47479

Практический курс английского языка

Книга

Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

Вторая часть каждого урока начинается с текста по теме, который дополняется диалогами, составленными авторами или заимствованными из английских учебников и лингафонных курсов. Работа над текстами второй части не предполагает углубленной языковой проработки (и не всегда требует полного перевода), она рассчитана на изучение их содержания и лексики и на практическую работу по использованию зтой лексики в устной речи

Английский

2013-11-29

2.89 MB

36 чел.


Практический курс английского языка. 2 курс : учеб. для студентов вузов / (В.Д. Аракин и др.); под ред. В. А. Аракина. — 7-е изд, доп. и испр. — М.: Гуманитар. изд. центр ВЛАДОС, 2005. —516 с. — (Учебник для вузов).

ISBN 5-691-01446-3 (в пер.).

Учебник является второй частью серии комплексных учебников для I-V курсов педагогических: вузов. Основная цель - развитие навыков устной и письменной речи.

Настоящее издание учебника несколько переработано в соответствии с изменениями реалий британской жизни.

Выпуск посвящается 100-летнему юбилею

Владимира Дмитриевича Аракина — одного из замечательных лингвистов России

ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ

Настоящая книга является второй частью серии комплексных учебников английского языка под общим названием «Практический курс английского языка» и предназначается для студентов второго курса факультетов и отделений английского языка педагогических институтов.

Учебник рассчитан на дальнейшее развитие навыков устной и письменной речи в результате овладения речевыми образцами, содержащими новые лексические и грамматические явления, а также на более углубленное изучение отдельных аспектов языка в предусмотренное учебным планом время. Одновременно с этим закрепляются уже известные из первой части речевые образцы и составляющие их словарные единицы, а также фонетический и грамматический материал. Кроме того, учебник знакомит студентов с оригинальными образцами английской и американской прозы и поэзии, а также рядом явлений, характерных для быта, традиций и образа жизни англичан.

Учебник содержит три раздела:

1. Основной курс (Essential Course).

2. Упражнения по интонации (Exercises in Intonation).

3. Упражнения по грамматике (Grammar Exercises).

Основной курс [авторы В. Д. Аракин, N. И. Селянина, А. В. Куценко, А Г. Любимова, И. В. Михеева, В. В. Попова) состоит из 9 уроков. В основу его положен тематический принцип. Однако, ввиду того что авторы придают большое значение работе над оригинальными текстами в процессе обучения языку, было сочтено необходимым построить учебный материал в двух планах, дополняющих друг друга, что и нашло свое отражение в структуре уроков, каждый из которых состоит из двух частей (I и II). Первая часть урока содержит оригинальные тексты, и главный упор в ней делается на углубленную работу над речевыми образцами, на изучение, толкование, перевод и пересказ текста и т. д, а также на расширение словарного запаса студентов и на анализ изучаемых лексических единиц (выявление многозначности, подбор синонимов, антонимов и т. д.) в целях развития навыков устной (в том числе и неподготовленной) и письменной речи. Вторая часть урока представляет собой дальнейшую разработку соответствующей темы и рассчитана на расширение запаса речевых образцов и лексических единиц.

Такое чередование материала и задач, которые ставятся при прохождении каждой части урока, имеет также преимущества психологического и методического порядка, так как позволяет внести разнообразие в подачу материала и использовать разные виды работы для его закрепления и активизации в речи.

Различный подход к изучению материала в первой и второй частях урока определяет и несколько различную структуру построения каждой части. В первой части урока основному тексту предшествует список речевых образцов (Speech Patterns), взятых из текста, с примерами их употребления в речи и упражнениями на закрепление и активизацию. Отбор речевых образцов обусловлен их употребительностью в речи, определенной последовательностью прохождения грамматического материала1 и, в отдельных случаях, необходимостью повторения пройденного Предтекстовое введение речевых образцов объясняется необходимостью интенсивной работы над ними на протяжении всего урока

Тексты, на которых строится работа в первой части каждого урока, взяты из произведений английских и американских авторов XX века (все тексты несколько сокращены). По своему содержанию они связаны с темой второй части урока. Работа над оригинальным текстом на 2 курсе, кроме его фонетической проработки (подробнее см. с. 7), предполагает его краткий лексико-грамматический анализ, выявление в отдельных случаях подтекста, толкование имеющихся в нем реалий, перевод текста на русский язык, наконец, обсуждение его содержания, идейной направленности и некоторых особенностей языка и стиля автора.

За текстом следуют лексические пояснения (Vocabulary Notes), рассчитанные не только на толкование некоторых слов из текста, но и на расширение лингвистической базы студентов. Изучение Vocabulary Notes начинается после первичной проработки текста и может выполняться студентами самостоятельно, с последующим контролем (на занятии) правильного понимания ими значений слов и их употребления в речи (путем опроса, проверки составленных студентами примеров на употребление активной лексики, перевода предложений с русского языка на английский и т. д.). Проверка эта, естественно, сопровождается дополнительными пояснениями преподавателя (в менее продвинутых группах соответствующие пояснения могут предшествовать самостоятельной работе студентов над лексическими пояснениями).

За лексическими пояснениями идет список слов и словосочетаний (Essential Vocabulary I), взятых из текста и, частично, из лексических пояснений, которые входят в активный словарь студента (имеются в виду лексические единицы, впервые вводимые или впервые закрепляемые в данном уроке).

Вторая часть каждого урока начинается с текста по теме, который дополняется диалогами, составленными авторами или заимствованными из английских учебников и лингафонных курсов. Работа над текстами второй части не предполагает углубленной языковой проработки (и не всегда требует полного перевода), она рассчитана на изучение их содержания и лексики и на практическую работу по использованию зтой лексики в устной речи.

За текстами следует список слов и словосочетаний (Essential Vocabulary П), который в ряде случаев сопровождается пояснениями или примерами употребления данных слов и словосочетаний (там, где требуется иллюстрация их употребления в разных речевых ситуациях).

Весь активный словарь основной части учебника равен примерно 850 единицам (из них около 550 слов-значений и 300 словосочетаний разного типа). Отбор слов в каждом уроке определяется:!) их употребительностью, 2) темой урока. 3) практической необходимостью расширения словарного запаса за счет синонимов, производных и т. д.

За списком слов и словосочетаний в обеих частях каждого урока следует серия упражнений, рассчитанных на постепенное развитие навыков устной (в том числе неподготовленной) и письменной речи и обеспечивающих прочное закрепление вводимого языкового материала в результате многократного повторения и использования его в процессе речевого общения.

В основу всей системы упражнений данного учебника положены следующие методические принципы: упражнения даны в порядке нарастания языковых трудностей и постепенного перехода от упражнений репродуктивного типа к упражнениям продуктивного типа; устные упражнения чередуются с письменными.

Упражнения рассчитаны как на самостоятельную работу студентов, так и на выполнение их в аудитории под руководством преподавателя (к последним относятся упражнения с заданиями типа Answer the questions, Correct wrong statements, а также на составление неподготовленных диалогов, проведение бесед на пройденную тему и т. п.).

Упражнения, выполняемые студентами самостоятельно, проверяются в аудитории либо с помощью преподавателя (например, переводы и все упражнения творческого характера), либо по ключам (например, упражнения на заполнение пропусков и т. д.) с последующим обсуждением неясных для студентов моментов. (Во время такой проверки преподаватель работает с отдельными студентами.)

Помимо упражнений, данных в учебнике, каждый студент должен самостоятельно выполнить серию лабораторных упражнений2, рассчитанных на дальнейшее закрепление новой лексики и речевых образцов, развитие автоматизированных навыков их употребления, совершенствования произношения студентов, а также на развитие навыков понимания иностранной речи на слух. Эти упражнения предназначены для самостоятельной (устной и письменной) работы студентов со звукозаписывающей аппаратурой по схеме: предложение, наговоренное диктором, — пауза для выполнения задания (перевода, заполнения пропусков и т. д) — ключ, наговоренный диктором, — пауза для повторения ключа или исправления ошибок. По этой схеме, рассчитанной на самоконтроль, построены все упражнения тренировочного характера. Упражнения на развитие навыка понимания иностранной речи на слух, дающие, как правило, дополнительную информацию по теме, предполагают последующую работу по ним в аудитории (опрос на контроль понимания, обсуждение их содержания и т. д).

Домашняя и аудиторная работа по учебнику проводится параллельно: фонетическая отработка текстов (разметка, повторение за диктором) по разделу Laboratory Exercises предшествует или непосредственно следует за первичным чтением и анализом текста (в зависимости от языковой подготовленности студентов, качества их фонетических навыков и т. д), а лексико-грамматические лабораторные упражнения включаются несколько позднее, после введения и первичного закрепления основных текстов и языкового материала3.

Каждое аудиторное занятие рассчитано на 2 часа; примерно столько же требуется на подготовку к нему дома и около одного часа на выполнение лабораторной работы. Остающееся в учебном плане время для работы по практике языка отводится на работу по текстам для домашнего чтения (1—2 часа в неделю), по газетному материалу и на другие виды работ, выходящие за пределы данного учебника.

Материал для углубленной практической работы по разным аспектам языка (фонетике и грамматике) дан в двух других разделах учебника. Они составлены с учетом тематики, языкового материала и последовательности его изучения в основном курсе учебника и рассчитаны на параллельное с ним изучение в специально отведенное время (в пределах существующей для этих аспектов сетки часов).

Раздел Exercises in Intonation (авторы М. А. Соколова, KXI. Гинтовт, Н. И. Крылова, И. С. Тихонова, Г. А. Шабадаш) предназначен для интенсивной работы над английской интонацией и является продолжением аналогичного раздела в учебнике для 1-го курса.

Основная цель раздела — обучение студентов правильному воспроизведению и самостоятельному употреблению в речи отобранных для 2-го курса интонационных структур.

Раздел состоит из серии обучающих, контролирующих и творческих упражнений, предназначенных для выработки автоматизированных навыков воспроизведения и употребления отобранных интонационных структур. Работа над интонационной структурой начинается с односинтагментного предложения и, пройдя определенные этапы, завершается употреблением этой структуры в спонтанной речи. Обучающие упражнения предназначены в основном для лабораторной работы, контролирующие н творческие — для работы в аудитории. Последовательность упражнений определяется методической целесообразностью порядка работы над ними. Специальных упражнений на транскрибирование, интонирование и изображение интонации графически в разделе нет, но такое задание может быть дано в отношении любого упражнения. В конце раздела предлагаются несколько стихотворений и тексты, над которыми по заданию работа идет параллельно с соответствующим уроком по практике речи.

В описании интонационных структур авторы следуют за теорией интонации О' Коннора и Дж. Арнольда, описанной в книге J. D. O'Connor, G. F. Arnold "Intonation of Colloquial English". Разметка дается также в соответствии с этой теорией, но в несколько упрощенном виде.

В разделе использованы упражнения и тексты из книг J. D. O'Connor, G. F. Arnold "Intonation of Colloquial English", J. D. O'Connor "A Course of English Pronunciation", "Lingauphone English Course", "Пособие по практической фонетике для студентов 1—3 курсов английского языка" и др.

Раздел Grammar Exercises (автор В. С. Денисова) содержит дополнительный тренировочный материал по грамматике английского языка, имеющий целью выработку прочных навыков грамматически правильной речи. Этой общей задаче подчинены как характер упражнений, гак и характер подобранного языкового материала. Кроме активного словаря основной части учебника автор раздела стремился максимально использовать оригинальные примеры преимущественно разговорной речи из произведений известных английских авторов (Дж, Голсуорсн, С. Моэма, Дж. Олдриджа, Ч. Сноу, К. Мансфилд, Айрис Мердок и др.). По своему содержанию этот раздел охватывает тему «Глагол» и включает повторение времен и пассива, а также новый материал: косвенные наклонения, модальные глаголы и неличные формы глагола в объеме н трактовке посильной н целесообразной для второго года обучения. При составлении упражнений авторы использовали некоторые примеры из известной у нас практической грамматики английского языка А. Томеона в А. Марташета (A. J. Thomson and A V. Martinet "A Practical English Grammar for Foreign Students", London, 1964), а также из пособия по разговорной речи С. Аллена (W. Stannard Alien. "Living English Structure", London, N. Y., Toronto, 1954). По сравнению с разделом упражнений по грамматике в учебнике для 1-го курса настоящий раздел почти не содержит пояснений к упражнениям в виде «примечаний» (Notes), так как студенты второго года обучения уже могут сами пользоваться имеющимися у нас грамматиками4.

В настоящем издании авторы сочли необходимым включение новых реалий в связи с соответствующими изменениями в политической к экономической жизни Великобритании и соответственно нового лингвистического материала (ур. 6,7, 9).

Кроме того, в связи с рядом возникших проблем как в столичных, так и периферийных вузах, потребовались некоторые дополнения в схеме лабораторных работ.      Авторы

ESSENTIAL COURSE

UNIT ONE

SPEECH PATTERNS

1. If I were you, I should keep an eye on that boy.

(Cf: If I am well, I shall have a walking holiday.)

If I had time, I should go to the theatre tonight.

If we were hungry, we should have a bite.

If you did not work enough, you wouldn't get good marks.

If Anne were in Moscow, she would ring me up.

If the weather were fine, we could go for a walk.

2. I rather like the idea of having a cup of tea then.

I dislike the idea of staying at home on such a fine day.

The children liked the idea of going for a walk.

All of us liked the idea of spending the day off out of town.

We disliked the idea of staying in town the whole summer.

Why don't you like the idea of having dinner at my place?

EXERCISES

I. Rewrite these sentences, using Pattern 1:

Example:  a) If it is cold, we'll put on our warm coats.

If it were cold, we should put on our warm coats.

b) If my friends come to see me, I'll be very glad.

If my friends came to see me, I should be very glad.

1. If the boy is hungry, I'll give him something to eat. 2. If the supper is ready, we'll sit down to table. 3. If I get a good mark for my composition, I'll be happy. 4. If Mary has more free time, she'll read more. 5. If the weather changes, we'll go boating. 6. If I have no opportunity to see him, I'll be very sorry. 7. If it doesn't rain, I shan't have to take my umbrella with me. 8. If she finishes everything on Friday, she won't have to work on Saturday. 9. If you catch a cold, you'll have to stay at home. 10. If the child doesn't do what I tell him, I'll have to punish him.

II. Answer the following questions:

1. What would, you do if you were late for your lesson? 2. Where would you go if you had a holiday now? 3. Who(m) would you invite if you arranged a party? 4. How long would it take you to walk home from the University? 5. Which would you prefer to go to, the Art Theatre or the Bolshoi Theatre? 6. Would you feel glad if it were spring now? 7. Would you like to go to the disco after the lessons? 8. What film would you like to see?

III. Rewrite each of these sentences, using Pattern 2:

Example:  The girl thought that it would be good to study a foreign language.

The girl liked the idea of studying a foreign language.

1. The students thought that it would be useful to work in the lab twice a week. 2. We liked the suggestion that we should visit our sick friend. 3. The children found that it would be interesting to go on an excursion. 4. We thought that it wouldn't be good to stay indoors all day long. 5. Wouldn't you like to go to the theatre tonight? 6. All of us thought that it would be nice to arrange a party at our University. 7. Is there anyone against our spending the holidays in the holiday camp? 8. We thought that it would be good to go to the cinema after the lessons.

IV. Translate these sentences into English:

1. Если бы я не устала, я бы пошла осматривать город. 2. Мы бы не пошли завтра на этот спектакль, если бы это не была премьера. 3. Если бы я жила не так далеко, я бы заходила к вам почаще. 4. Если бы он говорил погромче, публика слушала бы его с большим интересом. 5. Будь у нее плохая память, она не запоминала бы сразу столько цифр (figures). 6. Я ничего не имела бы против поездки в Крым, если бы там не было сейчас так жарко. 7. Нам всем понравилась его мысль встретиться в начале учебного года.

V. Act out the dialogue. Make up your own after the model:

Diсk: What would you do if you had a boat?

Tоm: I would sail in it of course.

Dick: Where would you sail?

Tom: All around the coasts of Britain. I would even try to sail across the Atlantic if my boat were big enough.

Dick: What would you do if your parents didn't let you sail?

Tоm: I would run away from home, I suppose.

Dick: What would you do if your boat were wrecked in a storm?

Tom: I would get drowned, I suppose.

Diсk: It is just as well you haven't got a boat, I suppose.

VI. Explain the meaning of the following sayings and illustrate them:

1. If it were not for hope, the heart would break. 2. If the pills were pleasant, they would not be gilded. 3. If there were no clouds, we should not enjoy the sun. 4. If things were to be done twice all would be wise.

TEXT. ANNE MEETS HER GLASS

The children fixed their eyes upon Anne. Anne gazed back, feeling helpless.

"Now, children," began Miss Enderby firmly, "you are very, very lucky this term5 to have Miss Lacey for your new teacher."

Anne gave a watery smile. The Children's faces were unmoved.

"Miss Lacey," repeated Miss Enderby with emphasis. "Can you say that?"

"Miss Lacey," chorused the class obediently.

"Perhaps you could say 'Good morning' to your new teacher?" suggested Miss Enderby in an imperative tone.

"Good morning. Miss Lacey," came the polite chorus.

"Good morning, children," responded Anne in a voice which bore no resemblance to her own.

Miss Enderby motioned to the children to take their seats. "I should give out paper and coloured pencils," said Miss Enderby, "as soon as you've called the register6. Keep them busy while you're finding your way about the cupboards7 and so on."

She gave a swift look round the class. "I expect you to help Miss Lacey in every way," said the headmistress. "D'you hear me, Arnold?"

The little boy addressed, who had been crossing and uncrossing his eyes in an ugly manner for the enjoyment of his neighbours, looked suitably crest-fallen.

"If I were you, I should keep an eye on that boy," murmured Miss Enderby. "Broken home — brother in Borstal8 — and some rather dreadful habits!"

Anne looked with fresh interest at Arnold and thought he looked quite different from what Miss Enderby said about him. Far too innocent and apple-cheeked to have such a record. But even as she looked, she saw his pink face express his scorn of Miss Enderby who was giving her final messages to the new teacher.

"Break9 at ten forty-five, dear," said the headmistress. "Come straight to the staff room. I will wait there till you join us. I will introduce you to those you didn't meet on your first visit How do you like the idea of having a cup of tea then? We need rest after all. If there's anything that puzzles you, I shall be in my room. You can depend on me. Just send a message by one of the children."

She made her way to the door and waited before it, eyebrows raised as she turned her gaze upon the children. They gazed back in some bewilderment

"Is no one going to remember his manners?" asked Miss Enderby.

With a nervous start Anne hastened forward to the door, but was waved back by a movement of her headmistress's hand. A dozen or more children made a rush to open the door. A freckled girl with two skinny red plaits was the first to drag open the door. She was rewarded by a smile.

"Thank you, dear, thank you," said Miss Enderby and sailed majestically into the corridor. There came a faint sigh of relief as the door closed behind her, and the forty-six tongues which had so far kept unnaturally silent began to wag cheerfully. Anne watched this change with some dismay. She remembered with sudden relief some advice given her at college in just such a situation.

"Stand quite still, be quite calm, and gradually the children will become conscious that you are waiting. Never, never attempt to shout them down."

So Anne stood her ground waiting for the chattering to subside. But the noise grew in volume as conversations became more animated. One or two children ran across the room to see their distant friends. Two little boys attacked each other. A child with birthday cards was displaying their beauties to an admiring crowd round her desk. Arnold had removed his blue pullover and was attempting to pull his shirt over his head, in order to show his friends a scar on his shoulderblade.

Amidst growing chaos Anne remained silent. She looked at the clock which jerked from one minute to the next and decided to let it leap once more before she abandoned hope.

One crumb of comfort, if comfort it could be called, remained with her. This was an outburst of natural high spirits. Her presence, she noted, meant nothing at all to them.

A chair fell over, someone yelped with pain, there was a burst of laughter, and Anne saw the clock jump to another minute. Anne advanced into action.

"To your desks!" she roared, "And quickly!"

With a pleasurable shock she saw her words obeyed. Within a minute order had returned. Refreshed by the break the children turned attentive eyes upon her.

Anne's self-esteem crept back.

(From "Fresh from the Country" by Miss Reed)

VOCABULARY NOTES

1. to look υ i/t 1. смотреть, глядеть, е.g. I looked (up, down) at the opposite house, but saw no lights in its windows.

Syn. to stare, to gaze

to look means "to use one's eyes, to try to see", е.g. He looked at me, but didn't recognize me.

to stare means "to look steadily, with wide-open eyes, often with curiosity or surprise, or vacantly (бессмысленно, рассеянно)". We may stare at a person or thing, into the water, distance, fire or anything that has depth (пристально смотреть, глазеть, таращить/пялить глаза), е.g. Не stared at me as if I had asked him to do something impossible. He stared at the fire, deep in thought.

to gaze means "to look at smb. or smth. (or into smb.'s eyes) usu. long and steadily with interest, love, desire, in wonder, admiration, etc.", е.g. He's very fond of this picture, he can gaze at it for hours. The lovers stood with their hands clasped, gazing into each other's eyes.

to look about осматриваться, оглядываться по сторонам, е.g. I looked about, but saw no people anywhere.

Look ahead! Берегись!

to look (a thing) through просматривать что-л., е.g. Look through those documents, please.

to look after заботиться, ухаживать за кем-n., чём-n., е.g. I'll look after the child. Don't forget to look after the flowers when I'm away.

to look for искать кого-л., что-л., е.g. I've been looking for you since the very morning.

to look forward to (smth. or doing smth.) предвкушать что-л., с удовольствием ожидать чего-л., е.g. John looked forward to seeing Mario and his wife. Students always look forward to their holidays.

Look here! Послушай! е.g. Look here, wouldn't it be better to stay indoors in such nasty weather?

2. казаться, выглядеть (followed by an adjective, noun or like), е.g. He looks sad. The child looks ill (well). She looks like a real teacher. It looks like rain.

Note: казаться has two English equivalents — to look and to seem; to look means выглядеть, е.g. He looks young for his age. She looks beautiful "n this dress. She looks a child.; to seem means производить впечатление (it expresses various degrees of doubt), e.g. She seems (to be) clever. This village seems (to be) quite small now. He seems (to be) well educated.

look n 1. взгляд, е.g. There was something strange in his look.

Syn. stare, gaze, е.g. Lanny returned the man's stare, but didn't utter a word. The girl blushed when she noticed the stranger's fixed gaze.

to have a look at взглянуть, е.g. Have a look at this photo, do you recognize the man?

Note: The English for взгляд = точка зрения is idea, opinion, (point of) view, е.g. I don't know his point of view оn (views on, idea(s) of, opinion of) this subject.

2. выражение, е.g. A took of pleasure came to her face. There was an angry look in her eyes,

2. to differ υi i. различаться, отличаться (from smb. or smth. in smth.), е.g. The two brothers differ in their tastes. His plan differs from all the others.; 2. не соглашаться, расходиться во взглядах (from/with smb. in smth.), е.g. I differ from (with) you in this matter.

Ant. agree (with smb.; to smth.), е.g. Let's agree to differ (пусть каждый останется при своем мнении).

different adj 1. непохожий, не такой, отличный от (from), е.g. Не is quite different from what I thought him to be. I want a different kind of book this time (but I prefer books of a different kind). Our views on life are different.

Ant. alike, е.g. Our tastes are alike.

Note: Don't confuse the words different and another which may be translated by the same Russian word другой; е.g. I want another (другой = еще один) piece of cake. I want a different (другой = другого copra, вида и т. д.) piece of cake. Let's try another (еще один) variant Let's by a different (иного рода) variant.

2. разный, различный, е.g. A department store sells many different things. Every day our students get different written assignments.

difference n разница, различие, е.g. The difference between our views is not very great. I don't find much difference in the styles of these writers.

to make some (no, not much) difference (to smb.), е.g. It won't make much difference whether we do it today or tomorrow. You may stay or leave, it makes no difference to me.

3. rest υ i/t 1. отдыхать, лежать, спать; давать отдых, е.g. Не rested for an hour before going on with his work. She likes to rest after dinner. They stopped to rest their horses.

2. опираться, покоиться, держаться на чём-n., е.g. The roof rests on eight columns. There is always a cloud resting on the top of this mountain.

3. оставаться (лежать); класть, прислонять, е.g. Her fingers touched his forehead and rested there. She sat with her elbows resting on the table.

Note: The Russian word оставаться has several English equivalents, е.g. Пусть все остается как есть. Let the matter rest. Я не хочу здесь оставаться. I don't want to stay here. У нас осталось только 5 рублей. Only 5 roubles are left Все остается без изменений Everything remains without any changes.

rest n покой, отдых, сон, е.g. Rest is necessary after work. I had a good night's rest. We had several rests on our way up the mountains. But: Он отдыхал на юге. Не spent his holiday in the South.

rest n (always with def. article) остаток, остальное, остальная часть чего-л.

the rest of (the time, the books, etc.), е.g. Have you written all the exercises? — No, only half of them. The rest (of the exercises) may be done orally. Only five of us were present at the lesson, the rest (of the group) went to the meeting. I'll take an apple and you may take the rest.

4. comfortable adj 1. удобный; комфортабельный; уютный, е.g. a comfortable chair, room, bed, house; comfortable shoes, etc.; 2. predic разг. довольный, спокойный, чувствующий себя удобно, е.g. I'm sure you'll be very comfortable there.

to make oneself comfortable, е.g. Mr. Murdoch made himself comfortable in a chair and ordered a strong black coffee.

Ant. uncomfortable

comfort n 1. утешение, поддержка, е.g. The news brought comfort to all of us. He was a great comfort to his parents.; 2. успокоение, покой, отдых, е.g. to be fond of comfort, to live in comfort

Ant. discomfort

comfort υt утешать, успокаивать

comforting adj утешительный, успокоительный, е.g. comforting words.

Note: convenient adj means suitable, handy, serving to avoid trouble or difficulty; е.g. convenient time, method, tool, place, etc. Will this bus be convenient to/for you? Let's arrange a convenient time and place for the conference.

Ant. inconvenient

convenience n 1. удобство (the quality of being convenient or suitable), е.g. at your earliest convenience; for convenience; 2. (pl.) удобства (device, arrangement, etc. that is useful or convenient, е.g. central heating, hot water supply), е.g. The house has all modern conveniences. Ant. inconvenience

5. to run (ran, run) υi/t 1. бежать, бегать, е.g. 1 ran all the way for fear of being late. As soon as we fired, the enemy ran.

2. ходить, плыть, курсировать (о трамваях, автобусах и пр.), е.g. Trams run on rails. Motor cars ran along ordinary roads. The buses run every five minutes.

3. течь, литься, е.g. Torrents of water ran down the streets. Rivers run into the sea. Don't you hear the water running in the kitchen? If you have a bad cold, your nose runs.

4. тянуться, е.g. For several miles the road ran across a plain.

Note: For the Russian тянуться = простираться the verb stretch is used, е.g. The forest stretched to the South for many miles.

5. гласить, рассказывать, говорить(ся), е.g. So the story runs. The story runs ....

to run into smb. случайно встретиться с кем-n.; to run into smth. натолкнуться на что-л., е.g. Our car ran into the bus. I ran into a friend of mine on my way-home.; to run across smb./smth. случайно встретить (натолкнуться на что-л.), е.g. The other day I ran across a very interesting article in the newspaper.: to run over smb. переехать, задавить кого-л., also: to be run over (by a car), е.g. But for the skill of the driver the man would have been run over by the bus.

runner n бегун

6. join υt/i 1. соединять(ся), объединяться), е.g. I couldn't join (together) the two halves of the vase, because a small piece was missing. Where do the two streams join (each other)?

Syn. unite

N о t e: to join usu. means "to put two things together", е.g. The island was joined to the mainland with a bridge.; to unite usu. means "to join together (by a common aim or bond) several objects so as to form one new unit", е.g. We united all our forces to drive the enemy out of our country. Workers of the world, unite! The United Nations Organization (UNO) was formed in 1945 in San Francisco.

2. присоединяться (к), е.g. Will you join me in my walk? We'll join you in a few minutes.

3. входить в компанию, вступать в члены, е.g. If I were you I should join this club. He was twenty-two when he joined the array.

7. depend υi 1. зависеть от (on/upon smb. for smth.), е.g. We depend on the newspapers for information about world events. He depends on his sister for a living. Children usually depend on their parents (находятся на иждивении родителей).; 2. полагаться, рассчитывать на кого-л., что-л., е.g. You can depend upon the man. I depend on you to do it. Can I depend on this time-table or is it an old one?

It (all) depends как сказать; в зависимости от обстоятельств, е.g. Will you finish your work on time? — It depends.

NOTES ON SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS

1. Synonyms are words expressing the same notion, but differing by certain additional characteristics. E.g. to look, to stare and to gaze express the same notion of turning one's eyes on something or somebody, but stare and gaze differ by their emotional colourings (see item 1 of Vocabulary Notes) whereas look describes the notion generally, without any additional characteristics. Such a general word in the group of synonyms is called the synonymic dominant.

To glance is another synonym of this group which differs from the rest of them by duration: it means looking at something briefly, passingly, a moment only.

2. Antonyms are words with contrasted meanings. E. g. different — alike; convenient — inconvenient; love — hate; up — down.

ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (I)

Words

chorus n, υ     differ υ    join υ

comfort n, υ    difference n    look n, υ

comfortable adj    different adj    rest n, υ

convenience n    gaze n, υ    run υ

convenient adj    headmistress n   stare n, υ

depend υ          unite υ

Word Combinations

to fix one's eyes on/upon smb.    to keep an eye on smb.

to feel helpless      to give (send) a message  

to give a smile (a nod, a look, etc.)   to turn one's eyes (gaze)

to bear (to have) a strong     upon smb./smth.

   resemblance to      to run across

to motion to smb.      to run into

to give out (pencils, leaflets, readers,  to run over

workcards, sets of material, etc.)   to shout smb. down

 to call the register (the roll)    to abandon hope   

EXERCISES

I. Read the test and talk on the following points (A. Grammar, B. Word usage):

A. 1. Why is the Present Perfect used in "... as soon as you've called the register"? 2. Why is the Past Perfect Continuous used in "... who had been crossing and uncrossing his eyes in an ugly manner ..."? 3. Why is the Present Indefinite used in "... till you join us"? and in "If there's anything that puzzles you ..."? 4. Tick off all the sentences with the oblique moods. Translate them.

B. Pick out all the words and phrases describing the children's actions.

II. Read the following words with silent t, p, gh. Memorize them:

hasten, fasten, listen, Christmas, castle, whistle, jostle, nestle, wrestle; cupboard, pneumonia, psychology, raspberry; neighbour, nightingale, straight, naughty, high, height, through, sigh.

III. a) Write the Past Indefinite and Past Participle of the verbs:

grow, creep, bear, break, keep, think, leap, mean, fall, find, feel, say, cling, hear, meet, run, show;

b) the Past Indefinite and Present Participle of the verbs:

differ, prefer, murmur, appear, occur, recover, remember, chatter, refer, stir, water, fear, offer, drag, wag, plan, chat, slip, beg.

IV. Find nouns related to the verbs below. Pay special attention to the spelling of the suffix -ence/-ance. Place them in two columns:

depend, differ, exist, accept, resemble, attend, perform, insist, occur.

V. What nouns are these adjectives derived from? What is the meaning of the suffixes -еd, -у? Translate the adjectives:

a) freckled, nosed, haired, winged, homed, bearded, feathered;

b) watery, skinny, grassy, silky, bony, branchy, wavy, stony.

VI. Answer these questions:

1. How was Anne introduced to her class? 2. What did she feel at that moment? What words does the author choose to describe her feelings? 3. What instructions did the headmistress give to the young teacher? What do you think of them? 4. Why did Anne "look with fresh interest at Arnold?" Describe Arnold's appearance and behaviour. 5. How did the other children behave in Miss Enderby's presence? (Find words describing their behaviour.) 6. Why do you think "there came a faint sigh of relief" after Miss Enderby left the classroom? Describe the children's behaviour after she left. 7. What advice given her at college did Anne remember? Did she follow the advice? What was the result? Why did the children behave like that? 8. How did Anne restore the order? Do you think it was the only way out? 9. Comment on the words: "Anne's self-esteem crept back".

VII. Comment on the meaning of the prepositions for, in, with in the sentences below:

A. 1. ... you are very, very lucky this term to have Miss Lacey for your new teacher. 2. They chose him for their leader. 3. Must you have George for a master — here, and our mother for a school-mistress? 4. I still want you for my wife.

B. 1. "Perhaps you could say 'Good morning' to your new teacher?" suggested Miss Enderby in an imperative tone. 2. "Good morning, children," responded Anne in a voice which bore no resemblance to her own. 3. They conversed in a whisper.

C. 1. They gazed back in some bewilderment. 2. If a man is in grief, who cheers him; in trouble, who consoles him; in wrath, who soothes him; in joy, who makes him double happy; in prosperity, who rejoices; in disgrace, who backs him against the world? Who but woman?

D. 1. Anne looked with fresh interest at Arnold. 2. Anne watched this change with some dismay. 3. With a nervous start Anne hastened forward to the door. 4. She remembered with sudden relief some advice given her at college in just such a situation,

E. 1. ... someone yelped with pain. 2. His voice trembled with horror. 3. He was dying with hunger. 4. The boys were speechless with fear. 5. Ruth's eyes were wide with wonder.

VIII. Form adjectives and nouns from the given words with the help of the prefixes an-, in-, mis-, dis-:

convenient, convenience; comfort, comfortable; dependent, dependence; different, difference; able, capable; important; experienced; obedient; understanding; honesty.

IX. a) Fill in prepositions where necessary:

Can you remember your first day... school? It was probably rather confusing. I am sure you ran ... your mother thinking she was deserting you. When the child goes ... school... his first day, he has to watch ... his mother leaving. The teacher must convince him that... the end ... the day his mother and his home will still be there. It is difficult to make the newcomer join ... a game or a walk. A new life, completely different ... what he is used ... begins.

The mothers are as upset as their children. They hang...... their eyes fixed ... their children and dislike leaving them ... their fate.

The best way to deal... the situation is to get the child used ... the idea... school, to help him ... every way. Much depends ... the parents. ... the beginning ... the term the mother should take her child to see the teacher and to look ... the school. The first day should be something to look......and not to be feared.

b) Retell what you've read.

c) What measures would you suggest to settle the newcomers?

X. Study Vocabulary Notes, translate the illustrative sentences into Russian and write your own sentences with the new words and phrases.

XI. Use stare or gaze instead of look where possible:

1. It's impolite to look at people like that. 2. A big crowd stood on the pavement looking at a broken car. 3. No wonder people stand looking at this picture for hours: it's beautiful. 4. The little boys stood looking at each other ready to start a fight. 5. Look at her: again she is looking out of the window with that strange expression of hers. 6. When I looked at her eyes I guessed that she had cried. 7. The Greek myth runs that Narcissus looked at his own reflection in the water until he fell in love with it. 8. He stood looking around as if he tried to impress on his memory everything he saw.

XII. Fill in

a) look or seem:

1. The weather ... quite warm though it's only 5°C above zero. 2. The children ... tired but they... greatly pleased with the trip, don't they? 3. The host and the hostess ... a bit oldfashioned, but they ... to be hospitable and friendly. 4. She ... to be very light-minded, but she only... it, in fact she is a very serious and hard-working student. 5. My brother says that people usually ... what they are and I believe that people are very often quite different from what they... to be.

b) another or different.

1. The teacher tried to explain the rule in a ... way and I understood it at once. 2. The schoolboy returned the book he had read and asked for... book, but of a... kind, he said, as he wanted to have a rest from detective stories. 3. I asked for a pair of shoes of a... kind, but the shop-girl said that the rest of the shoes were not my size.

с) stretch or run:

1. A small stream ... along the road. 2. These steppes ... to the South for miles and miles. 3. The path ... across the field for a mile and then was lost in the forest. 4. No matter how hard I looked I saw only a vast plain... before me. 5. The ugly scar (шрам) ... right across the man's left cheek. 6. For how many kilometers does this forest...?

d) comfortable or convenient

1. I like to sleep on a camp-bed, I find it very .... 2. I believe Friday the only ... day for our meeting, we have only four lectures on that day. 3. Though the flat was rather .... warm, light and cosy, it was not... for our work as it was rather small. 4. These shoes are very... for wear in wet weather as they have rubber soles.

e) join or unite:

1. The two streams ... at the foot of the mountain. 2. ... we stand, divided we fall. 3. One by one the children ... in the game. 4. The partisans’ detachment... the regular army and the enemy lost the battle against their ... forces. 5. All peace-loving people should ... in their straggle against a new war. 6. Won't you... me in a walk?

ХIII. Paraphrase the following:

1. It is of no importance. 2. Rivers flow into the sea. 3. You can't rely on him. 4. Make yourself at home 5. French is unlike English in having far more verbal inflexions. 6. He seems to be ill. 7. Connect these points with a line. 8. This street stretches east and west. 9. He refused to live at the expense of his parents. 10. I disagree with you. 11. I'll drive the car into the garage. 12. Will you come with us? 13. I met him by chance in London last week. 14. Listen to me, Tom! 15. This tool is easy to use. 16. These are not the same people with the same name. 17. Why is Jane silent?

XIV. Translate these sentences into Russian. Write your own sentences with the new words and phrases:

1. He looked about the room and caught sight of the case containing the jewels which had been carelessly left open on the table. 2. The difference was curious between her intense expectation of the previous day and her present indifference. 3. United we stand, divided we fall. 4. My father reminded me that I was entirely dependent upon him. 5. The many men he ran across, belonging to a different world, had filled him perhaps with admiration and envy. 6. I'm always doing things on the spur of the moment — to my own inconvenience and other people's. 7. It made him uncomfortable to alter his plans and think out something new. 8. He was angry with Norah because she had not let the matter rest.

XV. Retell the text: a) in indirect speech; b) as if you were Anne.

XVI. Write: a) a letter from Anne to a friend of hers about her first experience at school, b) an answer of a friend of Anne's to this letter.

XVII. Make up dialogues based upon the text between: a) Anne and a friend of hers, a young teacher discussing their first lessons; b) Anne and Miss Enderby discussing the problem of discipline in class; c) Anne and her college teacher discussing situations like that described in the text.

XVIII. Miss Barrett, a young teacher from Bel Kaufman's 'Up the Down Staircase', once "had an epidemic of unprepared students". Study the reasons they gave for neglecting to do their homework. What other reasons could they have given? Elect one student to play the part of the teacher who should respond in each case. Role-play the whole situation.

Why I Didn't Do My Homework

— I know homework is essential to our well-being, and I did it but I got into a fight with some kid on our way to school and he threw it in the gutter.

— My dog chewed it.

— I didn't know we were supposed to do it.

— I fell asleep on the subway because I stayed up all night doing my homework, so when it stopped at my station I ran through the door not to be late and left it on the seat on the subway.

— I did it but left it home by mistake.

— The baby spilled milk on it.

— My brother took "my" homework instead of "his".

— The page was missing from my book.

— I lost my book and just found it.

— There's no room in my house now my uncle moved in and I have to sleep in the hall and couldn't use the kitchen table.

— Someone stole it.

— What homework?

XIX. Translate the following putting it in your own words. Comment on what yon have read:

... Детей нет — есть люди, но с иным масштабом понятий, с иным запасом опыта, иными влечениями, иной игрой чувств. Помни, что мы их не знаем...

Все современное воспитание направлено на то, чтобы ребенок был удобен, последовательно, шаг за шагом, стремится усыпить, подавить, истребить все, что является волей и свободой ребенка, стойкостью его духа, силой его требований.

Вежлив, послушен, хорош, удобен, а и мысли нет о том, что будет внутренне безволен н жизненно немощен....

Обратили ли вы внимание, как часто, когда раздается в передней звонок, вы слышите просьбу:

— Я отворю?

Во-первых, замок у входных дверей трудный, во-вторых, чувство, что там, за дверью, стоит взрослый, который сам не может сладить и ждет, когда ты, маленький, поможешь...

Вот какие небольшие победы празднует ребенок, уже грезящий о дальних путешествиях, в мечтах он — Робинзон на безлюдном острове, а в действительности рад-радехонек, когда позволят выглянуть в окошко.    (Януш Корчак. Как любить детей.)

XX. Arrange a talk on the following topics

1. Difficulties awaiting young teachers.

2. Reasons for children's being unmanageable.

3. How to direct a child's energy into the right channels.

4. Ideal upbringing.

XXI. Translate these sentences:

1. Я огляделась вокруг и увидела, что в поселке (village) не осталось ни одного деревянного дома. 2. Старый доктор остался тем же добрым, искренним человеком, каким (that) мы знали его с детства. 3. Остается по крайней мере месяц до нашего отъезда, но мы уже с нетерпением ждем отпуска и строим разные планы на лето. 4. Дай мне знать, если ты решишь остаться у своей тети на остальную часть каникул, я тогда присоединюсь к тебе. 5. Остается одно: попросить эту старушку присмотреть за детьми. 6. Послушай, я подмету пол и помою посуду, а ты сделаешь все остальное, ладно? — Хорошо. 7. Несколько человек остались на волейбольной площадке, а остальные игроки пошли в бассейн поплавать. 8. Вы ищете ваше пальто? Оно осталось в саду. Разрешите, я его принесу (fetch it).

XXII. Try your hand at teaching.

1. The situation gives below could cause difficulties for the teacher. Describe how you would handle the situation in the teacher's position. Decide amongst your group which is the most practical solution;

Bill, a fourth former, was always telling the class about his dog Timber, the tricks he could perform, what a wonderful watch-dog he was and how Timber would protect Bill. Each week he would come to school and tell about the wonders of Timber.

As it turned out, Bill did not own a dog and none of his relatives or close friends had such a dog.

2. Learn to use alternative ways of controlling the class, using polite requests rather than direct commands.

Notice:

a) The following forms express annoyance and irritation.

— Do try to work on your own.

— Just speak up a little!

b) You can make your commands sound more polite by using either a low rising tone or words, phrases and structures like "please; I'm afraid; I think; perhaps; don't you think; I (don't) want you to...; I (don't) expect you to...; would you like; would you, please; ..., will you; ..., could you; what if...; let's/let's not."

Assignments:

1. Practise giving instructions to pupils in a polite manner, use the phrases below:

go on to the next exercise, carry on (proceed) reading, repeat what you said, copy this off the board, work in twos  (threes), share the textbook, try the next item, practise the irregular verbs, listen carefully to what I say, etc.

2. Take it in turns to play the part of the teacher beginning and finishing the lesson. Make sure that you don't sound too straightforward. (See "Classroom English", Sections II and III.)

LABORATORY EXERCISES (I)

1. Listen to the text "Anne Meets Her Class", mark the stresses and tunes, repeat the text following the model.

2. Respond as shown in the models, check your replies.

3. Combine the sentences into one conditional sentence.

4. Write a spelling-translation test:

a) Translate the given phrases into English.

b) Check them with the key.

5. Answer the questions using the phrases "to like the idea/dislike the idea".

6. Translate the given sentences into English. Check your sentences with the key.

7. Listen to the Jokes connected with school life. Get ready to retell them in indirect speech.

TOPIC: CHOOSING А CAREES

TEXT A.   WHAT'S YOUR LINE?

School! Lessons, games, clubs, homework. A bell rings. You go to a classroom. A bell rings. You have lunch. A bell rings. You go home.

But one day you go to school for the last time. What to do after that? You realize that the time to choose one job out of the hundreds has come. It's going to be a hard choice and nobody can make it for you.

Before you can choose, you ask yourself quite a lot of questions. What do you know you are good at? What do you enjoy doing? Perhaps you enjoy working with your hands. Or you may prefer using your head — your brains. Are you interested in machines? Or do you like meeting people? It's difficult to know all the answers to these questions until you have left school and actually begun work.

Many young people consider teaching as a career. It's not surprising: after your parents your teacher may be the most important person in your life. With all the teachers you meet, you think there isn't anything you don't know about the work. That's where you are wrong, since only those who are in it can appreciate it. Have you ever asked yourself why most teachers are so devoted to their work and privately think, though they may not like to admit it openly, that they serve humanity doing the most vital job of all? Those of us who spend our days in schools know how rewarding the job is. At the same time it is not easy and a real challenge to your character, abilities and talent, as teaching is a constant stream of decisions.

Children in your classroom aren't just boys and girls. Every one is a unique individual who has never been before and will never again exist. If you like people, you will love teaching. To be a good teacher you must be genuinely interested in what you are doing.

The most important things in the world are awareness and learning — wanting to know every day of your life more and more and more. Because every time you learn something new you become something new. An ignorant teacher teaches ignorance, a fearful teacher teaches fear, a bored teacher teaches boredom. But a good teacher catalyzes in his pupils the burning desire to know and love for the truth and beauty.

John Steinbeck, writing about his school days said, "I've come to believe that a great teacher is a great artist and you know how few great artists there are in the world. Teaching might even be the greatest of the arts since its medium is the human mind and the human spirit." What an incredible responsibility to be the guardians of the human spirit and the human mind! I think, that is the reason why humanity has the deepest respect for teachers.

I would never stop teaching and I'm sure that you, having chosen it for your career, feel the same way. If you don't feel that way then, please, for all our sakes, get out! The human mind and the human spirit are too wondrous to destroy. But if you are prepared to accept the responsibility, I wish you all the luck in the world.

A Teacher

TEXT B. CHOOSING IS NOT SO EASY AS IT LOOKS

Jane: Hallo, Bob!

Bob: Hallo!

Jane: Oh, you've just left college, haven't you?

Bob: Yes.

Jane: What are you going to do?

Bob: Er... well, it looks like a choice between teaching or going into an office and... I think I'd much prefer to go in for teaching, because... well you get long holidays.

Jane: But, Bob, wouldn't you get bored with the same routine year after year teaching... teaching the same material to the children. And... a sense o! responsibility you need — all those children, all those parents.

Вob: Oh, look, it wouldn't be as boring as... as working in an office. Teaching is terribly stimulating. It's ... new every day — I'm sure I'd enjoy it.

Jane: But I mean, there's so much variety in office work! Look at my job: I'm dealing with people and their problems, there're new situations to cope with all the time.

Bob: Yes, that's quite true, but I think there's a number of differences between teaching and office work and, well, I think I'll go in for teaching because... it really attracts me.

(From J. Jones "Functions of English". Cam., 1981)

Memory Work

Autumn Flies

In the other gardens

And all up the vale,

From the autumn bonfires

See the smoke trail!

Pleasant summer over

And all the summer flowers,

The red fires blaze,

The grey smoke towers.

Sing a song of seasons!

Something bright in all!

Flowers in the summer,

Fires in the fall!  (R. L. Stevenson)

ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (II)

Words

appreciate υ   genuinely adv   responsibility n

career n    job n     responsible adj

challenge n    profession n    vital adj

choice n    reliable adj    vocation n

educate υ    respect υ    work n, υ

Word Combinations

to make/take a (careful) choice    rewarding/stimulating work

to have no choice      to be devoted to smth. or smb.

to be interested in      to be responsible for smth.

to leave/finish school     to take/accept responsibility

school leaver      to have/need a sense of res-

to consider teaching (medicine,    ponsibliliry

etc.) as a career     to cope with smth.

to take up a carrer/a job     to earn/enjoy gratitude

to go in for teaching      and respect

to be in teaching (medicine,    to have (no) respect for

       banking, etc.)      smb. or smth.

to be in/out of one's line     love of smth./for smb.

Note: The nouns "work, job, profession, career, vocation" have more or less the same meaning. Nevertheless there is a certain diffеrence in their semantics and usage.

"Work" has the most general meaning and can be applied to anything one has to do in the way of making a living. "Job" is close to it in its meaning but tends to denote less prestigious work. Apart from that the word "job" can also denote a position in employment, in which case the difference between the words "work" and "job" is quite obvious (е.g. I'm very fond of шу job, even though it means doing a lot of work). "Profession" is work which requires advanced education and special training. Traditionally it's applied to law, medicine, architecture and military career. The word "career" itself means either a course of progress in the life of a person or has the same meaning as the word "work" and is mostly used when speaking of the choice of work. The word "vocation" means the kind of work to which a man is led by natural talents (compare with the word "calling"). It's a learned word and is seldom used in everyday speech.

Remember that thе word "work" in the meaning mentioned above is uncountable and shouldn't be used with the indefinite article or in the plural.

In contrast to it the word "job" is countable and can be used with the indefinite article.

EXERCISES

I. a) Transcribe and learn to read the following words:

machines, appreciate, humanity, vital, challenge, individual, awareness, ignorance, fearful, boredom, medium, accept, routine, stimulating, variety.

b) Study Texts A and В and explain the meaning of the words and word combinations listed below:

think privately, the most vital job, a rewarding, job, a challenge to your character, an ignorant teacher, a guardian, the same routine, stimulating work, to go in for teaching

II. a) Write English equivalents of the following words and phrases. Use them in sentences of your own:

сделать выбор, иметь призвание (способности) к чему-л., интересоваться чем-то, подумать о профессии учителя, оценить, быть преданным своей работе, служить людям, жгучее стремление к знаниям, уважение к кому-л.

b) Find in Text A synonyms to the following words and word combinations:

to do well in smth., in fact, because, faithful, confess, gratifying, sincerely, knowledge, to ruin.

III. a) Enlarge upon the following topics:

1. After your parents your teacher may be the most important person in your life. 2. Teaching is not easy and a real challenge to your character, abilities and talent. 3. To be a good teacher you must be genuinely interested in what you are doing. 4. Teaching is a constant stream of decisions. 5. Every time you learn something new you become something new.

P r o m p t s: there's one more thing to be noted, moreover, what's more..., I might as well add that..., in addition, on top of that..., something else I'd like to say is..., talking of....

b) Comment on the quotation from John Steinbeck, say if you share his opinion. Do you also think that teaching equals art? Why do you think that! Find more quotations concerned with teachers and teaching, comment on them.

c) Continue the text on the part of the teacher. You may find the following ideas useful:

A good teacher is one who learns all the time, from life, from colleagues, from children; a professional teacher integrates theory and practice; this sort of work demands great patience; there are many skills necessary for good teaching.

d) Prepare a 3-minute talk on one of the great teachers of the past or today, give reasons for your choice.

IV. a) Act out the dialogue "Choosing is not so easy as it looks".

b) Role-play a talk between an intending teacher and a will-be journalist on differences and similarities of the careers they've chosen. Use Text В and Essential Vocabulary П.

V. Speak about:

1. possible change in the system of secondary education in Russia.

P r o m p t s: universal compulsory education, to extend the training course, to improve the educational process, to modernize programmes and manuals, to use up-to-date technical equipment, to provide optional training in various subjects.

2. an ideal school as you see it.

VI. Bead the jokes below. See how the verbs learn and study are used in the context. Consult a dictionary and find out the difference in their meaning and usage. Retell the jokes in indirect speech:

1. A young teacher just beginning his career asks advice of an older member of the faculty: "What have you learned in your years of experience?"

"I've learned one thing. Often you will find while you are giving a lesson in class that there is one young upstart who always disagrees with you. Tell me, would you stop him and try to make him shut up right then and there?"

"I suppose I would."

"Well, don't. He's probably the only one who is listening to you."

2. A high-school girl seated next to a famous astronomer at a dinner party struck up a conversation asking, "What do you do in life?"

He replied, "I study astronomy."

"Dear me," said the young miss, "I finished astronomy last year."

VII. Translate the sentences using the words learn and study in their different meanings:

1. В молодости он изучал химию в университете. 2. Дети легко учат иностранные языки. 3. Я очень огорчился, когда узнал, что не сдал экзамен. 4. Весь вечер он занимался в своей комнате. 5. Изучите эту информацию очень внимательно- она поможет вам сделать правильный выбор. 6. Моя сестра учится, чтобы стать юристом. 7. К сожалению, он так и не научился читать и писать. 8. Вам еще предстоит научиться, как справляться с трудными проблемами на уроках.

VIII. Comment on the given proverbs. Make np a situation centered round one of them:

1. Better unborn than untaught.

2. Like teacher, like pupil.

3. A little knowledge is a dangerous thing.

IX. a) Fill in prepositions and adverbs where necessary:

Dialogue

Bob: What are you going to take... as a career?

John: Architecture. Actually, I've already started. I began my studies ... last October.

Bob: What are you going to do when you finish?

John: Oh, I shall go back ... home and practise ... my native town. There's a lot of useful work to be done there — building schools, hospitals, homes ... the people.

Bob: What made you decide to take ... architecture as a career?

John: Well. I was good ... Maths and Art... school and I think I had a certain feeling ... design. My teacher encouraged ... me and said I had a bent... architecture.

Воb: I find that some young people fail to take ... a career because they're not sure what they want to do and what career opportunities there are.

John: Yes, that's true. But usually your personal qualities show......school, don't they? Teachers guide and encourage ... the young to take ... the careers ... which they're best suited.

b) Tell your friends how John chose his career.

c) Make up your own dialogues on choosing a career. Use the word combinations in bold type in them.

X. a) Read the following:

Caring teachers take an active part in defending peace and in solving other social problems, such as straggling for better living conditions and a happier future for their pupils. Their demands are well grounded since millions of boys and girls throughout the world are being deprived of a happy childhood.

b) Support the idea with information from Russian and/or foreign press. Pay special attention to the situation in the USA and Great Britain.

c) Speak on:

1. your idea of a happy childhood;

2. the problem of deprived children in Russia and abroad.

XI. Here is a series of extreme opinions. Build a conversation about each topic. Begin as in the model:

English is a very easy language to learn.

A.: It says here English is a very easy language to learn.

В.: I'm not sure I quite agree. I'd say it's fairly difficult.

A.: Why do you think that?

В.: Well, ...

Opinions:

1. A teaching career isn't suitable for men.

2. Teaching a foreign language in a school is pointless.

3. Education is the responsibility of teachers and parents shouldn't interfere.

4. Schoolchildren should be allowed to choose the subjects they want to study.

5. In the near, future schoolteachers will be replaced by computers.

XII. Translate the sentences below into English. Use Essential Vocabulary II:

1. Любовь к детям заставила его стать учителем, и он никогда не жалел о своем выборе. 2. Похоже, придется выбирать между работой в детском саду и учебой в пединституте. 3. В моей работе нет большого разнообразия, но у нее есть свои достоинства. 4. Боюсь, что в этот раз школьникам нелегко будет справиться с заданием. 5. Успехи учеников в большой степени зависят от их учителя и его профессионального мастерства. 6. Работа в школе потребует от вас ума, такта и чувства ответственности. 7. Уважение людей можно заслужить только честным трудом. 8. Не каждый, кто получает профессию учителя в Великобритании, может найти себе работу. 9. Я работаю учителем уже много лет и могу сказать, что не смог бы найти более благородного труда. 10. Мой друг выбрал себе профессию врача, еще когда учился в школе. Он всегда был уверен, что эта работа самая важная на свете. 11. Любовь к музыке и интерес к педагогике (theory of education) заставили меня подумать о профессии учителя музыки. 12. Часто выпускникам школ бывает трудно решить, какую профессию выбрать. В этом случае учителя и родители могут помочь им сделать правильный выбор университета.

ХIII. Role-piaying. a) Act out in pain the following situations; use Essential Vocabulary II:

1. Mike's father has been asked by the headmaster to come to school because of his son's unusual behaviour: bad marks, lots of missed classes, rude behaviour. Discuss the causes of his behaviour and steps to be taken.

2. Next year George and Nick are going to take entrance examinations at the University. Imagine a talk between them about their plans and the reasons that have determined then choice.

3. Mother and daughter have a very serious talk about the girl's decision to take up teaching as a career. Her mother, though, is rather sceptical about her choice.

4. Imagine a talk between two friends, one of whom is fed up with his or her present boring, unrewarding job. The other tries to suggest what he or she should do.

Prompts: might it be an idea to ...; have you ever thought of...; you could always ...; if I were you, I'd ...; why don't you .,.; you'd better ...

b) Role-play the following situation:

You are at a Parent-Teachers association meeting. You are discussing a problem you feel very strongly about Among you there is a mother who's sure that children shouldn't be strictly disciplined at school, a father who has the opposite opinion, a father who tends to blame teachers for his children's faults, a grandmother who tends to spoil her grandchildren, a mother who gives other parents advice for the only reason that her daughter is at the head of the class.

XIV. Pick one of these topics and discuss it, making sure each member of the group gets a chance to speak;

1. How to encourage a child to make better progress at school? Should parents use; praise, presents, promises of future rewards?

2. Should a child be punished? If not, how to make children obey?

3. Should children be allowed to wear clothes of their own at school? Should boys be allowed to have long hair, and girls to use make-up?

4. How can parents help teachers with out-of-school activities?

5. Should parents insist on their children doing equally well in all the subjects or should they encourage their sons and daughters to specialise in one or two subjects essential for their future career?

XV. a) Read and translate the text:

My Memories and Miseries As a Schoolmaster

The parents of the boys at school naturally fill a broad page in a schoolmaster's life and are responsible for many of his sorrows. There are all kinds and classes of them. Most acceptable to the schoolmaster is the old-fashioned type of British father who enters' his boy at the school and says:

"Now I want this boy well thrashed if he doesn't behave himself. If you have any trouble with him let me know and I'll come and thrash him myself. He's to have a shilling a week pocket money and if he spends more than that let me know and I'll stop his money altogether."

Brutal though his speech sounds, the real effect of it is to create a strong prejudice in the little boy's favour, and when his father curtly says, "Good-bye, Jack" and he answers, "Good-bye, father," in a trembling voice, the schoolmaster would be a hound, indeed, who could be unkind to him.

But very different is the case of the up-to-date parent. "Now I've just given Jimmy five pounds," he says to the schoolmaster, in the same tone as he would use to an inferior clerk in his office, "and I've explained to him that when he wants any more he's to tell you to go to the bank and draw for him what he needs." After which he goes on. to explain that Jimmy is a boy of very peculiar disposition, requiring the greatest nicety of treatment; that they find if he gets in tempers the best way is to humour him and presently he'll come round. Jimmy, it appears, can be led, if led gently, but never driven.

During all of which time the schoolmaster, insulted by being treated as an underling, has already fixed his eye on the undisciplined young pup called Jimmy with a view of trying out the problem of seeing whether he can't be driven after all.    (From "College Days" by S. Leacock)

b) Answer the questions below:

1. How does the author characterize two opposite types of "British father"? 2. Why, in Leacock's view, the "old-fashioned" type is more acceptable for a schoolmaster? Would you prefer to have Jack or Jimmy for a pupil? 3. How did the acquaintance with the fathers influence the schoolmaster's attitude to the boys? Do you find it natural? 4. Do you think the problems raised in the text are outdated? Justify your answer. 5. In what way should teachers and parents cooperate in educating the child?

XVI. Act as an interviewer. Let the rest of the group speak about why and how they decided to qualify as a teacher of languages. Find out:

1. if anybody or anything influenced their choice;

2. when they finally made up their minds;

3. what attracts them in the work;

4. what they consider its advantages and disadvantages.

XVII. Interview a teacher at the school where you have school practice. Ask him or her the questions from Exercise XVI and also try to find out:

1. how long he or she has been in teaching;

2. if he or she ever regretted having taken up the job;

3. what is the most notable feature of teaching;

4. what advice he or she can give to a teacher trainee.

Discuss the interviews in class.

XVIII. Comment on the picture. You may find these phrases useful:

a Teacher-Parent Association meeting; to keep discipline in the classroom; to use traditional (new) methods; to be in the habit of giving orders; to be strict with the pupils: to tell the pupils off; a bossy teacher.

"I will now explain the progressive methods by which your children are taught — so keep quiet, sit up straight and don't fidget."

XIX. Film "Mr. Brown's Holiday"10. Film segment 1 "An Unexpected Turn'' (London), a) Watch and listen, b) Do the exercises from the guide to the film.11

STUDIES OF WRITTEN ENGLISH I

Clarity, interest and emphasis are marks of good writing. Good writing is also based on selection of words in a sentence, on organization of sentences in a paragraph, and on unity of a written passage. These are the main objectives of the second-year studies of written English.

Patterns of written prose. When writing you may choose to describe the facts or events, to tell a story about them, to argue about them or to explain them according to your understanding. These verbs correspond to four basic forms of treating a topic: description, narration, argumentation, and exposition (explanation).

Paragraph is a single sentence or a group of related sentences expressing and developing a basic idea, or a particular phase of thought. The paragraph is a practical device in writing. Its purpose is to indicate the beginnings and endings of a thought unit. The beginning of a paragraph is indicated by beginning a line a little in from the margin.

Here is a short paragraph describing a well-known portrait: "Mona Lisa (Gioconda) is represented sitting in front of a marble balcony. The left arm rests on the arm of the seat, and the fingers fold over the end of it. The right hand, perhaps the most perfect hand ever painted, lies lightly over the left hand and wrist. On sleeves and bodice the pleats of the satin dress take the light" (From "Leonardo de Vinci" by E. Mc. Curely)

The author presents his impressions of the portrait and describes it in detail.

Here is another example of a paragraph telling a story: "A rather dreadful thing happened in the car as they were driving up from the beach to the ancient town, once a Norman port, but now left high and dry by the receding sea." (From "The Wind" by A. Bennett)

Here is an example of a paragraph of argumentation: "I am here to say a very few words or» the whole question of the treatment of animals by our civilized selves. For I have no special knowledge, like some who will speak to you, of the training of performing animals. I have only a certain knowledge of human and animal natures; and a common sense which tells me that wild animals are more happy in freedom than in captivity — domestic animals are more happy as companions than as clowns." (From "On Performing Animals" by J. Galsworthy)

The author tries to convince the reader of his point of view: he dislikes the idea of turning domestic animals into performers in the circus.

The expository paragraph below makes it clear what politeness is: "It isn't only with acquaintances and friends that politeness counts so much. Half the trouble in marriage and other family relationships begins with the throwing of politeness overboard. Politeness is often little more than the exercise of self-control, which is as valuable a quality in friendship as kindness itself." (From "Effective English and Personal Efficiency Course")

Note: These patterns of writing seldom occur alone, more often they are joined together.

Assignments:

1. Read the text "Anne Meets her Class" and point out the paragraph» of description, narration, argumentation and exposition. What does the author like to describe in this episode? What is he telling the reader about? What argument is Anne thinking of to manage the class? What is Miss Enderby trying to explain to Anne?

2. Search Texts А, В (Р. II) for the basic forms of treating the topic "On Teaching" and prove your selection of paragraphs.

3. Write a paragraph describing the picture suggested by the teacher.

4. Write a short paragraph about your visit to a former schoolmate.

5. Write a paragraph supporting or arguing Jane's and Bob's idea about teaching. (See the Dialogue.)

LABORATORY EXERCISES (II)

1. a) Listen to the additional text "What's Your Line?" on the topic "Choosing a Carrer", mark stresses and tunes, practise reading the text.

b) listen to the dialogue and learn it by heart.

2. Respond as in the models. Check your replies.

3. Write a spelling-translation test, check it with the key.

4. Write the dictation "Five Hundred Years of English Language Teaching", check your spelling with a dictionary.

5. Translate the sentences into English, check your translation with the key.

6. a) Listen to the text and find English equivalents to the given words and word combinations.

b) Check the words and word combinations.

c) Listen to the text again and do the tasks after it.


UNIT TWO

SPEECH PATTERNS

la. It would have been natural if the boy had gone to sleep.

It would have been natural if you had punished the child for his behaviour yesterday.

It wouldn't have been so cold in the morning if the wind had stopped blowing.

It would have been strange if he hadn't called on me when he was here last summer.

It would have been quite dark in the forest if we hadn't made a good fire.

1b. The father wouldn't have called the doctor if the boy had been quite well.

Grant would have accepted Mario's invitation if he hadn't made up his plans for the summer.

Anne would have taken her spring exams if she hadn't fallen ill.

We shouldn't have made friends with them if we hadn't stayed in the same camp.

We should have finished our work yesterday if you had helped us.

1c. The boy would have behaved in a different way if he were selfish.

They wouldn't have quarrelled if they both were less nervous.

You would have improved your spelling long ago if you were more diligent.

We should have invited him to our party if we knew him better.

She wouldn't have forgiven him if she didn't love him so much.

2. He seemed to know all about influenza.

The children seem to like each other very much. You don't seem to understand me.

She seemed to know grammar much better than we thought.

They did't seem to have met before.

3. I can't keep from thinking.

Can't you keep from talking all the time? Try and keep from gossiping about other people. She couldn't keep from scolding the child, though she knew she shouldn't do it.

We can't keep from laughing when we look at him.

EXERCISES I. Change these sentences, using Patterns 1a and 1b:

Example:  We should meet a lot of tourists if we went to a tourist camp next summer.

We should have met a lot of tourists if we had gone to a tourist camp last year (last summer, when we had our holiday, etc.).

1. Mario wouldn't come to England if John didn't invite him. 2. Peter would accept your invitation if he were not ill. 3. It wouldn't be a hardship for the children to sweep and clean the rooms, would it? 4. If the weather were fine we should go to a holiday camp next summer. 5. We would live in a hotel if the rates were not very high. 6. It would be natural if they didn't meet after their quarrel. 7. My friend and I would go to the cinema after this lesson if the rest of the students agreed to go with us. 8. If the weather didn't change we should go to the country tonight.

II. Combine the fallowing sentences into one, using speech Pattern 1c:

Example:  They quarrelled. They both are very nervous.

They wouldn't have quarrelled if they both were not very nervous.

1. Bob recovered. The doctors that had treated him are very experienced. 2. Mary passed her exams. She is industrious. 3. We invited John Brown to our tea-party. We are acquainted with him. 4. I didn't leave the children alone. They are naughty. 5. She didn't agree to teach us French. She doesn't know the language well. 6. Martha understood the German delegates, she is a German. 7. I gave you this book because it's very interesting. 8. I advised my friends to have a walking tour because I myself am fond of walking tours.

III. Make up sentences after Patterns 2 and 3, using the following words and phrases:

a) Pattern 2: to be busy, to know a lot, to understand each other, to hate (smb. or smth.), to love music, е.g. Ann seems to love children, I often see her playing with little boys and girls in our yard.

b) Pattern 3: to scold each other, to argue (about smth.), to meet (with), to write a letter, to dream (of smth), е.g. She can't keep from crying when she reads sentimental poetry.

IV. Translate these sentences into English, using the patterns from Units One and Two:

1. He беспокойся, ребенок не был бы таким веселым, если бы он был серьезно болен, 2. Тебе не пошло бы, если бы ты носил бороду я усы, ты бы выглядел гораздо старше своих лет. 3. Было бы лучше, если бы они не позволяли детям смотреть телевизор так поздно. 4. Было бы естественно, если бы дети спросили меня об их новой учительнице, но никто не задал этого вопроса. 5. На твоем месте я ела бы поменьше сладкого, ты располнеешь. 6. Было бы естественно, если бы он стал ученым, ему хорошо давались точные науки в школе, но он стал актером. 7. Ты бы давно закончила этот перевод если бы не болтала по телефону. 8. Ты бы не забыла мне позвонить, если бы не была такой рассеянной.

V. Make up a dialogue, using the patterns from Units One and Two.

Example: A.: If my mother hadn't been ill 1 should have gone to the South last summer.

В.: You had bad luck. And what are your plans for the coming winter holidays?

A.: I haven't made any plans so far.

В.: Wouldn't you like to stay with me at my aunt's in the country?

A,: But would it be convenient to her?

В.: Certainly.

A.: Well, that's very nice of you to invite me.

TEXT.   A DAY'S WAIT    by Ernest Hemingway

Hemingway, Ernest (1899-1961): a prominent American novelist and short-story writer. He began to write fiction about 1923, his first books being the reflection of his war experience. "The Sun Also Rises" (1926) belongs to this period as well as "A Farewell to Arms" (1929) in which the antiwar protest is particularly powerful.

During the Civil War Hemingway visited Spain as a war correspondent. His impressions of the period and his sympathies with the Republicans found reflection in his famous play "The Fifth Column" (1937), the novel "For Whom the Bell Tolls" (1940) and a number of short stories.

His later works are "Across the River and into the Trees" (1950) and "The Old Man and the Sea" (1952) and the very last novel "Islands in the Stream" (1970) published after the author's death. In 1954 he was awarded a Nobel Prize for literature.

Hemingway's manner is characterized by deep psychological insight into the human nature. He early established himself as the master of a new style: laconic and somewhat dry.

He came into the room to shut the windows while we were still in bed and I saw he looked ill. He was shivering, his face was white, and he walked slowly as though it ached to move. "What's the matter, Schatz?"12

"I've got a headache."

"You'd better go back to bed."

"No, I'm all right."

"You go to bed. I'll see you when I'm dressed."

But when I came downstairs he was dressed, sitting by the fire, looking a very sick and miserable boy of nine years. When I put my hand on his forehead I knew he had a fever.

"You go up to bed," I said, "you're sick."

"I'm all right," he said.

When the doctor came he took the boy's temperature.

"What is it?" I asked him.

"One hundred and two."13

Downstairs, the doctor left three different medicines in different colored capsules with instructions for giving them. One was to bring down the fever, another a purgative, the third to overcome an acid condition. The germs of influenza can only exist in an acid condition, he explained. He seemed to know all about influenza and said there was nothing to worry about if the fever did not go above one hundred and four degrees. This was a light epidemic of flu and there was no danger if you avoided pneumonia.

Back in the room I wrote the boy's temperature down and made a note of the time to give the various capsules.

"Do you want me to read to you?"

"All right, if you want to," said the boy. His face was very white and there were dark areas under his eyes. He lay still in the bed and seemed very detached from what was going on.

I read aloud from Howard Pyle's14 Book of Pirates, but I could see he was not following what I was reading.

"How do you feel, Schatz?" I asked him.

"Just the same, so far," he said.

I sat at the foot of the bed and read to myself while I waited for it to be time to give another capsule. It would have been natural for him to go to sleep, but when I looked up he was looking at the foot of the bed, looking very strangely.

"Why don't you try to go to sleep? I'll wake you up for the medicine."

"I'd rather stay awake."

After a while he said to me, "You don't have to stay in here with me, Papa, if it bothers you."

"It doesn't bother me."

"No, I mean you don't have to stay if it's going to bother you."

I thought perhaps he was a little light-headed and after giving him the prescribed capsules at eleven o'clock I went out for a while.

It was a bright, cold day, the ground covered with a sleet that had frozen so that it seemed as if all the bare trees, the bushes, the cut brush and all the grass and the bare ground had been varnished with ice. I took the young Irish setter for a little walk up the road and along a frozen creek.

At the house they said the boy had refused to let any one come into the room.

"You can't come in," he said. "You mustn't get what I have." I went up to him and found him in exactly the position I had left him, white-faced, but with the tops of his cheeks flushed by the fever, staring still, as he had stared, at the foot of the bed.

I took his temperature.

"What is it?"

"Something like a hundred," I said. It was one hundred and two and four tenths.

"It was a hundred and two," he said.

"Who said so?"

"The doctor."

"Your temperature is all right," I said. "It's nothing to worry about."

"I don't worry," he said, "but I can't keep from thinking."

"Don't think," I said. "Just take it easy."

"I'm taking it easy," he said and looked worried about something.

"Take this with water."

"Do you think it will do any good?"

"Of course, it will,"

I sat down and opened the Pirate Book and commenced to read but I could see he was not following, so I stopped.

"About what time do you think I'm going to die?" he asked.

"What?"

"About how long will it be before I die?"

"You aren't going to die. What's the matter with you?"

"Oh, yes, I am. I heard him say a hundred and two."

"People don't die with a fever of one hundred and two. That's a silly way to talk!"

"I know they do. At school in France the boys told me you can't live with forty-four degrees. I've got a hundred and two."

He had been waiting to die all day, ever since nine o'clock in the morning.

"You poor Schatz," I said. "Poor old Schatz, it's like miles and kilometers. You aren't going to die. That's a diflerent thermometer. On that thermometer thirty-seven is normal. On this kind it's ninety-eight."

"Are you sure?"

"Absolutely," I said. "It's like miles and kilometers. You know, like how many kilometers we make when we do seventy miles in the car?"

"Oh," he said.

But his gaze at the foot of the bed relaxed slowly. The hold over himself relaxed too, finally, and the next day it was very slack and he cried very easily at little things that were of no importance.

VOCABULARY NOTES

1. to shiver υi дрожать, as shiver with cold

Syn. to tremble, to shudder, to start; to tremble is the most general word; shuddering/starting is generally the result of (great) fear or disgust, е.g. He seemed perfectly calm, only a slight trembling of his voice and hands showed he was excited. Keith shuddered at the sight of the dead body. The child was shivering with cold. She started when they came in.

2. ache n (a continuous, not sharp or sudden, pain). Usually used in compounds: headache, toothache, stomachache, earache, backache, е.g. I had a bad headache yesterday. Some people have (a) bad earache when the plane is losing height. But: to have a sore throat, eye, finger, etc., е.g. I can't speak loude?, I have a sore throat.

Syn. pain n to feel (have) a bad (sharp, slight) pain in ..., е.g. I feel a sharp pain in my right knee. My leg gives me much pain.; painful adj болезненный, тяжелый

Ant. painless, е.g. It was a painful (painless) operation.

to ache υ i/t болеть (чувствовать боль) — to be in continuous pain, e, g. My ear aches. After climbing the mountain he ached all over.

Cf.: hurt υt/i причинять боль, е.g. It hurts the eyes to look at the sun. My foot hurts (me) when I walk.

3. medicine n 1. лекарство, е.g. What medicine (s) do you take for your headaches? 2. медицина, e.g. He is fond of medicine, he wants to become a surgeon.

medical adj, е.g. He studies at a Medical Institute. He is a medical student. My medical knowledge leaves much to be desired. You'd better consult your surgeon.

4. condition n 1. состояние; to be in (a) good (bad) condition, е.g. After the thunderstorm our garden was in a terrible condition, quite a number of trees were broken. Every parcel arrived in good condition (nothing was broken or spoiled).; to be in no condition to do smth., е.g. He is in no condition to travel. The ship was in no condition to leave harbour, He can sing very well, but tonight he is in no condition to do it, he has a sore throat.

2. условие; under good (bad) condition(s), е.g. The unemployed live under very hard conditions.; on condition that = if, е.g. I will do it on condition that you give me the time I need.; conditional adj, е.g. Conditional sentences contain "if or its synonyms.

5. foot n (pl feet) 1. нога (ниже щиколотки, ступня), е.g. The boy jumped to his feet. A dog's feet are called paws.; 2. фут (около) 30,5 см, pl часто без изменений, е.g. The boy was too tall for his age and he was three foot two in his shoes.; 3. подножие, нижняя часть, основание, as the foot of the mountain, at the foot of the page, the foot of the bed, е.g. This boy is at the foot of his class.

Ant. top, head, as the top of the mountain, the top (head) of the page, at the head of the bed, etc. е.g. This boy is at the head of his class.

on foot (= walking, not riding), е.g. When people are having their walking holiday they cover long distances on foot. (Cf.: by train, by bus, etc.)

footnote n сноска

6. prescribe υi прописывать лекарство, е.g. Doctor, will you prescribe a tonic for me? What can you prescribe for my headache (cold, etc.) ?

prescription n рецепт; to make up a prescription for smb., е.g. Please call in at the chemist's and have this prescription made up for me; to write out a prescription.

7. bare adj 1. обнаженный, голый, непокрытый (usu. about some part of our body), е.g. His head was bare.

Syn. naked (= having no clothes on), е.g.Victorine was shocked when she learned that she would have to sit for the painter quite naked.

barefoot adj predic, adv = with bare feet, without shoes and stockings, е.g. Children like to go (run, walk) barefoot.

barefooted adj, attr. Barefooted people were standing on the bank.

bare-legged (-armed) adj = with bare legs (arms), е.g. When we speak of bare-legged children we mean children wearing shoes, but no stockings; bare-footed children wear neither shoes nor stockings.

bare-beaded, adj = without a hat, е.g. It's already too cold to go bare-headed.

2. пустой, голый, лишенный чего-л., as a bare room (with little or no furniture), bare walls (without pictures or wallpaper), bare trees (without leaves), bare facts (only facts; nothing but facts).

Cf.: a bare room (no furniture), an empty room (no people), a vacant room (a room in which either no one is living at present or no one is working; a room which can be occupied), е.g. After the piano was taken out, the room seemed quite bare. I thought I heard voices in the next room, but it was empty. "Won't you look for a vacant room in which we could have a consultation?" — "I'm told that all the rooms are occupied."

8. refuse υt/i отказывать(ся), е.g. She refused my offer. She can't refuse her children anything. He refused to do what I asked him.

N о t e: In the meaning of sacrificing smth., parting with smth., the English verb to give up is used, е.g. He gave up the idea of going there. Roger promised to give up smoking, but he didn't keep his promise.

refusal n, е.g. He answered her invitation, with a cold refusal,

9. like adj похожий, подобный, е.g. They are as like as two peas. What is he like? (= What sort of person is he?) What does he look like? ( = What kind of appearance has he got?) How does she look today? (= What is her appearrance today?) It looks like gold. (= It has the appearance of gold.) It looks like rain. It was just like him to take the biggest piece of cake. There is nothing like home.

like prep or adv подобно, как, е.g. I can't do it like you. They are behaving like little children, I've never heard him sing like that.

Note: to act like means to do smth. in the same way or in the manner of other people, е.g. She can play like a real pianist.; to act as means acting in the capacity of smb., e g. Some of our students act as guides during summer.

alike adj predic одинаковый, похожий, подобный, е.g. The houses in this street are alike. (Cf.: The houses in this street are like those in the next street.)

likeness n сходство, е.g. I cannot see much likeness between the twins.

unlike adj непохожий, е.g. She was unlike all other girls.

unlike prep в отличие от, е.g. Unlike other girls she was not at all talkative.

NOTES ON STYLE

A. The terms style, stylistic are generally used in two different meanings. In lexicology the term functional style is used which may be defined as a system of expressive means peculiar to a specific sphere of communication. Otherwise speaking, the choice of words and of modes of expression depends on the situation in which the process of communication is realized, whether it is a friendly talk, an official letter or report, a poem, a scientific article, etc. According to the situation (or the sphere of communication) we may distinguish formal (bookish, learned) and informal (colloquial) words. The former are peculiar to fiction, scientific prose, lectures, official talks; the latter are used in everyday talks with friends and relatives. One should also keep ip mind that there are a great number of words that are independent of the sphere of communication, i. e. that can be used in a lecture, in an informal talk, in a poem, etc. Such words are stylistically neutral (е.g. bread, word, book, go, takes, white, etc.).

Students should be warned against taking the term colloquial as a kind of encouragement to use words thus marked as much as possible. The term implies that the words called colloquial are limited by their sphere of usage and, if used in a wrong situation (е.g. in a student's composition, in a conversation with an official acquaintance or with one higher in authority), may produce the impression of impoliteness or even rudeness.

E. g. He is a jolly chap. = Он парень что надо, (chap n, coll.; jolly adj, coll.) The stylistically neutral way of putting it is: He is a good (fine) man.

How are the kids? = Как ваши ребята? (kid n, coll.) The stylistically neutral way How are your children?

I'm all right. = Co мной все нормально. (all right coll.) The stylistically neutral way I feel (am) quite well.

Compare:

Neutral    Colloquial    Bookish

begin    start     commence

continue    go on     proceed

end, finish   be over (through)   terminate

buy    get     purchase

Note also that such abbreviations as I'm, I've, I'll, you'd, you're, etc. are characteristic of colloquial style. Therefore, students will be well advised to avoid them in their compositions, essays, precis, etc.

B. The term style may be also used with reference to the manner of writing of some particular author. E. g. Hemingway's style is characterized by laconism and lack of detail. The syntax of his sentences is very simple, the dialogues are almost monosyllabic and seemingly unemotional. Yet, through the austere form the author manages sometimes to create a narration of great tension.

ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (I)

Words

ache υ, n    flue n     painful adj

avoid υ     foot n     pneumonia n

bare adj    medical adj    prescribe υ

barefoot adj predic, adv  medicine n    prescription n

bare-headed adj   miserable adj   shiver υ

condition n    naked adj    tremble υ

epidemic n    pain n     vacant adj

fever n

Word Combinations

to have (got) a headache    to give smth. up

to take one's (or smb.'s)     to make a note (notes) of smth.

   temperature      so far

to bring down the fever     at the foot (head) of the bed

to be in (a) good (bad)     to read to oneself (aloud)

condition      to go to sleep (cf.: to fall asleep)

to live (work) under good    to stay (be) awake

(bad) condition (s)     flushed by the fever (anger,

to be in no condition to do smth.    excitement, etc.)

on condition that     to flush with

to write (put) smth. down   to take smth. easy

EXERCISES

1. Read the text and the Notes on Lexicology and Style and talk on the following points (A. Grammar, B.Word usage, C. Style):

A. 1. Why does the author use or drop the definite article before the word bed in the sentences: "We were still in bed." "You'd better go back to bed," "I sat at the foot of the bed."

2. Why is the Infinitive used with or without the particle to in the sentences: "Do you want me to read to you?" "I heard him say a hundred and two."

3. In the sentence "It's nothing to worry about" ft is a personal pronoun. What noun does it stand for? (Note: The English for «Нечего беспокоиться.» would be "There is nothing to worry about.")

4. Tick off the sentences with the Infinitive used as an attribute.

5. Tick off all the complex sentences with clauses joined without the conjunction that, е.g. "I know (that) he is ill."

B. 1. What did the father mean when he said "You'd better go back to bed"? (Add some words to show the implication.)

2. Paraphrase the sentences: "I'd rather stay awake" and "just take it easy."

3. What is the difference between the boy's words "...if it bothers you" and "...if it's going to bother you." (Translate the sentences with these phrases into Russian.)

4. How and why did the boy paraphrase his question "about what time... I'm going to die?"

5. The boy lay with his eyes fixed at the foot of the bed. What synonyms and why did the author use to describe the situation? (See Vocabulary Notes in Unit One.)

C. 1. Comment on the choice of words in Hemingway's story from the point of view of their stylistic colouring. What style prevails, formal or informal?

2. What can you say about the dialogues in the story and their stylistic peculiarities?

3. Comment on the syntax of the story and the stylistic effect achieved by it.

4. What is the general atmosphere of the story? Is the tension gradually increased? How is the effect achieved? What is the point of the highest tension (climax) ?

II. a) Choose the best translation of each English sentence below (or give your own variant) and reason oat your choice;

I. I'd rather stay awake, 1. Я предпочитаю бодрствовать. 2. Я лучше не буду спать.

II. ...as though it ached to move. 1. ...как будто ему было больно двигаться. 2. ...как будто движения причиняли ему боль,

III. He seemed very detached from what was going on. 1. Казалось, окружающее его не интересует. 2. Он казался полностью отрешенным от всего происходящего. 3. Он, казалось, не замечал того, что происходит вокруг.

IV. But his gaze at the foot of the bed relaxed slowly. 1. Его взгляд становился все менее напряженным. 2. Он уже не с таким напряжением смотрел перед собой. 3. Его взгляд, устремленный на спинку кровати, постепенно терял свою напряженность.

V. The hold over himself relaxed too, finally, and the next day it was very slack. I. Сдержанность его тоже, наконец, ослабла и на следующий день была очень незначительной. 2. Он перестал держать себя в руках и на следующий день был совсем вялым. 3. В конце концов его контроль над собой тоже стал слабеть, и на следующий день он совсем раскис.

b) Translate the description of the father's walk.

III. a) Copy, transcribe and give Russian equivalents of these words:

ache, fever, medicine, capsule, purgative, germ, acid, influenza, various, pneumonia, area, pirate, natural, bother, prescribe, bush, brush, worry, thermometer, absolutely, relax.

b) Give the four forms of the verbs:

shut, overcome, lie (лежать), lay (класть), wake, freeze, worry, die,

c) Make four columns and write numbers I, П, III and IV at their tops to represent four types of syllables. Then pick out from the list above ('a' and 'b') words with vowel sounds illustrating different types of syllables and place them in right columns.

IV. Try your hand at teaching.

(Look up the words and phrases you may need to do the task in "Classroom English", Sections IV, VIII.)

A. Preparation. a) Pick out from the text and from the introduction to it words with the letter с in them. Divide a sheet of paper into ten columns with the following letters at the top of each column: 1) с+е, 2) c + i, 3) c + a, 4) c + o, 5) c+u, 6) c+a consonant, 7) с in the ending -ic, 8) c + h = [tf], 9) c+h= [k], 10) c+k=[k].

Classify the words under each heading.

b) Make up your own list of words to illustrate the same rules.

B. Work in Class. a) Show the table with 10 columns to your fellow-students and explain how с should be pronounced in each case.

b) Dictate the words from your list to the students and ask one of them to spell them on the blackboard. Correct the mistakes.

V. Answer the questions:

1. What were the symptoms of the boy's illness? 2. Why did it seem to the father that the doctor knew all about influenza? 3. What worried the boy? Since when? 4. Why did the boy prefer to stay awake? 5. What were the symptoms of the boy's nervous strain that the father took for the symptoms of his illness? 6. Wouldn't it have been more natural if the boy had told his father about his fears? Why? 7. Do you like the boy's behaviour? How does it characterize him? 8. How would you explain the contrasts in the boy's behaviour on the first and the second day of his illness? 9. Why did the author introduce the description of the father's walk? 10. Do you find the situation described in the story true to life? (Give your reasons.) 11. Do you think you would have behaved in the same way in the boy's place? 12. What do you consider to be the point of the story?

Begin when possible your answers with:

I believe; I think; I'd like to say; In my view; As I see it; I don't think it would...; This is my way of looking at it.

VI. Study Vocabulary Notes and a) write derivatives or compounds of:

refuse, prescribe, pain, ache, condition, bare, like.

b) Give the opposite of:

to read aloud, in good condition, at the foot of the bed (mountain, page), the girl had shoes on, the seat is occupied, the trees are covered with leaves, to be asleep.

c) Give English equivalents of these words and use them in sentences of your own:

голый (2 words), дрожать (2 words), отказаться (2 words).

VII. Fill in

a) ache, hurt, pain, painful:

— What... you?

— I can't say I feel any sharp ... in some definite place, I just... all over.

— Does it... you to move your arms, legs or head?

— My head ... all the time, it ... me to look at the light and each movement is ... .

— Well, I must examine you. Don't be afraid, it won't be ... .

— But, doctor, each touch gives me ....

— Well, try and take it easy.

b) in, on:

— Your child's health is ... a rather bad condition, he must be thoroughly examined in the policlinic.

— But, doctor, he is ... no condition to leave the house, he's too weak.

— Perhaps we'd better take him to hospital then.

— Oh, doctor, isn't it possible to keep him at home?

— Well, only ... condition that you follow all my instructions.

c) refuse, give up:

1. In spite of his father's wish he ... to leave the Medical Institute as he was fond of medicine and didn't want to ... . 2. I decided to break with him after he had ... to help me when I was in great need of help. 3. Though she regularly ... his proposals he couldn't... his dream of marrying her sooner or later. 4. If she asks me for any favour I'll never ... her. 5. If I were you I wouldn't... my plan so easily.

d) like, as:

1. The children jumped and squealed (визжали) ... little puppies. 2. The girl tried to behave ... a grown-up person. 3. She was invited to this conference ... a specialist in medicine. 4. He works ... a doctor in one of our hospitals. 5. You just listen to him, he speaks ... a real doctor, though he doesn't know anything about medicine. 6. ... your doctor, I don't allow you to get up for some more days.

VIII. Write 5 questions after each pattern below. (Keep to the same word order.) Discuss them in class:

1. Do you think the boy would have worried about his temperature if he had known the difference between the Fahrenheit and the Centigrade thermometers?

2. Why, do you think, the medicines were in different coloured capsules?

IX. Retell the text in reported speech following the outline given below:

1. The boy looks ill.

2. The father calls for a doctor.

3. The doctor diagnoses the illness and leaves instructions.

4. The boy seems detached from what is going on around him.

5. The father goes for a walk.

6. The boy's state troubles his father.

7. The father finds out what worries the boy.

8. The boy relaxes.

Use the vocabulary of the text and the words:

to ask (about, if, why), to wonder (whether, why, what...), to say (that), to tell smb. (about smth.), to add (that), to answer (that), to reply (that), to inquire after (smb.'s health), to declare (that).

X. Supply articles where necessary:

1. ... clinical thermometer is ... small thermometer for finding ... temperature of ... body. 2. ... boiling point of ... Fahrenheit thermometer is 212°, of ... Centigrade thermometer — 100° and of... Reamur thermometer — 80°. 3.... kilometer is ... measure of length as well as... mile and... foot;... kilogram and ... pound are ... measures of weight. 4. His high temperature worried... boy because he didn't know... difference between... Fahrenheit and Centigrade thermometers.

XI. Make up short dialogues starting with the sentences below. Try and argue with each other:

1. The mother to the father: You shouldn't have gone for a walk when the child was ill.

2. The father to the boy: You should have told me what worried you.

3. The mother to the boy: You should have let me in, why didn't you?

4. The mother to the father: You might have guessed that something was worrying the boy.

5. The father to the mother: You might have dropped in to see what state the boy was in.

6. The mother to the father (the next day): I don't like the boy's state. Perhaps we had better call the doctor again?

Use such phrases as;

But why should (shouldn't) I?; Well, I don't (didn't) think...; I wish I could, but...; I really couldn't imagine...; What a silly way to talk!; I wish you wouldn't...; I'm really sorry, but...; I really feel bad about it...; What do you think I should have done...?, etc.

Example:  Father: You should go to bed at once.

Son: Why should I? I'm all right.

Father: But you aren't. You're shivering and your face is white.

Son: Well, I just feel a bit cold, I'll sit down by the fire.

Father: You are ill and you have a fever.

Sоn: How do you know?

Father: I knew it just when I put my hand on your forehead.

XII. Translate into English;

1. В каких условиях вы жили, когда были ребенком? 2. Я записала все его замечания по этому вопросу. 3. Если бы ты вчера приняла эти таблетки, ты сегодня чувствовала бы себя гораздо лучше. 4. У девочек был совсем несчастный вид, когда им сказали о болезни их матери. 5. Позволь детям побегать босиком, это не причинит им вреда. 6. Все больные одинаковы: нервничают по пустякам и ведут себя как дети. 7. На вашем месте я бы не записывала все эти данные, они не имеют большого значения. 8. Если ты не будешь спать, ты будешь отвратительно чувствовать себя завтра. 9. Мне нравится этот врач, потому что он не прописывает слишком много лекарств. 10. Он снова отсутствует? Это похоже на него: пропускать уроки, когда у вас письменная контрольная. П. Я бы не сказала, что между нами большое сходство. 12. Как будто собирается дождь. Думаю, нам лучше посидеть дома.

ХIII. а) Fill in prepositions or adverbs where necessary and summarize15 the passage:

"Well, you'd better let me take your temperature," said Griffiths.

"It's quite unnecessary," answered Philip irritably.

"Come on."

Philip put the thermometer ... his mouth. Griffiths sat ... the side ... the bed and chattered brightly ... a moment, then he took it... and looked ... it.

"Now, look here, old man, you stay ... bed, and I'll bring old Deacon ... to have a look ... you."

"Nonsense," said Philip. "There's nothing the matter. I wish you wouldn't bother ... me."

"But it isn't any bother. You've got a temperature and you must stay ... bed. You will, won't you?"

"You've got a wonderful bedside manner," Philip murmured, closing his eyes ... a smile.

(From "Of Human Bondage" by Somerset Maugham)

b) Add question tags to the sentences below and answer them. Begin your answers with "Yes, he did/was'', "No, he didn't/wasn't" or "But he did/was" and then give full answers:

Example: — Griffiths didn't want Philip to take his temperature, did he?

— Yes, he did. He saw that his friend looked quite sick and miserable.

1. Philip was not irritated at Griffiths' advice,...? 2. Philip put the thermometer under bis arm, ...? 3. Philip's temperature wasn't all right, ...? 4. Griffiths didn't even try to chatter sitting at his friend's bed,...? 5. Philip thought that there was nothing the matter with him, ...? 6. There was really nothing the matter with Philip, ...? 7. Griffiths didn't want Philip to stay in bed", ...? 8. Philip didn't want his friend to look after him, ...? 9. Griffiths was going to bring a doctor to Philip, ...? 10. Philip smiled because he wanted bis friend to think, that he was all right,...?

XIV. Translate the following text into English:

Мать сидела рядом с кроваткой ребенка, не сводя с него глаз. Ребенок бредил, у него был сильный жар, щеки пылали, а под глазами были темные круги. Зашла соседка, принесла термометр и какое-то лекарство. Она сказала, что это лекарство снизит температуру. Через два часа мать измерила ребенку температуру и увидела, что лекарство не помогло.

Пришел врач и сказал, что у ребенка воспаление легких, но серьезной опасности пока нет. Он спросил, когда мальчик заболел. Мать вспомнила, что еще со вторника он все время говорил, что у него болит голова и ломит все тело.

«Не волнуйтесь. Все будет хорошо, — сказал врач, — но вам бы следовало отвезти ребенка в больницу».

«Я лучше сама присмотрю за ним», — сказала мать.

«Что же, — сказал врач, — не буду настаивать. Не нужно расстраиваться. Если вы будете точно следовать моим указаниям, я уверен, что через несколько дней ему будет лучше».

Врач ушел, но подумал, что было бы все-таки лучше отправить ребенка в больницу.

XV. Make up three short dialogues, using the phrases listed below:

a) to have a headache, to have a fever, to take one's temperature, had better, to have a prescription made up;

b) to consult a doctor, a light epidemic of flu, to prescribe the medicine for, to be light-headed, would rather, to do good;

c) to take smth. easy, to keep from doing smth., there is nothing to worry about, on condition that, to be of no importance.

XVI. Try your hand at teaching.

1. Say what yon would do in the teacher's position:

During a music lesson, while the teacher tried to demonstrate the rhythm of a song, Pete took two pencils and proceeded to drum on a book. The teacher stopped playing and demanded to know who was drumming. No reply came forth, so she resumed her playing. This very instant the drumming started again. The teacher, who had been on the alert, caught Pete in the act.

2. Practise your "Classroom English".

Play the part of the teacher and get your pupils to write a spelling test on the board.

a) Prepare a test on the vocabulary of Unit Two at home.

b) Ask several pupils to write the words on the board.

c) Make sure that the board is properly prepared for writing on it: the writing it eligible; all the mistakes are corrected; the whole class is involved. (See "Classroom English", Sections IV. VIII, IX)

IABORATORY EXERCISES (I)

1. Listen to the text "A Day's Wait", mark the stresses and tunes, repeat the text following the model.

2. Paraphrase the following sentences, combining them into one conditional sentence. Make all necessary changes.

3. Respond to the following sentences according to the model. Use the inverted form of conditional sentences in your responses.

4. Extend the following sentences according to the model. Use the verbs suggested.

5. Write a spelling-translation test a) translate the phrases into English; b) check them with the key.

6. Translate the sentences into English and check them with the key. Repeat the key aloud.

7. Listen to the text "Patients Needed" some other text on the topic. Find English equivalents of the Russian phrases in the text. Retell the text in indirect speech.

TOPIC: ILLNESSES AND THEIR TREATMENT

TEXT A.    A VICTIM TO ONE HUNDRED AND SEVEN FATAL MALADIES

From "Three Men in a Boat" by Jerome K. Jerome

I remember going to the British Museum one day to read up the treatment for some slight ailment. I got down the book and read all I came to read; and then, in an unthinking moment, I idly turned the leaves and began to study diseases, generally. I forgot which was the first, and before I had glanced half down the list of "premonitory symptoms", I was sure that I had got it.

I sat for a while frozen with horror; and then in despair Г again turned over the pages. I came to typhoid fever — read the symptoms — discovered that I had typhoid fever— began to get interested in my case, and so started alphabetically.

Cholera I had, with severe complications; and diphtheria I seemed to have been bom with. I looked through the twenty-six letters, and the only disease I had not got was housemaid's knee.

I sat and thought what an interesting case I must be from a medical point of view. Students would have no need to "walk the hospitals" if they had me. I was a hospital in myself. All they need do would be to walk round me, and, after that, take their diploma.

Then I wondered how long I had to live. I tried to examine myself. I felt my pulse. I could not at first feel any pulse at all. Then, all of a sudden, it seemed to start off. I pulled out my watch and timed it. I made it a hundred and forty-seven to the minute. I tried to feel my heart. I could not feel my heart. It had stopped beating. I patted myself all over my front, from what I call my waist up to my head but I could not feel or hear anything. I tried to look at my tongue. I stuck it out as.far as ever it would go, and I shut one eye and tried to examine it with the other. I could only see the tip, but I felt more certain than before that I had scarlet fever.

I had walked into the reading-room a happy, healthy man. I crawled out a miserable wreck.

I went to my medical man. He is an old chum of mine, and feels my pulse, and looks at my tongue, and talks about the weather, all for nothing, when I fancy I'm ill. So I went straight up and saw him, and he said:

"Well, what's the matter with you?"

I said:

"I will not take up your time, dear boy, with telling you what is the matter with me. Life is short and you might pass away before I had finished. But 1 will tell you what is not the matter with me. Everything else, however, I have got."

And I told him how I came to discover it all,

Then he opened me and looked down me, and took hold of my wrist, and then he hit me over the chest when I wasn't expecting it — a cowardly thing to do, I call it After that, he sat down and wrote out a prescription, and folded it up and gave it me, and I put it in my pocket and went out.

I did not open it, I took it to the nearest chemist's, and handed it in. The man read it, and then handed it back. He said he didn't keep it.

I said:

"You are a chemist?"

He said:

"1 am a chemist. If I was a co-operative stores and family hotel combined, 1 might be able to oblige you."

I read the prescription. It ran:

"1 lb.16 beefsteak, with

1 pt.17 bitter beer

every six hours.

1 ten-mile walk every morning.

1 bed at 11 sharp every night.

And don't stuff up your head with things you don't understand."

I followed the directions with the happy result that my life was preserved and is still going on.

NOTES ON SYNONYMS

1. (See Note 1 on p. 18.) Synonyms may also differ by the degree or intensity of the phenomenon described or by certain additional implications conveyed by their meanings. E. g. malady describes a more dangerous illness than disease, sometimes a fatal one, whereas ailment mostly refers to a slight disorder. Malady implies a lasting, sometimes a chronic illness, whereas ailment is short and temporary. Illness is the most general word in the group (the synonymic dominant).

2. Synonyms may differ by their stylistic characteristics. E. g. chum is a colloquial synonym of Mend, to fancy sounds less formal than to imagine. To pass away is a bookish synonym of to die.

TEXT B.    A VISIT TO THE DOCTOR

— Well, what's the matter with you, Mr. Walker?

— You'd better ask me what is not the matter with me, doctor. I seem to be suffering from all the illnesses imaginable: insomnia, headaches, backache, indigestion, constipation and pains in the stomach. To make things still worse, I've caught a cold, I've got a sore throat and I'm constantly sneezing and coughing. To crown it all, I had an accident the other day, hurt my right shoulder, leg and knee, and nearly broke my neck. If I take a long walk, I get short of breath. In fact, I feel more dead than alive.

— I'm sorry to hear that. Anyhow, I hope things aren't as bad as you imagine. Let me examine you. Your heart, chest and lungs seem to be all right. Now open your mouth and show me your tongue. Now breathe in deeply, through the nose... There doesn't seem to be anything radically wrong with you, but it's quite clear that you're run down, and if you don't take care of yourself, you may have a nervous breakdown and have to go to hospital. I advise you, first of all, to stop worrying. Take a long rest, have regular meals, keep to a diet of salads and fruit, and very little meat Keep off alcohol. If possible, give up smoking, at least for a time. Have this tonic made up and take two tablespoonfuls three times a day before meals. If you do this, I can promise you full recovery within two or three months.

— And if I don't, doctor?

— Then you'd better make your will, if you haven't yet done so.

— I see. Well, thank you, doctor. 1 shall have to think it over and decide which is the lesser evil: to follow your advice or prepare for a better world.

TEXT C.     AT THE DENTISTS

Nell: Hello, is that you Bert? Nell here. I'm so glad I've found you in.

Bert: Hello, Nell. How's things?

N.: Fine. Listen, Bert. I'm bursting with news. Just imagine: yesterday I had the first real patient of my own.

В.: You don't say! Who was it?

N.: A nice old dear with a lot of teeth to be pulled out. It's such wonderful practice for me!

В.: Are you quite sure that some of his teeth couldn't be filled?

N.: None of them! I sent him to have his teeth X-rayed, so it's all right.

В.: How did you manage to get such a marvellous patient, I wonder?

N.: He came with a bad toothache. It had been bothering him for a day or two already.

В.: Were there no other dentists in the surgery?

N.: No, I was the only one. It was Sunday.

В.: Poor old thing! I hope you didn't try to pull out all his teeth at once, did you?

N.: Don't be silly. I just chose the easiest one to begin with.

В.: I see... And how did you get along?

N.: Wonderfully. I tested his blood pressure and gave him a couple of injections, though he said that my smile worked better than any injection.

В.: Oh, he did, did he? And he didn't have heart attack after the tooth was taken out? It would have been natural for an old man.

N.: No, he just felt a bit sick and giddy. I gave him с tonic and told him to stay in bed for a while and take his temperature.

В.: Perhaps I'd better drop in and check his heart? I'm on sick leave now and can do it at any time.

N.: You needn't. I'll ring him up and in case he's running a high temperature I'll let you know. But I do hope he won't. The day after tomorrow he's coming again,

В.: Are you sure he's not going to make an appointment with some other dentist?

N.: I don't think he will. When he was leaving he said he looked forward to having all his teeth pulled out and he would keep them all as souvenirs to remember me by.

В.: Well, I wish you good luck. Hope to hear from you soon. Bye for now, Nell.

N.: Good-bye, Bert. I'll let you know how things are going on.

Memory Work

For every evil under the sun.

There is a remedy, or there is none.

If there be one, try to find it.

If there be none, never mind it.

ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (П)

Words

appendicitis n    insomnia n

attack (of smth.) n    prescription n

case (of a disease) n   recover (from a disease) υ

cholera n     remedy n

complication n    scarlet fever n

cough υ, n    sneeze о

cure of υ    sore (throat, eye, finger, etc.) adj

cure for n     surgery n

die of υ     symptom n

diphthertia n    tonic n

disease n     treat υ (smb. for a disease)

indigestion n    treatment (for smth.) n

injection n     typhoid fever n

Word Combinations

to feel smb.'s (one's) pulse  to write out a prescription (for pills, etc.)

to go to a chemist's (drugstore)  to follow the doctor's directions

to catch (a) cold    to have an accident

to be short of breath   to examine a patient (smb.'s throat etc.)

to breathe in deeply   to consult (see) a doctor

to have a nervous breakdown  to keep to a diet (of ...); to be on (go on), follow a diet

to have a prescription (medicine, mixture, tonic, etc.) made up

to take medicine (a spoonful of, etc.)

to be wrong with (one's heart, lungs, etc.); to have smth. wrong with

to be taken ill (to fall ill) with   to be laid up with

to feel sick (and giddy)   to fill smb.'s tooth

to have one's tooth filled, to have a filling

to pull (take) out a tooth = to have an extraction

to have one's tooth pulled out (taken out), extracted

to be (have one's teeth, chest, heart, etc.) X-rayed

to test smb.'s blood   to have one's blood tested

to test smb.'s blood pressure  to have one's blood pressure tested

to have, get (give) an injection (a needle)

to have a heart attack   

to check smb.'s heart, lungs, etc.; to sound smb.'s heart, lungs, etc.

to be on sick leave; to get sick leave

to make an appointment with a doctor

Examples

He was taken to hospital and operated on (underwent an operation) for appendicitis.

After I've had some injections of tonic I feel quite cured of all my ailments.

The child is ill (laid up) with chicken pox (ветрянка). He'll soon recover if no complications set in.

Smallpox (оспа) is a catching (заразная) disease marked by fever and small red spots on the body and often leaves permanent marks.

I've been on sick leave for a fortnight already, but I don't feel any better so far.

The doctor diagnosed the illness as tuberculosis (t. b.).

A doctor who performs (carries out) operations is called a surgeon. Nowadays operations may be performed almost on any part of the body.

When people have pain in their teeth they go to a dentist to have the holes in their teeth filled (stopped). When necessary they may have their teeth taken (pulled) out.

People who are treated in health centres (policlinics) are called out-patients, those who stay in hospital are called inpatients.

Something is wrong with my legs: all my joints ache and when I bend my knee it hurts me.

The old man's sight is getting dim (слабеет), his eyes are sore, swollen and itching.

N o t e: Don't say "He wrote me a prescription out"; but "He wrote out a prescription for me".

EXERCISES

I. Study Text A and explain the meaning of the words and phrases listed below.

in an unthinking moment, idly turn the leaves, a fatal malady, premonitory symptoms, complication, to walk the hospitals, to time the pulse, all for nothing, the prescription ran, a family hotel, to follow the directions, his life was preserved.

II. a) Write English equivalents of the following words and phrases. Use them in sentences of your own:

1. застыв от ужаса; 2. заинтересоваться чём-л.; 3. интересный случай с медицинской точки зрения; 4. защищать диплом; 5. отнимазь у кого-л. время; 6. каждые шесть часов; 7. забивать голову непонятными вещами.

b) Write these words in English and transcribe them:

болезнь, симптом, отчаяние, тиф, алфавит, дифтерит, холера, талия, скарлатина, аптекарь.

c) Find in the text synonyms of the following words and phrases and explain how they differ:18 

illness (4 words), friend, doctor, look quickly, imagine, do a favour to smb., die.

III. Write 10 questions to Text A covering the main points. Prepare to discuss the test using the words and phrases from Ex. П.

IV. Study Texts В and С and translate these sentences into English:

1. Я страдаю от бессонницы. 2. Я все время чихаю и кашляю. 3. У меня болит горло. 4. В довершение ко всему я простудился. 5. Я задыхаюсь. 6. С легкими у вас все в порядке. 7. Глубоко вдохните через нос. 8. У вас может быть нервное расстройство. 9. Регулярно питайтесь и придерживайтесь овощной диеты. 10 По столовой ложке три раза в день. 11. Обещаю полное выздоровление в течение трех месяцев. 12. Я Это обдумаю. 13. Я рада, что застала тебя дома. 14. У меня уйма новостей. 15. Ни одного! 16. Она досаждала ему уже два дня, 17. Я была единственным врачом в приемной. 18. Бедняжка! 19. Не говори глупостей! 20. Для начала я как раз выбрала самый легкий зуб. 21. Ну, и как у тебя пошли дела? 22. Я сделала ему пару уколов. 23. Может быть, мне лучше забежать..? 24, Он их сохранит на память обо мне.

V. Reproduce Text В so that a question is asked about each sentence said by the patient or the doctor. Recite the dialogue in class.

Example: Patient: You'd better ask me what is not the matter with me, doctor.

Doctor: Is it really as bad as that? What are you complaining of ?

Patient: Insomnia... and pains in the stomach.

Doctor: Oh, dear, isn't it too much for one man?

VI. Relell Text С in indirect spech: a) speaking on the part of the old man;

b) reproducing Nell's talk with Bert over the telephone. You may find the following phrases useful:

a) to look a miserable wreck, to suffer from, to cheer smb. up, to be in despair, to be in high spirits; b) to be afraid that, to be sorry for, to doubt smb.'s skill, to wonder if..., to feel hurt, to suggest that one should...

VII. Study Essential Vocabulary (II) and

a) translate the illustrative examples into Russian;

b) express in writing the suggested idea using do for emphasis. Add a sentence to show that the emphasis is necessary:

Examples:  Your brother did go to the chemist's to have your prescription made up though he was pressed for time. Mother told you to put on your coat but you wouldn't and you did catch a cold.

1. to have a nervous breakdown; 2. to keep to a diet; 3. to try to make an appointment with; 4. to give (get) an injection; 5. to get sick leave; 6. to set in (about complications); 7. to prescribe pills for; 8. to undergo a treatment; 9. to recover from; 10. to diagnose Smb.'s illness (as); 11. to have one's tooth filled; 12. to need the services of a surgeon.

VIII. a) Supply prepositions where necessary:

Scarlet fever is an infectious fever, marked .. the appearance ... the second day ... a bright red rash consisting ... closely-set red spots. Shortly after the patient develops a high temperature and suffers ... painful sore throat. ... the third or fourth day the rash starts to fade and ... favourable cases the temperature falls and the patient feels better. ... the end ... a week the rash usually disappears. Complete recovery may be expected ... the following month, The complications ... scarlet fever are very serious, the commonest being inflammation ... the ear. Scarlet fever is essentially a disease ... children and young persons.

b) Give a short description of some other disease using a few phrases from the text above.

IX. Correct the following statements, beginning each sentence with one of the following phrases:

You're wrong. You're mistaken. I can't agree with you. Nothing of the kind. But... (it is, they don't, etc.). I don't think you're right. Of course not. Just the other way round. On the contrary. Surely not! By no means!

Example:  — You never take your temperature when you аге ill.

— Oh, yes (of course), I do. I always take my temperature when I'm ill.

1. Sick people never stay in bed while they are ill. 2. You were laid up with-flu last week, I believe. 3. It is not dangerous to take care of a person who has got a catching disease. 4. People often feel sick and giddy when they are quite well. 5. We seldom sneeze and cough when we have a cold. 6. You never have a sore throat when you have tonsillitis. 7. She doesn't feel any pain in her heart when she has a heart attack. 8. Children have swollen eyes when they have been laughing too much. 9. People need the services of the doctor when they are well, I think. 10. Probably you consult a dentist when you have a stomach-ache.

X. Read the text. Summarize it in 5-6 sentences without using direct speech;

Hob sat in the doctor's waiting-room. On the chairs at the wall other patients were sitting. They all looked sad except Hob who was reading an exciting story in a magazine. Just then the doctor came in to say that he was ready to see the next person. Hob got up and went into the consulting room.

Before Hob could say a word the doctor said, "Now what's the trouble? Sit down there and we'll have a look at you. Unfasten your jacket and your shirt, please. I'll listen to your heart." Hob tried to speak, but the doctor interrupted him and ordered him to say "ninety-nine". Hob said it. "Now let me see your throat, open your mouth wide." The doctor had a good look and then he said, "Well, there's nothing wrong with you." "I know there isn't," said Hob, "I just came to get a bottle of medicine for my uncle."

(From Essential English for foreign students by С. Е. Eckersley, Lnd.. 1977)

XI. Write 10 sentences to go with each of the pictures on pp. 68, 71.

XII. Answer the following questions:

1. What are the symptoms of flu (tonsillitis, measles, mumps, scarlet fever, etc.)? 2. Who is treated at the policlinic, and who is treated at the hospital? 3. What do you do when you fall ill? 4. What does the doctor do when he comes to examine you? 5. What do you feel when you have flu? 6. How does a sick person look? 7. How should we translate into Russian "He is ill" and "He has ill manners"? 8. What catching diseases do you know? 9. Do people in this country get their pay when they are ill?

ХIII. Translate the following sentences into English:

1. Я, должно быть, схватил грипп. 2. Вам лучше обратиться к врачу. 3. Врач пощупал мой пульс, прослушал сердце и легкие и измерил температуру. 4. Она не в состоянии разговаривать, у нее ужасно болит зуб. 5. Я вся дрожу. Должно быть, я простудилась. 6. Я не могу читать вслух, у меня болит горло. 7. Беспокоиться не о чем, его успешно прооперировали. 8. Я, пожалуй, приму эти пилюли от головной боли. 9. Почему ты ходишь в такую погоду без шляпы? Ты ведь недавно серьезно болел. У тебя могут быть осложнения. 10. Вам сделали рентген? 11. Вот рецепт. По столовой ложке микстуры три раза в день. 12. Вы послали за доктором? 13. У вас два больных зуба. Вам нужно обратиться к зубному врачу. 14. Врач попросил пациента раздеться до пояса и выслушал его. 15. Кто пойдет в аптеку заказать лекарство? 16. Если бы ты не следовала советам врача, ты бы не поправилась так скоро. 17. На вашем месте я придерживалась бы диеты, у вас ведь не в порядке желудок. 18. Как жаль, доктор забыл выписать мне лекарство от насморка. 19. Почему у вас одышка — у вас высокое давление или что-нибудь с сердцем? 20. Ребенок болен скарлатиной. Придется ему дней десять полежать в постели.

XTV. Make up stories and dialogues through mime19.

Have the students to prepare a mime and perform it twice (for tasks A and B). The performed actions should be rather slow to allow the other students to tell the story or speak for the mimes.

A. Describe the actions of the mimes using the Present Indefinite, Continuous or Perfect tenses. (for one or two students)

B. Speak for each mime. (for two students)

С Tell the story in reported speech orally or in writing. (for one student)

Suggested topics and stages for actions:

1. At the Doctor's

a) A patient enters the room and tells the doctor what he (she) is suffering from.

b) The doctor asks the patient to strip to the waist and examines him (her).

c) The patient asks the doctor what's wrong with him. He seems to be worried.

d) The doctor tries to comfort the patient and writes out a prescription.

2. At the Dentist's

a) A patient complains of a bad toothache.

b) The dentist asks him to sit down and examines his mouth. One of his teeth should be pulled out.

c) The patient is afraid. He feels sick and giddy.

d) The dentist pulls out his tooth and shows it to the patient who brightens up and looks happy.

3. At the Bedside

a) A boy complains of a sore throat.

b) His mother is worried. She takes his temperature, it's normal. His throat is all right

c) Then the boy pretends to have a stomach-ache and a headache, to be sick and giddy.

d) His mother understands his tricks and orders him to go to school.

XV. Try your hand at teaching.

Find a picture on a medical subject and ask your "pupils" to describe it.

A. Preparation. a) Make up a list of new words (in spelling and transcription) that might be needed to discuss it.

b) Write questions about the picture, using the phrases: in the picture, in the foreground [background), in the right(left-) hand corner, to the right (left) of.

c) took up the words and phrases you may need to discuss the picture in class in "Classroom English", Section V.

В. Work in Class. Show the picture to the members of your group; write the new words on the blackboard, translate them (or explain their meaning) and make the students repeat them in chorus; ask your questions.20

XVI. a) Give the idea of the text in English:

Сколько стоит аппендицит?

Бумажка была счетом за удаление у «мистера Стрельникова» аппендицита. Одному из нас с подобного рода бумагой пришлось столкнуться впервые, и было очень интересно читать: «Анализ крови — 25 долларов. Плата хирургу за операцию — 200 долларов. Анестезия — 35 долларов. Плата за каждый день пребывания в госпитале — 200 долларов. Плата за телевизор — 3 доллара в день». И так далее. Всего расставание с аппендицитом мистеру Стрельникову стоило 1112 долларов! Сюда входит плата врачу за постановку диагноза, за удаление ниток из шва...

Если бы мистер Стрельников пожелал продлить пребывание в госпитале до существующей у нас нормы (семь дней), бумажка счета стала бы вполовину длиннее. Как гражданин страны, где медицинское обслуживание бесплатное, денег из своего жалованья мистер Стрельников не платил. Уплатило за него государство. А в больнице он был столько, сколько бывают американцы, — три дня.       (Стрельников В., Песков Б. Земля за океаном. М., 1975)

Prompts: bill, anaesthesia, to take out the stitch, twice longer.

b) Say what you know about the cost of health service in America, in Russia and in other countries nowadays.

ХVII. a) Bead and translate the texts below:

1. In Great Britain primary health care is in the hands of family practitioners who work within the National Health Service. The family practitioner services are those given to patients by doctors, dentists, opticians and pharmacists of their own choice. Family doctors who are under contract to the National Health Service have an average about 2,250 patients. They provide the first diagnosis in the case of illness and either prescribe a suitable course of treatment or refer a patient to the more specialized services and hospital consultants.

A large proportion of the hospitals in the National Health Service were built in the nineteenth century; some trace their origin to much earlier charitable foundations, such as the famous St. Bartholomew's and St. Thomas' hospitals in London.

About 85 per cent of the cost of the health services is paid for through general taxation. The rest is met from the National Health Service contribution and from the charges for prescriptions, dental treatment, dentures and spectacles. Health authorities may raise funds from voluntary sources.

(See: "Britain 1983". Lnd., 1983)

2. Nobody pretends that the National Health Service in Britain is perfect. Many doctors complain that they waste hours filling in National Insurance forms, and that they have so many patients that they do not have enough time to look after any of them properly. Nurses complain that they are overworked and underpaid.

3. Many Health Service hospitals are old-fashioned and overcrowded, and, because of the shortage of beds, patients often have to wait a long time for operations. Rich people prefer to go to private doctors, or to see specialists in Harley Street, the famous "doctors" street in London. When these people are ill they go to a private nursing-home, for which they may pay as much as Ј 100 a week. Alternatively, they may hire a private room in an ordinary hospital, for which they will pay about Ј 10 a day.

(Musman R. Britain To-day. Lnd., 1974)

b) Write 10 questions about the facts mentioned in the texts that you find interesting and discuss them in class.

XVIII. Find some jokes on a medical subject and tell them to your fellow-students.

XIX. a) Give а very short description of each picture in the Present Tense. Use prompt words and phrases listed in the Note.

b) Make up a story about the pictures in the Past Tense c) Find a short title to the story.

Note: сточная труба — sewer; носилки - stretcher; санитарная машина — ambulance; санитар - ambulance man; операционная operating-room; гипсовая повязка — plaster-bandage.

XX. Film "Mr.Brown's Holiday". Dilm segment 2 "Miss Peggy and the Pussy Cays" (Canterbury),  a) Watch and listen, b) Do the exercises from the guide to the film.

STUDIES OF WRITTEN ENGLISH

П

This time you will learn more about the smallest thought units that build up writing, beginning with a paragraph and how they work within the paragraph.

Key-words are main words in the passage that help to emphasize the main point and understand the subject you are writing about. That is why key-words are the first elements to choose when setting your mind on writing on a certain subject and there are different ways to use them in a paragraph: repeating them, using synonyms, bringing them in close semantic relation.

E. g. "He read the letter slowly and carefully. It was not the kind of case he wanted, it was not the kind of case he had promised himself. It was not in any sense an important case..." (From "The Nemean Lion" by A. Christie). Hercule Poirot, the famous detective of A. Christie's had been dreaming of an unusual case. That one about the kidnapping of a dog was a disappointment. It was not a proper case for him.

The central thought of the paragraph is emphasized by repeating the key-word, otherwise echo-word.

Assignments:

1. Go over the test "A Day's Wait" and pick out the key-words and phrases that indicate the topic: of illness and treatment. Arrange them into three groups according to the ways that are commonly used to point out the central thought. Which is the largest group and why?

2. Prepare a list of key-words end phrases before writing a paragraph: a) describing how the poor boy looked before the doctor саше; b) telling a story of his recovery; c) arguing about the turning point in his illness; d) explaining the difference between miles and kilometers, between the Fahrenheit thermometer and the Centigrade thermometer.

LABORATORY EXERCISES (II)

1. a) listen to the text "A Victim to One Hundred and Seven Fatal Maladies", mark the stresses and tunes, b) Repeat the test following; the model.

2. Listen to the dialogue "A Visit to the Doctor". Repeat the text in the interval and record your version. Compare your version with the original and correct your mistakes.

3. Respond to the following suggestions. Begin your sentences with "Hadn't we (he) better.."?

4. Extend the statements. Begin your sentences with "It's time you (he, etc.)" + a verb in the Past Subjunctive.

5. Write a dictation. Check the spelling using a dictionary.

6. Translate the given sentences into English. Check them with the key.

7. Listen to the text "Doctor Sally" or some other text on the topic. Get ready to act it out in class.

CURIOSITY QUIZ FOR EAGERS

Crossword Puzzle

Across

1. Stop a hole in a tooth with cement, etc. 3. Seize something with the teeth (also cause a sharp pain). 11. Fill a hole in a tooth with cement, etc. 13. Fibers (волокна) connecting the brain with all other parts of the body and carrying feelings to the brain. 14. Let out the air suddenly through the nose and the mouth (usu. when having a cold). 18. An instrument for measuring temperature. 19. A kind of medicine having good effects on the body. 23. The middle joint of the leg where the leg bends. 25. A hollow in the lungs (каверна). 27. A person who practises medicine and treats people. 28. The drink made by pouring boiling water on dried leaves bearing the same name, often used as a tonic. 29. A coloured liquid used for writing with a pen. 30. Take one's clothes off. 31. Come into two or more parts; crack a bone, joint.

Down

2. Breathing organs found in man and animal. 3. Take air into the body and send it out. 4. Exist. 5. The degree of heat or cold in the air, water, body, etc. 6. Be still, relax after work, efforts, etc. 7. Small spots (red or pink) close together on the skin (usu. a symptom of a disease). 8. Difficulty in digesting food. 9. Be aware through the senses. 10. A catching disease marked by fever and small spots that cover the whole body (common among children). 12. Give medical care to people in order to cure them. 15. A high temperature. 16. The red liquid in the body. 17. The regular beating of the arteries as the blood is forced along them. 20. An open sore (язва, нарыв) on internal organs. 21. A special choice of food ordered by a doctor. 22. Ill, unwell. 24. A person specially trained to look after sick people. 26. A short sleep. 27. Not clearly seen.

UNIT THREE

SPEECH PATTERNS

1. You like the way they work.

I like the way the doctor treats the child. Do you like the way she wears her hat? I don't like the way you speak to me. The teacher didn't like the way the children behaved in class.

2. It is always interesting for tourists to take a trip along the Thames in a boat.

It was difficult for the students to make notes of his lecture.

It will be convenient for you to live in our hostel.

It would be useful for him to give up smoking.

It would have been natural for the sick man to fall asleep after the injection.

EXERCISES

I. Say whether you like or dislike the way:

1. the doctor treated the boy (in the story "A Day's Wait");

2. the boy behaved during his illness;

3. Hemingway described the boy's mood;

4. you spent your summer holidays;

5. the students of your group work at their English;

6. you were taught English at school;

7. women dress nowadays;

8. the girls in your group dress their hair.

II. Fill in missing adjectives + preposition:

1. Will it be......everybody to have our meeting after the lessons? I believe so, but I don't know if it will be......our teacher. 2. Would it be......the second-year students to read English newspapers? If you mean papers published in Britain I think it would be......them so far. 3. Which is more......a student: to read or to speak English well? If the student is going to become a teacher, it's equally ... ... him or her both to read and speak well. 4. Do you think it would be......students with bad spelling to copy English texts? It might be......them, of course, but to tell you the truth it's a very tiresome job. 5. Will it be.......students to take part in the phonetic contest at our department? Of course. It will be ......first-year students as it will give them a good chance to brush up their pronunciation.

III. Translate these sentences into English:

1. Ей будет легко подружиться с детьми — им нравится, как она с ними играет. 2, Мне было бы интересно принять участие в экскурсии, если бы я был помоложе. 3. Мне не нравится, как ты читаешь, тебе надо уделять больше внимания чтению вслух. 4. Я считаю, вам необходимо посоветоваться с врачом по поводу головной боли. 5. Мне не нравится, как эта медсестра делает уколы. 6. Первокурсникам будет интересно узнать об истории и традициях нашего института.

IV. Make up micro-dialogues using Speech Patterns 1—2:

Model:  — Why didn't you come to N's recital yesterday? I liked the way he played.

— I'd have come if I were a musician as you are. But it's difficult for me to understand serious music, I prefer jazz.

TEXT. INTRODUCING LONDON

London is an ancient city. It grew up around the first point where the Roman invaders found the Thames narrow enough to build a bridge. They found a small Celtic settlement then known as Londinium and by A. D.21 300 they had turned it into a sizeable port and an important trading centre with a wall which enclosed the homes of about 50,000 people.

One in seven of the population of the United Kingdom is a Londoner. About 7 million people live in Greater London.22 London dominates British life. It is the home of the nation's commerce and finance, the main centre of its legal system and the press. It has the largest university and the greatest possibilities for entertainment and for sport in the country. London is one of the famous capital cities of the world, and every year attracts crowds of visitors from home and abroad. They come to explore its historic buildings, to see its museums and galleries, its streets and parks, and its people.

The built-up area of Greater London stretches 50 kilometres from east to west and many of its districts are linked with particular activities, for example, parliamentary and government activity centres on Parliament Square of Westminster and Whitehall. Just as "Westminster" stands for Parliament so "Whitehall" is often used as the name for central Government.

Off Whitehall in a small side-street Downing Street — is a quiet, unimpressive house — No. 10 — the official home of Prime Minister.

Just as Wall Street in New York is the centre of commerce and finance so the City of London, sometimes called "the square mile"23 is the centre for money matters. Here in Threadneedle Street is the Bank of England — sometimes called "The Old Lady of Threadneedle Street" — the central banking institution whose pound24 notes form the main currency in the country. Fleet Street near St. Paul's Cathedral used to be a busy street full of foreign, provincial and London newspaper offices such as The Daily Express, The Daily Telegraph.25

Though most of the British national newspaper offices have moved to Wapping, an area in East London, the name of Fleet Street is still used to describe the newspaper industry.

In South Kensington there are several large museums. The Victoria and Albert Museum with a magnificent collection of fine and applied arts also includes a wide-ranging display of ceramics, metalwork and a selection of Constable's26 masterpieces which are well worth seeing. The Natural History Museum contains plants, animals and minerals. The Hall of Human Biology enables visitors to learn about their bodies and the way they work. Exhibits in the Science Museum display the discovery and development of such inventions as the steam engine, photography, glass-making, printing and atomic physics. There is a gallery where children can experiment with working models. The Museum of London in the City presents the biography of London, from the founding of London by Romans to the Greater London of today. Within a sguare kilometre or so in London's theatre-land are over thirty theatres, showing a large range of old and modem plays. Smaller "fringe" theatres27 perform in clubs, pubs and at lunch time.

London is full of parks and green spaces. Hyde Park, originally a royal hunting forest, is the largest park in London. In summer the Serpentine canal which flows through the park is always full of swimmers, rowers and sunbathers. Just south of the Serpentine is. Rotten Row, a fashionable spot for horse-riding, and in one corner, near Marble Arch is Speakers' Comer; where everyone can go and air their views to anyone who will listen. Beyond Hyde Park lies another royal park, Kensington Gardens. Children gather by the statue of Peter Pan, James Barrie's28 well-known storybook character, or sail their model boats on the Round Pond. In the north of London is Regent's Park with a zoo and an open-air theatre. A trip along Regent's Canal in a riverboat gives a chance to see London Little Venice, a quiet countryside area for rich people only as the land here is very expensive.

Like many capital cities, London grew up along a major river. The Thames divides London sharply in two. Most of central London is on the north bank of the river. The Thames at London is tidal and there have been several serious floods. The risk of this is increasing as southern England is sinking in relation to sea level. Threat of disaster, however, has been lessened by the construction of a flood barrier.

It is always interesting for tourists to take a trip along the Thames in a boat as it gives a striking panorama of London. The best way to see the city quickly is from the top of London red double-decker buses. Special tourist buses go on two-hour circular tours. The other quick and easy way of getting around London is by "tube" — the Underground railway. During the "rash hours", when office workers hurry to and from work, the tube train doors can hardly close behind the crushed crowds.

London is an ancient city. But it is also a living city and like all living cities it is constantly developing.

VOCABULARY NOTES

1. historic adj исторический (имеющий историческое значение, вошедший в историю), е.g. historic place, date, speech, event, battle, etc. 1812 was a historic year for Russian people.

historical adj исторический (связанный с историей, имеющий отношение к истории), е.g. historical materialism, science, principles, method, approach (to); historical novel, picture, play, film; historical department, museum, etc.

history n история, е.g. the history of our country, the history of the language; a history lesson; the History Museum.

Note 1: In names of academic subjects no article is used, е.g. History of the English language is a difficult subject

Note 2: The Russian word история has several English equivalents: а) история (ход развития чего-л.) — history, е.g. This town has an interesting history.; b) рассказ, повествование — story, е.g. I don't like stories of such kind. He told us the story of his whole life.; с) происшествие — event, е.g. Tell us something about this strange event. But: A funny thing happened to him. (С ним произошла забавная история.) There's a pretty kettle of fish! (Вот так история!)

2. worth n ценность, е.g. It's a discovery of great worth. This information is of no worth.

worth adj predic стоящий; worth smth., е.g. This picture is not worth the money you've paid for it. This problem is not worth our attention. This job is not worth the time we've spent on it.; worth doing smth., е.g. This film is worth seeing. Books of that kind are not worth reading. This problem isn't worth discussing. His illness is hardly worth troubling about.; worth while, е.g. It isn't worth while seeing the film. It isn't worth while sitting here till 5 o'clock. It is worth while trying to catch the train, I think it's worth while speaking to him about it. Cf.: This book is worth reading. — It is worth while reading this book.

worthy adj достойный, е.g. She is a very worthy woman.; to be worthy of smth., smb., е.g. His behaviour is worthy of great praise.

unworthy adj недостойный

3. masterpiece n шедевр

piece n 1. кусок, ps a piece of chalk (wood, paper, etc.)

Syn. lump, slice. A slice is a thin, flat piece cut off from anything, as a slice of bread (cheese, lemon, ham, etc.). A lump is a small specially shaped or shapeless piece, as a lump of sugar (butter, etc.).

to pieces на куски, е.g. The cup fell and was broken to pieces.

2. отдельный предмет, часть, е.g. a piece of furniture; a, piece of poetry (стихотворение); a piece of painting (картина); a piece of advice (совет); apiece of news (новость);

3. монета, е.g. a two-shilling piece, a gold (silver) piece

Syn. coin (used more often than piece)

4. human adj человеческий, свойственный человеку, е.g. a human nature, the human body, human affairs, a human being (человек); hu'mane adj гуманный, человечный

Ant. cruel

inhuman adj бесчеловечный, as inhuman treatment

humanity n (uncountable) 1. человечество, as a crime against humanity

Syn. man'kind n (uncounfable). But 'mankind мужчины, мужской пол

2. гуманность, человечность, as to treat people with humanity

the Humanities гуманитарные науки; syn. the Arts, е.g. Are you interested in the Humanities (the Arts) or in the Exact Sciences (естественные науки) ?

5. to strike (struck, struck) υt 1. ударяться, бить; to strike smb., to strike smb. (smth.) on smth. е.g. He struck the boy a violent blow. The man struck Lanny on the face. He struck his fist on the table.

Syn. to hit (hit, hit), е.g. Why did he hit the boy?; to hit one's hand (foot, head, etc.) on smth., е.g. I hit my head on the low shelf.

Note: strike and hit may be used in the same sense — to strike or to hit smb. — but care should be taken to use the proper verb m traditional word combinations such as to strike a match чиркнуть спичкой, e, д. Somebody struck a match so that we couid see each other.

2. бить (о часах), е.g. It has just struck half past four. This tower clock strikes the hours.

3. поражать, удивлять, а д. We were struck by bis strange behaviour. It struck me that he had grown so old. Many things might strike us as unusual in a foreign country.

Syn. to surprise, to astonish, to puzzle

Nоte: to be struck means "to be filled suddenly with a strong feeling of surprise". That distinguishes the verb to strike from its synonyms to astonish and to surprise; to astonish is stronger in meaning than to surprise, е.g. I shouldn't be surprised if it rained. I'm not surprised at seeing you here, I've been told about your arrival. I was astonished at seeing him so changed. I was struck by his sudden death.; to puzzle means "to make a person think hard before finding an answer", e.g. His letter puzzled me. (= I didn't know why he had written it)

striking adj, as striking likeness (news, contrast) stricken pp. terror-stricken; horror-stricken; panic-stricken

Note: the verb to strike has homonyms: a) strike υi бастовать, b) strike n забастовка, е.g. All the railway workers joined the strike.; to go on strike объявлять забастовку

6. circular adj круглый, круговой, е.g. There is a circular railway running round Moscow. A circular staircase led to the top of the tower.

circulate υ 1. циркулировать, е.g. Blood circulates in the body.; 2. передаваться, распространяться, е.g. Bad news circulates quickly.

circulation n 1. циркуляция, е.g. The circulation of air is rather bad here, that's why it is stuffy.; 2. распространение, обращение (денежное), е.g. Only silver and copper coins are in circulation now.

blood-circulation n кровообращение

circle n 1. круг, окружность, е.g. It's almost impossible to draw a circle without a pair of compasses (без циркуля).; 2. группа, круг людей, е.g. Не belonged to the business circle of the town.

NOTES ON HOMONYMS

Homonyms are words that coincide in form, but have different meanings and. may (or may not) belong to different categories or parts of speech. Homonyms may coincide both in phonetic and in graphic form, as ball, n (мяч) and ball, n (бал) or fair, adj (светлый, справедливый и др. знач.) and fair, n (ярмарка). They may coincide only in pronunciation, but have different graphic forms, as sea, n and to see, v. They may coincide in spelling, but be differently pronounced, as lead [led] n (свинец) and to lead [li:d] υ (вести).

ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (I)

Words

ancient adj    finance n    piece n

astonish υ    flood n    possibility n

built-up adj    historic adj    pound n

circle n     historical adj    puzzle υ

circular adj    human adj    sea level

circulation n    humanity n    settlement n

coin n     (the) Humanities   slice n

commerce n    lump n   stretch υ

currency n    mankind n   strike υ

double-decker n   masterpiece n   striking adj

entertainment n   Parliament n    traffic n

exhibit υ    parliamentary adj   worth n, adj

worthy adj

Word Combinations

to break to pieces    to go on a tour     to turn smth. into smth.  

a panorama (view) of   to have a possibility for   to be a surprise to

to stand for smth.    to strike a match   to be worthy of smth.  

to strike a blow    a piece of advice    to go on strike

fine and applied arts    to be a surprise to smb.  to take a trip

Proper Names

Roman      the Victoria and Albeit Museum

the Thames     Constable

Londinium     the Natural History Museum

Westminster     the Science Museum

Whitehall      the Museum of London

Downing Street     Hyde Park

Fleet Street     the Serpentine

St. Paul's Cathedral    Marble Arch

South Kensington    Kensington Gardens

Regent's Park


EXERCISES

1. Read the text and talk as the following points (A. Grammar, B. Word usage, С. Word-formation):

A. 1. What tense group is mainly used in the text and why?

2. Find passive voice constructions and translate the sentences with them.

B. Translate the sentences beginning with just as ... so into Russian.

C. Search the text for compounds, comment on their structure. Find derivatives with the suffixes -ment, -er, -ly and classify them according to the category of speech.

II. a) Search tee text and the footnotes for the English equivalents of the sentences and phrases listed below:

A. 1. превратить маленькое кельтское поселение в крупный торговый город; 2. иметь возможности для развлечений и занятий спортом; 3. музей стоит осмотреть; 4. великолепное собрание произведений изобразительного и прикладного искусства; 5. совершить прогулку на речном трамвае по Темзе; 6. обозначать, подразумевать; 7. открывается панорама города.

B. 1. солидные, «серьезные» газеты; 2. сообщения о событиях внутри страны и за рубежом; 3. спортивные новости; 4. сплетни, не представляющие интереса; 5. перейти на десятичную денежную систему; б. монета в 50 пенсов.

b) Use them in sentences of your own.

III. a) Spell and give the four forms of the following verbs:

[grEu], [bIld], [q'trxkt], [send], [dI'spleI], [flEu], [laI], ['hArI], [straIk], [pAzl].

b) Transcribe the following words:

Celtic, settlement, commerce, finance, explore, kilometre, parliamentary, magnificent, ceramics, metalwork, photography, atomic, royal, canal, sunbather, major, barrier, panorama, double-decker, disaster.

c) Write the degrees of comparison of:

narrow, small, great, old, quiet, worthy, busy, easy.

d) Find homonyms in Text of Unit Three.

IV. a) Analyse the morphological structure of the word sizable, explain its meaning and give its Russian equivalent

b) Form adjectives from these verbal stems by adding the negative prefix fprrjuks] on-, and the adjective-forming suffix -able. Explain the meaning of the derivatives and translate them (in one word):

eat, read, break, forget, pardon, describe, desire, imagine, believe.

V. Write questions based on the text. Use in your questions the suggested word combinations. Ask your questions in class:

1. to turn smth. into; 2. buildup area; 3. the home of; 4. to stand for; 5. the official home of the Prime Minister; 6. "the square mile"; 7. the central banking institution; 8, to be full of; 9. fine and applied arts; 10. the Science Museum; 11. theatreland; 12. to air one's views; 13. to gather by; 14. to grow up; 15. threat of disaster; 16. to give a panorama; 17. the "rush hours".

VI. Try your hand at teaching. (See "Classroom English", Sections VI, VIII, IX, X.)

A. Preparation. Write 2—3 special questions about each paragraph of the text and footnotes. See to it that new words, phrases and patterns are used either in your questions or in answers to them.

B. Work in class. Put your questions to the class and comment on the answers (express your approval or disapproval; correct the mistakes, if there are any; add some details if necessary, etc.).

VII. Make up a dialogue based on one of the paragraphs of the text or the footnotes. Speak for a Russian and an English student. Try and give an additional piece of information on the topic Use the prompts:

Have you heard (about)...?; Do you happen to know...?; Have you got any idea?; Someone has told me that...; That's what I heard; I'm afraid I don't know much about...; I wonder if you remember...; Have I got it right?; Am I right to believe?; Absolutely; Exactly; That's very surprising!; That's amazing!

VIII. a) Comment on the dialogue below:

A.: How can you be so stupid as to think that London is beautiful!

В.: Stupid! What nonsense! Of course it's beautiful. Look at all the parks and Buckingham Palace and all the churches.

A.: Rubbish! They're filthy and full of junk.

В.: For goodness sake, why don't you open your eyes? Walk around instead of just driving round in a taxi all day!    (Hargreaves R. and Fletcher M. Making Polite Noises, Lad., 1982)

b) Make up similar dialogues on the sights of your native town. The following phrases might help you:

I don't agree at all. You must be joking! There's no evidence for that. Oh, that's ridiculous! Nonsense! Rubbish! I don't believe that at all. You don't know what you're talking about. You're completely wrong about that.

IX. Fill in a suitable word or phrase:   a) surprise, astonish, strike, puzzle:

1. I won't be ... if he gets a "five", he is a very bright boy. 2. We were ... by the contrasts between wealth and poverty in Delhi. 3. His question ... me. I didn't know how to answer it. 4. I was ... to meet him in town, I was sure he had not come back yet. 5. His cruelty... us. We always thought that be was kind and sympathetic.

b) piece, lamp, slice:

1. Pick up the ... of the broken cup and throw them out. 2. Give me a... of paper. I'll show you how to make a boat for the child. 3. I'd like to take one more ... of cake. May I? 4. I never put more than two ... of sugar into my tea. 5. I need a short ... of string to tie the parcel with. 6. I'd like to have a ... of lemon with my tea.

c) historic or historical:

1. Red Square is a ... spot: many ... events took place in it. 2. In his ... novels Walter Scott gave a wonderful description not only of ... events, but of whole ... epochs. 3. The ninth of May is one of our most important... dates: we celebrate our ... victory in World War II. 4. There are many ... monuments in Moscow.

X. Retell the Text Use the map of London on pp. 114-115.

XI. a) Fill in preposition» wherever necessary:

Please remember: traffic ... Britain keeps ... the left! So when crossing a street look right first then left. If possible cross ... zebra crossings, sometimes indicated ... flashing orange lights ... either side ... the road.

Speed limit ... Britain is 70 mph (= miles per hour); ... built-up areas 30 mph. Careful riding is essential as there are many narrow and winding roads.

Roads ... fast long-distance driving are called motorways. The best known is the motorway ... London and Leeds. Road signs are mostly the same as those used ... the continent. The same goes ... traffic lights.

b) Speak about the traffic in this country using the word combinations in bold type.

ХII. a) Explain the meaning of these proverbs. Translate them. Give their Russian equivalents:

A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush. The game is not worth the candle. An hour in the morning is worth two in the evening. Between two evils 'tis not worth while choosing.

b) Say whether you agree with Lord Goring's opinion that "It is always worth while asking a question, though it is not always worth while answering one." (O. Wilde. "An Ideal Husband")

ХIII. Translate the sentences into English, using a) be well worth + ger/n or b) just as... so:

1. He стоит кататься сегодня по Темзе, ветер слишком сильный. 2. Стоит прислушаться к его совету. 3. Не стоит тратить время на вещи, которыми вы не интересуетесь. 4. Стоит посетить Музей науки в Лондоне и посмотреть, как дети занимаются моделированием. 5. Подобно тому как Вестминстер часто обозначает парламент Великобритании, так Сити — ее финансовый центр. 6. Подобно тому как под «гуманитарными» науками подразумевают историю, литературу, иностранные языки, так под «естественными» науками — физику, химию, ботанику и др.

XIV. Arrange micro-dialogues on the following topics:

1. How old Moscow is. Where and how it started. 2. What money is in circulation in this country. 3. What the most popular papers in Moscow are. 4. Why Muscovites like their underground railway. 5. What the most popular museums in Moscow are. What is exhibited-there? 6. What you know about parks in Moscow. 7. The traffic in the capital.

XV. a) Read and translate the text:

Apart from more important news printed on the first page with big headlines in bold type there are many other sections in the paper. Some people turn at once to classified ads (called by that name because advertisements are arranged in groups like: "to let", "property wanted", "situation vacant", etc.). For those who are interested in clothes there are fashion pages. You can find out what's on by looking in the advertisement guide. Some like to look through the whole paper reading a headline here, glancing at an interesting article there, looking at a political cartoon, maybe, or reading some of business news.

b) Answer the suggested questions:

1. Do you read papers to catch up with the latest news or are you interested in some particular problems? Why? 2. Where can we find the most important political, business and cultural news in our papers? 3. In which of our newspapers can you find advertisements? Are they classified in any way? 4. Are there any political cartoons and amusement guides in our papers? 5. Are you used to studying a newspaper thoroughly or just glancing at an article here and there?

XVI. Translate the sentences into English:

1. Докладчик говорил о будущем человечества. 2. Эта картина всегда привлекает восетителей музея. 3. Надпись на памятнике озадачила туристов: никто из них не сталкивался с древнеанглийским языком. 4. Мы удивились, когда узнали, что в Гайд-парке у Марбл-Арч любой человек может высказывать свои суждения по любому поводу, часто там можно услышать много чепухи. 5, Вот объявление, которое вам нужно, 6. Поверьте мне, этот молодой человек достоин вашего уважения. 7. Теперь в Англии в обращении фунты и пенсы. 8. 1945 год — исторический год для всего человечества 9. Каждая английская газета имеет определенный круг читателей. 10. В Лондоне, как и в любом столичном городе с большим движением, бывают дорожные происшествия. П. С Воробьевых гор открывается удивительная панорама Москвы. 12 Помещение обогревается горячей водой, циркулирующей по трубам. 13. Сотни новых домов вырастают во всех городах нашей страны. 14 Богатая коллекция произведений изобразительного и прикладного искусства привлекает посетителей этого музея. 15. Экспонаты Исторического музея в Москве знакомят посетителей с развитием цивилизации на территории России. 16. Предельная скорость в жилых районах Москвы 60 км/час.

ХVII. a) Read the text. Retell it adding some more Information about Parliament

The first Westminster Palace was built by Edward the Confessor in about 1050 and was used as a royal residence, then as the seat of Government and finally, after 1547, as the meeting place for Parliament. The fire of 1834 destroyed most of the original buildings. The new building for Parliament was designed by Sir Charles Barry in 1840. The general style is gothic.

There are two "Chambers" or "Houses" of Parliament — that of the Commons and that of the Lords. The more important and powerful of these is the House of Commons, whose members are elected by the public. The Prime Minister and most of the Government are Members of the House of Commons. The House of Lords is made up of Lords who have inherited their titles and the right to sit in the House, and "life peers" who are appointed by the Queen on the advice of the Government of the day.

Half of the building of Parliament is used by the Commons and the other half by the Lords. At the Westminster Bridge end is the residence of the Speaker, who presides over meetings of the House of Commons and at the other end is the residence of the Lord Chancellor, who presides over the House of Lords.

Parliament's most important function is the making of laws. Before a new law (or Bill) can come into effect, it must pass through three stages in each House and be given the Queen's approval. It then becomes an Act of Parliament.     (See: Mountefield A. London. Lnd., 1979)

b) Say what you know about the Russian Parliament, i. e. two chambers: the Duma and the Council of Federation.

XVIII. Give the idea of the text in English:

После более чем десяти лет споров по поводу того, стоит ли допускать телевидение в британский парламент, лорды, наконец, разрешили установить камеры в своей палате. Однако палата общин отказывается принять такое же решение. Один из основных противников телетрансляций заседаний парламента — премьер-министр М.Тэтчер. Она оправдывает свою позицию тем, что подобные передачи потребуют слишком больших затрат. Но, как считает лондонский корреспондент американской газеты «Крисчен сайенс монитор», причина упорного сопротивления Тэтчер кроется в нежелании делать достоянием гласности критические выступления в адрес ее правительства. А как заявил во время недавних дебатов лорд Уайтлоу, немалую проблему представляет и тот факт, что многие парламентарии на заседаниях попросту спят. Появление на телеэкранах дремлющих законодателей отнюдь не послужит росту их авторитета.   («За рубежом», № 9, 1985)

XIX. Read and comment on the following:

REMEMBRANCE DAY (POPPY DAY)

Remembrance Day is observed throughout Britain in commemoration of the million or more British soldiers, sailors and airmen who lost their lives during the two World Wars. On that day wreaths are laid at war memorials throughout the country and at London's Cenotaph (a war memorial in Whitehall) where a igreat number of people gather to observe the two-minute silence and to perform the annual Remembrance Day ceremony. The silence begins at the first stroke of Big Ben booming 11 o'clock and is broken only by the crash of distant artillery. When the two-minute silence is over, members of the Royal Family or their representatives and political leaders come forward to lay wreaths at the foot of theXenotaph. Then comes the march past the memorial of ex-servicemen and women, followed by an endless line of ordinary citizens who have come here with their personal wreaths and their sad memories. On that day artificial poppies, a symbol of mourning, are traditionally sold in the streets and people wear them in their button-holes.

(From Customs, Traditions and Festivals of Great Britain

by T. Khimunina, N. Konon, L. Walshe. M, 1974)

XX. a) Collect information on English traditions and customs.

b) Arrange a talk between Russian and English students on their national traditions, customs and habits. (One of the students should conduct it: introduce the participants to each other, make a short introductory speech on the subject, ask questions, etc. to keep the talk running on, sum up the discussion.)

LABORATORY EXERCISES (I)

1. listen to the text "Introducing London".

2. Respond to the following using the suggested models.

3. Complete the sentences using the given suggestions.

4. Translate the sentences into English, using the Essential Vocabulary of Unit Three. Check your sentences with the key.

5. listen to some text and write it as a dictation, check the spelling with the key. Retell the text.

6. Listen to the text "The House of Commons" or some other text on the same topic. Retell the text, add more Information on the topic.

TOPIC: CITY

TEXT A. SOME MORE GLIMPSES OF LONDON

London is one of the biggest and most interesting cities in the world.

Traditionally it is divided into the West End and the East End. The West End is famous for its beautiful avenues lined with plane trees, big stores, rich mansions, expensive restaurants, hotels, theatres and night clubs. The East End used to be a poor area filled with warehouses, factories, slums and miserable houses. Quite a lot of people lived from hand to mouth here. For the recent years this area including Dockland has turned into a new housing development.

The heart of London is the City — its commercial and business centre. Here is situated the Tower of London that comes first among the historic buildings of the city. If you want to get some glimpses of London it's just from here that you had better start sightseeing.

The Tower of London was founded by Julius Caesar and in 1066 rebuilt by William the Conqueror. It was used as a fortress, a royal residence and a prison. Now it is a museum of armour and also the place where the Crown Jewels are kept. In present days, just as many centuries ago, the Ceremony of the Keys takes place at its gates. Every night when the guard is changed at each gate there is the cry: "Haiti Who goes there?" Then the guard replies: "The Keys." "Whose Keys?" "Queen Elizabeth's Keys!" "Pass, Queen Elizabeth's Keys! All's well." And so the Tower of London is safely closed for the night.

A twenty minutes' walk from the Tower will take you to another historic building — St. Paul's Cathedral, the greatest of English churches. It was built by a famous English architect, Sir Christopher Wren (1632-1723). St. Paul's Cathedral with its huge dome and rows of columns is considered to be a fine specimen of Renaissance architecture. In one of its towers hangs one of the largest bells in the world, Great Paul, weighing about 17.5 tons. Wellington,29 Nelson30 and other great men of England are buried in the Cathedral.

Not far away, in Westminster, where most of the Government buildings are situated, is Westminster Abbey. Many English sovereigns, outstanding statesmen, painters and poets (Newton, Darwin, and Tennyson among them) are buried here.

Across the road from Westminster Abbey is Westminster Palace, the seat of the British Parliament. Its two graceful towers stand high above the city. The higher of the two contains the largest clock in the country and the famous bell Big Ben that strikes every quarter of the hour.

If now we walk along Whitehall, we shall soon come to Trafalgar Square. It was so named in memory of the victory in the battle of Trafalgar, where on October 21, 1805 the English fleet under Nelson's command defeated the combined fleet of France and Spain. The victory was won at the cost of Nelson's life. In the middle of Trafalgar Square stands Nelson's monument — a tall column with the figure of Nelson at its top. The column is guarded by four bronze lions.

The fine building facing the square is the National Gallery and adjoining it (but just round the corner) is the Portrait Gallery.

Not far away is the British Museum — the biggest Museum in London. It contains a priceless collection of different things (ancient manuscripts, coins, sculptures, etc.). The British Museum is famous for its library — one of the richest in the world.31 In its large circular reading room Marx, Engels and later Lenin used to work.

And now, even if you have almost no time left for further sightseeing, you cannot leave the city without visiting Hyde Park or "the Park" as Londoners call it. When you are walking along its shady avenues, sitting on the grass, admiring its beautiful flower-beds or watching swans and ducks floating on the ponds, it seems almost unbelievable that all around there is a large city with its heavy traffic.

TEXT B. SIGHTSEEING

— Is it possible to see anything of London in one or two days?

— Well, yes, but, of course, not half enough.

— What do you think I ought to see first?

— Well, if you are interested in churches and historic places you should go to Westminster Abbey, the Houses of Parliament, St. Paul's and the Tower. Do you like art galleries?

— Rather!

— Then why not go to the National Gallery and the Tate?

— I'm told one ought to see the British Museum. Do you think I shall have time for that?

— Well, you might, but if I were you, I should leave that for some other day. You could spend a whole day there. It's much too big to be seen in an hour or so.

— I suppose it is. What about going to the Zoo?

— That's not a bad idea. You could spend a couple of hours there comfortably, or even a whole afternoon, watching the wild animals, birds and reptiles. You could have tea there too.

— I'll do that, then. How do I get there?

— Let me see. I think your best way from here is to walk across Regent's park.

— Is it much of a walk?

— Oh, no, a quarter of an hour or so, but, if you are in a hurry, why not take a taxi?

— I think I will. Ah, here's one coming. Taxi! The Zoo, please.

(From "The Linguaphone English Course")

TEXT С. RED SQUARE

Red Square has witnessed many important events in the life of Russian people. Though time has changed the face of Red Square it' has remained the main square and the heart of the city.

Visitors from home and abroad stream here to enjoy the beauty of the historic buildings and monuments of which the Kremlin comes first. The Kremlin represents centuries of Russian history and one is usually struck by the austere and powerful appearance of its walls and towers.

Like the Tower of London the Kremlin was used as a fortress and a sovereign's residence. Now it houses the President's office and a number of museums including the Armory Chamber and the Diamond Fund.

In the centre of the square by the Kremlin wall is the Lenin Mausoleum, erected in 1930 by A. Shchusev. The architect interpreted the traditions of the pyramids in a modem way and gave the monument a laconic architectural form which was popular in the twenties. Behind the Mausoleum there is a necropolis of some outstanding statesmen and political leaders.

On the southern side of Red Square is St. Basil's Cathedral (Vasily Blazheny), a masterpiece of ancient Russian architecture. It was built in 1555 — 61 in memory of the victory over Kazan (1552). The monument standing in front of the Cathedral tells us of the people's victory over the Polish invaders in 1612. The inscription on the monument reads: "To Citizen Minin and Prince Pozharsky from a grateful Russia". The monument is the work of I. Martos (1752—1835). Not far from the Cathedral is what is called the Lobnoye Mesto, a platform of white stone more than 400 years old. The tsar's edicts were proclaimed there. Public executions were carried out on a wooden scaffold erected nearby. To the right of the Cathedral on the territory of the Kremlin we can see a tall tower, more like a column, over 80 metres high. It is the Bell Tower of Ivan the Great built in the 15th century. There are twenty-two large bells and over thirty small ones in it. For centuries the eastern side of Red Square had been associated with trading. The first stone shops were built here in the 16th century. Today on their site stands the State Department Store, better known as GUM.

If we walk up from St. Basil's to the opposite end of the square we face a red brick building. This is the History Museum. In the west Red Square is adjoining the Kremlin. Just on the other side of the Kremlin wall we can see the building of the former Senate, an outstanding architectural monument built by Matvei Kasakov (1738—1813), now the seat of the Administration of the President. A number of watch-towers protect the Kremlin bridges. The white Kutafya Tower is the best survivor of all of them. The tallest one is the Trinity Tower (80 m high). But the Spasskaya Tower with the Kremlin clock has long since become one of the symbols of Moscow.

Memory Work

Sonnet Composed upon Westminster Bridge

Earth has not anything to show more fair:

Dull would he be of soul who could pass by

A sight so touching in its majesty:

This City now doth like a garment wear

The beauty of the morning; silent, bare,

Ships, towers, domes, theatres, and temples lie

Open unto the fields, and to the sky:

All bright and glittering in the smokeless air.

Never did sun more beautifully steep

In his first splendor, valley, rock or hill;

Ne'er saw I, never felt, a calm so deep!

The river glideth at bis own sweet will:

Dear God! the very houses seem asleep;

And all that mighty heart is lying still!    William Wordsworth

ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (II)

Words

adjoin υ    defeat υ   jewel n  architecture n   dome n 

mansion n   armour n   erect υ   residence n   avenue n 

float υ    seat n   bury υ   fortress n    shady adj

change υ    guard υ   specimen n  cathedral n    huge adj

statesman n   contain υ

Word Combinations

to live from hand to mouth    to win the victory

to be lined with (trees, houses)    at the cost of smb.'s life

to be found (in some place)    at the top

a new housing development    round the corner

to have (get, catch) a glimpse of  to be famous for smth.

to have no time (money, etc.) left  in present days      

across the road (from some place)  Why not do smth.?

to do the sights of smth.    in memory of

to do the city (museums, parks, etc.)  under the command      

Proper Names

the Lenin Mausoleum  Big Ben   the East End    Trafalgar Square

the Tower of London   the Kremlin   Julius Caesar   the West End

William the Conqueror   St. Basil's Cathedral  Queen Elizabeth   the Bell Tower

Christopher Wren   of Ivan the Great  Wellington    

the History Museum  Westminster Abbey   the Spasskaya Tower

EXERCISES

I. Study Text A and explain the meaning of the words and phrases listed below:

mansion, to live from hand to mouth, miserable houses, to line the streets, dome, slums, to come first, the Crown Jewels, huge, statesman, across the road, the seat (of the government), at the cost of somebody's life, to face smth., shady avenues.

II. Learn the words of the texts and a) copy and transcribe these words:

mansion, restaurant, jewel, guard, halt, column, ton, sovereign, national, float, sculpture, swan, weigh, conqueror, specimen.

b) Translate into English and mark the stresses:

отель, церемония, Возрождение, Трафальгарская площадь, рукопись, проспект, архитектор, Елизавета, сенат.

c) Form derivatives of these verbs by adding the prefix re- (meaning "do smth. again"):

Example: build — rebuild

write, tell, construct, arm, elect, produce.

III. Answer the questions:

1. How do the two parts of London differ from each other? 2. Why is it better to start sightseeing from the Tower of London? 3. Who founded the Tower and when was it rebuilt? 4. What was the Tower of London used for? 5. What is the City? 6. What does the phrase "a place of interest" mean? 7. What do you know about St. Paul's Cathedral? 8. What is Whitehall and in which part of London is it situated? 9. What does the Ceremony of the Keys consist of? 10. What do you call the building in which the Houses of Parliament are situated? It is one building, why then do we say "The Houses of Parliament"? 11. What is Big Ben? 12. What kind of museum is the British Museum? 13. What do you know about Hyde Park?

IV. Read the text and show all the places of interest mentioned there on the map:

Trafalgar Square is the natural centre of London. Could we but stand 168 feet (about 50 metres) above the traffic, beside the figure of the Admiral, we really could see all the great landmarks of London. Whitehall, which leads out of the square to the south, is the site of many Government offices including the Prime Minister's residence, Foreign Office, War Office; at the far end of Whitehall stand, beside the Thames, the Houses of Parliament with the Big Clock Tower, and Westminster Abbey; to the left Covent Garden fruit market and Covent Garden Opera House, and beyond the Bank of England; another slight turn left would enable your eye to fall on the British Museum; further left still we should see theatreland around Piccadilly Circus (it is not at all a circus but an open space of a circular form) and those expensive shopping promenades — Regent Street, Oxford Street, Bond Street; a little further, and into view would come Hyde Park in the distance, with, nearer, Buckingham Palace, and Royal Drive known as the Mall, which leads into Trafalgar Square.

V. Use Text В to practise similar conversations on Moscow.

VI. Read and retell:

A. The famous square mile of the City of London is administered as an independent unit, having its own Lord Mayor and Corporation and its own police force. It was here that the Romans built their walled town of Londinium, a few traces of which remain today, and it was here that the Medieval guilds established their headquarters. When after the Great Fire of 1666, the City was rebuilt, stone and brick replaced the many mainly wooden medieval houses and from that time the City gradually became a financial and commercial centre.

B. One of the special joys of London is the amount of space given over to parks, gardens, squares and open areas. They provide a welcome visual and physical break from the mass of buildings and the heavy traffic. Kew Gardens are famous Botanic Gardens on the banks of the Thames. The gardens and hothouses with rare flowers, trees and shrubs are well worth seeing. Within a stone's throw of Buckingham Palace are St. James's Park and Green Park. St. James's Park, the oldest in London, was created by Henry VIII and redesigned by his successors. Green Park, as its name suggests, mainly consists of lawns and trees.

(From Colourful London. Norwich, 1981)

VII. Make up short situations or dialogues, using tne following words and phrases:

1. why not..., let me see, to be found, across the road, to have no (time, money) left; 2. in present days, to live from hand to mouth; 3. under the command of, to be famous for, to defeat, to win the victory, at the cost of; 4. fortress, armour, in memory of, to contain; 5. swan, lined with trees, float, shady avenues, ancient.

VIII. Fill in prepositions:

Scotland Yard is the headquarters ... the Metropolitan Police ... London. ...most people, its name immediately brings ... mind the picture ... a detective — cool, collected, efficient, ready to track down any criminal.

Scotland Yard is situated ... the Thames Embankment close ... the Houses ... Parliament and the familiar clock tower ... Big Ben. The name "Scotland Yard" originates ... the plot ... land adjoining Whitehall Palace where, ... about the 14th century, the royalty and nobility ... Scotland stayed when visiting the English Court. The popular nickname ... the London policeman "bobby" is a tribute ... Sir Robert Peel, who introduced the police force ... 1829, and whose Christian name attached itself ... members ... the force.

IX. Review Text "Introducing London", texts A, B, Exercises IV, VI, VIII and study the map of London. Speak on the given topics:

1. London dominates British life. 2. The West End. 3. The East End. 4. The City. 5. The Tower. 6. The district of Westminster. 7. The British Parliament. 8. Whitehall and Fleet Street. 9. Trafalgar Square. 10. St. Paul's Cathedral. 11. The parks of London. 12. London museums. 13. London traffic. 14. Monuments in London.

X. Translate into English:

1. В самом центре Сити, напротив главного банка Англии, стоит статуя Веллингтона — знаменитого английского генерала и государственного деятеля XIX в. Под его командованием английские войска совместно со своими союзниками (allies) нанесли поражение армии Наполеона под Ватерлоо в 1815 г. Мост Ватерлоо, один из красивейших мостов через Темзу, был назван так в честь этой победы. 2. Мэлл (The Mall) — это широкий проспект, обсаженный деревьями, ведущий от Трафальгарской площади к Букингемскому дворцу — резиденции английских королей. Напротив дворца стоит огромный памятник со статуей Победы наверху. Этот памятник был воздвигнут в честь королевы Виктории, чье шестидесятичетырехлетнее царствование (reign) было самым продолжительным в истории (1837—1901). 3. Хайгейтское кладбище (Highgate Cemetery) известно тем, что там находится могила Карла Маркса. В 1956 году на деньги, присланные рабочими со всех концов света, там был воздвигнут памятник Карлу Марксу.

XI. Read Text С. Say what landmarks you would mention to a group of tourists standing in the middle of Red Square. Use the word combinations given below:

to witness, the heart of the city, the face of Red Square, the seat of the Administration of the President, to honour the memory, to stream to, public executions, the beating of the heart of our capital,

ХII. Act out a dialogue between a Russian tourist and a policeman. Choose the exact place (in Moscow or elsewhere) where you are having your talk and the place you want to get to. Use in your dialogue one or two phrases from each set given below:

1. Excuse me, I've lost my way ...; I'm trying to go to ...; Which is the right (best, shortest) way to ...? Please show me the way to ...; How do I get there? Am I on the right road? 2. How far is it? Is it possible to walk there? Is there a bus from here to ...? Is it much of a walk? 3. Go right to the end of the street, then turn left, go two blocks straight ahead and then turn to ... ; Straight on and the second turning to the right ...; You are going in the opposite direction. 4. What can I do for you? Now, where is it you want to go? It's a long distance off. It's a long (short) way to ...; It's quite a distance from here. 5. Be careful, the traffic keeps to the left in this country; Look out; It isn't safe to cross here; Be sure not to cross the street (square, etc.); One can never be too careful; Wait for the break in the traffic; Don't cross the street when the traffic light has changed to red.

XIII. Try your band at teaching.

1. Read the text. Discuss what you would do in the teacher's position:

Susan was absolutely impossible. Or so her teacher was convinced, for Susan did not like to read (a problem every teacher faces from time to time). But there were things that Susan did enjoy. She liked ballet. And she adored her dog Curly. "How can I," thought the teacher, "introduce Susan to pleasures of reading?"

2. Get 4-5 pictures of London (Moscow) attractions and be ready to comment on them. (See "Classroom English", Sections II, Ш, V.)

ХIV. Translate the following sentences into English:

1. Из окна такси вы можете увидеть Лондон лишь мельком. Есть много других способов ознакомиться с его достопримечательностями: можно походить по городу пешком, можно отправиться в двухчасовую поездку на туристском автобусе, курсирующем по Лондону, можно посмотреть город с верхней площадки двухэтажного автобуса; кроме того, можно совершить речную поездку по Темзе или Большому каналу в Риджентс-Парк. 2. Если бы вы смогли пролететь над Москвой на вертолете (helicopter), вы бы увидели, как изменилась и выросла наша столица: длинные, обсаженные деревьями проспекты, пересекают город во всех направлениях, кварталы новых многоэтажных домов появились на окраинах города на месте старых деревянных домиков, темных от копоти и дыма.  Над многочисленными стройками (building sites) столицы возвышаются огромные подъемные краны (cranes). 3. Метро — самый удобный вид городского транспорта. Сотни тысяч москвичей и приезжих ежедневно поднимаются и спускаются по его эскалаторам, восхищаются архитектурой и отделкой (decoration) чудесных подземных дворцов. 4. Памятник А. С. Пушкину, установленный на Страстной (ныне Пушкинской) площади, — один из самых любимых памятников жителей столицы. У его подножия вы всегда увидите букеты живых цветов, которые приносят сюда москвичи, чтобы почтить память любимого поэта.

XV. Act out a dialogue between a Muscovite and a Londoner on his first visit to Moscow. Imagine that you are standing in the middle of Red Square. Your companion asks you about everything be sees, gives his opinion about this and that and says what buildings, monuments, etc. remind him of London. Use the prompts of Ex. VII. p. 111.

XVI. a) Get ready to read the text aloud, b) Write a translation of the text:

Morning City

This was one of those mornings when the smoke and the Thames Valley mist decide to work a few miracles for their London, and especially for the oldest part of it, the City. The City, on these mornings, is an enchantment. There is a faintly luminous haze, now silver, now old gold, over everything. The buildings have shape and solidity but no weight; they hang in the air, like palaces out of the Arabian Nights; you could topple the dome off St. Paul's with a forefinger, push back the Mansion House, send the Monument floating into space. On these mornings, the old churches cannot be counted; there are more of them than ever. There is no less traffic than usual; the scarlet stream of buses still flows through the ancient narrow streets; the pavements are still thronged with bank messengers, office boys, policemen, clerks, typists, commissionaires, directors, secretaries, crooks, busy-bodies, idlers; but on these mornings all the buses, taxicabs, vans, lorries and all the pedestrians lose something of their ordinary solidity; they move behind gauze; they are tyred in velvet; their voices are muted; their movement is in slow motion. Whatever is new and vulgar and foolish contrives to lose itself in the denser patches of mist. But all the glimpses of ancient loveliness are there, perfectly framed and lighted: round every corner somebody is whispering a line or two of Chaucer. And on these mornings, the river is simply not true: there is no geography, nothing but pure poetry, down there; the water has gone and shapes out of an adventurous dream drift by on a tide of gilded and silvered air. Such is the City on one of these mornings, a place in a Gothic fairy tale, a mirage, a vision.

(From "They Walk in the City" by J. B. Priestley. Abridged)

XVII. Role-playing:

A group of guides suggests possible sightseeing routes about London (Moscow) to their office director. Each one speaks in favour of his/her suggestion trying to convince both the director and the guides that the route is the best. In the end the participants of the talk choose the most appropriate route.

XVIII. Describe (in writing) a sight or a view that once struck yon as picturesque, beautiful or unusual.

The best essays may be read in class and then placed in a wall paper, a special bulletin issued by the literary club, etc.

Note: The text above may serve as a perfect example of such description

XIX. Film: "Mr. Brown's Holiday." Film segment 3 "In Dear Old England" (Broadstairs). a) Watch and listen, b) Do the exercises from the guide to the film.

STUDIES OF WRITTEN ENGLISH (III)

The central idea of a paragraph is built up with the help of larger units than key-words, that is with the help of socalled topic sentences.

Topic sentence is a summarizing sentence of a paragraph. Topic sentences can also be used to tie up a group of paragraphs together holding the unity of a passage.

Generally the topic sentence comes first in a paragraph. It helps to understand the text and begin writing, е.g. "Numerous artificial languages have been carefully constructed and some of them are still in limited use. In 1887, an artificial language, Esperanto, was created. Esperanto has little grammar and drew its vocabulary from all the European languages..." (From "One Language for the World" by M. Pei). The writer proceeds from a general statement to particulars.

Occasionally the topic sentence comes last, when the writer wishes first to prepare his reader for the general idea or a conclusion, е.g. "You're like two friends who want to take their holiday together, but one of them wants to climb Greenland's snowy mountains while the other wants to fish off India's coral strand. Obviously it's not going to work" (From "The Razor's Edge" by W. S. Maugham).

Assignments:

1. Read the passage "Introducing London" and mark paragraphs with topic sentences. What central idea do they summarize? Where are they placed within the paragraph?

2. Find the topic sentence that holds the unity of the whole passage.

3. Mark the key-words that emphasize the main points of the information about London.

4. Paragraph 8 includes the key-word "parks", develop it into a topic sentence summarizing the central idea of the paragraph.

5. Write a paragraph describing the picture on pp. 114-115. Try your hand at various topic sentences that help to hold the unity of the paragraph.

LABORATORY EXERCISES (II)

1. Listen to the text "Some More Glimpses of London."

2. Listen to the dialogue "Sightseeing". Repeat the text in the intervals and record your versions.

Compare your version with the original and correct your pronunciation mistakes if any.

3. Translate the sentences into English, check them with the key.

4. Listen to the test "Behind the Scenes" or some other text on the topic "London". Discuss the text in class.

5. Listen to the "Sonnet Composed upon Westminster Bridge". Mark the stresses and tunes. Learn it by heart.

CURIOSITY QUIZ FOR EAGERS

1. Why is the clock on the Clock Tower of the Houses of Parliament called "Big Ben"?

2. What is the "Cenotaph"? Where can it be found? What is the origin of the name?

3. The security of the Tower of London is mainly the responsibility of the Yeomen Warders or "Beefeaters" as they are popularly called. What is the origin of the word "Beefeater"?

4. What is the "Union Jack"? What does it look like? What is its origin? Where and when can it be seen?

5. Name five of the numerous bridges which cross the Thames. Show them on the map of London and comment on their names.

6. What is "Soho"? Where is it situated? What are its peculiar features?

UNIT FOUR

I SPEECH PATTERNS

1. Mother is hardly ever able to have a treat like that.

a) They are hardly ever able to go sightseeing.

One is hardly ever able to get tickets for this show.

We are hardly ever able to talk to each other alone.

He was hardly ever able to catch the 6.30 train home.

b) You'll hardly be able to get to the British Museum today before the closing hours.

She will hardly be able to get over her fear of heavy traffic.

2. Father was afraid that Mother might take cold if she came.

I thought that she might spoil her complexion if she went on smoking.

He said we might be late if the bus didn't come soon.

Edward hoped he might meet the girl again if he came every day to the street she lived in.

The policeman told the boy he might be run over if he was careless when crossing the street.

3. We all felt that if would never do to let Father stay home.

It will never do to underline words in a library book.

It will never do to throw cigarette-ends on the floor.

Why are you shouting at the top of your voices?

It will never do. You have treated her very badly.

Rudeness will never do.

The boy said it would never do for a young girl to use so much make-up.

4. That kept Mother busy for a little while.

At night I always keep my window open.

They never keep their door shut.

Keep your feet warm or you'll catch cold.

He kept his room scrupulously clean.

She told the child an interesting story to keep him awake.

Keeping the child warm is not the same thing as keeping him healthy.

EXERCISES

I. Paraphrase toe following, using some of the patterns above:

Pattern 1: 1. It is not often that our mother goes to the theatre. 2. It is not often that our students can listen to native English speech. 3. She very seldom can afford to get herself a new dress. 4. They cannot afford to spend their holiday at the seaside. 5. He can never refuse helping his comrades.

Pattern 3: 1. It is bad manners to stare at people. 2. The teacher said it was impolite and rude to hand in homework written carelessly. 3. "I say, Turner, I don't like the way you treat your comrades. It's too bad." 4. My mother said that it was too bad to let her do all the work alone. 5. It is wicked to hurt animals. 6. "You have come unprepared again. It is unpardonable," said the teacher.

II. Describe toe following situations in one sentence, using Pattern 2:

Example:  In such cold weather it was easy for the child to catch cold, if he went for a walk. That was the cause of the mother's fear.

The mother was afraid that the child might catch cold if he went for a walk in such cold weather.

1. She worked very little during the term, and it was quite possible for her to fail at her examination. We all told her so. 2. It was hardly possible to let the boy stay at home alone. He could make trouble if he did. We all knew that. 3. She worked too hard, and her friends were afraid that it would result in her falling ill. 4. The mother wanted the boy to become a great pianist, and so she made him practise day and night. 5. We wanted to go and see our sick friend, but the doctor didn't allow that saying that there was a chance of our catching the disease.

III. Supply adjectives:

1. It is dangerous to keep the windows ... during a thunderstorm. 2. She kept her door ... and didn't let anyone in. 3. Put the lemonade in the refrigerator to keep it.... 4. The epidemic was at its height, and all the doctors of the town were kept.... 5. I put the tulips in the water to keep them .... 6. Keep your eyes ... and your mouth ... . ?. This fur coat is sure to keep you ... in any frost. 8. What is the teacher to do to keep his pupils ...?

IV. Translate the sentences into English, using the patterns:

1. He годится обижать младших. 2. Нам почти никогда не удается выбраться за город в выходной день. 3. Я говорила тебе, что ты можешь заболеть, если промочишь ноги. 4. Не давайте пациенту спать, пока не придет врач. 5. Нехорошо пользоваться телефоном для глупых шуток. 6. Займите детей и не давайте им шуметь, пока я разговариваю по телефону. 7. В такой жаркий день надо держать окна открытыми. 8. Нельзя курить так много, ты подорвешь свое здоровье. 9. Джон написал своему другу, что он возможно навестит его в следующем году.

V. Make up dialogues or situations, using the patterns.

TEXT. HOW WE KEPT MOTHER'S DAY by Stephen Leacock

Leacock, Stephen (1869-1944) — a famous Canadian writer of the 20th century. His stories, full of humour and sarcasm, expose the contradictions of life in modem bourgeois society.

Leacock says that the basis of humour lies in the contrasts offered by life itself, but "the deep background that lies behind and beyond what we call humour is revealed only to the few who. by instinct or by effort have given thought to it."

So we decided to have a special celebration of Mother's Day. We thought it a fine idea. It made us all realize how much Mother had done for us for years, and all the efforts and sacrifice that she had made for our sake.

We decided that we'd make it a great day, a holiday for all the family, and do everything we could to make Mother happy. Father decided to take a holiday from his office, so as to help in celebrating the day, and my sister Anne and I stayed home from college classes, and Mary and my brother Will stayed home from High School.

It was our plan to make it a day just like Xmas32 or any big holiday, and so we decided to decorate the house with flowers and with mottoes over the mantelpieces,33 and all that kind of thing. We got Mother to make mottoes and arrange the decorations, because she always does it at Xmas.

The two girls thought it would be a nice thing to dress in our very best for such a big occasion and so they both got new hats. Mother trimmed both the hats, and they looked fine, and Father had bought silk ties for himself and us boys as a souvenir of the day to remember Mother by. We were going to get Mother a new hat too, but it turned out that she seemed to really like her old grey bonnet better than a new one, and both the girls said that it was awfully becoming to her.

Well, after breakfast we had it arranged as a surprise for Mother that we would hire a motor car and take her for a beautiful drive away into the country. Mother is hardly ever able to have a treat like that, because we can only afford to keep one maid, and so Mother is busy in the house nearly all the time.

But on the very morning of the day we changed the plan a little bit, because it occurred to Father that a thing it would be better to do even than to take Mother for a motor drive would be to take her fishing; if you are going to fish, there is a definite purpose in front of you to heighten the enjoyment.

So we all felt that it would be nicer for Mother to have a definite purpose; and anyway, it turned out that Father had just got a new rod the day before.

So we got everything arranged for the trip, and we got Mother to cut up some sandwiches34 and make up a sort of lunch in case we got hungry, though of course we were to come back home again to a big dinner in the middle of the day, just like Xmas or New Year's Day. Mother packed it all up in a basket for us ready to go in the motor.

Well, when the car came to the door, it turned out that there hardly seemed as much room in it as we had supposed.

Father said not to mind him, he said that he could just as well stay home; and that he was sure that he could put in the time working in the garden; he said that we were not to let the fact of his not having had a real holiday for three years stand in our way; he wanted us to go right ahead and be happy and have a big day.

But of course we all felt that it would never do to let Father stay home, especially as we knew he would make trouble if he did. The two girls, Anne and Mary, would gladly have stayed and helped the maid get dinner, only it seemed such a pity to, on a lovely day like this, having their new hats. But they both said that Mother had only to say the word, and they'd gladly stay home and work. Will and I would have dropped out, hut unfortunately we wouldn't have been any use in getting the dinner.

So in the end it was decided that Mother would stay home and just have a lovely restful day round the house, and get the dinner. It turned out anyway that Mother doesn't care for fishing, and also it was just a little bit cold and fresh out of doors, though it was lovely and sunny, and Father was rather afraid that Mother might take cold if she came.

So we all drove away with three cheers for Mother, and Father waved his hand back to her every few minutes till he hit his hand on the back edge of the car, and then said that he didn't think that Mother could see us any longer.

Well, — we had the loveliest day up among the hills that you could possibly imagine.

It was quite late when we got back, nearly seven o'clock in the evening, but Mother had guessed that we would be late, so she had kept back the dinner so as to have it just nicely ready and hot for us. Only first she had to get towels and soap for Father and clean things for him to put on, because he always gets so messed up with fishing, and that kept Mother busy for a little while, that and helping the girls get ready.

But at last everything was ready, and we sat down to the grandest kind of dinner — roast turkey and all sorts of things like on Xmas Day. Mother had to get up and down a good bit during the meal fetching things back and forward.

The dinner lasted a long while, and was great fun, and when it was over all of us wanted to help clear the things up and wash the dishes, only Mother said that she would really much rather do it, and so we let her, because we wanted just for once to humour her.

It was quite late, when it was all over, and when we all kissed Mother before going to bed, she said it had been the most wonderful day in her life, and I think there were tears in her eyes. So we all felt awfully repaid for all that we had done.

VOCABULARY NOTES

1. to get (got, got) υt/i 1. доставать, добывать; to get smb. smth., to get smth. for smb., е.g. I can get this book for you. (I can get you this book.)

2. получать, е.g. Did you get ( = receive) my telegram?

3. покупать, приобретать, е.g. The two girls got new hats.

4. прибывать, добираться, достигать, е.g. We cannot get to Moscow tonight. It was very late when he got home.

5. приготовить, подготовить, обеспечить, е.g. It was decided that Mother would stay home and get the dinner ( = get it ready).

6. заставить кого-л. что-л. сделать, добиться, чтобы кто-л. что-л. сделал, е.g. We got Mother to arrange the decorations.

7. становиться (as a link-verb), е.g. It was getting dark when we arrived at the station. I got very cold while waiting in the street.

Syn. to become

to get smth. done, е.g. I got everything arranged in time.

have got = have, e, g. I have got something to tell you. I haven't got the book you're talking about (cf.: I have no books by this author.).

N о t e: In modern conversational English the word combination have got in the meaning of иметь, обладать is used much more often than the verb have m the same meaning, especially with a concrete object.

have got to do smth., е.g. I have got to (= must) finish my work in time. It has got to be done.

to get back = to come back, е.g. At what time shall we get back?

to get over a disease (fear, difficulties, grief, etc.), е.g. Don't worry, the child will soon get over his illness.

to get up and down, е.g. Mother had to get up and down a good bit during the meal fetching things back and forward.

to get on smb.'s nerves, е.g. Don't get up and down every minute, you're getting on my nerves.

2. to turn υt/i 1. вращать(ся), поворачивать(ся), вертеться), е.g. At hearing her voice I turned (turned my head). The car turned the corner.

2. превращать(ся), изменять(ся) (into smth.), е.g. The water in the pond turned into ice as the night had been frosty.

to turn away (from smb. or smth.) отвернуться (от)

to turn back повернуть назад

to turn inside out вывернуть(ся) наизнанку, е.g. My umbrella turned inside out in the wind.

to turn out оказаться, е.g. He turned out a bad actor. The day turned out (to be) a fine one. It turned out that there were no vacant seats in the bus.

as it turned out... = as it happened

to turn over перевернуть(ся), е.g. He turned over a page. He turned over in bed.

to turn up (по)явиться, прийти, е.g. We expected him to join us, but he never turned up.

to turn smth. upside down перевернуть вверх дном, разбросать, е.g. Someone has turned everything upside down in my drawer.

3. to treat υt 1. обращать(ся), обходиться, относиться; to treat smb. well, kindly, coldly, etc., е.g. Don't treat me as if I were a child. Better treat his words as a joke. You treat" the matter too lightly.

2. лечить; to treat smb. for smth. with smth., е.g. Who treated your child for scarlet fever? What medicine are you treated with?

3. угощать чем-n. (перен. доставлять удовольствие); to treat smb. to smth., е.g. I'll treat you all to (= I'll buy you) some ice-cream. Wouldn't you like him to treat you ( = to pay for your ticket) to a ballet? I shall treat myself to a week-end holiday.

treat n 1. удовольствие, наслаждение, е.g. I've never had a treat like that! What a treat it is not to have to get up early! Every chance to listen to good music is a great treat to her.

2. угощение

treatment n 1. обращение (с кем-n.), е.g. Her treatment of the pupils is always kind and patient, (prep, "of")

2. лечение, е.g. Have you heard of a new treatment for pneumonia? (prep, "for")

4. afford υt (быть в состоянии) позволить себе (usu. with can, could, be able to)

smth.;  е.g. I can't afford time for movies.

to afford

to do smth.,  е.g. Can you afford to go away for a holiday?

5. to keep (kept, kept) υt/i 1. держать (в разных смыслах); а) хранить, е.g. She always keeps old letters.; b) задержать, не отдавать, е.g. You may keep the book, I don't want it yet.; с) (с) держать (слово и т. п.), е.g. Не always keeps his promise.; d) содержать, е.g. Mr. Watson had a wife and family to keep.; e) задержать, заставить ждать, е.g. I'm sorry I kept you waiting.

2. праздновать, справлять, е.g. "How We Kept Mother's Day"; She always keeps her birthday.

to keep smth. + adj., е.g. This work kept the children busy. You must keep your feet warm.

to keep to smth., е.g. Keep to the diet. Let's keep to the middle of the road.

to keep on doing smth., е.g. She kept on writing when I came in (not used of a state, but only of activities. Cf.: He kept on standing up. But He remained standing.).

to keep smb. from doing smth., е.g. It kept me from Joining you.

to keep (smth.) back, е.g. The young men kept the crowd back. I'm sure he is keeping something back (= not telling all; concealing something). Mother had guessed that we would be late, so she had kept back the dinner.

6. to occur υi 1. случаться, происходить, е.g. Such incidents occur every day. It must never occur again.

2. приходить на ум, е.g. It occurred to me that something might be wrong with her. Didn't it occur to you to close the window to keep the noise back?

7. to enjoy υi получать удовольствие, наслаждаться, е.g. I enjoyed the trip very much. I've enjoyed seeing you.

to enjoy oneself, е.g. I enjoyed myself at the concert last night.

enjoyment n удовольствие, наслаждение

8. fun n 1. веселье, забава, развлечение, е.g. Children are fond of fun. What fun we had when we were together! He is full of fun.

to make fun of высмеивать, подшучивать, е.g. He's fond of making fun of people. Nobody likes to be made fun of.

to do smth. in (for) fun делать что-л. в шутку, е.g. I said it only in (for) fun.

2. предмет шуток, источник веселья, удовольствия, е.g. The party (your friend) was great fun.

funny adj смешной, забавный, е.g. I have a funny story to tell you.

NOTES ON STYLE

1. In Leacock's story "How We Kept Mother's Day" you will find numerous words and phrases of informal functional style (See Note A on p. 52), е.g. all that kind of thing (cf. the Russian «и все такое»), awfully (in "awfully becoming", cf. the Russian «ужас как идет; потрясающе к лицу»), a little bit («чуть-чуть»), have a big day («здорово провести время»), get messed up («перемазаться, вывозиться в грязи»), the dinner... was great fun («весело было за обедом»), etc.

Note also the interjection well introducing some of the passages (which normally occurs in oral speech), the omission of the conjunction that and the syntax imitating that of oral communication by its free and careless structures.

2. The story presents an interesting example of the indirect method of characterization. The author does not say directly that the members of the family were selfish, callous and hard-hearted people (that would be the direct method of characterization) but makes them act and lets the reader draw his own conclusion.

3. "How We Kept Mother's Day" is a humorous story. Humour in fiction may be of two principal types. It may be humour of situation when the author makes us laugh at certain funny or absurd facts, е.g. the members of the family buying presents for themselves on Mother's Day, but buying nothing for their mother. There is also humour of words when the reader does not laugh at what is happening in the story but at how it is put by the author. E. g. But of course we all felt that it would never do to let Father stay at home, especially as we knew he would make trouble if he did.

ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (I)

Words

afford υ  funny adj  repay υ effort n  

get υ  sacrifice υ, n enjoy υ  guess υ  

treat υ, n especially adv  hire υ  treatment n

fetch υ  keep υ  trim υ fun n  

occur υ  turn υ purpose n  unfortunately adv

Word Combinations

for smb.'s sake  to get over smth.

to stay (at) home from college (classes, school) to take smb. for a drive

to dress in one's best (worst) in case

just as well to stand (be) in smb.'s way

for such an occasion  to make trouble

to turn out   to be no use

in the end   to get on smb.'s nerves

to care for smb. (or smth.)  to turn inside out

to keep back  to turn over

for a little (short, long)  to turn up

while   to turn upside down

to get up and down  for (in) fun

to get to some place  to make fun of smb.

EXERCISES

1. Read Text of Unit Four and the Notes on Style and talk on the following points (A. Grammar, B. Word usage. С. Style):

A. 1. Which verbs used in the text are modal verbs? Comment on their meanings and translate the sentences in which they are used.

2. What are the meanings of the verbs to get, to make, to keep, to take in the text? (Translate the sentences with these verbs.)

3. Mother and Father are capitalized and used without articles in the text. How would you use the words in reported speech (oral and written)?

B. 1. in the phrases to decorate the house and to trim the hats we have two different equivalents of «украшать». What can be trimmed or decorated?

2. We say in the morning (evening, afternoon), but in the phrase "on the very morning of the day" on is used. Why? (Cf: on that evening, on the morning of his arrival.)

C. 1. Point out as many colloquial words and phrases as you can find. Supply their Russian equivalents if possible. What is the author's purpose in introducing so many units of informal style?

2. Point out the passages which characterize the members of the family and their real attitude to the mother. What is the method of characterization used by the author?

3. Which sentences or passages bear touches of humour? Try to explain how the humorous effect is achieved in each case. Which type of humour prevails in the story? (See Notes on Style.)

II. a) Search the text for English equivalents of the phrases listed below and write them ia your exercise book:

отмечать (праздновать) День Матери, не пойти в школу, одеться по-праздничному (принарядиться), взять напрокат машину, почти все время, на случай если.... мог бы с таким же успехом остаться дома, скоротать время, от нас бы не было никакой пользы, ушибить руку обо что-нибудь, убирать со стола, хотя бы на этот раз, обед продолжался долго, ради такого случая, в такой чудесный день, повезти ее на машине за город, вернуться домой к праздничному обеду, не так уж много места, не годится оставлять отца дома, выяснилось, что все равно.,., махал ей рукой, сели обедать, приносить и уносить что-л., мы чувствовали себя вполне вознагражденными за...

b) Get the student sitting next to yon translate half of the Russian phrases into English (in writing) and check them with the key in your notebook. Translate the other half yourself and ask your neighbour to correct your translation.

III. Translate in writing these passages. Compare and discuss different variants of students' translation:

1. It occurred to Father that a thing it would be better to do even than to take Mother for a motor drive would be to take her fishing; if you are going to fish, there is a definite purpose in front of you to heighten the enjoyment. 2. Father said not to mind him, he said that he could just as well stay home; he said that we were not to let the fact of his not having had a real holiday for three years stand in our way,

IV. Try your hand at teaching:

A. Preparation. Pick out from the text all the words with the letter g in them. Classify them according to the way g is pronounced and put them down in columns. Make up a list of words to illustrate the same rules.

B. Work in Class. a) Show the table to the class and let the students comment on it.

b) Dictate the words in class with one student writing them on the board. Correct the mistakes on the board. (See 'Classroom English", Sections IV, VII, VIII.)

V. a) Write the words below in the Past Indefinite. Classify them into two groups: one with the final г doubled, the other one with one final r  in the Past Indefinite.

b) Explain to the students when the final r should be doubled:

enter, occur, offer, remember, clear, refer [rI`fE:], cheer, bar, utter [`Atq], star, prefer, stir [stE:].

VI. a) Write an outline of the text (see Ex. IX on p. 59). (The outline may be written in the Present or Past Indefinite tenses.)

b) Discuss the outlines written by several students and choose the best one. Improve it by using some variants from other students' works. Write it down on the board and make the students copy it in their exercise books.

VII. Write two questions to each item of the outline: one should help to reveal the contradictions between what the members of the family said and did, the other (with a modal verb) — what they could or ought to have done.

e.g. 1. Did the girls really think that their mother's old bonnet was "awfully becoming" to her? 2. Don't you think they should have bought something for their mother too? (Make the students reason out their answers.)

VIII. Study the Vocabulary Notes end Essential Vocabulary (I) and a) Paraphrase the following (in writing):

1. to make smb. do smth.; 2. to have smth. arranged; 3. to recover after a disease; 4. to stand up and sit down; 5. to look in the opposite direction; 6. to come to one's mind; 7. to appear unexpectedly; 8, a great pleasure; 9. at last; 10. to be able (to spend money on smth., etc.); 11. to continue to do smth.; 12. not to let smb. do smth.; 13. to conceal some tact; 14. to enjoy oneself; 15. to love (take interest in); 16. for a short time; 17. to take a taxi; 18. to become dirty; 19. to laugh at (mock) smb.; 20. to get other people into a mess.

b) Make op sentences with the phrases yea have written.

IX. A word in one language may have different equivalents in another.

е.g. место — room, place жертва — sacrifice, victim   приносить — fetch, bring

a) Look op the words given above in an English-Russian dictionary,  find out the exact meaning of each pair of words and write sentences illustrating the difference in their use.

b) Ask the students to translate the Russian variants of your sentences.

X. Translate the sentences into English using Essential Vocabulary (1);

1. Какое удовольствие слушать ее пение! 2. После концерта детей угощали чаем с пирожными. 3. Выключи радио, эта музыка действует мне на нервы. 4. Я повернула за угол и столкнулась лицом к липу со своей подругой. 5. Почему нужно переворачивать все вверх дном, чтобы найти какой-то пустяк? 6. Мальчика лечили от кори, но оказалось, что у него скарлатина. 7. Девочке нравилось, что с ней обращаются как со взрослой. 8. Она не могла удержать ребенка от шалостей. 9. Мы прекрасно провели время на пляже. Было очень весело. 10. Дэвиду не приходило в голову, что он всех задерживает. 11. Детей нужно приучать хорошо (kindly) обращаться с животными. 12. Кто бы мог подумать, что она станет талантливой актрисой! 13. Ах, вот как ты держишь свое слово! 14. Ваш приятель — такой весельчак, — Да? Представьте, мне это никогда не приходило в голову. 15. Это случилось много лет назад. Она, должно быть, уже забыла обо всем. 16. Как весело играть в эту игру! 17. Школьные товарищи Роберта смеялись над его зеленым костюмом. 18. Какая забавная шляпка!

XI. Retell the test following the outline (see Ex. VI, p. 132). Speak about the contradictions between the words and the behaviour of the members of the family:

е.g. ... They said, they realized what their mother had sacrificed for their sake and wanted to thank her for everything she had been doing for them. In fact, I believe, they just wanted to make it a holiday for themselves. They stayed at home ... etc.

XII. a) Translate these sentences into Russian.

I. We may just as well dance now. 2. I would rather hire a taxi. I'm very tired. 3. It will never do to punish the child for what he has not done. 4. He never keeps people waiting if he can help it. 5. We must keep him from making trouble. 6. Take my gloves, they will keep your hands warm. 7. It's no use trimming this old hat, it won't look better. 8. We got everything arranged for the trip by 9 o'clock. 9. We got her to believe our story. 10. The arrangements for the party will keep me busy the whole day, I'm afraid. 11. You shouldn't keep the children out after dark. 12. Keep the ticket if you don't want to be fined.

b) Write sentences of your own using the phrases in bold type. Address them to the other students who should reply them expressing their approval or disapproval.

P r o m p t s: How nice (good, clever, bad, awful) of you (him, her)! I don't think you should have done it. Sure. But that's not quite true. No wonder. I am delighted at your idea.

ХIII. Make up a conversation which took place after the day described in the text between: the two girls, the two boys, the father and his son, the mother and her friend, two neighbours. You may find the following openings useful:

I say...; Honestly...; If you ask me...; You know what I think...; The point is...; Don't you agree that...; I must say that...; Tell you what,..; Eventually...; Actually...; Definitely... .

XIV. Fill in prepositions or adverbs where necessary:

I. The dress is just wonderful. It is very becoming ... you. 2. I haven't seen you ... ages. How are you getting ...? 3. I liked the cake you treated me .... How do you make it? 4. Turn ... the page and do Exercise 3. 5. He turned ... a very good story-teller. I enjoyed ... his stones immensely. 6. We shall discuss the matter ... our way home. 7. I'm sure you'll get... all the difficulties ... the end. 8. Pete didn't want to take his younger brother fishing, he was afraid that he would be ... his way. 9. The students-... Group 3 will help to decorate the hall... flowers and mottoes. 10. The father had promised to take the boys ... a drive ... the country ... Sunday. But unfortunately the weather changed ... the morning and they had to stay ... home. 11. Celia waved her hand ... Lanny until the train was out... sight. 12.... such a big occasion all the children were dressed ... their best. 13. When all the things were packed ... a suit-case, it turned ... that my ticket had somehow got there too, and I had to turn everything ......in search ... it. 14. The children were allowed to stay ... home ... school, as the mother's birthday was a great occasion ... all the family.

XV. Translate the sentences into English, using Essential Vocabulary (I) and Patterns 1-4:

1. У меня так много дел, что я просто не могу позволять себе терять время. 2: Вот та самая шляпа, о которой я вам говорила. Я уверена, что она очень пойдет вам. 3. Не могу себе представить, как вы сумеете преодолеть все эти трудности. 4. Я не могла позволить себе купить такой дорогой подарок. 5. Я надеюсь, что мы успеем добраться до станция метро до того, как оно закроется. 6. Сегодня я получила от него письмо. Он пишет, что у него масса работы и он почти никогда не может даже доставить себе такое удовольствие, как сходить в кино. 7. Вы все время встаете и садитесь, входите и выходите. Не годится работать таким образом. 8. Завтра у нас вечер, и я хочу принарядиться по этому поводу. 9. Что-то выпало из моей сумочки, вероятно, авторучка. 10. Он, должно быть, все приготовил к отъезду. 11. Разве мог кто-нибудь подумать, что она сказала это в шутку? 12. Неужели ты не можешь заставить ребенка вовремя лечь спать? 13. Все семейство великолепно провело время за городом, хотя героине дня пришлось остаться дома и готовить обед. 14. Этот цвет тебе очень к лицу.

XVI. Review the text. Say a few words about the style and language of Leacock's story. Be sure to touch on a) selection of words, b) syntax, c) method of characterization, d) humour.

XVII. Try your hand at teaching.

1. Say what you would do in the teacher's position:

John's first day in school went smoothly. On the second day, another child sat in the place John wanted. John refused to sit in any of the vacant places and was given the choice of sitting down at another place or standing. He chose to stand. His parents came to school several times in the next few weeks, very distressed that all John did at school was stand.

2. Practise your "Classroom English".

Ask your pupils: a) to do Exercise XIV on p. 134 (written work); b) to get ready with Exercise XVm (orally).

XVIII. a) Translate the text below into Russian:

To me it has always seemed that the very essence of good humour is that it must be without harm and without malice. I admit that there is in all of us a certain vein of the old original demoniacal humour or joy in the misfortune of another which sticks to us like our original sin. It ought not to be funny to see a man, especially a fat and pompous man, slip suddenly on a banana skin. But it is. When a skater on the pond who is describing graceful circles and showing off before a crowd, breaks through the ice, everybody shouts with joy. To an original savage, the cream of the joke in such cases was found if a man who slipped broke his neck, or a man who went through the ice never came up again. I can imagine a group of pre-historic men standing round the ice-hole where he had disappeared and laughing till their sides split. If there had been such things as a pre-historic newspaper, the affair would have been headed up: "Amusing Incident. Unknown Gentleman Breaks Through Ice and Is Drowned".

But our sense of humour under the civilization has been weakened. Much of the fun of this sort of the thing has been lost on us.      (From "Humour As I See It" by Stephen Leacock)

b) Discuss the following questions:

1. Do you agree with Leacock that good humour must be without harm and without malice? 2. What purpose should humour serve? 3. Is Leacock right when he says that humour has been weakened under civilization? Does he really mean it? 4. Do you agree to Leacock's opinion that humorous Siies of life are revealed only to the few who have given thought to it? 5. Do you think that his story "How We Kept Mother's Day" and the like may get people to understand their imperfections and try to get rid of them? 6. Is that story true to life? 7. What do you think is the essence of good humour?

LABORATORY EXERCISES (I)

1. Listen to the text "How We Kept Mothers Day", mark the stresses and tunes, repeat the text following the model.

2. Make your sentences less categoric by using the given model.

3. Write a spelling-translation test. Check it with the key. Check your spelling with a dictionary.

4. Paraphrase the sentences using the given patterns.

5. Extend the following sentences.

6. Translate the given sentences. Check your translation with the key.

7. Listen to the text "Being a Househusband" or some other text on the topic "Family Holidays". Find the English equivalents of the given Russian phrases. Get ready to speak on the part of the wife.

TOPIC: MEALS

TEXT A. AN ENGLISHMAN'S MEALS

Four meals a day are served traditionally in Britain: breakfast, lunch, tea and dinner.

In many countries breakfast is a snack rather than a meal but the English breakfast eaten at about eight o'clock in the morning, is a full meal, much bigger than on the Continent.35

Some people begin with a plateful of porridge but more often cornflakes with milk and sugar. Then comes at least one substantial course, such as kippers or bacon and eggs. Afterwards comes toast with butter and marmalade or jam. The meal is "washed down" with tea or coffee.

Most British people now have such a full breakfast only on Sunday mornings. On weekdays it is usually a quick meal: just cornflakes, toast and tea.

English lunch, which is usually eaten at one o'clock, is based on plain, simply-cooked food. It starts with soup or fruit juice. English people sometimes say that soup fills them up without leaving sufficient room for the more important course which consists of meat, poultry or fish accompanied by plenty of vegetables.

Apple-pie is a favourite sweet, and English puddings of which there are very many, are an excellent ending to a meal, especially in winter. Finally a cup of coffee — black or white.

Tea, the third meal of the day, is taken between four and five o'clock especially when staying in a hotel when a pot of tea with a jug of milk and a bowl of sugar are brought in. Biscuits are handed round.

At the weekends afternoon tea is a very sociable time. Friends and visitors are often present.

Some people like to have the so-called "high tea" which is a mixture of tea and supper — for example meat, cheese and fruit may be added to bread and butter, pastries and tea.

Dinner is the most substantial meal of the day. The usual time is about seven o'clock and all the members of the family sit down together. The first course might be soup. Then comes the second course: fish or meat, perhaps the traditional roast beef of old England. Then the dessert is served: some kind of sweet. But whether a person in fact gets such a meal depends on his housekeeping budget. Some people in the towns and nearly all country people have dinner in the middle of the day instead of lunch. They have tea a little later, between five and six o'clock, when they might have a light meal — an omelette, or sausages or fried fish and chips or whatever they can afford.

Then before going to bed, they may have a light snack or supper — е.g. a cup of hot milk with a sandwich or biscuit.

The evening meal as we have said already goes under various names: tea, "high tea", dinner or supper depending upon its size and also the social standing of those eating it.

(See: Potter S. Everyday English for Foreign Students. Lnd., 1963}

TEXT В. AT TABLE

Niск: I say, mum, I'm terribly hungry. I haven't had a thing all day. I could do with a snack.

Mother: Why, you're just in time for dinner.

Niск: No soup for me. I'd rather have beefsteak.

Mother: Are you quite sure you wouldn't like some soup? It tastes all right.

Nick: There is nothing like steak and chips. I'll go and wash my hands.

Mother: How's the steak? I'm afraid it's underdone.

Nick: Oh, it's done to a turn, just to my liking. I don't like meat overdone. May I have another helping of chips?

Mother: Yes, certainly. Hand me your plate, please, and help yourself to the salad. Just to see how it tastes.

Nick: Oh, it's delicious.

Mother: Shall I put some mustard on your steak?

Nick: No, thanks, I don't care for mustard. I'd rather take a spoonful of sauce. Pass me the sauce, please.

Mother: Here you are. Oh, isn't there a smell of something burning?

Niск: So there is.

Mother: I've left the layer-cake in the oven.

Nick: For goodness' sake get it out quick.

Mother (coming back): Oh, Nick! How awkward of you to have spilt the sauce over the table-cloth. Get a paper napkin from the sideboard and cover it up.

Nick: I'm terribly sorry. I was quite upset about my favourite cake getting spoiled.

Mother: Don't worry. Here it is, brown and crisp on the outside. What will you have, tea or coffee?

Niск: A cup of tea.

Mother: Any milk? Shall I put butter on your bread?

Nick: No, thanks. I can't see the sugar-basin.

Mother: It's behind the bread-plate. Have a better look.

Nick: I'm afraid it's the salt-cellar.

Mother: So it is. In my hurry I must have left it in the dresser.

Nick: It's all right I'll get it myself.

Mother: Help yourself to the cake. There's nothing else to follow.

Nick: I've had a delicious meal.

TEXT С. IN THE DINING-HALL

— Let's go to the dining-hall. We haven't much time left, but we'll manage it all right if you hurry. You take a place in the queue and I'll see what we can get for dinner.

— All right. What is on the menu?

— Cabbage soup with meat, chicken soup with noodles and pea soup.

— I don't know whether I'll have any. What have they got for seconds?

— Fried fish and mashed potatoes, beefsteak, bacon and eggs.

— And for dessert?

— A lot of things. We can have stewed fruit or cranberry jelly or strawberries and cream.

— Then, I'll take cabbage soup with sour cream and... Well, and what about some starter? We've completely forgotten about it.

— As we are in a hurry I believe we can do without it. I never thought you were a big eater.

— Neither did I. But I wouldn't mind having something substantial now.

— So we'll take one cucumber salad and one tomato salad. That'll do for the time being. I think I can manage a bit of fish-jelly as well and then chicken soup with noodles. That'll be fine.

ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (II)36 

Words

bacon n  napkin n  snack n

biscuit n  noodle soup n  sociable adj

bread-plate n  omelet (te) n  sour cream n

chips n  pastry n  starter n

cornflakes n  pepper-box (pot) n  (beef) steak n

cream n  porridge n  stewed fruit n

fruit juice n  poultry n  sugar-basin n

jelly n  pudding n  sweet n

jug n  roast beef n  table-cloth n

marmalade n  salt-cellar n  toast n

mustard-pot n  sauce-boat n

Word Combinations

to boil meat (potatoes, cabbage,  to fry bacon, eggs, potatoes,

eggs, water, milk, etc)   fish (cod, perch, pike, had

to stew fruit (vegetables, meat)   dock, trout, salmon)

crust of bread  to taste good (bad, deli-

to sit at table (having a meal)   cious, etc.)

(cf.: to sit at the table writing  to be done to a turn (over

a letter, etc.)   done, underdone)

to have (take) smth. for dinner  crisp toast

(for the first, second course,  to help oneself to smth.

or dessert)  to pass smth. to smb,

to butter one's bread (roll, etc.)  to dine in (out)

to have a snack (a bite of food)  it's to my liking

to have another helping of smth.  there's nothing like ice

to roast meat (mutton, pork,   cream (steak, etc.)

beef), fowl (chicken, duck,  there's nothing else coming

goose, turkey), potatoes   for a change

Study the meanings and use of these items of your Essential Vocabulary:

1. Food and Meal. Food is a general term for anything that people eat: bread, meat, fish, vegetables, fruit, milk, tinned goods, sweets, etc.

е.g. Man cannot live without food. The doctor said that the patient needed good nourishing food. Where do you buy your food?

Meal is a generalizing collective term for breakfast, lunch, tea, dinner and supper (cf. the Russian arch, трапеза).

е.g. How many meals a day do you have? Supper is an evening meal. I don't want any hot meal; I think I'll do with a snack.

2. Course is a dish served at a meal; a part of a meal served at one time.

е.g. Dinner may consist of two or more courses. What shall we take for our second course? Soup was followed by a fish course.

3. To fry, to roast, to stew. To fry means "to cook (or be cooked) in boiling fat". We usually fry fish, potatoes, eggs, bacon, pancakes, etc.

To roast means "to cook (or be cooked) in an oven or over an open fire." In this way we may cook meat (veal, pork), fowl (chicken, turkey), etc.

To stew means "to cook by slow boiling in a closed pan with little water." In this way meat may be cooked, also vegetables, fruit, etc.

4. Starter (pl -s) is a dish served before or at the beginning of a meal (it may be salad, fish, olives, soup, fruit juice, etc.) Hors d'oeuvre (pl -s) is usually used on menucards.

5. Omelette is eggs beaten together with milk and fried or baked in a pan. The English for яичница is "fried eggs". We eat fried eggs, soft-boiled eggs, hard-boiled eggs, scrambled eggs, poached eggs, four-minute boiled eggs.

6. Porridge is a dish of oatmeal or other meal (buckwheat, semolina, millet, etc.) boiled in some water. Milk and sugar or milk and salt are added to it.

7. Toast is sliced bread made brown and crisp on the outside by heating in a toaster. Toast is placed on a toastrack.

8. Chips are fried pieces of potato, often eaten with fried fish.

9. Soft and strong drinks прохладительные и крепкие напитки.

Soft drinks are lemonade, fruit drinks, fruit juice, etc. Strong drinks are wine, liqueurs, brandy, vodka, etc.

10. Jelly is usually made by boiling fruit (cranberries, strawberries, raspberries, gooseberries, currants, apricots, etc.) and sugar. Something is added to make the mixture stiff.

11. Marmalade is a kind of jam made from orange or lemon cut up and boiled with sugar.

12. Pudding is a very popular English dish. It is a thick mixture of flour, suet, meat, fruit, etc., cooked by boiling, steaming or baking. There are many kinds of pudding. Some of them are quite substantial and serve as the main course of lunch or dinner. Others are rather like sweet cake and eaten for dessert.

EXERCISES

I. Study Text A and a) spell and transcribe English equivalents of the following:

(первый) завтрак, каша, корнфлекс, бекон, тост, мармелад, сок, достаточный, пудинг, компот; основательная (еда), ростбиф, омлет, сосиски, сухое печенье.

b) give the four forms of the following verbs:

eat, fry, roast, accompany, fill, bring.

c) explain the meaning of the following phrases:

a full meal, plain food, a sociable time, a housekeeping budget, to go under various names, social standing.

II. Try your hand at teaching:

A. Preparation. Write 15 questions about Text A. See to it that a word or phrase from Ex. I is used either in each of your questions or in answers to them.

B. Work in Class. Ask your questions in class and correct the students' mistakes (see "Classroom English", Sections I, II, III, VIII, IX).37

III. Study Texts В and С and

a) explain the meaning of:

delicious (about food), layer-cake, oven, napkin, a big eater, done to a turn, seconds.

b) give the Infinitive oft

overdone, spilt, upset, mashed, stewed.

IV. a) Give a summary of Text В in reported speech.

Example: Text С is a talk between two friends in the dining hall of their Institute. They seem very hungry, but they haven't got much time left before the end of the break, so one of them stands in the line, while the other reads the menu. There is a rich choice of dishes in it but as they are in a hurry they take only salads, fish jelly and chicken soup, which shows that they are obviously Russians: the English are not overfond of soup, as you know.

b) Learn Text С by heart and recite it la pairs.

V. Study Essential Vocabulary II and the commentary to it and answer the following questions:

1. What kinds of food do you know? Give as many nouns denoting food as you can. 2. What meals do you know? 3. What dishes do you know? Give as many names of dishes as you can. 4. What is understood by a "course"? What attributes may qualify this word? 5. What can be boiled? 6. Do we fry meat or do we roast it? 7. What is an omelette made from? 8. What are cornflakes generally eaten with? 9. What is the difference between fried potatoes and chips? 10. What kind of meal is five o'clock tea in England? Do you know other names for this meal? 11. What kinds of fruit do you know? 12. Do we roast fish? What is the way to cook it? 13. Do you ever have stewed fruit for dessert? 14. Do you usually have a starter before dinner or do you do without it? 15. Where do you have your meals on weekdays and on Sundays?

VI. Fill in prepositions or adverbs where necessary:

1. Take another helping ... salad. 2. I think I'll trouble you ... a second cup of tea. 3. Will you please pass ... the sugar. 4. She is going to make some fish soup ... dinner. 5. Marmalade is made ... orange peel. 6. The egg is eaten ... a small spoon. 7. Their meal consisted ... two courses. 8. What can you recommend ... the first course? 9. The meat is done ... a turn. 10. No sugar ... me, thank you. 11.... midday people have their meals ... home or ... the canteen. 12. Custard is made ... eggs and milk. 13. The fish is just... my liking. 14. Evening meal goes ... various names ... England. 15. I don't take milk ... my tea. 16. Help yourself ... some pastry. 17. Broth is made ... boiling chicken. 18. Will you please hand ... the salt-cellar? 19. What do you usually order ... dessert? 20. The way to refuse ... a dish is ... saying "No, thank you." 21. You may ask ... a second helping.

VII. Translate these sentences into English:

1. На завтрак подали корнфлекс с молоком. Затем последовал поджаренный бекон. 2. Невозможно представить себе английский завтрак без тостов. Их намазывают маслом н джемом. 3. Завтрак часто едят наспех, так как все спешат. 4. Обед обычно состоит из двух блюд. Мясное блюдо подается с большим количеством овощей. За ним следует компот. 5. Так называемый «большой чай» — весьма основательная трапеза. 6. Он всегда не прочь, как он выражается, «плотно закусить». 7. Ничего нет вкуснее земляники со сливками! 8. Бифштекс вкусный? — По-моему, он недожарен. — А мне кажется, он как раз такой, как надо. 9. Что желаете на второе? — Какое-нибудь рыбное блюдо, как обычно. 10. Для меня ничего нет лучше жареной картошки, конечно, если она румяная и поджаристая. 11. Сколько вам кусочков сахара? — Благодарю вас, я пью чай без сахара. Ломтик лимона, пожалуйста.

VIII. a) Act out the dialogues below:

A. Inviting someone out

S.: Hallo, Bill, have you got any plans for this evening?

В.: No, really, no.

S.: Well, would you like to have a meal with me?

В.: Oh, well, I'm not sure I can manage that.

S.: There's a nice Chinese restaurant in town — the food's very good there.

В.: Oh, that sounds very nice, thanks.

S.: I'll call for you about 8, then.

В.: 8 o'clock. Fine, thanks.

B. Asking your friends to do you a favour.

J.: I'm just going shopping. Do you want anything?

M.: Are you going past the baker's by any chance, Jan?

J.: Yes.

M.: Well, I wonder if you could get me fifteen Danish pastries.

J.: Fifteen? I can't imagine why you want fifteen.

M.: Well, I want to give everyone in the class one for tea.

J.: OK! I hope I'll get one of them.

M.: Of course, thanks a lot.  (Functions of English. Teacher's Book. Cambridge Univ. Press, 1981)

b) Make up dialogues of your own using word combinations from the texts.

IX. Ask your partner

1. About the dinner he usually has (time, place, dishes). 2. If he takes any starter and what he likes for it. 3. What kind of soup he likes best of all. 4. What his favourite meat dishes are. 5. What kinds of fish he knows. 6. If- he likes stewed carrots. 7. What other stewed vegetables or fruit he eats. 8. What he wants for dessert. 9. How many lumps of sugar he takes with his tea. 10. If he prefers strong or weak tea. 11. What he usually does if he spills some liquid on the table-cloth. 12. If he can cook any dishes. 13. About the way he cooks meat (fry, roast, stew). 14. If he sometimes eats out. 15. If he prefers eating out.

X. Compose dialogues between a Russian and an Esglish student discussing a) English and Russian meals; b) their favourite dishes; c) where each of them has his meals.

XI. a) Study the text:

Bread -and-Butter Pudding

Beat up two eggs and add to them one pint of milk and a little flavouring. Butter the pie-dish and cut three slices of bread-and-butter in fingers, removing the crusts. Put a layer of bread in the dish, sprinkle with sugar and a few cleaned currants or raisins, add more bread, fruit and sugar and then pour over the milk and the eggs. Leave to soak for one hour, then bake in a slow oven about an hour. Sprinkle with sugar before serving.

b) Describe the way you cook your favourite dish. You may need some verbs besides those in the text, such as mince, mix, grate, grind, chop, sift, roll, bake.

XII. Try your band at teaching:

A. Preparation. Find 3 proverbs dealing with the topic. Translate them and give their Russian equivalents.

B. Work in Class. Get a member of the class to write one of them on the blackboard. Make another student translate it and give its Russian equivalent. Tell the class to think of a short situation illustrating the proverb. Correct the mistakes. (Look up the words you may need to do the exercise in class in "Classroom English", Section VIII.)

ХIII. a) Read the text below and comment on it:

Tea

Britons drink a quarter of all the tea grown in the world each year. They are the world's greatest tea drinkers. Many of them drink it on at least eight different occasions during the day. They drink it between meals and at meals. They drink it watching television. Join the Tea-V set! says one well-known tea advertisement.       (See: Musman R. Britain Today. Lnd., 1974)

b) What is the attitude towards tea drinking in this country?

XIV. Translate toe following sentences:

1. «Сколько раз в день вы едите? — спросил врач. ~ Регулярное питание очень важно для здоровья». 2. Он съел полную тарелку каши, хотя говорил, что совсем не хочет есть. 3. Сегодня в меню есть мясные блюда, тушеные овощи, сладкий пудинг, разные закуски и даже мороженое с фруктами на десерт. 4. Сколько вам кусочков сахара? — Достаточно двух 5. Не хотите еще немного салата? — Благодарю вас, мне достаточно. 6. Суп вкусный? — Я еще не пробовала, он очень горячий. 7. Вы сказали сестре, чтобы она принесла чистую посуду? 8. Вы какой любите чай — крепкий или слабый? — Не очень крепкий, пожалуйста. 9. Что сегодня на второе? — Жареная рыба с картошкой. 10. Обед подан в столовой. И. Тебе намазать хлеб маслом? — Да, и вареньем. 12. У нас сегодня был легкий завтрак, и после прогулки мы проголодались. Было бы неплохо сытно поесть. 13. Он наскоро поужинал и принялся за работу. 14. Она любит консервированные ананасы больше, чем свежие. 15. В этом доме гостей всегда угощают совершенно особенным яблочным пирогом (apple-tart). Он необыкновенно вкусен. 16. Ее муж любит, как он говорит, вздремнуть полчасика (take a пар) после плотного обеда. — Это вредно для пищеварения. Ему бы лучше пройтись с полмили. 17. Ты уже накрыла на стол? — Нет еще. Не могу найти чистую скатерть.

XV. a) Study the text:

Pubs

For many British people, the pub is the centre of their social life. People from some countries find this rather shocking, but for most people in Britain a pub is a place with a friendly atmosphere where they can meet their friends and talk over a drink — and often over a meal.

At lunchtime you can often get sandwiches or a plough-man's lunch (bread and cheese). In the evening many pubs serve 'basket meals' (especially chicken and chips served in a basket) at the bar, and some have restaurants where you can get a complete meal.

It is quite normal for women to go into pubs in Britain, but like everybody else they must follow the licensing laws. These are very complicated and control the time pubs are allowed to open. (See "Approaches." Cambridge 1979.)

b) Comment on the text adding some more information on the topic.

XVI. Make up dialogues:

Suggested Situations

A. Helen has invited some friends to a dinner party. She has cooked ail the dishes herself and proudly mentions the fact. Her friends do not find everything quite to their liking, but try not to show it. On the whole, every one is having great fun.

B, An irritable husband is sitting at dinner and criticizing his wife's cooking. He is trying to teach her the way this or that dish should be cooked though he knows very little about it. The wife is doing her best to defend herself.

C. A hostess is treating a lady-visitor to a meal. The visitor keeps repeating that she is on a slimming-diet, that she never eats anything fattening and that, in general, she eats like a little bird. Yet she helps herself to this and that very heartily, till the hostess begins watching the disappearing food with some anxiety.

D. A slow waitress is taking an order from a hungry and impatient client. All the client's efforts to order this or that dish are refused on all kinds of pretexts: the pork is fat; the beef is tough; they haven't got any more potatoes in the kitchen; the ice-cream has melted; the cook has a toothache, etc.

E. Two very young and extremely inexperienced housewives are advising each other as to the best way of feeding their husbands. One of them is inclined to take the line of least resistance and to serve only tinned food for all the meals. The other points out that tinned food alone will never do and suggests other ways of solving the problem.

XVII. Brash up your table manners.

A. Answer the following questions and then check your answers by comparing litem with the answers below:

1. What is the correct way to sit at table? 2. Should you use your fork or your knife for taking a slice of bread from the bread-plate? 3. How should you get a slice of bread from the plate standing on the far end of the table? 4. What is the correct way of using spoon, fork and knife? 5. How should you cut your meat? 6. What are the dishes for which knife shouldn't be used? 7. What is the way to eat chicken? 8. What is one supposed to do with the stones while eating stewed fruit? 9. What should you do with the spoon after stirring your tea? 10. What should you do if your food is too hot? 11. What should you say to refuse a second helping? 12. What should you say if you like the dish very much? 13. What should you say if you dislike the dish? 14. What shouldn't one do while eating? 15. Where should one keep the newspaper or the book during a meal, on the table or on one's lap?

В. Make up dialogues discussing good and bad table manners. Use the material of Section A for questions and that of Section В for answers.

Answers to Exercise XVII.

a) "It tastes (really) fine" or "It is delicious."

b) Never eat the stones (trying to be overpolite). Neither would it be a good idea to dispose of them by dropping them under the table, placing them in your pocket or in your neighbour's wine-glass. Just take them from your mouth on your spoon and place them on your own saucer.

c) Nowhere near the table. Reading at one's meals is a bad habit; it is bad for your digestion and impolite towards others sitting at the same table.

d) Sit straight and close to the table. Don't put your elbows on the table. Don't cross your legs or spread them all over the place under the table.

e) Never lean across the table or over your neighbours to get something out of your reach. Just say: "Please pass the bread." Or. "Would you mind passing the bread, please?"

f) Nothing. Keep your impressions to yourself and don't embarrass your hostess.

g) Fish dishes are generally eaten without using knife. If one does, it is considered a serious breach of good table manners. The same refers to rissoles, cereal and, in general, to anything that is soft enough to be comfortably eaten with spoon or fork.

h) Neither. Your hand is quite correct for getting a slice of bread for yourself. After all, it is you who is going to eat it.

i) While eating, one should produce as little noise or sound as possible. It is decidedly bad manners to speak with your mouth full. Don't put your bread in your soup. Don't pour your tea in your saucer. Don't leave much on the plate: it is impolite towards your hostess. If you have liked the dish, it doesn't follow that you should polish the plate with your bread.

j) Don't hold your spoon in your fist, don't tilt it so as to spill its contents. The fork should be held in your left hand, the knife in your right.

k) It is wrong first to cut all the meat you have got on your plate in small pieces and then eat it. Cut off a slice at a time, eat it, then cut off another, holding your knife in the right hand and your fork in the left.

l) "No more, thank you."

m) Cut off and eat as much as possible by using your knife and fork; the remaining part eat by holding the piece in your hand by the end of the bone.

n) Never cool your food by blowing at it. Just wait a bit, there is no hurry.

o) Don't leave your spoon in the glass while drinking. Put it on your saucer.

XVIII. a) Read and translate the following extracts:

1. Breakfast in the Jenssen home was not much different from breakfast in a couple of hundred thousand homes in the Great City. Walter Jenssen had his paper propped against the vinegar cruet and the sugar bowl. He read expertly, not even taking his eyes off the printed page when he raised his coffee cup to his mouth. Paul Jenssen, seven going on eight, was eating his hot cereal, which had to be sweetened heavily to get him to touch it. Myrna Jenssen, Walter's five-year-old daughter, was scratching her towhead with her left hand while she fed herself with her right. Myrna, too, was expert in her fashion: she would put the spoon in her mouth, slide the cereal off, and bring out the spoon upside down. Elsie Jenssen (Mrs. Walter) had stopped eating momentarily the better to explore with her tongue a bicuspid (коренной зуб) that seriously needed attention.         (From "The Ideal Man" by J. O'Hara)

b) Comment on the table manners of the Jenssen family and say what you would do if you were the father or the mother:

2. While Anna prepared herself to meet her class of fortysix lively and inquisitive children her landlady was busy preparing the high tea for her husband and the new lodger.

She had screwed the old mincer to the kitchen table and now fed it with rather tough strips of beef, the remains of the Sunday joint. There was not much, to be sure, but Mrs. Flynn's pinch-penny spirit had been roused to meet this challenge and the heel of a brown loaf, a large onion, and a tomato on the table were the ingredients of the rest of the proposed cottage pie.

"If I open a tin of baked beans," said Mrs. Flynn aloud, "there'll be no need for gravy, I shan't waste gas unnecessarily!" She pursed her thin lips with satisfaction, remembering, with sudden pleasure, that she had bought the beans at a reduced price as "This Week's Amazing Offer" at the local grocer's. She twirled the handle of the mincer with added zest.

Yesterday's stewed apple, she thought busily, could be served out with a little evaporated milk, in three individual dishes. A cherry on top of each would make a nice festive touch, decided Mrs. Flynn in a wild burst of extravagance. She straightened up from her mincing and opened the store cupboard where she kept her tinned and bottled food. In the front row a small jar of cherries gleamed rosily. For one long minute Mrs. Flynn studied its charms, torn between opposite forces of art and thrift. Victory was accomplished easily. "Pity to open them," said Mrs. Flynn, slamming the cupboard door and returned to her mincing. (From "Fresh from the Country" by M. Reed)

c) Comment on the character of the landlady. Prove your statement.

XIX. Try your hand at teaching:

A. Preparation. Find some pictures and jokes on the topic and prepare to work with them in class. (See "Classroom English", Sections VII, VIII.)

B. Work in Class. 1. Tell a joke or show and describe a picture to the class. 2. Ask some questions to see if the listeners have grasped the meaning of your story. 3. If you want the students to use some new words write them on the blackboard, translate them, practise their pronunciation (in chorus) or usage (by making the students translate your sentences from English or Russian). 4. Tell the joke or describe the picture once more. 5. Make 1—2 students retell the joke (describe the picture) or make up a dialogue on the subject. 6. Correct the mistakes after the student has finished speaking. (See "Classroom English", Sections IX, X.)

XX. Role-playing:

Arrange a tea-party (at home or in the canteen). Two of the students are to act as host and hostess, having some friends round (2 or 3 of them are English). The main topic discussed at the party is traditions connected with meals. Each member of the group must tell a short story, joke or proverb to entertain the party.

XXI.. Arrange short debates on the following questions:

1. Should we stick to our custom of giving our guests a substantial meal? 2. How do you like the idea of celebrating family holidays in a cafe or restaurant? 3. Are old traditions, worth keeping?

STUDIES OF WRITTEN ENGLISH

IV

Repeating key-words in different ways and using topic -sentences properly within a paragraph are not the only writing techniques. Good writing no matter whether you are describing, narrating, arguing, or explaining should be well organized; that is, it should be under control of the central idea of the topic. Before starting to write any piece of prose you should organize your thoughts around a topic, you must have a plan or an outline.

Plan is a list of points which you intend to develop in your writing in logical order or in order of importance with reference to time, to point of view and to situation.

Note: The words "plan" and "outline" are sometimes used without sense discrimination. But it is better to use "plan" when the composition is not yet written or planning is made by the author. The word "outline" is used rather when dealing with a work already written by someone else.

The best way to learn how to make a good plan of your writing is to learn how to make an outline of original pieces of prose. There are different ways of writing an outline. It can be expressed in: 1) key-words or brief topic phrases (topic outline); 2) complete sentences (sentence outline); 3) groups of sentences containing the topic or main idea (paragraph outline). The choice depends on the length and complexity of the writing and experience of the beginner.

Examples:   a) A sample topic outline of "A Day's Wait".

1. A very sick boy of nine years old.

2. Doctor's visit.

3. Feeling the same.

4. Leaving the boy for a while.

5. The boy's talk about death.

6. Argument about temperature.

7. Relaxation and nervous breakdown.

b) A sample sentence outline of "A Day's Wait".

1. The boy was shivering with fever, unwilling to go to bed.

2. The doctor took the boy's temperature and said there was nothing to worry about.

3. The boy seemed detached and kept looking at the foot of the bed.

4. The father went for a walk.

5. He came back and found the boy still staring at the foot of the bed.

6. The boy was sure he was going to die.

7. The father explained the difference between the Fahrenheit and Centigrade thermometers.

8. The boy relaxed, but the next day he cried very easily at little things that were of no importance.

Assignments:

1. Read the story "How We Kept Mother's Day" and make a topic outline of Its contents.

2. Make a sentence outline of the story.

3. Make a plan of your narration about the people presented is the picture (see p. 138).

LABORATORY EXERCISES (II)

1. a) listen to the test "An Englishman's Meals", mark the stresses and tunes. b) Repeat it in the intervals following the model.

2. a) Listen to the dialogue "At Table".

b) Repeat it in the intervals following the model.

c) Learn the text by heart.

3. Answer the questions using the given patterns.

4. Make up sentences using the given patterns.

5. Write a dictation.

6. Paraphrase the given sentences.

7. Translate the sentences into English. Check them with the key.

8. listen to the text "He Was Too Timid" or some other text on the topic "Meals". Get ready to give the summary in class.

CURIOSITY QUIZ FOR EAGERS

1. What is "Mother's Day"? Where and when is it celebrated?

2. What is a pub? What traditions are connected with if?

3. What is a bank holiday in Britain!

4. Describe some traditions or customs connected with family or public holidays in England.

5. What do the terms "Welsh Babbit", "Pancake Day" and "Dutch Treat" mean?

6. Find a story (an essay) or a passage in a novel by an English or American writer describing a meal. Give its summary in class.

UNIT FIVE

I SPEECH PATTERNS

1. I was sure to be put down in class next to the girl... and she would whisper and giggle.

The children always came to see their grandmother on Sundays, and she would give them delicious pastries.

When asked this question, he would smile and say nothing.

When people met him in the street they would turn away and pretend not to know him.

2. Judy said she didn't know that people used to be monkeys.

a) They used to be great friends.

There used to be a telephone-booth round the corner. I used to know him. Used you to know him.

b) He used to travel by plane, Use(d)n't he? or Didn't he? (colloq.)

He used to work late at night.

Did he use to work late at night? (colloq.)

Judy's fellow-students used to laugh at her ignorance.

3. I'm not used to receiving presents.

She was not used to being treated unkindly.

It is too bad when a college student is not used to reading books.

The mother was used to doing all the work about the house alone.

Our students are used to working with a cassette-recorder.

4. It was Judy who had to read plain books.

It was shame, not fear, that made her cry. It was the last course that tasted especially good. It was the mother who decorated the house and prepared everything for the celebration.

It was my sisters who cooked all the dishes.

EXERCISES

I. Paraphrase the following using Patterns 1-3:

P a t t e r n  1: 1. By the end of the working-day he usually waited for her at the factory-gate and they went home together. 2. The spring days were warm and sunny, and the children spent much time out-of-doors. 3. When they sometimes asked him about his college days, he always answered that he had greatly enjoyed going to college. 4. The mother never complained; usually she only sighed and went on with her work. 5. Her husband often came back home tired and angry; at table he again and again found fault with the cooking. 6. When we told the mother how good everything tasted, she always said "Hunger is the best sauce."

P a t t e r n  2: 1. He was in the habit of saying that there is no game like football. 2. She always left the dishes unwashed in the kitchen sink and went away. 3. When he was a student he went to the library every other day. 4. My mother always made a splendid chocolate tart for my birthday. 5. When I was a child, our family always went to the seaside for summer holidays. 6. When he was younger, he was a pretty good dancer.

P a t t e r n  3:1. It's something new for me to be treated in this way. 2. Being made fun of was something quite unusual for her. 3. It was not the first time that the doctor was to treat this horrible disease. 4. I always work by such light, it is normal for me. 5. The child was never refused anything and considered it a normal state of things.

II. Make the following sentences emphatic using Pattern 4 as in the example:

Example:  My friend told me everything about it.

It was my Mend who told me everything about it.

1. Doctor Temple cured Mrs. Greene's husband of his stomach disease. 2. Steve treated them all to ice-creams. 3. Her brother told us all about that terrible accident. 4. Your rudeness made her cry. 5. My mother does the cooking for all the family. 6. Those books made a deep impression on him and decided his future. 7. This noise doesn't let me concentrate on my work. 8. These students recited their own poems at the last party with a great success.

III. Translate these sentences into English:

1. Он имел обыкновение говорить, что лучшее средство от нервных болезней — труд. 2. Это мама, а не я, так красиво убрала стол цветами. 3. Каждый раз, когда он приходил он приносил мне книга, которые я должна была прочитать. 4. Я не привыкла петь перед такой большой аудиторией, но сегодня спою. 5. Его лечили этим лекарством от ангины, а не от воспаления легких. 6. Раньше ты приходил домой гораздо позже. 7. Каждый раз, когда шел дождь, он чувствовал себя хуже. 8. Ребенок привык, чтобы с ним обращались ласково. 9. Тебе, по-видимому, не нравится доктор Марч? Но ведь именно он вылечил меня от этого ужасного кашля. 10. Время от времени он переворачивал страницу, делая вид, что читает.

IV. Answer the questions: use would or used to.

N o t e: When the meaning is customary, repeated or habitual activity m the past, used to or would are interchangeable, е.g. Our teacher used to give her students a written test every Thursday. She would read them a story every week too.

For greater emphasis on the idea of past custom used to is preferable, е.g. He used to watch a children's program at that hour.

To express volition, or persistence referring to the past would is usually used; е.g. Several times he tried to get away, but they would not let him go.

1. How often would you write a composition when you were in the ninth form? 2. Would your teachers always correct your compositions? 3. Who used to help you with your homework? 4. What would you do during the summer? 5. Where did you use to go for your vacation? 6. When you were a child what did you use to do on Saturday afternoon? 7. What would you usually do on Sunday? 8. When your brother was younger, he used to play tennis, use(d)n't he?

V. Make up short situations (no more than two or three sentences) or dialogues to illustrate Patterns 1-4

VI. Search the books you read for sentences with these patterns (1-4) to add up to your student's workbook; practise the best examples in class.

TEXT. A FRESHMAN'S EXPERIENCE From "Daddy Long-Legs" by Jean Webster

The book "Daddy Long-Legs" by an American writer Jean Webster (1876-1916) is a novel written in the form of letters. The author of these letters, a young girl, Judy by name, writes them to her guardian, a rich man whom she has never seen.

Judy was brought up in an orphan asylum where her life was hard. The children were wholly dependent on charity. They were badly fed and had to wear other people's cast-off clothes. Judy was a very bright girl and when she finished school, her guardian sent her to college.

Judy feels very happy about it. She hopes to become a writer and pay back the money spent on her education by her guardian. About the latter the girl knows almost nothing: she knows that he is a very tall man. That is why she jokingly calls him Daddy Long-Legs.

This text is one of her letters giving us a glimpse of her early college impressions.

October, 25th

Dear Daddy Long-Legs,

College38 gets nicer and nicer, I like the girls and the teachers and the classes and the campus39 and the things to eat. We have ice-cream twice a week and we never have corn-meal mush.

The trouble with college is that you are expected to know such a lot of things you've never learned. It's very embarrassing at times. I made an awful mistake the first day. Somebody mentioned Maurice Maeterlinck,40 and I asked if she was a freshman.41 The joke has gone all over college.

Did you ever hear of Michaelangelo? He was a famous artist who lived in Italy in the Middle Ages. Everybody in English Literature seemed to know about him, and the whole class laughed because I thought he was an archangel. He sounds like an archangel, doesn't he?

But now, when the girls talk about the things that I never heard of, I just keep still and look them up in the encyclopedia. And anyway, I'm just as bright in class as any of the others, and brighter than some of them!

And you know, Daddy, I have a new unbreakable rule: never to study at night, no matter how many written reviews are coming in the morning. Instead, I read just plain books — I have to, you know, because there are eighteen blank years behind me. You wouldn't believe what an abyss of ignorance my mind is; I am just realizing the depths myself.

I never read "David Copperfield", or "Cinderella", or "lvanhoe", or "Alice in Wonderland", or "Robinson Crusoe", or "Jane Eyre". I didn't know that Henry the Eighth was married more than once or that Shelley was a poet. I didn't know that people used to be monkeys, or that George Eliot was a lady. I had never seen a picture of the "Mona Lisa" and (it's true but you won't believe it) I had never heard of Sherlock Holmes.

Now I know all of these things and a lot of others besides, but you can see how much I need to catch up.

November, 15th

Your five gold pieces were a surprise! I'm not used to receiving Christmas presents. Do you want to know what I bought with the money?

1. A silver watch to wear on my wrist and get me to recitations in time.

2. Matthew Arnold's42 poems.

3. A hot-water bottle.

4. A dictionary of synonyms (to enlarge my vocabulary).

5. (I don't much like to confess this last item, but I will.) A pair of silk stockings.

And now, Daddy, never say I don't tell all!

It was a very low motive, if you must know it, that prompted the silk stockings. Julia Pendleton, a sophomore, comes into my room to do geometry, and she sits crosslegged on the couch and wears silk stockings every night. But just wait — as soon as she gets back from vacation, I shall go in and sit on her couch in my silk stockings. You see the miserable creature that I am — but at least I'm honest; and you knew already, from my asylum record, that I wasn't perfect, didn't you?

But, Daddy, if you'd been dressed in checked ginghams all your life, you'd understand how I feel. And when I started to the high shool, I entered upon another period even worse than the checked ginghams. The poor box.6

You can't know how I feared appearing in school in those miserable poor-box dresses. I was perfectly sure to be put down in class next to the girl who first owned my dress, and she would whisper and giggle and point it out to the others.

To recapitulate (that's the way the English instructor begins every other sentence), I am very much obliged for my presents.

I really believe I've finished. Daddy. I've been writing this letter off and on for two days, and I fear by now you are bored.

But I've been so excited about those new adventures that I must talk to somebody, and you are the only one I know. If my letters bore you, you can always toss them into the waste-basket.

Good-bye, Daddy, I hope that you are feeling as happy as I am.

Yours ever, Judy.

VOCABULARY NOTES

1. bright adj 1. яркий, светлый, е.g. The leaves of the trees are bright green in spring. Polished steel is bright.

2. умный, способный, смышленый, е.g. There are several bright pupils in her class. The boy had a bright face.

3. остроумный, е.g. Everybody was bright and gay at the party.

bright(ly) adv ярко, ясно, живо, остроумно, е.g. She stood in the doorway smiling brightly after him. The fire shines bright.

brighten υi/t проясняться; придавать блеск, делать светлее: улучшать, е.g. The sky is brightening. This wallpaper will brighten our room. What can you do to brighten the life of the sick man?

brightness n яркость, блеск, живость ума

2. plain adj 1. ясный, очевидный, понятный, е.g. The meaning of the word is quite plain, isn't it? I like her plain speech. She spoke plain English.

Syn. clear

2. простой, обыкновенный; гладкий, без рисунка (о тканях), е.g. They like what they call plain food. She looked very pretty in her plain white dress. She bought a plain blue material.

Syn. simple

N о t e: The difference in the meanings of the synonyms plain — clear and plain — simple is so slight that we may often use one instead of the other, е.g. plain (clear) meaning, plain (simple} food, plain (simple) man. Yet, there are some cases when only one of the two synonyms may be used, е.g. to speak plain English; to make a clear statement; to live a simple life; to get a simple task.

3. некрасивый, е.g. He liked her plain, but honest face.

Cf.: ugly некрасивый (безобразный)

3. blank adj пустой, незаполненный, as a blank sheet of paper; a blank page (form, etc.). Also fig., е.g. There was a blank look on her face.

blankly adv, е.g. She looked at me blankly. He sat on the edge of the bed staring blankly before him.

blank n 1. пустое место, пропуск, е.g. Leave a blank after each word. Fill in this blank.; 2. бланк, е.g. She bought two telegraph blanks.

Note: The Russian word пустой has several equivalents in English: 1. пустой (незаполненный) blank sheet (page); 2. пустой (ничего не содержащий) empty room (box, bottle); 3. пустой (поверхностный) shallow person (ideas, interests); 4. пустой (незанятый) vacant room (house, flat).

4. ignorance n невежество; незнание, неведение, е.g. Judy's ignorance made the girls laugh. He did it from (through) ignorance.

ignorant adj невежественный, не знающий, е.g. The boy has never been to school and is quite ignorant. I am ignorant of his plans.

5. prompt υt. 1. побуждать, внушать, е.g. What prompted you to look for him in our town?

2. подсказывать; суфлировать, е.g. She'll prompt you if you forget the words. No prompting, please.

prompt n, е.g. Aren't you ashamed to wait for a prompt?

prompter n суфлер; подсказчик

6. re`cord of 1. записывать, регистрировать, е.g. Не recorded all the events of the day.

2. записывать на пластинку, на пленку, е.g. On the very day of his arrival they recorded his speech.

`record n 1. запись, протокол, отчет; характеристика, сведения, е.g. A careful record was made of all those absent. The boy's school record leaves much to be desired.

2. граммофонная пластинка, е.g. Have you got any records of Bach?

cassette(tape)-recording n звукозапись, е.g. I'd rather make use of cassette-recording to review the material.

cassete (tape)-recorder n магнитофон, е.g. Something has gone wrong with the cassette-recorder, it doesn't work.

7. point υt 1. показывать пальцем, указывать (to), е.g. Не pointed to the monument. The needle of the compass points to the North.

2. направлять, нацелить (at), е.g. The boy pointed a stick at the dog.

to point out smth., е.g. The teacher pointed out our mistakes.

to point out that, е.g. He pointed out that all the college rules should be obeyed.

8. bore υt надоедать, докучать, е.g. Your friend bores me.

to bore to death by smth. до смерти наскучить, е.g. I was bored to death.

bore n скучный, нудный человек, скучное занятие, е.g. I don't want to see him again, he is such a bore.

boring adj скучный, е.g. This is a very boring book.

boredom n скука

9. excite υt 1. возбуждать, волновать, волновать, е.g. The patient is very ill and must not be excited.

to be excited by, е.g. Everybody was excited by the news.

to get excited about (over), е.g. It's nothing to get excited about. Don't get excited over such trifles.

Сf.: There's nothing to worry about. She always worries about little things.

2. вызывать интерес (восхищение и т.д.), е.g. The newcomer excited everybody's interest.

exciting adj возбуждающий, волнующий, захватывающий, е.g. What exciting news you've brought! I could hardly get over that exciting moment. She told such an exciting story.

excited pp взволнованный

excitement n возбуждение, волнение, usu. to cause excitement, е.g. The decision to keep Mother's Day caused great excitement in the family.

excitedly adv, взволнованно

ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (I)

Words

blank adj, n  excite υ  item n

bore υ, n  excitement n  plain adj

boring adj  exciting adj  point υ

boredom n  excited pp  prompt υ

bright adj  excitedly adv  'record n

bright(ly) adv  experience n  re'cord υ

brighten υ  freshman n  recorder n

brightness n  ignorance n  sophomore n

confess υ ignorant adj

Word Combinations

the trouble with ... is that...  next to

at times   to point out smth. (that)

to keep still  every other (sentence, day, etc.)

you wouldn't believe what (how)... to be much obliged to smb., for smth.            

to be a surprise to smb.  to be bored (to death)

to enlarge one's vocabulary  to cause excitement

EXERCISES

I. Read the text and do the following (A. Grammar, B. Word usage):

A. 1. Search the text for passive voice constructions and classify them according to tense groups. 2. Compare the "if-clauses" used in the text and explain their meaning. 3. Identify the function of the -ing- forms used in the text. 4. Select examples to illustrate the compound predicate. 5. Explain why there is no article in with college, from vacation, in class.

B. 1. Explain the difference between the following words used in the text: dictionary vocabulary, giggle laugh, toss throw, pair couple. 2. Search the text for the verb get, translate the sentences. 3. What is the most favourite word in Judy's vocabulary? Would you recommend your pupils to use it?

II. Choose two or three paragraphs from the text of Unit Five for translation. Reason your choice and discuss possible variants of the translation.

III. Answer the following questions:

1. What did Judy mean by classes and campus? 2. Why did Judy mention ice-cream and соrn-meal mush in her letter? 3. What did Judy think was the trouble with college? 4. What joke had gone all over college? 5. Why did Judy keep still when the girls spoke about things she didn't know? 6. Why didn't Judy study at night, no matter how many written reviews were coming in the morning? 7. In what way did Judy want to catch up with the group? 8. What did Judy mean by saying that she was at least honest? 9. What did Judy mean by saying writing this letter off and on for two days? 10. Where had Judy studied before college? 11. Why did Judy feel embarrassed at times? 12. What did Judy mean by blank years and abyss of ignorance? 13. What shows that the text was written by an American writer?

IV. Write an outline of die letter. (Differentiate between significant and insignificant events described in the letter. Leave out the insignificant ones.)

V. Try your hand at teaching:

A. Preparation. Search the texts of Units One, Two (I), Three (I), Four (I), Five (I) for polysyllables43 with two stresses, practise their pronunciation.

B. Work in Class. a) Pronounce distinctly each word fixing the students' attention on the stresses.

b) Make the students repeat the words after you.

c) Ask the students individually and correct their mistakes. (See "Classroom English", Section VIII.)

VI. Study Vocabulary Notes and translate the illustrative examples into Russian.

VII. Explain (in English) what is meant by and give Russian equivalents of:

A. blank wall, blank look, blank verse, blank sheet, blank form, blank cheque, blank years, blank mind, blank face;

B. empty room, shallow interests, vacant house, shallow girl, bright dress, bright face, bright child, bright eyes, ignorant person, incomparable bore.

VIII. Paraphrase the following sentences:

1. He stared at her in utter astonishment. 2. He opened his eyes for a short while but then lost his consciousness again. 3. A faint smile enlivened her face for a moment. 4. There was a gap in my memory. 5. There are many interesting items in the newspaper today. 6. The silk stockings caused Judy's envy. 7. He used to be a capable pupil. 8. The letter aroused great interest. 9. At times she felt very unhappy. 10. The trouble with him is that he is a light-minded person. 11. This fruit is quite eatable, I'd say. 12. Your friend differs much from what he was years ago.

IX. a) Write 20 questions about the second part of the text of Unit Five using the following words and phrases:

1. Christmas present; 2. to be a surprise; 3. wrist; 4. to get to (one's) recitations; 5. a hot-water bottle; 6. to enlarge one's vocabulary; 7. to confess; 8. a low motive; 9. to do geometry; 10. to sit cross-legged; 11. a miserable creature; 12. to know (from); 13. to be very much obliged for; 14. every other sentence; 15. to be bored; 16. to be excited about; 17. to toss into the waste-basket; 18. to talk to (smb.); 19. at least.

b) Ask your fellow-students to give their responses.

X. Translate the following sentences into English:

1. Вы хорошо знаете свою роль или вам нужен суфлер? 2. Конечно, у Джуди были недостатки, но она по крайней мере была честна. 3. Она очень волновалась, так как именно ее доклад был первым. 4. Девушкам не разрешалось выходить с территории колледжа после того, как колокол пробьет десять. 5. Оливер Твист воспитывался в работном доме (work-house). С раннего возраста детям приходилось много работать, одеваться в чужие обноски и есть одну овсянку. Большинство учителей, невежественные люди, очень жестоко обращались с детьми, 6. Не подсказывайте. Она знает урок и просто немного волнуется. 7. Вам нужно заполнить бланк и расписаться вот здесь. 8. Простое белое платье Джеммы очень шло ей. 9. Княжна Марья была некрасива, но улыбка, освещавшая ее лицо, была прелестна. 10. Ирэн всегда одевалась просто, но с большим вкусом. 11. Глаза мальчика блестели от возбуждения. 12. Джуди поняла свою ошибку только тогда, когда ее подруги начали смеяться. 13. Свежий воздух и простая пища — вот что ему нужно сейчас. 14. Временами ей казалось, что она не сможет вынести такого горя. Но у нее был сын, о котором надо было заботиться. 15. Я еще не привык работать с магнитофоном. 16. Беда в том, что я потеряла билеты и не могу их найти.

XI. a) Retell the contents of Judy's letter in Indirect Speech.

b) Retell the contents of Judy's letter as her guardian might describe it to a friend of his.

c) Describe Judy's first steps in college as Julia Pendleton might be describing them to a friend of hers.

d) Give a summary of the text

ХII. Insert prepositions or adverbs where necessary:

i. The trouble ... the book is that it's boring me ... death. 2. It will take me ... least a month to catch......the group. 3. What did you buy... the money you got... your father? 4. I need an alarm clock to wake me up ... time. 5. I've been writing the letter ... and......two days, now I've finished it... last. 6. I was perfectly sure to be put......the desk next... the girt whom I didn't like to sit.... 7. His visit was a surprise ... me, I didn't know he was ... town. 8. When I come ... some English words which I don't know I always look them......the dictionary. 9. In his speech he pointed ... all the drawbacks ... our work. 10. The drills on the English sounds bore me ... times, but I know that they are very useful. 11. He helped me a lot... my mathematics and I'm much obliged ... him ... it.

XIII. Revise Essential Vocabulary (I) and translate the following:

1. Вы должны догнать группу, как бы много ни пришлось вам работать. 2. Он до смерти надоел мне рассказами о своих приключениях. 3. У него по крайней мере пять ошибок в каждой контрольной. 4. Вся беда в том, что у меня с собой только 50 копеек. Что я могу купить на эти деньги? 5. Как бы много новых слов ни было в тексте, я все их смотрю в словаре. 6. Вы делаете ошибки в каждом втором предложении. 7. Я не раз говорила Борису Петрову, студенту второго курса, что, если он хочет выдержать экзамен, ему надо больше заниматься. 8. Предполагается, что все студенты знают, когда начинаются экзамены, 9. Трудно признаваться в том, что ты не прав, но он был вынужден сделать это. 10. Я знаю, что поступила плохо, но по крайней мере я осознала, что мне не следовало так поступать. 11. Этот живой, сообразительный мальчик очень понравился Оливеру, и они стали друзьями. 12, Я вам признателен за помощь. 13. Вы должны читать больше, это позволит вам значительно расширить ваш запас слов. 14. Он смотрел на меня непонимающим взглядом, как будто не слышал, что я говорю. 15. С какой стати вам так волноваться из-за мелочей? 16. Учитель указал на наиболее грубые ошибки в диктанте, просто и ясно объяснил правила, которыми нужно пользоваться, чтобы избежать их. 17. Подробно опишите свои впечатления от этой поездки. 18. Мне нравились в нем ясный ум и простая речь. 19. Что привело класс в такое возбуждение? — Волнующая для них новость; у них будет новый учитель по геометрии. 20. Они были когда-то хорошими друзьями. Просто не могу себе представить, почему они поссорились. 21. Старик указал на картину, которая висела на противоположной стене.

XIV. Compose 20 sentences about the text, using modal verbs must, can, may, ought, might with the perfect infinitive:

Models: a) Judy's guardian must have (never) read her letters (должно быть, (не) читал).

b) Judy could have bought some other things with her guardian's money (могла бы купить...).

c) Judy's guardian might have seen Judy somewhere (он, возможно, видел ее...).

d) Don't you think that Judy's guardian ought to have answered her letter (ему следовало бы ответить на ее письмо).

XV. a) Translate the text into Russian:

Dear Daddy Long-Legs,

You never answer any questions, you never show the slightest interest in anything I do. I haven't a doubt that you throw my letters into the waste-basket without reading them. Hereafter I shall write only about work.

My re-examinations in Latin and Geometry came last week. I passed them both and am now a Sophomore.

I came up a fortnight ago, sorry to leave the farm, but glad to see the campus again. It is pleasant to come back to something familiar, I am beginning to feel at home in college.

I am beginning chemistry, a most unusual study. I've never seen anything like it before. I am also taking logic. Also history of the whole world. Also plays of William Shakespeare. Also French.

I should rather have elected Economics than French, but I didn't dare, because I was afraid that unless I re-elected French, the Professor would not let me pass — as it was. I just managed to squeeze through the June examinations. But I will say that my high-school preparation was not very good.

And here is news for you. I have begun to be an author. A poem entitled "From my Tower" appears in the February "Monthly" — on the first page, which is a very great honour for a Freshman. My English instructor stopped me on my way out. of college last night, and said it was a charming piece of work except for the sixth line, which had too many feet.

But sometimes a dreadful fear comes over me that I'm not a genius.

Yours truly, Judy

(From "Daddy Long-Legs" by Jean Webster)

b) Comment on the letter above. Point out in what it differs from Judy's earlier letters (see the text). Explain the last line of this letter. Is Judy quite serious here?

XVI. Speak about Judy. Describe her as fully as you can. When pointing out this or that trait in her character, give your reasons. (See the text of Unit Five and Ex. XV.).

XVII. Compose dialogues and perform them in class:

1. between Judy and Julia Pendleton about Judy's guardian;

2. between two of Judy's fellow-students about Judy;

3. between Judy and the English instructor.

XVIII. Write a composition in the form of a letter describing some of your (or your friend's) experiences as a fresher. Use words and phrases from Essential Vocabulary (I). See also Judy's letter (Ex. XV).

XIX. Try your hand at teaching.

1. Say what you would do in the teacher's positions

Once, after having hastily written an assignment on the blackboard the teacher left the class alone for a few minutes. Upon her return she found several words on the blackboard were circled with coloured chalk. At the bottom was written, "Careless writing, please do over."

2. Practise your "Classroom English".

a) Every teacher is faced with the problem of keeping discipline in the classroom, A teacher should know how to do it to goad English. Describe the teacher's reaction in the following situation:

1) Ann is not paying attention.

2) Ted is standing up.

3) George — you can see only the back of his head.

4) Steve — finds it impossible to be silent for more than a minute at a time.

5) Jenny — is not looking at the blackboard.

6) Peter — is sprawled out across his desk.

7) Alison — is disturbing the girl sitting next to her.

8) Beth — is copying the answer from somebody else.

9) Alan and Paul — are arguing about something.

10) Andy — the slowest and dreamiest boy in the class.

b) Play the part of a young teacher describing a lesson in a very unruly class to his/her fellow teachers. (See "Classroom English", Section VII.)

LABORATORY EXERCISES (I)

1. Listen to the text "A Freshman's Experience", mark the stresses and tunes, repeat the text following the model.

2. Paraphrase the given sentences.

3. Extend the given sentences.

4. Write a spelling-translation test Check it with the key.

5. Translate the sentences into English. Check them with the key.

6. listen to the text 'Town and Gown" or some other text on the history of English Education. Write the summary of the text. Comment on it in class.

TOPIC: EDUCATION

Libraries full of books have been written on the education system in Britain, but recently it has been changing considerably.

Compulsory education begins at 5, and children attend primary school until they are 11. Normally the primary school is divided into Infants (5—7) and Juniors (7—11).

At the age of 11 most children go to a comprehensive school where they stay until they are 16. In the past children went to different types of secondary schools, but in most parts of the country everybody now goes to a comprehensive.

Some parents, who do not want their children to go to a comprehensive pay to send them to a private school. The most expensive and prestigious private schools are actually called public schools.

At the age of 16 people take their examinations. Most take General Certificate of Education (G.С.E.). Ordinary Levels — normally called just 'O' Levels. People take 'O' Levels in as many subjects as they want to; some take one or two, others take as many as nine or ten.

If you get good 'O' Level results, you can stay on at school until you are 18, in the Sixth Form. Here you prepare for Advanced Level Exams ('A' Levels). Again, you take as many of these as you want to, but most people take two or three.

In case you pass your exams well you have a chance of going on to university though this is not automatic. The number of people who study there is strictly controlled. Other types of further education are offered at polytechnics and colleges of higher education. Polytechnics offer the chance to study subjects in a more practical way, and many colleges of higher education specialize in teacher training.44

(See: Johnson K. and Morrow K. Approaches. Cambridge, 1979)

TEXT A. HIGHER EDUCATION AND TEACHER TRAINING IN GREAT BRITAIN

Nowadays teacher training in Great Britain is realized at universities, polytechnics and colleges of higher education.45 Students working for their first degree at university are called undergraduates. When they take their degree we say that they graduate and then they are called graduates. If they continue studying at university after they have graduated, they are called post-graduates. In general, the first degree of Bachelor is given to students who pass examinations at the end of three or four years of study.

Further study or research is required at the mode-n universities for the first post-graduate degree of Master, and at all British universities for that of Doctor.

In Britain full-time university students (students who spend all their time studying and have no other employment), have three terms of about ten weeks in each year.46

University teaching combines lectures given by professors, readers or lecturers,47 practical classes (in scientific subjects) and small group teaching in seminars or tutorials.

The course of study for intending teachers is based upon compulsory and optional subjects.

The Programme usually consists of three core components: School-based experience, Subject studies and Education studies.48

Theory of Education is one of the main subjects. At the end of the first or second year students are to make their choice as to the age-range of children they wish to prepare to teach.

Junior students go into schools for one day each week, watching experienced teachers at work. They take part in the life of the school, help with games, societies or play productions.

Senior students spend fifteen weeks on teaching practice. They learn the use of different educational aids, audio-visual facilities, observe lessons and take an active part in discussing them with a supervisor (tutor) on school practice.

Examinations are held at the end of each term. Final examinations (or finals) are taken at the end of the course.

(See: Tibbits E. L. Exercises in Reading Comprehension. Longman, 1974)

TEXT B. DIALOGUE

A n n :   Hullo, Steve. Have you got a minute?

S t e v e :   Sure, yes. What can I do for you?

A.: I've read a number of books on the British system of higher education but I can't make head or tail of it.

S.: Mm... no wonder. What's the problem?

A.: Quite a lot of problems. What I want to discuss is the difference between a university and a college.

S.: It's like this, you see... The programme is different. At a university it is much wider. Great attention is paid to scientific subjects.

A: It sounds as though most people prefer a university.

S.: Well... that rather depends.

A.: Speaking about universities I'm not quite clear about tutorials there. What is a tutorial exactly?

S.: Oh, it's when students discuss topics with a tutor in very small groups — usually there are not more than three or four students and sometimes only one.

A.: I see... And coming back to colleges... I'm still not terribly sure what a residential college is.

S.: Erm... It's a college with a hall of residence49 on the same grounds as the principal building. In fact all the students live in hall.

A: Really? and what about the teaching staff?

S.: Actually the majority of the teaching staff live there too. But there are also quite a lot of non-residential colleges.

A: And you studied at university?

S.: Yes...

A.: I'd like to find myself in that university. What was it like?

S.: Well... a big grey building surrounded by trees.

A: Beautiful?

S.: Nothing very remarkable. Of course there were lecture halls, classrooms and a number of laboratories.

A: Any facilities for sport and P.E.50

S.: Let me see... Yes... A gymnasium with changing rooms and showers, a tennis court... What else... A playing field for netball and football...

A.: I believe students spend a lot of time together, don't they?

S.: Definitely. We had students' societies and clubs.

A.: Am I right to believe that they are for those interested in drama and music?

S.: Quite... and also politics, modern languages, literature, science and athletics.

A: Ah... that's worth knowing.

S.: And what I'd like to add is that students themselves organize all those clubs and societies. There is usually a Students' Council or Union.

A.: Well Steve. Thanks very much. You've been most helpful.

TEXT С. HOW TO GET A DEGREE

J.: Well, Arnold, I remember you said once you were a B. A. Perhaps you could tell me how quickly you got those letters after your name?

A.: At university I studied history. It was a 3-year course. And after that I got a B. A degree.

J.: B.A. stands for Bachelor of Arts degree, doesn't it?

A.: Yes, which reminds me of my neighbour whose son had just got his B. A. A friend asked very seriously: "I suppose your son will try to get an M. A. or Ph. D."51 next to which my neighbour answered: "Not at all, now he is trying to get a J-O-B."

A: Ah... he meant a job! That's a good joke!   (See: English 903, Book 6. Lnd., 1978)

ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (II)

Words and Word Combinations

A. education system  scientific subjects

compulsory education  an intending teacher

primary school  optional

secondary school  core component (core)

comprehensive school  school (teaching) practice

public school  School-based experience

further education  Subject studies

polytechnic  Education studies

college of higher education  (Theory of) Education

to specialize in  main subject

    teacher training  age-range

degree   junior students

undergraduate  senior students

graduate  play production

post-graduate  educational aids

full-time student  audio-visual facilities

part-time student  visual aids

reader   to observe a lesson

lecturer  supervisor (tutor)

practical classes  to hold examinations

final examinations (finals)

B. tutorial   changing room

residential college  students' society

non-residential college  Students' Council (Union)

hall of residence  С. а B.A., B.Ed., B.Sc, B.S.E.,

to live in hall     B.S.M. degree (Bachelor of

principal building (the   Arts, Education, Science,

     Senate)   Engineering, Medicine etc.)

teaching staff  M.A., M.Ed (Master of

Physical Education (P.E.)  Arts, Education, etc.)

gymnasium (gym)  PhD. (Doctor of Philosophy)

EXERCISES

I. Study Text A and write English equivalents of the following words and phrases. Transcribe them:

педагогическое образование (обучение учителей), политехнический институт, колледж высшего образования, степень, выпускник, аспирант, бакалавр, дальнейшее обучение, исследовательская работа, магистр, студент дневного отделения, студент вечернего отделения, лектор (2 words), практические занятия, будущий учитель, быть основанным на чём-n., обязательный, факультативный, практика в школе, изучение основного предмета, комплекс предметов педагогического цикла, педагогика, профилирующая дисциплина, возрастная группа, студенты младших курсов, постановка пьесы, студенты старших курсов, учебные пособия, аудио-визуальные средства, посещать уроки, руководитель по педпрактике (2 words), проводить экзамены, выпускные экзамены.

II. Write 15 questions on Text A, using new words and expressions in each question. Ask your comrades to reply them. Summarize what you have learned about the British system of higher education.

III. Study Texts В and С and write English equivalents of the following words and phrases:

система высшего образования, практические занятия, колледж с общежитием, колледж без общежития, общежитие (студенческое), территория колледжа (университета), жить в общежитии (о студентах), педагогический состав, лекционный зал, гимнастический зал, раздевалка, студенческое общество, студенческий совет, бакалавр гуманитарных наук, магистр гуманитарных наук, доктор философских наук.

IV. Ask your fellow-students:

1. About the difference between a university, polytechnic and college of higher education. 2. Why it is preferable to study at university. 3. What subjects the Programme of a university is based upon. 4. What you know about tutorials. 5. About the difference between a residential and a non-residential college (university). 6. Who lives in hall. 7. What rooms can be found in a university building. 8. What sport facilities there are at a university. 9. What clubs and societies are popular in British colleges and universities. 10. Who runs those clubs and societies. 11. What a B. A. is. 12. How quickly one can get those letters before his name. 13. What a M. A. is. 14. Which degree is higher: M. A. or Ph. D.? 15. If it is easy for a Bachelor of Arts to find a job.

V. Retell Text В in indirect speech using new words and word combinations.

VI. Fill in prepositions. Ask the others to give their responses to the given sentences so as to make up micro-dialogues:

1.... Great Britain the course... study... intending teachers is based ... compulsory and optional subjects. 2. The Programme usually consists ... three core components. Do you remember what they are? 3. Are you going to specialize ... Education? 4. It is important... a student to learn the use ... different visual aids ... his block-teaching practice. 5. My school practice began when I was ... the first year. 6.... our department examinations are held ... the end ... each term; ... each examination students are given several days which they spend ... revising the material. 7. The English club organized ... the students is concerned .., extra-curricular activities. 8. Do you enjoy your lectures ... Theory ... Education? Are they supplemented... seminars?

VII. a) Retell Text С in indirect speech; b) act it out.

VIII. Speak about the English Department at your University (usе Essential Vocabulary on the topic).

IX. Make up dialogues, using Essential Vocabulary on the topic Suggested situations:

A. A Russian student and an English student are exchanging information on systems of higher education in their countries.

B. Two students of the English department are discussing their college life. One of them is enthusiastic about everything, the other is a dissatisfied grumbler and finds fault with every little thing.

C. A student of the English department is speaking about the programme and the course of study with a friend of his (hers).

D. A strict father (mother) is demanding an explanation from a son (daughter) after a failure in a college exam. The son is giving all kinds of lame excuses speaking about "overcrowded syllabus", injustice of professors and bad luck in general.

X. a) Bead and translate into Russian:

Oxford

So this is Oxford. As soon as we emerge into the clean, broad streets, there are signs enough that this is the ancient seat of English learning. Gowns and mortar boards.52 Young undergraduates in loose black thigh-length gowns. A graduate's gown is generally of knee length and for ceremonial occasions at least, has a hood lined in silk of the colour prescribed by the wearer's faculty.

Oxford's main railway station is some half a mile to the west of the area in which are clustered most of the colleges: Queen's College and University College, Magdalen College and quite a number of others.

All these together make up the University of Oxford.

The central University, in general, arranges lectures for the whole body of students in a particular subject and holds examinations and grants degrees; an individual college provides for residence and tutorials. Great emphasis is laid at Oxford and Cambridge on what are called "tutorials", in which a Don53 gives personal instruction in his study at least once a week to students numbering not more than four at a sitting.

For a lover of old architecture, Oxford has much to offer. Many of the colleges present a lovely picture of ancient pearl-grey walls, noble towers, picturesque gothic archways. All have grass lawns of velvet smoothness which must be seen to be believed, and many have, in summer, most magnificent displays of flowers.

(After "The British Scene" by George Bidwell)

b) Argue the pros and cons of: 1. Tutorial system. 2. Students' uniform. 3. Residential colleges.

XI. Describe the pictures on p. 183:

XII. Try your hand at teaching:

A. Preparation. Get ready for a talk on one of the following topics:

1. Higher education in Russia.

2. Higher education in Great Britain.

3. Oxford University.

4. Cambridge University.

5. Teacher training in Great Britain and in Russia.

B. Work in Class. Listen to the students' talk and say a few words about the construction of each talk: its beginning, development, conclusion, and the general balance of these parts.

Speak on what you think may surprise a Russian student at an English University (Oxford, Cambridge): a) programme, b) teaching methods, c) students' extra-curricular activities.

Prompts: I think (suppose, guess, believe, dare say)...; Well, my opinion is that...; My view is that...; True, but...; You may be right... but all the same...; I wouldn't say that; But on the other hand.

XIII. Read the text. Comment on its content:

Students in Tents

Three small tents — two blue and one khaki — are pitched among trees on a hill above Sussex University campus. This weekend they are 'home' to three students who cannot find a bed in the neighbouring town of Brighton.

They are an apt symbol of an accommodation crisis that is affecting thousands of students throughout the country. Tonight 80 other Sussex students will bed down on mattresses on the floor of the university senate chamber. It will be the sixth — and probably final — night of a'protest occupation!

In every major city there are students on camp beds in nooks and crannies and others 'crashing' on the floors of friends' flats.

The National Union of Students describes it as the worst ever student accommodation crisis! The indications are that it is a foretaste of a massive problem.

Unless something radical is done, the concept of a student having the right to go away to university may soon be dead.      (See: Ttofi C., Creed T. S. English in Mind. Lnd., 1982)

XIV. Speak on:

1. Your intentions as to your teaching career.

2. What you are going to do to become a highly-qualified specialist.

XV. Role-playing.

Work in two groups, one playing the university lecturers, the other presenting students. Both groups are discussing one and the same exam. Compare their versions and make your conclusion as to the difference in approach:

Exam: English Literature.

Results:  Dave Robertson — Sat    Charles Hope — Poor

Duncan Holmes — Good    Dorothy Baird — Very Good

Jenny Richards — Good

XVI. Compose a short story to which the pictures on pp. 187-189 might serve as an illustration. Use prompt words and phrases listed betow:

physicist; theory of relativity; treading on air; full of sweet reminiscences;

cast a glance; a sudden shock; come to realize; a guilty conscience;

first traces of fatigue; tired-out;

with a wet towel round his head; in frustration; a dazed look; a tub of water; scattered all over; peeping inside; puzzled;

strange visions; welcome cheerfully; arm-in-arm; a cane;

in a frenzy of enthusiasm; leaning on; lunatic asylum.

XVII. Film "Mr. Brown's Holiday". Film segment 5 "Is it Good to be a Student?" (Chrichester). a) Watch and listen, b) Do the exercises from the guide to the film.

STUDIES OF WRITTEN ENGLISH

V

A kind of writing technique that helps to achieve good results is summarizing the contents of written works.

Summary is a representation of the contents of complete works in brief. It is expected to be about a sixth or a tenth of the original in length. It is easier to make a summary of stories, novels and plays which have a plot.

Plot is a systematic arrangement of events by means of which the writer builds up a meaningful situation and shows the characters. Usually a plot consists of a good beginning, a middle, and an end.

In order to make a good clear summary of a story you have to go through the following stages:

1. Read the story carefully so as to understand its plot.

2. Make a list of all the points you find important. These notes should be very brief, very much like the topic plan (see the sample in Unit Four).

3. Using the list of points, write a rough draft of the summary. You may paraphrase and modify topic sentences. This will help you to reproduce the contents of the story in your own words.

4. After having written a rough draft shorten it and write a -fair copy of your summary.

Note: Take care not to change the meaning of the original or add to it. Your summary may follow the outline of the story in brief.

Here is a sample summary of "A Day's Wait" (see Unit Two).

A boy of nine fell ill. He was running a high temperature (102°F). The doctor diagnosed the illness as flu. He said there was nothing to worry about if the fever did not go above one hundred and four degrees. The boy lay still in the bed. He seemed detached and was looking very strangely at the foot of the bed. When the father took his temperature again the boy asked him about the time he was going to die. He argued with his father about the temperature because when being at school in France he learned from the boys that you can't live with the temperature of forty-four degrees. The father reassured him explaining the difference between the Fahrenheit and Centigrade thermometers. The boy relaxed after "a day's wait", though the next day he was still suffering from a nervous breakdown.

Assignments:

1. Write a summary of the story "How We Kept Mother's Day". (See Unit Four.)

2. Try to make a summary of Judy's letters. (Don't forget to make a list of the most important points before writing a rough draft.)

3. Write a summary of the dialogue between Ann and Steve. (See Text B.) Think of the best topic sentences introducing or/and completing your summary.

LABORATORY EXERCISES (II)

1. Listen to Texts A and B, mark the stresses and tunes. Repeat them following the model

2. Listen to Text С Mark the stresses and tunes. Repeat it following the model.

3. Write a spelling-translation test. Check it with the key.

4. Write a dictation. Check your spelling with a dictionary.

5. Translate the sentences and check your translation with the key (written work).

6. listen to the text "Cambridge'' or some other text on the topic "Education". Write tS questions to the text Get ready to discuss it in class.

CURIOSITY QUIZ FOR EAGERS

I. Test your "I. Q."54 and compare it to Judy's "abyss of ignorance". Say what you know about:

1. Maurice Maeterlinck.

2. Micheleangelo.

3. "David Copperfield" and the author of the book.

4. "Ivanhoe" and the author of the book.

5. "Jane Eyre" and the author of the book.

6. "Robinson Crusoe" and the author of the book.

7. "Alice in Wonderland".

8. Henry the Eighth.

9. Shelley.

10. George Eliot.

11. Mona Lisa.

12. Sherlock Holmes.

II. Give the names of humorists: a) you appreciate most of all; b) of British or American origin; c) of world reputation.

UNIT SIX

I SPEECH PATTERNS

1. I needn't have hurried.

Cf. You needn't go there tomorrow. — You needn't have gone there yesterday.

I needn't tell him that; he knows it. — I needn't have told him that; he knew it already.

The teacher needn't explain such simple things; the pupils know them. — The teacher needn't have explained such simple things; the pupils knew them.

You needn't ask this question. — You needn't have asked this question.

2. He'd been talking more than usual.

You've come later than usual.

Our homework today is longer than usual.

Yesterday this actress played better than usual.

Tomorrow I am to get up earlier than usual.

3. He looked at me with those kind blue eyes of his.

I knew too well that charming smile of hers.

You needn't repeat to me those lies of yours.

I really don't know what to do with this naughty child of mine.

I don't like that sharp voice of your friend's.

Who said that? Of course, that dear husband of Mary's.

EXERCISES

I. Paraphrase the following sentences, using Patten 1:

Pattern 1: 1. Why did you answer this question? It was not meant for you. 2. He spoke too long, it bored everybody present. 3. There was no reason why she should get so excited over a little thing like that. 4. Was it necessary to bother such a busy man with this unimportant question? 5. Why have you come to meet me? There was no need for you to bother.

II. Complete the following sentences, using the patterns:

Pattern 2: 1. Today she has been answering her task even better ... . 2. Are you ill? You are looking ... . 3. The way to his office seemed to him on that day ... . 4. He was in love, and the sun seemed to shine .... 5.... earlier than usual. 6. The soup tastes even .... 7.... later than usual.

Pattern 3:1. She addressed us angrily in that harsh ... . 2. Did you happen to see that charming ... ? 3. I didn't want to come up to you, because you were so busy speaking to that dear .... 4. I don't like the way she treats that miserable .... 5. I wish I knew how I should bring up this dear .... 6. No one any longer believes those ... . 7. If I were you, I should throw away these .... 8. Who could have done such a thing but...? 9. I have heard a lot about that....

III. Translate these sentences into English:

1. Вам не нужно было приходить сюда так рано. Никто еще не пришел. 2. Из-за этих своих тесных туфель она еле-еле шла. Мы добрались до остановки автобуса позже, чем обычно, и, конечно, автобус уже ушел. 3. В этот день Джуди была больна и чувствовала себя несчастней, чем обычно. Она не поверила своим глазам, когда ей принесли большую коробку с полураспустившимися розами — подарок этого ее таинственного опекуна.

IV. Make up short situations to illustrate Patterns 1, 2, 3 (three situations for each pattern).

V. Make up dialogues, using all the patterns.

TEXT. A FRIEND IN NEED by William Somerset Maugham (abridged)

Maugham, William Somerset (1874-1965): an English writer. He achieved a great success as a novelist with such novels as "Of Human Bondage", "The Razor's Edge" and others, as a dramatist with Ms witty satirical plays "Our Betters", "The Circle", etc., but he is best known by his short stories.

At the beginning of his literary career Maugham was greatly influenced by French naturalism. Later on, his outlook on life changed. It became cool, unemotional and pessimistic. He says that life is too tragic and senseless to be described. A writer can't change life, he must only try to amuse his reader, stir his imagination. And this is where Maugham achieves perfection: his stories are always fascinating. Maugham's skill in depicting scenes and characters with a few touches is amazing and whether he means it or not his novels, stories and plays reveal the vanity, hypocrisy and brutality of the society he lives in. So does the story "A Friend in Need". Burton, a prosperous businessman, is not.in the least concerned about the troubles and needs of those who have failed in life. Without a moment's hesitation he sends a man to death just because his presence bores him, and later on he remembers the fact with a "kindly chuckle".

When Maugham described people and places in his short stories, he did it mostly from his personal experience.

"It's rather a funny story," he said. "He wasn't a bad chap. I liked him. He was always well-dressed and smart-looking. He was handsome in a way, with curly hair and pink-andwhite cheeks. Women thought a lot of him. There was no harm in him, you know, he was only wild. Of course he drank too much. Those sort of fellows always do. A bit of money used to come in for him once a quarter and he made a bit more by card-playing. He won a good deal of mine, I know that."

Burton gave a kindly little chuckle. I knew from my own experience that he could lose money at bridge with a good grace.

"I suppose that is why he came to me when he went broke, that and the fact that he was a namesake of mine. He came to see me in my office one day and asked me for a job. I was rather surprised. He told me that there was no more money coming from home and he wanted to work. I asked him how old he was.

"Thirty-five," he said.

"And what have you been doing hitherto?" I asked him.

"Well, nothing very much," he said.

I couldn't help laughing.

"I'm afraid I can't do anything for you just yet," I said. "Come back and see me in another thirty-five years, and I'll see what I can do."

He didn't move. He went rather pale. He hesitated for a moment and then told me that he had had bad luck at cards for some time. He hadn't been willing to stick to bridge, he'd been playing poker, and he'd got trimmed. He hadn't a penny. He'd pawned everything he had. He couldn't pay his hotel bill and they wouldn't give him any more credit. He was down and out. If he couldn't get something to do he'd have to commit suicide.

I looked at him for a bit. I could see now that he was all to pieces. He'd been drinking more than usual and he looked fifty. The girls wouldn't have thought so much of him if they'd seen him then.

"Well, isn't there anything you can do except play cards?" I asked him.

"I can swim," he said.

"Swim!"

I could hardly believe my ears; it seemed such an insane answer to give.

"I swam for my university."55

I got some glimmering of what he was driving at. I've known too many men who were little tin gods at their university to be impressed by it.

"I was a pretty good swimmer myself when I was a young man," I said.

Suddenly I had an idea.

Pausing in his story, Burton turned to me.

"Do you know Kobe?" he asked.

"No," I said, "I passed through it once, but I only spent a night there."

"Then you don't know the Shioya Club. When I was a young man I swam from there round the beacon and landed at the creek of Tarumi. It's over three miles and it's rather difficult on account of the currents round the beacon. Well, I told my young namesake about it and I said to him that if he'd do it I'd give him a job. I could see he was rather taken aback.

"You say you're a swimmer," I said.

"I'm not in very good condition," he answered.

I didn't say anything. I shrugged my shoulders. He looked at me for a moment and then he nodded.

"All right," he said. "When do you want me to do it?"

I looked at my watch. It was just after ten.

"The swim shouldn't take you much over an hour and a quarter. I'll drive round to the creek at half past twelve and meet you. I'll take you back to the club to dress and then we'll have lunch together,"

"Done," he said.

We shook hands. I wished him good luck and he left me. I had a lot of work to do that morning and I only just managed to get to the creek at Tarumi at half past twelve. But I needn't have hurried; he never turned up."

"Did he funk it at toe last moment?" I asked.

"No, he didn't funk it. He started all right. But of course he'd ruined his constitution by drink and dissipation. The currents round the beacon were more than he could manage. We didn't get the body for about three days."

I didn't say anything for a moment or two, I was a trifle shocked. Then I asked Burton a question.

"When you made him that offer of a job, did you know he'd be drowned?"

He gave a little mild chuckle and he looked at me with those kind and candid blue eyes of his. He rubbed his chin with his hand.

"Well, I hadn't got a vacancy in my office at the moment."

VOCABULARY NOTES

1. to curl υt/i. 1. завивать(-ся), закручивать(-ся), e.g. She has curled her hair. The old man was curling his long moustache.

2. виться, клубиться, е.g. Does her hair curl naturally or does she curl it in curlers? The smoke from our camp-fires curled upwards among the trees.

to curl one's lip презрительно кривить рот, е.g. I don't like the way she curls her lip when talking to me.

to curl up свертывать(-ся), е.g. The child curled up in the arm-chair and went to sleep.

curling adj вьющийся (о волосах)

Cf. curled adj завитой and curly adj кудрявый, е.g. I don't like curled hair. But I liked this plump curly-headed little boy.

curl n 1. локон, завивка; 2. все, что имеет форму завитка, е.g. The girl had long curls over her shoulders. How do you keep your hair in curl? Soon we saw the curls of smoke rise upwards.

2. to break (broke, broken) υt/i 1. ломать(-ся), разбивать(-ся), е.g. Не fell and broke his leg. Who broke the window? Glass breaks easily.

to break (smth.) in two (three, etc.) разбить(-ся), разломать(-ся), разорвать(-ся) на две (три и т.д.) части, е.g. The mother broke the bread in two and gave each child a piece.

to break to pieces разбить(-ся) вдребезги, е.g. The vase fell and broke to pieces.

2. чувствовать себя разбитым (морально, физически), разориться, usu. to be broken, е.g. Не was completely broken as the result of the failure of his business. She was broken after her husband's death.

3. нарушать, as to break the law, a promise, one's word, an appointment

Ant. to keep, е.g. She broke the appointment. = She did not keep it

to break with smb. or smth. (old habits, traditions, etc.) порвать с.., покончить с..., е.g. Не can't break with his bad habits.

to break off прекратить внезапно (разговор, беседу), е.g. When she came in he broke off. He broke off in the middle of a sentence.

N o t e: No object after break off. Cf. in Russian: прекратить разговор.

to break out начинаться внезапно, вспыхнуть (об эпидемии, пожаре, войне), е.g. A fire broke out during the night.

to break through (smth.) прорывать(-ся), е.g. The partisans broke through the enemy's line.

to break the record побить рекорд

break n перемена, перерыв (в работе, учебе и т.д.), е.g. I feel tired, let's have a break. We're working since nine o'clock without a break.

3. to stick (stuck, stuck) υt/i 1. приклеивать(-ся), наклеивать; липнуть; прикреплять, as to stick a stamp on a letter, to stick a notice on a board. These stamps won't stick. The nickname stuck to him.

2. оставаться; держаться, придерживаться? стоять на своем, е.g. Friends should stick together. You must stick to your promise. Though Tom saw that nobody believed him, he stuck to his words. Stick to business! (He отвлекайтесь!)

3. втыкать, затыкать; засовывать, е.g. The girl stuck a flower in her hair. He stuck his hands in his pockets.

4. застрять, завязнуть, е.g. The splinter stuck in my finger. The car stuck in the mud. The key stuck in the keyhole.

4. to drive (drove, driven) υt/i 1. гнать (скот); преследовать (неприятеля), е.g. Не drove the horses into the forest.

2. править, управлять (машиной, автомобилем), е.g. He's learning to drive.

3. ехать (в автомобиле, экипаже), е.g. Shall we drive home or walk?

N o t e: With reference to travelling on a bicycle, on a horse or other animal the verb to ride is used, е.g. He jumped on his horse and rode away. He rode over on his bicycle to see me yesterday.

to drive up (away) подъезжать (отъезжать), e.g. We drove up to the house.

to drive at (colloq.) клонить к чему-л., намекать на что-л., е.g. I could not understand what he was driving at.

to drive smb. mad сводить с ума

drive n катание, езда, прогулка (в автомобиле, экипаже), е.g. We had a nice drive.

to go for a drive прокатиться, совершить прогулку в автомобиле, е.g. Shall we go for a drive round the town?

driver n шофер, водитель, машинист, as a bus-driver, tram-driver, taxi-driver, engine-driver

5. pause n пауза, перерыв; передышка, е.g. There was a short pause while the next speaker got on to the platform. A pause is made because of doubt or hesitation or for the sake of expressiveness when speaking, singing, reading, etc.

Syn. break

to make a pause делать паузу, останавливаться, е.g. The speaker made a short pause to stress his words.

to pause υi делать паузу, останавливаться, е.g. Не paused to collect his thoughts. He went on without pausing.

Syn. stop

N о t e: to stop is usually used when the action is not supposed to continue; to pause is used when there is only a temporary break in the action, especially in speech or writing, е.g. He paused until the noise stopped.

6. to nod υi/t 1. кивать головой, е.g. I asked him if he could ring me up and he nodded. She nodded to me as she passed.

Syn. bow

N о t e: to sod refers lo a quick motion of the head only, and is less formal than to bow, which is a slower, formal bending, usually of the body as well as the head, е.g. The servant bowed and left the room.

Ant to shake one's bead

2. дремать, клевать носом, е.g. She sat in the armchair nodding over her book.

nod n кивок, е.g. She passed me with a nod. She gave me a nod.

7. ruin n 1. гибель, крушение, разорение, е.g. The death of Davy's mother was the ruin of his hopes.

to bring smb. (smth.) to ruin разорить, погубить, е.g. Не brought his family to ruin.

2. развалины (often pl), руины, е.g. The ruins of Rome. The enemy left the city in rains.

rain υt губить, разрушать, разорять

to ruin one's life (hopes, business, constitution), е.g. He knew that he himself had ruined his life by stealing the money.

to rain oneself разориться, е.g. The fellow rained himself by card-playing.

ruinous adj разорительный, губительный, разрушительный

8. to rub υt/i тереть(-ся), натирать, е.g. The gymnast rubbed his hands with talc. The dog rubbed its nose against my coat.

to rub smth. dry вытирать насухо, е.g. Не rubbed Ms face (hands) dry.

to rub in втирать (мазь и т. д.), е.g. Rub the oil in well.

to rub off стирать (удалять с поверхности), е.g. Rub the words off the blackboard.

to rub out стирать (написанное чернилами, карандашом), в. д. She rubbed all the pencil marks out.

to rub one's hands (together) потирать руки от удовольствия, е.g. His manner of rubbing bis hands gets on my nerves.

rub n, е.g. She gave the spoons a good rub.

9. vacant adj незанятый, свободный; вакантный, пустой, е.g. The telephone booth was vacant and I was able to telephone at once. She gazed into vacant space.

N o t e: The Russian words свободный and пустой have different English equivalents:

1. свободный may be translated by vacant, free, not engaged, spare, loose.

vacant means "not occupied," as a vacant seat (room, house, flat); a vacant post (position); a vaсant mind

free means "independent," as a free person; a free state; free will

not engaged means "not occupied, not busy," е.g. You are not engaged now, are you?

Ant. engaged, busy

Spare means "additional to what is usually needed," е.g. I have spare time today. I've got spare cash about me and can lend you 3 or 5 roubles.

loose means "not tight or not fitting close," е.g. He had loose clothes on. All the window frames in my flat are loose.

Ant tight

2. пустой has the following English equivalents: vacant, empty, blank, shallow.

(See the notes to the word blank on p. 164.)

vacancy n вакантная должность, е.g. We have a vacancy on our staff. We advertised for a secretary to fill the vacancy.

NOTES ON WORD-FORMATION

The verb to land was made from the noun land by means of conversion which is a very productive way of making new words in modern English.

In conversion, a new word and the one from which it is produced have the same phonetic shape but always belong to different categories or parts of speech, so that verbs may be produced from nouns or adjectives (е.g. to hand вручать; to comb причесывать; to pocket класть в карман; to pale бледнеть), nouns from verbs (е.g. break перерыв; drive поездка; find находка), etc.

The other two main ways of word-building are affixation (or so called derivation) and composition.

In affixation new words are produced with the help of affixes (that is suffixes and prefixes), е. g: beautiful, swimmer, unbelievable.

In composition new words are produced from two or more stems, е.g.: classroom, wall newspaper, good-for-nothing, blue-eyed, etc.

ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY (I)

Words

break υ, n  hesitate υ  ruin υ, n

curl υ, n  land υ  ruinous adj

curled adj  namesake n  shock υ

curling adj  nod υ, n  smart (-looking) adj

curly adj  pause υ, n  stick υ

current a.  rather adv  vacant adj

drive υ, n  rub υ  vacancy n 

driver n

Word Combinations

in a way   to break off to be willing to do smth.

to break out to stick to smth. (smb.)  to break the record

to be down and out  to break with to commit suicide

to curl one's lip to drive at  to curl up

on account of  to drive up (away) to be taken aback

to drive smb. mad to shrug one's shoulders  to make a pause

to have bad (good) luck  to rub one's hands (together)

to rum up  to bring smb. (smth.) to ruin


EXERCISES

I. Read the text and do the following (A. Grammar, B. Word usage, C. Word-formation).

A. 1. Pick out from the text all the irregular verbs and give their four forms. 2. Search the text for -ing-forms and classify them according to their functions in the sentences. 3. Mark all the cases of Sequence of Tenses in the text and comment on them (explain the rules). 4. Select sentences with the verb go used as a link verb; what other verbs can be used in the same function?

B. 1. Pick out from the text words and phrases describing appearance. 2. Tick off all introductory phrases used by Burton; use them in sentences of your own. 3. Pick out all the sentences with the word rather and translate them into Russian. 4. Paraphrase all the sentences with the verb get.

C. 1. Pick out from the text all compound words and identify their type. 2. Construct some compounds modelling them after well-dressed and smart-looking. 3. Search the text for verbs and nouns formed by means of conversion.

II. Translate in writing three paragraphs from the text: 1) the first paragraph, 2) the paragraph beginning with "He didn't move" and 3) the paragraph from "Swim!" up to "Suddenly I had an idea".

Read the translation in class and discuss it with your fellow-students.

III. a) Transcribe these words:

handsome, well-dressed, quarter, experience, lose, suicide, pausing, current, aback, shoulder, drowned.

b) Transcribe and explain the rules of reading these words:

wild, rather, curl, pawn, pass, constitution, dissipation, beacon, question, half, vacancy, poker, trifle.

IV. Write twenty special questions about the text In each question use one of the phrases from Essential Vocabulary (I).

V. Fill in prepositions:

1. handsome ... a way; 2. to know... one's own experience; 3. He could lose money ... bridge ... a good grace. 4. to have bad luck ... cards; 5. He did not want to stick ... bridge. 6. He was all... pieces. 7. I understand what he was driving .... 8. I landed ... the creek of Tarumi. 9.... account...; 10. He never turned....

VI. Study Vocabulary Notes and translate the illustrative examples into Russian.

VII. Answer the following questions:

1. Burton thought that what he was telling was "rather a funny story." Do you also think so? Why don't you? Why did Burton think it funny? 2. What kind of man was young Barton? What do you think of his way of living? Do you approve of it? Why not? 3. Why do you think young Burton turned to his namesake for help when he was rained? 4. What was the situation in which he found himself? 5. What did Burton mean by saying that his young namesake was "down and out"? that he was "all to pieces"? 6. What did young Burton mean when he said that he "swam for his University"? 7. On what condition did Burton promise a job in his office to his namesake? What do you think of this condition? 8. Why did young Burton accept it? He knew he was not in good condition, didn't he? 9. What happened to him? 10. Do you think old Burton knew that bis namesake would be drowned? Why do you think so? 11. Why did Burton send his namesake to almost sure death? 12. What kind of man do you think old Burton was? 13. Why does the author emphasize when speaking about old Burton his "kindly chuckle," "mild chuckle," "those candid and kind blue eyes of his"?

VIII. Write an outline of the story. You may try three ways: a) following the chain of true events; b) sticking to the story as told by the author or c) building it up round the main idea of the story.

IX. a) Fill in different English equivalents of the Russian words занят and свободен (engaged, busy, occupied or vacant, free, spare):

1. As he was ... yesterday he couldn't join our company. 2. I tried to get him on the phone but the line was ... As I was ... I decided to ring him up later. 3. Is the place next to you ...? — No, it is ... . 4. When I entered the hall all the seats were ... and I could hardly find a ... seat. 5. Will you be ... tomorrow? Let's go to the country. — No, I'll be ... at my office. 6. Let's find a ... classroom and rehearse our dialogue there. — I'm afraid at this hour all the rooms are sure to be ... . 7. Have you any ... time today? 8. At this late hour all taxis will be ... . 9. I am young, healthy, and ... to do as I please.

b) Think of situations or microdialogues consisting of a statement (or a question) and a reply to it using the words mentioned above.

X. Translate these sentences into English:

1. Она наклеила на письмо несколько марок и бросила его в почтовый ящик. 2. Друзья всегда держались вместе. 3. Ключ застрял в замке, и я не могла открыть дверь. 4. Вы сегодня заняты? — К сожалению, у меня вряд ли будет свободное время. 5. Смерть единственного сына была крушением всех его надежд 6. Есть в гостинице свободные номера? — К сожалению, все номера заняты. 7. Лондонские туманы губительны для здоровья. 8. Все списали эти предложения? Я стираю их с доски. 9. У него была странная привычка потирать руки, когда он был взволнован. 10. Холод голод и нужда подорвали здоровье Герствуда. 11. Оратор остановился, чтобы собраться с мыслями. 12. Вам не следует беспокоиться, он хорошо водит машину. 13. Звук выстрела нарушил тишину. Мистер Кэртел, который до этого времени мирно дремал в кресле, вскочил и стал оглядываться по сторонам. 14. Я не любил купаться в реке из-за сильного течения. 15. Учитель подождал, пока не стихли разговоры, и только после этого продолжал объяснение. 16. Они прервали беседу, как только я вошел. 17. Он обещал помочь мне, но не сдержал обещания. 18. Увидев меня, он презрительно скривил рот и только кивнул головой в знак приветствия.

XI. Read the story carefully and answer the following questions:

1. When do you usually: rub your chin; give a little chuckle; ask about smb.'s age; go pale; hesitate; shrug your shoulders; look at your watch; shake hands?

2. In what situations did old Burton and his namesake perform the same actions as in Point 1. Comment on each situation.

ХII. Try your band at teaching:

A. Preparation. 1. Prepare to explain the difference between the verbs: stop and pause, nod and bow so as to make sure that your pupils can use these verbs properly. 2. Write an exercise to practise the following antonyms: to break and to keep, to nod and to shake, free and engaged, loose and tight 3. Think of the answers you would give if your pupils asked you: 1) How long is a mile? 2) Did Burton mean land miles or nautical miles when he said there were over three miles between the Shioya Club and the creek of Tarumi? 3) In what part of the world did the events take place?

B. Work in Class. 1. Ask the class to answer the questions given in Items 1 and 3 and to do your exercise from Item 2.

2. Correct the mistakes, comment on the answers and say a few words by way of explanation if needed. (Use "Classroom English", Sections I, IV, VII.)

ХIII. Write a summary of the story "A Friend in Need". Before writing it find answers to the following questions that may serve as the key points of the story.

E. д.: What did young Burton ask for?

What did he get?

What was his occupation and that of old Burton?

What were the advantages and disadvantages of old Burton's position and those of his namesake?

What were young Burton's chances?

Could he manage to cover three miles?

Who gained anything from this performance?

What do you think both of them should have done under the circumstances?

What were your feelings after reading the story?

XIV. Speak on the characters of the story;

a) Old Burton (his appearance, character and what yon think of him).

b) Young Burton (his appearance, character and what yon think of him).

c) The story-teller (what kind of person he was; how he was impressed by Burton's story; with whom his sympathies were).

XV. Paraphrase the following sentences, using colloquial words and phrases from the text instead of the words in italic type which are stylistically neutral:

1. My sister's husband was killed in the war, and soon after that her elder child died of pneumonia. No wonder she was broken physically and spiritually. 2. He ruined himself because he played cards and drank a lot. When I met him, there seemed to be no way out for him. Yet, he had always been a nice man and had never done any harm to anybody. 3. I began to understand what she meant to say. 4. She is rather a good cook, isn't she? — Women of that kind always are. 5. Men of this kind are always a great success with women. 6. You said you didn't come to the exam on Monday because you were so ill you couldn't move. I don't believe it. I'm sure you were simply afraid. 7. Couldn't you lend me a little more money? I am in a hopeless position.

XVI. Revise the story and discuss the following:

1. How does the author make the reader realize what kind of man Burton the Elder was? Which method of characterization does he use, direct or indirect? (See Notes on Style, p. 120.)

2. Point out the lines and passages in which the ironical attitude of the author towards Burton the Elder is felt. Is it expressed by lexical or syntactical means? (Analyse each case.) Comment on the title of the story.

3. What is the message (the main idea) of the story?

XVII. Perform a dialogue between old Burton and his namesake.

Don't forget that old Burton was busy in his office, not very easily impressed, indifferent to other people's troubles; his namesake was down and out, all to pieces and not in very good condition to swim.

XVIII. Role-playing.

Role-play a Trial at which you will try Burton for wilful murder. It may be arranged in the following way:

Student A — speaking for the judge.

Student A — speaking for the prosecution (he will describe all the facts proving Burton's guilt).

Student С — speaking for the defence (he will try and present all the facts that may speak in Burton's favour).

Student D — representing Burton (he will, naturally, try to defend himself).

Students E, F, G — acting as witnesses for the prosecution or the defence.

The rest of the group are acting as members of the jury and will bring a verdict of "guilty" or "not guilty".

The judge conducts the trial, puts questions, examines the documents and evidence.

Counsel for the prosecution (прокурор) addresses the jury and presents his case, after which he calls witnesses who swear to tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth.

Counsel for the defence proceeds in the same way. The judge may interfere at any point and ask questions.

When the two sides have presented their cases, the judge gives his summing up. The jury retires to consider its verdict: Guilty or Not Guilty. If the defendant is found guilty, the judge passes sentence on him.

XIX. Think of a different end to the story (comical, puzzling, etc.).

XX. Write a short story to illustrate the proverb "A friend in need is a friend indeed". Use Essential Vocabulary of the lesson. Retell your story in class.

XXI. Translate the following sentences into English, using the word rather.

1. Эта книга довольно скучная, возьмите лучше другую. 2, Чемодан маловат, боюсь, что вы не уложите в него всю одежду. 3. Еще чашечку чая? — Да, пожалуйста, 4. Эта новость немного взволновала его. 5. Я, пожалуй, возьму эту пластинку. 6. Он скорее невежественен, чем глуп. 7. Нас несколько удивил его ранний приход. 8. Она выглядела несколько усталой после двухкилометровой прогулки. 9. Она показалась мне довольно красивой девушкой.

ХXII. a) Read the text:

Every summer many people, girls and women as well as boys and men, try to swim from England to France or from France to England. The distance at the nearest points is only about twenty miles, but because of the strong tides the distance that must be swum is usually more than twicе as far.

There is a strong tide from the Atlantic Ocean. This divides in two in order to pass round the British Isles. The two tides meet near the mouth of the Thames, and strong currents they cause make it impossible to swim in a straight line across the Channel.

The first man to succeed in swimming the Channel was Captain Webb, an Englishman. This was in August 1875. He landed in France 21 hours 45 minutes after entering the water at Dover. Since then there have been many successful swims and the time has been shortened. One French swimmer crossed it in 11 hours and 5 minutes.

Because the sea is usually cold, swimmers cover their bodies with grease. This, they say, helps to keep out the cold. They are fed during the swim by men who go with them in small boats.

b) Retell the text above using the phrases in italic type.

c) Comment on the text. Say if you think such a competition is a sport.

XXIII. Try your hand at teaching.

1. Say what you would do in the teacher's position:

Anna, a fourth form pupil, surprised and shocked the children in class because of the long dangling earrings she was wearing. At first the teacher decided to ignore this, hoping the children would soon ignore it also. However, the subdued but excited noise continued. Everyone wanted to see and touch the earrings.

2. Practise your Classroom English.

Prepare a short test on the vocabulary of Unit Six. Play the part of the teacher and give the test in class, check it and comment on each work. (See "Classroom English". Sections VII, IX.)


LABORATORY EXERCISES (I)

1. Listen to the text "A Friend in Need", mark the stresses and tunes. Read the text following the model.

2. a) Paraphrase the given sentences,

b) Make up sentences contrasting to the given ones using the verb need and a suggested noun.

c) Respond to the remarks using the given pattern.

3. Write a spelling-translation test.

4. Change the given sentences according to the model.

5. Task I. Listen to the English sentences and write down the Russian translation. Check your translation with the key (written work).

Task II. Translate your phrases back into English and check them with the key.

6. Listen to the text "The Story of Arthur Bloxham" or some other story on students' life; write 10 questions to the text. Get ready to discuss it in class.

TOPIC: SPORTS AND GAMES

TEXT A. WHAT MAKES ALL PEOPLE KIN

People all over the world are very fond of sports and games. That is one thing in which people of every nationality and class are united.

The most popular outdoor winter sports are shooting, hunting, hockey and, in the countries where the weather is frosty and there is much snow — skating, skiing and tobogganing. Some people greatly enjoy figure-skating and ski-jumping.

Summer affords excellent opportunities for swimming, boating, yachting, cycling, gliding and many other sports. Among outdoor games football takes the first place in public interest; this game is played in all the countries of the world. The other games that have firmly established themselves in favour in different countries are golf, lawn-tennis, cricket, volley-ball, basket-