Types of colloquial speech. The main distinctive features
Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика
Antitsipation constuction. Antitsipation represents the phenomenon in a sense opposite пролепсе, and consists in removal at the first place in the statement of a rheme component. Thus the thematic component in the form of the isolated noun finishes a design: I never met him in my whole life, Jack
The main distinctive features
Lines with which informal conversation differs from other forms of life of language, carry both actually linguistic, and extralinguistic character. Main of them following.
1 . Oral nature of speech.
2 . Dialogical nature of speech.
3 . Everyday and household subject.
4 . Phonetic redutsirovannost.
6.a communication situation,
7 . Emotionality (affectivity) of speech.
8Spontaneity of speech.
9 . Complementarity to nonverbal activity.
10. Informal/informal nature of speech.
Types of colloquial speech
1 . Partsellyation. The Partsellirovanny design is sequence of the statements with apropriate intonationo on the letter as at the separate sentence.
2 . Asolute attribute. Under absolutive attribute the name or the nominal phrase which is taken out in a postposition in relation to the main statement and semantic representing a sign of one of his members means: To luxury of comes Harry, nice-looking guy.
3 . Proleptical construction. Proleptichesky designs are the statements beginning directly with the nomination of a subject of the statement, as a rule, in the form of a noun which the rheme component having explanatory character deciphering a subject follows. Thus the thematic initial name intonation also is graphically isolated: Jack, I never met him in my whole life.
4 . Antitsipation constuction. Antitsipation represents the phenomenon in a sense opposite пролепсе, and consists in removal at the first place in the statement of a rheme component. Thus the thematic component in the form of the isolated noun finishes a design: I never met him in my whole life, Jack.
5 . The nominal statement with a post-positive subject-utochnitelem. Apparently from the name of this design, it represents the nominal statement in which, however, doesn't contain a thematic component or it isn't clear and needs specification; this thematic nominal component is given directly after the nominative statement: A terribly posh place, that restaurant
6 . Inversion. It is necessary to distinguish, certainly, the kollokvialny inversion being a subject of our consideration, and the grammatical inversion caused by laws of creation of the corresponding grammatical forms, for example inversion at formation of interrogative designs. Examples of kollokvialny inversion are statements like A hopeless old fool I am; And a nice cup of tea you shall have, my dear
7 . Question-answer creation of the statement. Usually questions and answers alternate in dialogical speech. However in informal conversation the question-answer creation of the monological statement representing questions of the subject of speech to and answers to them isn't excluded also: Have I found a good job? Yes, I have. Do 1 make enough money? Yes, I do. Can I send my kids to college now? Yes, I can. What else do they want of me? (Cf. Russian. I in shop descended? I descended. All products bought? I bought. Delivery brought? I brought. What is necessary? )
8 . Redemand. Redemand as to the devil of informal conversation should be distinguished from the true redemand caused by that one of interlocutors didn't catch or didn't understand a remark of another. Examples of kollokvialny redemand: Do you think Mary beautiful? Beautiful? In a way, How about having a cup of tea? A cup of tea? Sounds good to me. (Cf. Russian. You sometime happened in Uzhgorod? In Uzhgorod? Also I don't remember. )
9 . Repetition. Statements can repeat in structure any; elements, however more often it happens to words with attributive value: Sad, sad, all that is very sad; This house is perfect, just perfect for my purposes. (Cf. Russian. Curiously, curiously, very curiously; Speed, speed and once again speed here that is important at competitions. )
10 . Use of appellative pronouns. In certain cases pronouns are used as a way of drawing attention of the interlocutor to the words: I am saying this to you, old devil, you. (Cf. Russian. What, nothing stings like the truth? )
11 . interjectional indication of questioning. In informal conversation the question is often designed not according to the canonized rules of grammar, and by means of an interjection attached to a declarative form of the statement: Nice weather, ah? (Cf. Russian. The water is good, and? )
12 . Link-verb ellipsis. Certainly, the link-verb ellipsis as line of informal conversation is characteristic for those languages where existence of a link-verb is obligatory as, for example, in English in norm: My bank account empty, my credit card lost, my purse stolen what shall I do? For Russian this line of informal conversation is uncharacteristic.
13 . explitives. Under эксплетивами the meaning-bearing lexical elements which are carrying out a certain syntactic function, however excessive in the offer mean. To эксплетивам the lowered, abusive lexicon and phraseology belong: What the hell are you doing here? ; Remove that bloody car of yours! ; I don't care a bit about that damned garage. (Cf. Russian. On the devil to me your councils! ; Throw out from the house this devil's carpet! )
14 . Periphrasis. Periphrasis it can be considered as the devil of informal conversation in that case when it carries obviously excess character from the communicative point of view, for example when instead of a short sign of a consent of Yes! tell Perfectly true; Yes, indeed; That's right, and instead of No! By no means; No way; Nothing of the kind. (Cp. Russian. You wrote this letter? Quite right; I correctly understood you? Absolutely precisely; You would agree to go there? One can't get it for love or money. )
15. verbless Pobuditelnost expression. Usually motivation is expressed in the form of an incentive verb mood. However in informal conversation typologically diverse designs which common feature is just lack of a verbal lexeme, for example substantive statements (Waiter, the bill please for this purpose can be used! ) adjektivny statements (Careful! You'll break it! ) adverbialny statements (Slowly, slowly, please! Out of here! ) mezhdometny statements (Shhh! You'll wake him up! ) . (Cf. Russian. Your ticket, citizen; From here! ; Carefully, doors are closed; Tishin in a hall! )
16 . Denial in the form of a question. Contrary to an initial way of creation of the negative offer in informal conversation interrogative forms of the statement, important denials are often used: Did I say anything about you being foolish? (Cf. Russian. And unless I have something against?
17 . Affirmative form of a question. The grammar, as we know, stipulates rules of creation of questions. However in informal conversation at creation of a question these rules often ignore, being limited to the corresponding intonational registration of the declarative offer: You know the answer? ; She is going with you to London? In Russian syntactic parallel designs aren't examples of informal conversation as rather free word order and lack of special auxiliary verbs for formation of interrogative forms do such statements suitable for any type of speech.
18 . The statement in the form of a negative question. In stylistics this phenomenon usually is called as a rhetorical question and is characterized as relating to elevated speech styles. However research of the daily sphere of communication convinces that the rhetorical question is widespread in informal conversation at all less, than in poetry or prose: Wasn't I careful enough to you? ; Didn't I tell you what to do? (Cf. Russian. And unless I never helped you? And unless I didn't advise to you to sell this house? )
19 . Subject ellipsis. The ellipsis of a subject occurs in informal conversation when the situation and a context of communication allow to identify it rather unambiguously. As a rule, the subject in the form of a pronoun of the first person falls: Can't say how glad I am! In Russian syntactic similar designs aren't kollokvialny as lack of a subject in the Russian offer often is the grammatical norm supported by developed system of inflectional morphology which legalizes lack of a subject.
20 . Subject and predicate ellipsis. Sometimes in informal conversation, especially in dialogue, an elliptization both main sentence parts are exposed. Thus this segment of conversation remains is information the sufficient: When? At 5p.m. ; Where to? To the restaurant. (Cf. Russian. Where it is so urgent? In a dining room. )
21 . Ellipsis of office elements of the offer. For informal conversation the elliptization of office elements articles, pretexts, the unions also is characteristic: Uncle George come Saturday; Where does he live? Paris.
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