Subordinate clauses of primary nominal positions
Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика
Subordinte cluses of primry nominl positions. Cluses of primry nominl positions The subject cluse. The predictive cluse. The object cluse.
38.Subordinate clauses of primary nominal positions.
Clauses of primary nominal positions
The subject clause.
The predicative clause.
The object clause.
A subject clause may be introduced by conjunctions (that, if, whether, whether... or, because, the way) or connectives. The latter may be either conjunctive pronouns (who, whoever, what, whatever, which) or conjunctive adverbs (where, wherever, when, whenever, how, why).
Types of subject clauses
§ 151. Complex sentences with subject clauses may be of two patterns:
I. When a subject clause precedes the predicate of the main clause:
What I need is a piece of good advice.
Whether I talked or not made little difference.
Because I ask too many questions does not mean I am curious.
How the book will sell depends on its plot and the author.
That he is a madman in an advanced stage of mania goes without saying.
Whoever moved in next would need it more than I.
Subject clauses of this type cannot be joined asyndetically, as the opening words signal the subordinate status of the clause. The main clause having no subject is deficient in its structure and meaning unless joined with the subordinate clause. Thus the combination of words *is a good piece of advice is neither complete in its structure nor in its meaning without the subject:
What you say is a good piece of advice.
II. When a subject clause is in final position, the usual place of the subject being occupied by formal it:
It seemed unfair to him that he should suffer more than his wife.
It is understood that modem science allows such experiments.
In exclamatory sentences the formal // may be only implied.
How wonderful that they should meet at last! (How wonderful it is...)
In this pattern of the complex sentence the subject clause may be joined asyndetically.
A predicative clause may be introduced by conjunctions (that, whether, whether... or, as, as if, as though, because, lest, the way), or connectives. The latter may be conjunctive pronouns (who, whoever, what, whatever, which) or conjunctive adverbs (where, wherever, when, whenever, how, why).
The fact was that he had forgotten about it.
Types of predicative clauses
§ 153. Predicative clauses may occur as parts of two structurally different kinds of sentences:
I. They may follow the main clause in which the subject is a notional word, although it usually has a very general meaning (thing, question, problem, news, sensation, evil, rule, trouble, etc.). In this case the predicative clause discloses the meaning of the subject.
The rule was that they walked down to the cliff path and travelled up in the lift.
The trouble was whether we could manage it ourselves or not.
The problem is not who will go, but who will stay.
II. The predicative clause may follow the main clause in which the subject is expressed by the impersonal pronoun it. In this case the predicative clause describes the situation, either directly or by means of comparison.
It appears he hasn't been there.
It sounded as if even the spring began by act of Parliament.
An object clause may be introduced by conjunctions (that, if, whether, whether... or, lest), or connectives. The latter may be conjunctive pronouns (who, whoever, what, whatever, which), or conjunctive adverbs (where, wherever, when, whenever, why, how).
An object clause may refer to any verbal form, either finite or nonfinite
Jon followed, wondering if he had offended her.
I don't know why I like you so much.
I left her to do whatever she thought fit.
She often reproached herself for what she had said.
He was terrified that she would forget about if soon.
An object clause may either follow or precede the main clause; it may be joined asyndetically and in this case it always follows the main clause.
Swithin said he would go back to lunch at Timothy's.
Types of object clauses
§ 155. Like objects in a simple sentence, object clauses may vary in their relation to the principal clause and in the way they are attached to, the word they refer to or depend on.
1. An object clause may directly follow the word it refers to (a non-prepositional object clause). In this case it is parallel in function to a direct object.
Jon wondered if he had offended her.
I know when I am wasting time.
A typical most recurrent type of object clauses is indirect speech following verbs of saying.
He said he had never heard of it.
He asked me if I wanted to stay.
Object clauses of this subtype are more informative than their main clauses, the role of the latter being relegated to that of introducing the source of information.
Like subject clauses, object clauses may be preceded by the formal it, usually after the verbs to feel, to believe, to consider, to find, 16take, to like, to insist on, etc.
You may take it that it is a genuine check,.
I like it when people are nice to me.
I insist upon it that you tell me all the details.
You are to see to // that there should be no quarrel.
An object clause may refer to formal it followed by the objective predicative after the verbs to think, to find, to make, to consider, etc,
I found it strange that she could speak so calmly.
I think it necessary that you should go there at once.
He made it clear that his intentions were honest.
2. Object clauses parallel in function to in direct objects are very rare. However, they are possible, the necessary condition for it being that the object clause should be followed by a direct object.
You may give whoever you like any presents.
3. There are also cases when an object clause functions like a соgnate object to a verb.
He and his mamma knew very few people and lived what might have been thought very lonely lives,
4. An object clause may be joined to the main clause by the prepositions after, about, before, beyond, for, near, of, as to, except, etc. (a prepositional object clause). In this case it is parallel in function to a prepositional non-recipient object. If a preposition is very closely attached to the preceding verb or adjective (to agree upon, to call for, to comment upon, to depend on, to hear of, to insist on, to be certain of, to be sorry for, etc.) it generally precedes the object clause.
I am not certain of what he did.
I want to be paid for what I do.
Some prepositions which would be indispensable before nouns or gerunds used as objects are not always necessary before object clauses.
We insisted that he should stay with us. (We insisted on his staying with us.)
We agreed that the experiment should be stopped. (We agreed upon stopping the experiment.)
The preposition is retained when there is a formal object it followed by an object clause.
We insisted on it that he should stay with us.
We agreed upon it that the experiment should be stopped.
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