМИ СОСТОЯНИЯМИ ПОЛЯРИЗАЦИИ 269.5 KB
  Краткое теоретическое введение Свет в котором в каждый момент времени векторы Е и Н будучи взаимно перпендикулярны друг другу беспорядочно меняют свое направление в плоскости Р перпендикулярной направлению распространения света рис. 4 Получение линейно поляризованного света и его анализ Линейно поляризованный свет получают из естественного света с помощью устройств которые называются поляризаторами. Действие поляризаторов основывается на использовании либо закона Брюстера для отражения и преломления света на границе раздела...
49989. ПОЛУЧЕНИЕ И ИССЛЕДОВАНИЕ СВЕТА С РАЗЛИЧНЫМИ СОСТОЯНИЯМИ ПОЛЯРИЗАЦИИ 822.5 KB
  Приборы и принадлежности: прибор ПКС125 включающий поляроидполяризатор диаметром 125 мм анализатор находящийся во вращающейся оправе с градусными делениями и нониусом который позволяет определять угол поворота анализатора с точностью до 1 10 градуса источник света лампа накаливания мощностью 60 Вт; приемник излучения фотосопротивление источник питания для фотосопротивления микроамперметр светофильтр для выделения света с длиной волны для которой кристаллическая пластинка является пластинкой λ 4†измерительный прибор...
49990. ИЗУЧЕНИЕ ЯВЛЕНИЯ ИНТЕРФЕРЕНЦИИ СВЕТА НА ДВУХЛУЧЕВОМ ИНТЕРФЕРОМЕТРЕ И ОПРЕДЕЛЕНИЕ ИЗМЕНЕНИЯ ПОКАЗАТЕЛЯ ПРЕЛОМЛЕНИЯ ВОЗДУХА 836.5 KB
  До точки Р волна проходит в среде с показателем преломления n1 путь s1 вторая волна проходит в среде с показателем преломления n2 путь s2. Интерферометр Жамена предназначен для измерения небольших изменений показателей преломления. Для уяснения принципа действия такого рефрактометра вообразим что на пути одного из интерферирующих лучей помещен плоскопараллельный слой какоголибо вещества толщиной с показателем преломления n2.