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Методичний посібник призначений для роботи на заняттях з англійської мови в технікумі на спеціальності «Організація виробництва». Методичний посібник має на меті створити мовне середовище для студентів, стимулювати їх в читанні тематичних текстів і засвоєнні необхідної лексики. Метою кожного студента повинно стати бажання висловлювати свою думку з даної теми



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для студентів спеціальності:

«Організація виробництва»


     Зінченко Т.П.

Сміла, 2006





Методичною радою СТХТ  цикловою комісією СТХТ

Протокол №__________  Протокол №_________

«___»_________200__р  від «__»_______2000__р

Методичний посібник призначений для роботи на заняттях з англійської мови в технікумі на спеціальності «Організація виробництва». Методичний посібник має на меті створити мовне середовище для студентів, стимулювати їх в читанні тематичних текстів і засвоєнні необхідної лексики. Метою кожного студента повинно стати бажання висловлювати свою думку з даної теми.

Укладач: Зінченко Т.П.

Відповідальний редактор: Бардадим А.Ю.

Рецензент: Усенко Т.Й.


  1.  Wisdoms about economics 4
  2.  Secretaries 7
  3.  Trade exhibitions and fairs 11
  4.  Yourself and the “market” 13
  5.  Careers in business 15
  6.  The main characteristics of the contract of sale 17
  7.  Business Firm 19
  8.  Computers in Our Life 22
  9.  Banking in Britain 24
  10.  Commodity exchanges, auctions, tenders 26
  11.  The Telex 27
  12.  The Fax 28
  13.  Careers in Business 29
  14.  Economic activity 31
  15.  The science of economic 32
  16.  Money 33
  17.  Banks 34
  18.  Why management is needed 35
  19.  Management 37
  20.  Managerial skills 38
  21.  The information superhighway 39
  22.  Computers 41
  23.  Computers in Business 42
  24.  International trade 43
  25.  Free trade versus protectionism 44
  26.  Pricing 46
  27.  Types of Business Letters 47
  28.  Application 47
  29.  Order 49
  30.  Inquiry and reply 50
  31.  Recommendation 52
  32.  Claim 53
  33.  Листові штампи 55
  34.  Єднальні фрази 56
  35.  Список основних скорочень 58
  36.  Одиниці виміру 61

Wisdoms about economics

1. “Business is more exciting than any game.”

  (Lord Beaverbrook (1879-1964))

2. “The purpose of business is to serve society.”

  (Peter Drucker)

     Business is business.

     The business of America is business.

3. “The nature of business is swindling”.

  (A. Bebel)

     Business is war.

  (Japanese saying)

     “Business is simple; it’s other people’s money.”

  (A. Dumas)

4. “Big business hits big problems.”

   “Business is messy. Business is always changing.”

  (Tom Peters)

   “Business that makes nothing but money is a poor kind of business.”

  (Henri Ford)

5. “If it’s good for America it’s good for General Motors, and if it’s good for General Motors it’s good for America.”

  (Charles E. Wilson)

   “A successful business needs strong competition.”

  (Alfred Sloan)

   “Be not slothful in business.”

  (“The Bible”)

6. “If business has caused the problems, then business can solve them.”

  (Peter Drucker)

   “Making money is art, and working is art, and good business is the best of art.”

  (Andy Warhol)

7. “Without a clear goal, you may be running a well-managed bankruptcy.”

  (L. Carrol “Alice in Wonderland”)

   “Management is activity or art where those who have not yet succeeded and those     who have proved unsuccessful are led by those who have not yet failed.”

  (P. Frenckuer)

8. “Nothing is more difficult, and therefore more precious, than to be able to decide.”

  (Napoleon Bonaparte)

   “Companies have to be led, not managed.”

  (Grey Dyke)

9. “A new product creates a new market.”

  (Alfred Sloan)

   “The purpose of business is to create a customer.”

  (Peter Druccer)

   “The customer is king.”

  (Alfred Sloam)

10. “You can tell the ideals of a nation by it’s advertisements.”

  (Norman Douglas)

     “The science of advertising is the science of psychology.”

  (Elbert Hubbard)

     “Advertising is legalized lying.”


11. Money is language of business.

     Money talks.

     Money is a good servant but a bad master.

12. Money begets money.

     Money is a root of all evil.

     Money makes the world go round.

13. “Adventure is the life of commerce, but caution is the life of banking.”



“He that goes a borrowing, goes a sorrowing.”


14. Exchange is no robbery.

     It is all ill bargain, where no men wins.


     Remember, there is no bargain.


15. Trade follows the flag.

     There are tricks in every trade.

     Two of a trade will never agree.



There are two types of secretaries: company secretaries and private secretaries of executives.

Every company, both in Great Britain and the United States, is required, under the law, to have a company secretary.

In the case of private companies the directors are free to appoint any suitable person for this position.

But in the case of public companies the company secretary must be a properly qualified person, a member of a recognized institute or association. He or she may be one of the directors of the company. But if the company has only one director, the director cannot also be the secretary.

The company secretary is the chief administrative officer of the company. He or she is normally responsible for the company, to comply with company law.

The correspondence of the company secretary is particularly concerned with shareholders’ meetings, board meetings and various forms that must be sent outside. The company secretary may also deal with enquiries for information concerning other firms, although the accounts department often handles these matters. Administrative questions come, info the sphere of the company secretary, under instructions of the board of directors.

As to private secretaries of executives they are practically personal assistants of executives. A secretary answers telephone calls, receives messages and makes telephone calls on the instruction of her boss.

A secretary also helps in organization of meetings and conferences, entertainments of visiting customers, suppliers and other associates of the firm. She also deals with all the correspondence of her boss.

Secretaries write letters on making appointments or travel arrangements, letters of introduction, congratulation or condolence, invitations and replies to invitations.

Secretaries’ use various office equipment: like microcomputers, fax machines, photocopying machines and others.

New words:

Executive [ig’zekjutiv]  керівник,

Executive committee   виконавчий комітет

To suit   [sju:t]   влаштовувати

Suitable     підходящий

To qualify [‘kwolifai]  кваліфікувати

Qualified    кваліфікований

Properly qualified   належним чином


Member     член

Member of an institute   член інституту

(organization, parliament)  (організації)

To recognize    визнавати

Recognized    впізнавати

Recognition    визнаний, визнання

Officer     службовець,

                                                             посадова особа

To comply with smth   відпочивати чомусь

To be concerned with smth  бути пов’язаним з


Enquiry     запит

To handle    мати справу

To handle the matter   займатися даним


Sphere     сфера (діяльності)

To come into the of smb  потрапляти в сферу

                                                             діяльності будь-кого

Message     звістка

To receive (take) a message  отримати звістку

To entertain    розважати

Entertainment    розвага

Customer    клієнт, покупець

To supply    постачати

Supplier     постачальник

Associate    партнер

To arrange    влаштовувати,


Arrangement    угода, договір

Travel arrangement   домовленість про


To congratulate    вітати

Congratulation    вітання,

A letter of congratulation  вітальна листівка

Condolence    співчуття

To invite     запрошувати

Invitation    запрошення

To reply     відповідати

Reply     відповідь

In reply to smth    у відповідь на будь-


Equipment    обладнання


A    Translate the following sentences into English using the construction there is/there are:

1 Існує два типи секретарів ___________________________

2 Є декілька видів постачальників _____________________


3 В цій країні працює декілька заводів General Electric ____


4 На столі лежать декілька вітальних листівок ___________


5 В США 50 штатів ___________________


6 Я не пам’ятаю, скільки графств в Англії _______________


7 В підручнику «Основи економіки і бізнесу» 20 розділів __


В    Complete the following sentences from the text:

1  There are two types of secretaries ……………………………

2   Every company, boot in Great Britain and the United States

3   In the case of private companies …………………………….

4  But in case of public companies ……………………………

5  But if the company has only one director ……………………

6  The company secretary is the chief …………………………

7  The correspondence of the company secretary is particularly concerned with ……………………………………………………….

8  The company secretary may also deal with enquiries ………

C     Complete the sentences with the following words: letters, law, matters, forms, instructions, personal, assistants, office, equipment.

1  The company secretary is normally responsible for the company, to comply with company …………………………………..

2  He is particularly concerned with various ……………………………………………. That must be sent outside.

3  Although the accounts department often handles these …….

4  Administrative questions come into the sphere of the company secretary, under ……………………… of the board of directors.

5  As to private secretaries of executives they are practically ……………………… of executives.

6  A secretary answers telephone calls, receives messages and makes telephone calls on the …………………………….. of her boss.

7  Secretaries write …………… on making appointments or travel arrangements, ………………………. of introduction, congratulation or condolence, invitations and replies to invitations.

8  Secretaries use various …………………………, like microcomputers, fax machines, photocopying machines and others.

D      Write down the questions for these answers:

1 ____________________________    

1 There are two types of them:

  ____________________________        company secretaries and private

  ____________________________        secretaries.

2 ____________________________    

2 The company secretary is the chief

  ____________________________       administrator of the company.

3 ____________________________    

3 His or her correspondence is mostly

  ____________________________       concerned with board meeting,

  ____________________________       shareholders’ meetings and so on.

4 ____________________________    

4 He or she administers under

  ____________________________       instructions of the board of

  ____________________________       directors.

E   Sum up what the text says about:

  •  Company secretaries
  •  Private secretaries

Trade exhibitions and fairs

Trade fairs and exhibitions usually attract thousands of visitors and many potential buyers among them. So firms and enterprises never lose a chance to exhibit theirs products at international fairs and exhibitions both abroad and home. They help promote our goods to new markets and launch new products in the markets already developed. A great deal of profitable business is done at commercial centers at exhibitions: new contracts are made, new transactions are concluded, new orders are placed and new markets are established. This work goes on after the exhibitions as well: enquiries are sent out for the goods our national economy requires and offers are made for the products partners are interested in.

There are traditional fairs and exhibitions that are held annually, for example, the Leipzig fair is organized twice a year – in spring and in autumn in Germany, the Plovdiv fair in Bulgaria or the Sorochyntsi Fair in Ukraine.

Also, there are fairs and exhibitions organized on and off and devoted to scientific achievements in this or that field of national economy. They are called accordingly: “Chemistry – 99”, “Automation – 98”, “Building – 99”, “Enter Ex – 2000”, etc.

New words:

To promote goods to new markets – просувати товари на нові ринки;

A chance – можливість, шанс;

To launch new products – вводити нову продукцію;

To conclude – укладати;

A require – бути необхідним;

To offer – пропонувати;

On and off – час від часу.

Answer the questions:

  1.  Do trade fairs and exhibitions attract many visitors?
  2.  What work is done at commercial centers at the exhibitions?
  3.  What traditional fairs and exhibitions can you name?

Learn the words and word combinations by heart:

  1.  to hold a meeting (a conference, an exhibition, talks);
  2.  to take part in talks (fairs, exhibitions);
  3.  to get in touch with smb., to contact smb,;
  4.  to advertise goods (machines, equipment);
  5.  to represent a firm (a factory, a company, a country);
  6.  to supply smth to smb, to supply smb with smth;
  7.  to depend on smth (smb.);
  8.  to increase by, to increase to;
  9.  to inform smb of smth, to advise smb of smth, to let smb know;
  10.  to purchase equipment (cars, furniture), to buy;
  11.  to sell;
  12.  to enclose smth with the letter, to attach to the letter;
  13.  reliability of the company (model, equipment);
  14.  to be responsible for smth;
  15.  to be pleased with smth (smb), to be satisfied with smth;
  16.  to consider the matter (the terms, the price problem);
  17.  in accordance with, according to;
  18.  to need, to require;
  19.  to propose, to suggest (an idea, a plan), to offer (goods, services);
  20.  to do one’s best.

Write the sentences in Passive Voice:

  1.  We received a letter from our company’s agent on Monday.
  2.  This plant produces modern cars.
  3.  We showed the equipment in operation.

Yourself and the “Market”

To introduce a product, you study it to find its superior qualities and uses. You next study your market to find who are your prospective buyers, where they live, what their buying habits are, what features and qualities they are looking for, and what appeals will be the strongest.

You follow the same process in finding a job. You study yourself to discover your personal qualities. You get ready to put into persuasive words a description of your training, your skill, your knowledge, and your ability. You study the services you can offer in order to be able to present them effectively.

Next you search out prospective employers who might have a need for the kind of ability you can offer. You find out where these employers work, when they do their interviewing, what opportunities are open, what qualification are needed for handing these jobs. You then put yourself on the “examining stand” and decide whether the qualifications you have are those the employer wants. Next, you proceed to the third final step – the application itself. You  reach this step only if you completed study of yourself and job show that your qualifications fit.

  •  What factories is your city famous for?
    •  Oh, there are lots of plants in our city, but one can’t but mention the machine-building factory.
    •  What does your factory produce?
    •  We produce all kinds of agricultural machines.
    •  Has your factory increase its production in recent years?
    •  Oh, yes, we’ve increased the output of steel by five per cent.
    •  When will the new assembly line be put into operation?
    •  According to the programme, by the end of this year.
    •  Do you want to cooperate with our enterprise?
    •  Yes, we shall discus it.

New words:

Commerce [ke’me:s] – торгівля, комерція;

Trade [treid] – торгівля;

Trade mark [treid ma:k] – торгова марка; 

Industry [‘indΛstri] – промисловість;

Heavy industry [‘haevi ‘indΛstri] – важка промисловість;

Light industry [lait ‘indΛstry] – легка промисловість;

Manufacture [,maenjufaektSe] – виробництво;

Metallurgy [metaele:dzi] – металургія;

Ferrous [‘feres] – чорна (металургія);

Non-ferrous [nonferes] – кольорова (металургія);

Consumer [ken’sjume] – споживач;

Designer [di’zaine] – конструктор;

Innovator [inoveite] – новатор, раціоналізатор;

Cannery [‘kaeneri] – консервний завод;

Combine [kembain] – комбінат;

Textile [‘tekstail] – текстильний;

Enterprise [‘enterpraiz] – підприємство;

Sewing mill – швейна фабрика;

Engineering works – машинобудівний завод;

Works management – заводоуправління;

Equipment – обладнання;

I’ve come (We’ve come) on the invitation of … - Я приїхав (Ми приїхали) на запрошення…;

We would like to clarify the program of our visit – Ми хотіли б з’ясувати програму нашого перебування;

I’ve come to discuss the question of.. – Я приїхав, щоб обговорити питання про…;

What is total annual output of the factory? – Який загальний річний обсяг продукції, що випускається заводом?

How many workers does the factory employ? – Скільки робітників зайнято на заводі?

We would like to buy… - Ми хотіли б закупити …;

A consignment of your products – партію Вашої продукції;

Equipment on a barter basis with counter deliveries of raw materials – обладнання за бартером з контрольними поставками сировини;

A license know-how – ліцензію ноу-хау;

Who will coordinate the cooperation? – Хто координуватиме співробітництво?

What methods of payment do you practice in such cases? – Які методи розрахунків Ви практикуєте в подібних випадках?

We ask you to cover the expenses on the… - Просимо Вас узяти на себе витрати на…;

Well send additional information by telex (telefax). – Ми повідомимо додаткову інформацію телексом (телефаксом);

We agree to your terms – Ми згодні з Вашими умовами;

Our decision is final – Наше рішення остаточне.

Careers in Business

Business is an increasingly important activity throughout the world today. Consequently, the opportunities for a business career have grown in variety and number. Originally the word “career” meant “road” or “path”; today it means a “progress through life” or a “job path”. There are four broad fields, or areas, of business that offer exciting careers: management, marketing, accounting, and finance. Within each of these fields there are specific jobs in which one can specialize. For example, within the field of marketing one can specialize in market research, advertising, buying, selling, or distributing. The table below shows general career opportunities that are available in the various fields of business.

Business Fields and Careers





General manager

Personnel manager

Production manager













Jobs in businesses and offices range from administration to general clerical work. These jobs exist in both small and large companies. Some typical occupations are cashier, purchasing agent, typist, and complaint clerk. This cluster includes word processing, accounting and financial detail, management, personnel, and materials and product handling. Although most jobs are done indoors, mail carriers and material handlers often work outside. A lot of occupations – managers, accountants, analyst – require higher education, others like secretaries and clerks – at least secondary school.

In choosing a business career, there are several questions one may want to ask. Firstly, does the work interest you? Are there areas of business for which you have an aptitude or special capability? What are the opportunities involved, such as salary, a chance for advancement, and demand for the job? Answers to these questions and careful planning will help you to choose a successful career in business.


Cluster – група;

Handling Am – торгівля, продажа;

Aptitude – схильність.

Task. Explain the meaning of the words in bold type. Agree or disagree with the statements, share your opinion with the group mates.

1. Work can be more than just a job. Your work can become a career.

2. One would rather have a career than just a series of jobs.


  •  Plan your career ahead and it help you to have some control over your life.
  •  Use the experience from each job you hold for the next job in your career.
  •  The amount of money you earn will increase faster because you will not have to start at the bottom with each new job. Your growing experience and skills will be worth more money to your new employer.
  •  Constantly learn and grow, make progress and move persistently towards your goal.
  •  Think positive about work. One of the best part of working is that you get to know lots of people, another one is that you accomplish a great deal and do something useful for others. Again, you will also learn and grow as an individual.

The hain characteristics of the contract of sale

A written contract of sale is made out in the form of a document, signed both by the Buyers and the Sellers.

When there is no necessity of introducing special terms and conditions into the contract of sale associations use standard forms of contracts containing the following clauses (articles):

  1.  Naming (definition) of the Parties.
  2.  Subject of the contract and volume of delivery.
  3.  Prices and the total value (amount) of the contract (including terms of delivery).
  4.  Time (dates) of delivery.
  5.  Terms of payment.
  6.  Transportation (= carnage) of goods (packing and marking, shipment).
  7.  The Sellers’ guarantees (the quality of the goods).
  8.  Sanctions and compensation for damage.
  9.  Insurance.
  10.  Force majeure circumstances.
  11.  Arbitration.
  12.  General provisions.

Also, there may be standard General Conditions which form an integral part of the contract and are either printed on the reverse side of the contract or at the foot, of the face of the contract or attached to it.

In the case of the contract for sophisticated machinery and equipment there may be other clauses; technical conditions, test and inspection conditions, requirements to technical  documentation, supervision of erection and putting the machinery into operation (commissioning), and sending specialists for the purpose, training of the Buyers’ specialist, the Sellers’ obligations for technical servicing and the like. These clauses may be included in the contract, itself or in the Appendices to the contract which are an integral part of it.

When detailed special terms and conditions are introduced into the contract or the agreement, it is customary to draw up an individual contract or agreement in each particular case (e.g. a turnkey contract, a licence agreement).

Sometimes Russian organizations use standard forms of contracts worked out by the biggest federations and associations of merchants and importers abroad, by exchanges, Chambers of Commerce and the like for use in particular trade.

These standard forms of contract, for example, are used in grain trade, seed, sugar, cotton and other trades.

In the sale of Russian timber c.i.f. British ports a special form of contract has been adopted by the Timber Trade Federation of the UK and by v/0 “Exportles”.

Answer the questions:

When may a Standard Contract be used?

What Standard Contracts are given in the text?

What other Standard Contracts can you name?

Describe them. What are the clauses of a standard Contract?

When is it necessary to work out an individual contract? Give examples.

What additional clauses may they comprise.

Business firm

Business firms in Britain may be described by their ownership, and there are there classes (or groups) of firms. Firstly, many firms are 1.----, that is, they are financed by private companies and individuals. Secondly, some firms are 2.--- corporation, that is they are stated owned. Thirdly, some firms are under 3.--- ownership, i.e. they are owned in association with the state.

Of the private firms, some are 4.--- traders, in other words they are owned by a single 5. ---. Some are 6.---, that is they are owned by between two and twenty partners who provide the capital and share the 7.---. Lastly, some are 8.--- companies, or companies to which a large number of people contribute a share of the stock or capital.

Joint, profits, proprietor, private, joint stock, public, partnerships, sole.


Joint-stock - акціонерний капітал

B. Which of the diagrams fits the content of the text?




Complete the chart, using the words given below.

A person who is supposed to pay for for something (goods, service, advise, money)


A person who professionally deals with business matters













An amount of money paid or asked for something


What one can do with money














Buyer, client, value, save, payment, charge, spend, waste, fare, fee, lodge, borrower, price, accountant, broker, salesman, make, manager, entrepreneur, customer, cost, shopper, debtor, lend, borrow, banker.

Complete the sentences with suitable words from the list below.

1. The labour … is not softening fast enough to exert downward pressure on wages.

2. The shareholders learned this week that Mr. Bauman, the group’s chief executive, is now the third highest … director in Britain.

3. By midday 770.00 Norton … had been traded, lifting the share … by $ 1.50 to $ 77.50, after opening at $ 76.

4. The banks are a source for borrowing … under certain conditions. You may have to sign away your house or some of your business … so that, if your business fails and you can’t repay the … to the bank, they can sell the security, take their money back and give you the difference if any.

5. The members of a cooperative need to be reasonably committed and prepared to take responsibility for participation in …

6. The … of inflation jumped 7.5 to 8.1 per cent and is certain to … further.

7. With $ 20 bn of foreign debt and a large …, the government is not in a position to act as a sugar daddy to the company. How then is the … to be financed?

Shares, loan, rise, running the business, investment, paid, price, money, market, assets, save money, rate, budget deficit.

Computers in Our Life


Impact – вплив, дія;

Appliances – пристрій, прилад;

Entertainment devices – розважальні пристрої;

Bulletin boards – дошки оголошень;

Beneficial – вигідний, корисний;

Tertiary level – третій ступінь (навчання в інституті або університеті);

Remote – віддалений.

Computers have had a great impact on society. Today computers are constantly becoming a part of everyday life. Computers are used in everything from the home PC or laptop to appliances such as microwaves and even our cars. Not only have computers had a great impact on our everyday life, but also on education and the workplace. Computers are used in our appliances, mobile phones, entertainment devices (such as DVD players) and others/ It is almost impossible to get through one day without having some from of interaction with computers.

The Internet has had a huge impact on society. It provides information and services, as well as the ability to communicate to people all around the world in a variety of ways. These range from bulleting boards and chat rooms to voice conversation and video conferencing.

Around the world, the Internet is available to millions of people. Those who don’t have a computer or access to the Internet at home will often have access at work or school, or even at the local library. Another added bonus of the Internet is that the majority of the information and services available are free.

The use of computers for educational purposes has been highly beneficial for those involved. From a primary school level, children are taught the basics of computer use, including the use of the Internet. At high school, this continues as children become more and more proficient in using the computer.

It is a tertiary level though, that computers really come into use. News, assignment, tests, lecture notes etc. can be placed on the Internet for students to access both at school and from home. This is extremely useful for students who live in remote areas and cannot travel to and from university or other tertiary institution each day. The idea of remote learning can also be applied to a primary school level.

Computers impact every part of our lives. From the home, to the workplace and in education, computers aid us to do what we want. In general, computers are beneficial to the tasks they are applied to. Although computers can cause some problems, such as unemployment and computer viruses, these are far outweighed by the benefits computers provide. Because of this, computers and technology will continue to have an increasing effect on society.

I. Say if the sentences is true or false:

  1.  Society is much influenced by computers at present time.
  2.  You can find computers every where, even in your car.
  3.  Computers can be operated by microwaves.
  4.  DVD player is an entertainment device.
  5.  The Internet is a source of information only.
  6.  You can’t watch people and hear their voices through the Internet.
  7.  You can gat access to the Internet at the local library.
  8.  Not all the information and services available are free.
  9.  Children are taught the basics of computer use at a primary school level.
  10.  Computers can be used in education at a distance.
  11.  The biggest problem with the computer is poor eyesight.
  12.  There are more advantages than disadvantages with computers.

II. Answer the questions:

  1.  Have computers become an integral part of our life?
  2.  Where are computers used?
  3.  What types of appliances can computers be used in?
  4.  What is the Internet?
  5.  How can the Internet be useful for you?
  6.  What kinds of services does the Internet provide?
  7.  Where can we get access to the Internet?
  8.  Is all the information available in the Internet free?
  9.  How are children taught to use the computer?
  10.  How can computer be useful in education?
  11.  What are the disadvantages of computer?
  12.  Does computer continue to have an increasing impact on society?

III. Retell the story close to the text.

IV. Write down the retelling of the story close to the text in Russian, English or Ukrainian, using new vocabulary.

Banking in Britain

There are several different types of banks in Britain, but the most important for everyday business are the clearing banks, often called High Street banks. The biggest are the National Westminster, Barclay, Lloyd’s and the Midland. You can usually find at least one branch of these in small towns, and several branches in larger towns. Banks hours are 9.00 – 3.30.

The banks provide a wide range of services:

Current accounts

These are for day-to-day dealings. A cheque book and cheque guarantee card are provided, as well as a cashcard for withdrawing money from electronic cash point machines outside banking hours. Interest is sometimes paid on these accounts.

Deposit accounts

For those who wish to save money, regular, fixed interest is paid on savings.

Foreign exchange

Most banks have sections which buy and sell foreign currency and travellers cheques.


Banks provide loans for cars, furniture, holidays, est., and the client must pay interest of these loans. Special loans for buying houses called “mortrgages” are also arranged.

Other services

Banks usually provide specialist services, such as investment advice, buying and selling shares for customers, insurance, and standing orders for paying bills, such as electricity, water and credit cards.

Building societies, which used to provide deposit accounts and mortgages for people wishing to buy houses, are now competing with the High Street Banks, and offer a full range of banking services.

B. Answer the questions.

  1.  Which banks are the most important for everyday business?
  2.   Which are the biggest banks in Britain?
  3.  Is interest paid on current accounts?
  4.  Where can you exchange your foreign currency?
  5.  How can a client receive a loan from the bank?
  6.  Which specialist services are provided by banks?
  7.  What do you think “a standing order” means?

Commodity exchanges, auctions, tenders

Commodity Exchanges deal in raw materials and some items of produce, such as cotton, wheat, vegetable oils, etc, as these goods can be accurately graded and the grades practically remain unchanged every year. The goods are bought and sold at commodity exchanges according to grades or standards (under standard descriptions), and on the basis of standard contract terms. And commodity exchanges are called accordingly: the Wheat Exchange, the Metal Exchange and so on.

Thus, for example, in Great Britain you can take part in sessions at the London Metal Exchange dealing in cocoa, rubber and sugar, the Liverpool Cotton and Corn Exchanger or the Bradford Wool Exchange, Yorkshire. Nowadays Commodity Exchanges are loosing their role as markets of physical goods and are becoming mainly futures exchanges where deals are chiefly made for speculation purpose or for hedging.

The goods like fur, tea, bristles, spices whose quality varies from year to year, from lot to lot cannot be accurately graded and are sold at auctions according to sample (on a tale quale basis).

Before the auction begins, the lots are inspected by future buyers and then sold to the highest bidder.

Horses or other animals are also sold and bought at auctions. Trade by tenders is frequently used in developing countries for construction work or for delivery of goods. General terms and conditions of the future deal are announced beforehand and the contract is given to the Suppliers who offered the lowest price and the most favorable terms.

А.  Знайдіть у тексті еквіваленти поданих слів:

  1.  хто запропонував найнижчу ціну і найвигідніші умови;
    1.  продаються і купуються на біржах;
    2.  брати участь у біржових сесіях;
    3.  на базі типових умов контракту;
    4.  укласти угоду;
    5.  подаються на умовах тель-кель;
    6.  за стандартними якісними характеристиками;
    7.  продаються на аукціонах за зразком;
    8.  контракт подається тому постачальнику, який…;
    9.  заздалегідь оголошуються загальні умови.

The Telex

The mobile telephone, fast train and air travel have cut the problem of distance for today’s business executives. However, where the addressee cannot be reached by telephone, the fax and the telex messages may still prove valuable. Generally speaking, telex machines are now used only where there is a need for a legal proof and when a fax message is unacceptable.

The telex is a machine like a typewriter, but with a dial on its casing. A message can be sent by dialing the receiver’s number, by dialing and using the keyboard for some countries, or by asking the operator to connect you.

The telex has all the advantages of sending a cable and addition it operates in the office and offers a direct line. It is available twenty-four hours a day, and can send cables as well as telex messages.

Operating the telex: once the telex operator has dialed the code, an answerback code will appear on the teleprinter indicating that the sender is through. If the wrong code appears, the sender dials again. The message is typed, as with a normal typewriter, and appears on the receiver’s machine.

Corrections are made by typing five X’s: WE ARE SENDING ORDER.

Each telex message is finished with + sign, if the end is not if clear; ++ sign is used after the last message; +? Sign  at the end of a message means either “reply, confirm” or “A further message will be sent”.

Telexes have their own language. Some words are left out altogether, e.g. articles, prepositions, pronouns “I”, “you”, auxiliary verbs “to be”, “to have”, “will”. Instead of “I’ll write soon” it is written “Writing soon” or “Letter follows”; instead of “Please, will you write soon” – “Please write soon”.

Telex charges depend on the time it takes to send the message, so telex operators have developed their own abbreviations:

ASAP, SOONEST – as soon as possible

ATTN – Attention

CFM – Confirm, I confirm

EEE – error

ETA – estimate time of arrival

EXT extension

FJN – I have finished my message now

FR – from

L/C – letter of credit

MGR – manager

MOM – wait, waiting

PLS, SVP – please

RAP – shall call you back

RECALL – Call me back

RGDS – regards

THRU – through

THKS – thanks

TLX – telex

U – you

W – words

X – error

Figures and symbols should be written in words, e.g.: FIFTY POUNDS DOLLARS for $50.00; AT for @; PER CENT for %.

The word “telex” can be used as a noun, a verb and a participle, e.g.: “Please telex as soon as possible” or “We received a telexed reply”.

The Fax

The Fax or facsimile means the exact copy or reproduction, Faxing is a means of telecommunication that has developed very quickly over the recent time. It is connected to a telephone socket and works as a system similar to the telephone. Charges are measured in telephone units and therefore vary according to the time and distance.

The advantage of fax is an instant reception of many documents, the disadvantage is that it can’t transmit original documents, but only their photocopies.

The structure and presentation of a faxed letter is much the same as that of an ordinary letter, but it should be stated clearly at the top of the first page the name of the addressee, telephone number and how many pages are included.

Careers in Business

Business is an increasingly important activity throughout the world today. Consequently, the opportunities for a business career have grown in variety and number. Originally the word “career” meant “road” or “path”; today it means a “progress through life” or a “job path”. There are four broad fields, or areas, of business that offer exciting careers: management, marketing, accounting, and finance. Within each of these fields there are specific jobs in which one can specialize. For example, within the field of marketing one can specialize in market research, advertising, buying, selling, or distributing. The table below shows general career opportunities that are available in the various fields of business.

Jobs in businesses and offices range from administration to general clerical work. These jobs exit in both small and large companies. Some typical occupations are cashier, purchasing agent, typist, and complaint clerk. This cluster includes word processing, accounting and financial detail, management, personnel, and materials and product handling. Although most jobs are done indoors, mail carriers and material handlers often work outside. A lot of occupations – managers, accountants, analysts – require higher education, others like secretaries and clerks – at feast secondary school.

In choosing a business career, there are several questions one may want to ask. Firstly, does the work interest you? Are there any areas of business for which you have an aptitude or special capability? What are the opportunities involved, such as salary, a chance for advancement, and demand for the job? Answers to these questions and careful planning will help you to choose a successful career in business.


Cluster – 3 ft. група

Handling Am. – торгівля, продажа

Aptitude – схильність

Task 1.  Explain the meaning of the words in bold type. Agree or disagree with statements, share your opinion with the group mates.

  1.  Work can be more than just a job. Your work can become a career.
  2.  One would rather have a career than just a series of jobs.


  •  Plan your career ahead and it will help you to have some control over your life.
    •  Use the experience from each job you hold for the next job in you career.
    •  The amount of money you earn will increase faster because you will not have to start at the bottom with each new job. Your growing experience and skills will be worth more money to you new employer.
    •  Constantly learn and grow, make progress and move persistently towards your goal.

Task 1.  Answer the questions:

  1.  What is the traditional definition of business?
  2.  What is one of the modern definitions of business?
  3.  What areas and activities does business embrace?
  4.  What does production involve? Give examples:

a) from the text;

b) of your own.

5. What does sale mean?

6. Can we consider services as goods?

7. What is the most important factor in business?

8. What is profit?

9. How can companies dispose their profits?

Economic Activity

Most people work to earn their living, and produce goods and services. Goods are either agricultural  (like maize and milk) or manufactured (like cars and paper). Services are such things as education, medicine and commerce. Some people provide goods; some provide services. Other people provide both goods and services. For example, in the same garage a man may buy a car or some service which helps him to maintain his car.

The work people do is called economic activity. All economic activities together make up the economic system of a town, a city, a country or the world. Such an economic system is the sum-total of what people do and what they want. The work people undertake either provides what they need or provides the money with which they can buy essential commodities. Of course, most people hope to earn enough money to buy commodities and services which are non-essential but which provide some particular personal satisfaction, like toys for children, visits to the cinema and books.

New words

To earn a living – заробляти на життя

Goods [gu:dz] – товари

Manufactured – промисловий

Sum-total – загальна сума

Commodities – товари широкого вжитку

Answer the questions

  1.  Why do most people work?
  2.  What do they produce?
  3.  Give some examples of
  4.  agricultural goods;
  5.  manufactured goods.
  6.  What are services?
  7.  What do we call the work which people do?
  8.  What is an economic system the sum-total of?
  9.  What are two thing that a work can provide for the worker?
  10.  What can people buy with money?

The science of economic

Economics is a science. This science is based upon the facts of our everyday lives and studies our everyday lives, its laws and other factors that influence them. The economist tries to describe the facts of the economy in which we live. He tries to explain how the complex system works. His methods should be objective and scientific. We need food, clothes and shelter. If we could get food, clothes and shelter without working, we probably would not work and survive. But even when we have these essential things, we may want to have other things. If we had them, these other things (like radios, books and toys for the children etc.) might make life more enjoyable. The science of economics is concerned with all our material needs and wants. It is not just concerned with basic needs like food, clothes and shelter.

New words

Influence  впливати; 

Complex – складний, багатокомпонентний;

Objective – об’єктивний;

Shelter – оселя;

Survive – виживати.

Answer the questions

  1.  What is economics?
    1.  What does economics study?
    2.  What is it based upon?
    3.  What do the scientists try to explain?
    4.  What should the methods of the economists be like?
    5.  What three essential things do we need?
    6.  What would happen if we could get these essentials without working?
    7.  What might make life more enjoyable?
    8.  What is economics concerned with?


All values in the economic system are measured in terms of money. Our goods and services are sold for money, and that money is in turn exchanged for other goods and services. Coins are adequate for small transactions, while paper notes are used for general business. There is additionally a wider sense of the word “money”, covering anything which is used as a means of exchange, whatever form it may take. Originally, a valuable metal (gold, silver or copper) served as a constant store of value, and even today the American dollar is technically “backed” by the store of gold which the US government maintains. Because gold has been universally regarded as a very valuable metal, national currencies were for many years judged in terms of the so-called “gold standard”. Nowadays however national currencies are considered to be as strong as the national economies which support them.

The value of money is basically its value as a medium of exchange, or, as economists put it, its “purchasing power”. This purchasing power is dependent on supply and demand. The demand for money is reckonable as the quantity needed to effect business transactions. An increase in business requires an increase in the amount of money coming into general circulation. But the demand for money is related not only to the quantity of business but also to the rapidity with which the business is done. The supply of money, on the other hand, is the actual amount in notes and coins available for business purposes. If too much money is available, its value decreases, and it does not buy as much as it did, say, five years earlier. This condition is known as “inflation”.

New words

Measure – виміряти;

Transaction – угода;

Adequate – придатний;

Sense – значення;

Store – запас;

Currency – валюта;

Support – підтримувати;

To be available – бути пригодним.

Answer the questions

  1.  How are all values in the economic system measured?
  2.  What kind of money is used for general business?
  3.  What is the wider sense of the word “money”?
  4.  What originally served as a store of value?
  5.  How are national currencies considered today?
  6.  What phrase do economists use for the value of money?
  7.  How do we reckon the demand for money?
  8.  What is inflation?


Banks are closely concerned with the flow of money into and out of the economy. They often co-operate with governments in efforts to stabilize economies and to prevent inflation. They are specialists in the business of providing capital, and in allocating funds on credit. Banks originated as places to which people took their valuables for safe-keeping, but today the great banks of the world have many functions in addition to acting as guardians of valuable private possessions.

Banks normally receive money from their customers in two distinct forms: on current account, and on deposit account. With a current account, a customer can issue personal cheques. No interest is paid by the bank on this type of account. With a deposit account, however, the customer undertakes to leave his money in the bank for a minimum specified period of time. Interest is paid on this money.

The bank in turn lends the deposited money to customers who heed capital. This activity earns interest for the bank, and this interest is almost always at a higher rate than any interest which the bank pays to its depositors. In this way the bank makes its main profits.

New words

To be concerned – бути пов’язаним (з чимось);

Effort – спроба, зусилля;

Prevent – запобігати;

Allocate – розподіляти;

Originate – виникати;

Current account – поточний рахунок;

Profit – прибуток, вигода.

Answer the questions

  1.  In what way do banks co-operate with government?
  2.  What was the original function of a bank?
  3.  In what two ways do banks receive money from their customers?
  4.  How does the bank make its main profit?

Why management is needed

Management is needed whenever people work together in an organization and to reach organizational objectives. The objective of most firms and companies is to provide services for people and to make a profit for the owners. If the firm stops giving service, people will no longer patronize it. If there’re no profits, the company will soon be unable to perform the needed service.

To achieve objectives, managers need to maintain the balance among the conflicting demands of the stakeholders of an organization. Stakeholders are all those, who have a stake in an organizational success, including employees, owners, customers, creditors and others. Owners seek a satisfactory return on their investment; employees want good pay and comfortable working conditions; management must also please its customers, for without them the company will have little purpose; creditors, suppliers, trade associations should also be considered. So, management must balance the interests of different groups.

Management is also needed to achieve efficiency and effectiveness. Efficiency is the ability to get things done correctly. An efficient manager is the one, who gets higher output relative to the inputs (labor, materials, money, machines and time). Effectiveness is the ability to choose the most suitable goals and proper steps to achieve them. That is, effective managers select the right things to do and the right methods for getting them done.

New words

Provide services – надавати послуги;

Patronize – бути постійним клієнтом;

To make a profit – приносити прибуток;

To maintain the balance – підтримувати рівновагу;

Stake – частка, внесок;

Consider – враховувати;

Supplier – постачальник;

Efficiency – продуктивність, прибутковість;

Efficient manager – умілий керівник;

Output – продуктивність;

Inputs – витрати;

Goals – цілі, завдання;

Proper steps – належні дії;

Effectiveness – ефективність.

Answer the questions

  1.  When is management needed?
  2.  Why is management needed?
  3.  What is the objective of most companies?
  4.  What can happen, if the firm stops giving service?
  5.  What can happen? If there’re no profits?
  6.  What should managers do to achieve objectives?
  7.  Who are stakeholders?
  8.  How do you understand the word “efficiency”?
  9.  What manager is efficient?
  10.  How do you understand the word “effectiveness”?
  11.  What manager is effective?


Management is a process of managing people. Any manager has some functions. He performs planning, organizing, leading and controlling. Planning is choosing an organizational mission, and then determining the courses of actions (programs, projects, methods, systems, strategies) to achieve them. All other functions depend on this one, for they can’t succeed without sound, thorough planning and decision making.

Organizing is determining what resources and activities are required and delegating the authorities to employees, who are carry out managers instructions.

Plans and organization are useless without the function of leading. Leading is getting employees to do the things the manager wants them to do. Therefore, leader’s qualities, style and power are very important. This function can be performed in the face-to-face manner or through written orders and job descriptions.

All the previous functions are ineffective without the last one – controlling. Controlling is ways of assuring that planned action is really performed. Forms of control commonly used by manager are inspections, progress reports and financial statements.

For effective control there must first be planning, organizing and leading.

New words

Perform – здійснювати;

Planning – планування;

Organizing – організація;

Leading – керівництво;

Controlling – контроль;

Achieve – досягати;

Succeed – досягати успіхів;

Sound – розумний;

Thorough – свідомий, обдуманий;

Face-to-face manner – віч на віч;

Employee – службовець;

Progress reports – повідомлення про робочий процес;

Financial –фінансові звіти;

Inspection – інспектування, перевірка;

Therefore – отже.

Answer the questions

  1.  What is management?
  2.  What functions does the manager perform?
  3.  What is planning?
  4.  What is organizing?
  5.  What is leading? How can this function be performed?
  6.  What is controlling? Which are the forms of control?

Managerial skills

Managerial skills are certain skills that managers need in order to do their jobs effectively. These skills include conceptual, technical, administrative and human-relation skills.

Conceptual skills are the mental abilities, needed to acquire, analyze, and interpret information, received from various sources, and to make complex decisions. This is the ability to “see the big picture”, to plan ahead.

Technical skills include the ability to use the knowledge, tools and techniques of a specific discipline or field. Every industry, every company and enterprise, and every job has its special technical requirements.

Administrative skills include the administrator’s ability process paper work in an orderly manner and manage expenditures within the limits set by a budget.

Managers need a network of contracts and human relationships, because to achieve organizational goals a manager has to use the efforts of other people. Therefore, human-relation skills are very important skills for a manager. Human-relation skills are abilities to understand other people and to interact effectively with them.

Conceptual, technical, administrative and human-relation skills can be acquired through education and experience.

New words

Managerial skills – майстерність;

Mental abilities – розумові здібності;

Acquire – придбати;

Interpret – інтерпретувати, тлумачити;

Complex decisions – складні рішення;

To plan ahead – планувати наперед;

Technical requirement – технічні вимоги;

Process – здійснювати;

In an orderly manner – організовано;

Expenditures – витрати.

Answer the questions

  1.  What are  managerial skills? What skills do they include?
  2.  What do conceptual skills include? What does “to see the big picture” mean?
  3.  What do technical skills include?
  4.  What do administrative skills include?
  5.  What do human-relation skills include? Why are they important?
  6.  How can a person acquire these skills?

The information superhighway

The information superhighway will be a worldwide network that connects everyone to everyone else and provides just about any sort of electronic communication imaginable. As a result, you’ll be able to plug into the network through your computer, TV, phone, or a device that combines all three.

The purpose is to provide remote electronic banking, teaching, shopping, taxpaying, game playing, video-conferencing, film ordering, medical help – the list goes on.

It won’t eliminate the need to go out shopping, drive a car, visit friends, go to films and plays, or do most of the things you normally do now. But it might make many things you do easier and more convenient.

You will be able to get films of your choice on television twenty-four hours a day. You will be able to work from home, or “telecommute”, more simply because of the possibility of video-conferencing. And since you’ll be able to simply send one electronic (e-mail) message to everyone at once, you won’t have to ring all your friends one by one to tell them a party has been cancelled.

You will have more choice. So if you’re a football fan, you may be able to watch any of some sixty league games on a Saturday afternoon.

The most talked-about service is video-on-demand. This means you’ll be able to look electronically though a list of films, choose one, then start it whenever you want.

Schoolchildren will benefit enormously since they will be able to communicate with other classes, teachers and experts thousands of miles away. Everyone will be able to tap into libraries holding the world’s knowledge.

New words

Network – мережа;

Provide – забезпечувати;

Eliminate – виключати;

Taxpaying оплата податків;

e-mail електронна пошта;

cancel – відміняти;

tap - проникати.

Answer the questions

  1.  What is the Informational Superhighway?
  2.  What is its purpose?
  3.  What won’t it eliminate?
  4.  What will you be able to do that you can’t do now?
  5.  How will it change your life?


For the last 5 years personal computers (PC) are becoming more and more popular in our country. There are computers in offices, schools, institutions and universities. More and more people want to have a PC at home. No wonder! PC gives us new opportunities, opens a new wonderful world of interactivity that will change the way we learn, play and communicate with others.

Virtual reality (VR). With VR goggles and a data glove we are able to see and move things which exist only in our computer programme. Consequently, we will be able to play tennis with Andre Agassi, go on hair-raising rides, or play in our favourite pop group. All in the comfort of our living room.

Videophone. These are already available in some places but the image isn’t very good.  Since technology is developing fast, we’ll soon be able to see a perfect image of the caller. People who don’t like to be seen unless they are looking their best shouldn’t worry. Videophones come with a lens cover, so the caller won’t be able to see them unless they want to be seem.

Interactive TV. In the future we will have access to 500 television channels and in addition to this, homes will be connected to the local video library. We will be able to call up any movie or programme we want, when we want it.

Thanks to CDIs, watching films won’t be a passive activity because we will be able to choose alternative story lines and create our own version of any film.

CD-ROM. Nowadays young people are able to have instant access to the best games and collections of their favorite pop group’s music. Since CD-ROMs contain masses of information, we are also able to call up the complete contents of the Encyclopedia Britannica in a few second.

The computer can’t write projects or reports, but it can make the process a lot easier. Interactivity can put the world at our fingertips!

New words

CD = compact disk;

CDI = interactive CD – інтерактивний;

Access – доступ.

Answer the questions

  1.  Why do most people want to have a PC at home?
  2.  What will you be able to do with VR goggles and data gloves?
  3.  Would you like to have a videophone? Why?
  4.  Why will watching films become an active experience?
  5.  How can a PC change you life? Can it make some thing easier?
  6.  What does the expression “to have the world at our fingertips”?

Computer in business

The computer industry is one of the largest in modern world. It includes companies that manufacture, sell and lease computers, as well as companies that supply products and services for people working with computers.

A computer cannot think. A human operator puts data into the computer and gives instructions. The operator writes instructions, which determine the mathematical operations on information. Traditionally, a computer in business is used to process data. A computer is programmed to do it fast and accurately. This involves different administrative functions such as preparation of payrolls, inventory control in manufacturing, warehousing and distribution operations, customer accounting, billing by banks, insurance companies, public utilities and mass circulation magazines. A computer is now more involved in business operations as an essential tool in making  decisions at the highest administrative level.

New words

Put data – закладати дані;

Process data – обробляти дані;

Preparation of payrolls – підготовка відомостей;

Inventory control – інвентаризаційний контроль;

Warehousing – складування товарів;

Distribution operations – розподільні операції;

Customer accounting – розрахунок із клієнтом.

Answer the questions

  1.  What does the computer industry include?
  2.  How is a computer operated?
  3.  How is a computer used in business?

International trade

International trade is the system by which countries exchange goods and services. Countries trade with each other to obtain things that are better quality, less expensive or simply different from goods and services produced at home. The goods and services that a country buys from other countries are called imports, and goods and services that are sold to other countries are called exports.

While trade takes place mostly between companies, government and individuals frequently buy and sell goods internationally, too. Most international trade consists of the purchase and sale of industrial equipment, consumer goods oil and agricultural products. In addition, services such as banking, insurance, transportation, telecommunications, engineering and tourism account for one-fifth of world exports.

International trade occurs because there are things that are produced in a particular country that individuals, businesses and governments in other countries want to buy. Trade provides people with a greater selection of goods and services to choose from, often at lower costs than at home.

Today, most industrial nations could produce almost any product they chose. However, this does not make good economic sense. Instead of trying to produce everything by themselves, which would be inefficient, countries often concentrate on producing those things that they can produce best, and then trade for other goods and services. By doing so, both the country and the world become wealthier.

New words

Obtain – купувати, здобувати;

Quality – якість;

Frequently – часто;

Industrial equipment – промислове обладнання;

Insurance – страхування;

Produce – виробляти;

Wealthy –  багатий.

Answer the questions

  1.  What is international trade?
  2.  Why do countries trade with each other?
  3.  What do countries usually purchase and sale?
  4.  Which are the advantages of international trade?

Free trade versus protectionism

All governments regulate foreign trade. The extent to which they do so is a topic of lively debate. The news is full of reports of different groups demanding to be protected from foreign competition, new trade agreements, and problems with imports and exports. Some call for more government action, others for less.

Although the amount of government involvement in trade varies from country to country and from product to product, overall barriers to trade have been reduced since World War II.

Those who favour free trade think that an open trading system with few limitations and little government involvement is best. Advocates of protectionism believe that governments must take action to regulate trade and subsidies industries to protect the domestic economy. All governments practice protectionism to some extent. The debate is over how much or how little protectionism to use to reach a country’s economic goals.

In theory, completely free trade would provide the most goods and services at the lowest possible cost as consumers everywhere are allowed to buy goods and services from whoever in the world produce them most efficiently. However, the competition that free trade brings to domestic industries may result in unemployment and slower growth. For example, if cars can be produced much more efficiently in another country and consumers are free to buy them, the domestic auto industry will loose business. In this case the government must seek to protect its auto industry from competition by discouraging imports of lower-cost cars.  

New words

Free trade versus protection – вільна торгівля чи протекціонізм;

Extent – ступінь, міра;

Involvement – залучення;

Overall – повний, загальний;

Consumer – споживач;

Domestic – внутрішній;

Discourage – опирати, протидіяти.

Answer the questions

  1.  Why free trade and protection are topics of lively debate?
  2.  What are the arguments of those who favour free trade?
  3.  What are the arguments of those who favour protectionism?
  4.  How can the government protect its domestic industry from foreign competition?


All products and services have prices. A price depends on different factors, for example, credit terms, delivery, trade-in-allowance, quality etc.

How are prices set?

Through most of history, prices, were set by buyers and sellers communicating with each other: sellers asked for a higher price than they expected to get, and buyers offered less than they expected to pay. So, through deal-making process they settled a reasonable price.

The necessity of setting one price for all buyers arose with the development of large-scale retailing at the end of the 19th century. In modern business a price is the only element in the marketing mix that produces revenue: the other elements represent cost.

Companies handle pricing in a variety of ways. In small companies prices are often set by top management rather than by the marketing or sales department. In large companies pricing is typically handled by divisional and product-line managers. In industries where pricing is a key factor (aerospace, oil companies, railroads), companies often establish a pricing department to set prices or assist other in determining appropriate prices. This department reports either to the marketing department or top department. Others who influence the pricing are sales managers, production managers, finance managers and accountants.

New words

Deal-making process – процес переговорів, торг;

Settle a price – домовлятися про ціну;

Reasonable – поцінний;

Retailing – роздрібна торгівля;

Revenue – виторг, прибуток.

Answer the questions

  1.  Which factors does a price depend on?
  2.  How were prices set long ago?
  3.  Why did the necessity of setting one price for all buyers arise?
  4.  How do companies handle pricing?

Types of Business Letters

Common types of business letters.

There are business letters appropriate to all phases of business; therefore it would be almost impossible to classify all types of the business letter. Only the commonly used types can be discussed in a brief work such as this. The following are types of business letters in general use: acknowledgement, adjustment, application, appreciation, claim, collection, congratulation, inquiry, introduction, order, recommendation, sales.


The letter of application should conform to all requirements of a good business letter, and in form it should be correct in every detail. No one should do less than his very best in writing a letter of application, for it is in reality a sales letter in which the writer is trying to sell his services. The application letter usually consists of three or four paragraphs.

     1635 Magnolia Avenue

     Dallas, Texas

     October 10, 1998

Mr. John Hamilton

1447 Houston Street

Dallas, Texas

Dear Mr. Hamilton:

I have just learned from Mr. Jones, one of your salesmen, that you wish to employ a reliable boy to help with deliveries and to do odd jobs about the store after school hours and on Saturdays. I should like very much to have you consider me for this work.

I am fourteen years old and am now in the ninth grade. For three summers I have been with the Gray Drug Company as delivery boy and general helper. I should like to have you ask Mr. H.W. Gray, the president of this company, about my qualifications. His telephone number is 3-8142.

Also, I refer you to Principal H.G. White of Lowell High School, where I am now a student, and to Principal W.B. Lake of Roosevelt Junior High School, the school from which I was transferred last January.

It would please me much to be permitted to talk with you at your convenience. My telephone number is 4-3657.

     Yours very truly,

     Harold Roberts

The first mentions the source of information about the position, the second gives fact to aid in securing the position, the lists references, and the fourth may suggest further communication. But even the conventional form of the application may be altered to suit the originality of the writer. In short, the more individual in form and content the message, tempering it always with sincerity, the more evident the superior fitness to fill the position. A happily turned phase or an appropriate reference may be just the difference necessary to give to an applicant advantage over has competitors.


New words

Application – заява;

Competitors – конкуренти;

Conform – відповідати (чомусь);

Conventional form of the application – загальноприйнята форма заяви;

References – довідки,  рекомендації.


The letter ordering goods should be made so clear that it could not possibly be misunderstood/ It should be exact and complete in every detail as to quantity, quality, size, number, catalogue page and number, shape, style, colour, price of each, or other item (use sample of paper, cloth) helping toward exact identification. If the buyer is to pay transportation charges, he should specify how the order is to be shipped – mail, express, or freight – unless he leaves this matter to the one who ships. Give complete instructions for shipping. Printed order blanks may be used, but in any case few words should be written in addition to those giving the items and exact  instructions relative to the order. Write each item on a separate line beginning at the paragraph margin. If payment is inclosed, state the exact amount and the form in which it is sent – stamps, currency, check, draft, or money order. An enclosure should be clipped to the letter, and in the lower left-hand corner should be written Enclosure.



Madison High School

     Wakefield, New York

     January 10, 1998

The McCormick-Mothers Company

1601 East Douglas Avenue

Wichita, Kansas


Please send me the following books and the tests and other materials  that accompany them by express at once:

20 copies Streamline English Departures $ 60

20 copies Streamline English Connections $ 180

20 copies Streamline English Destinations $ 200

20 copies Review for Mastery   $ 100

I am enclosing my check for $ 640  640

   Yours very truly,

     H. Jackson


New words

Currency – валюта;

Draft – чек, вексель;

Freight фрахт;

Margin поле сторінки, край;

Transportation charges – транспортні витрати.

Inquiry and reply

The letter of inquiry should make absolutely clear the information wanted. It should leave no possibility of the recipient’s having to write to ask for explanation or extension of any of its parts. It should be as brief as is in keeping with courtesy and clarity. If it relates to matters of no interest to the recipient, a stamped addressed envelope should be enclosed for reply.

One who receives an inquiry should reply promptly unless it is a type of inquiry out of keeping with business ethics. Even when the matters of inquiry are of no interest to the recipient, he should give the information as courteously and as fully as if it meant material profit to him. He should give not only complete information for every detail of the inquiry but also should give any additional information which the writer feels would make clearer the information desired. In short, the writer should write just the king of reply he should wish were he the inquirer.

     Oakland, Colorado

     July 8, 1998

Mr. Fred Warner, Druggist

Almond, Colorado

Dear Mr. Warner:

Mr. J.H. Webb has applied for work as salesman in my drugstore. He has  referred me to you as one for whom he has done similar work. Please give me some general information as to has fitness for this work. I shall be grateful to you for this help.

     Sincerely yours,


     L.W. Stevens

Answer to the letter above:


    Almond, Colorado

    July 9, 1998

Mr. L.W. Stevens

Oakland, Colorado

Dear Mr. Stevens:

Mr. J.H. Webb worked for me two years, and I found him thoroughly dependable and efficient all the time. You may be sure that he will give you excellent service. It was very difficult for my to find one to replace him when he removed to your city. I shall appreciate any consideration you show him.

     Yours sincerely,


     Fred Warner

New words

Business ethics – ділова етика;

Profit – прибуток;

Recipient – одержувач.


The letter of recommendation may be either personal or general. The personal type is addressed to some person or firm by some writer who is recommending someone for a position. It may be written at the request of the one seeking the position or in answer to inquiry of the prospective employer. It should give definitely and clearly the information which would help the employer most in determining the applicant’s fitness for the position. There should be no vague statements and no over-stressing of good qualities to make the applicant seem super-human. The general type of recommendation, which is placed in the hands of the one recommended, is not much in favour at present and does not carry much weight because the tendency of the writer is to give only favourable fact. The employer of today prefers to send a questionnaire to references furnished by the applicant. In this way he gets information which might be omitted from the regular letter of recommendation. Of course, he interprets failure of a reference to answer the questionnaire or any item of it as unfavourable to the candidate.

     448 Ward Street

     Knoxville, Tennessee

     June 12, 1998

Central Insurance Company

1668 Blair Street

Louisville, Kentucky


It is with pleasure that we recommend Mr. H.F. Warren, about whom you inquire in your letter of June 10. He has been with us for five years and in that time he has continued to grow in efficiency as an insurance salesman until he is now among our largest and most consistent producers of quality business. It is because of this development that he now wishes to enter a larger field, such as you can offer him. Although we are loathe to give him up, we are not selfish enough to wish to hold him back from the greater opportunities you can provide.

Mr. Warren is a persistent and tireless worker who considers rebuffs only as a challenge to lead him to improve his sales presentation. He is, we sometimes think, unduly impatient at his own reasonable progress; but this may be, after all, a most commendable fault.

You will, we feel sure, find many occasions to consider yourselves fortunate if you engage Mr. Warren as a salesman.

   Sincerely yours,

  The bland-down insurance service

New words

Determining the applicant’s fitness for the position – визначення придатності (відповідності) претендента на посаду;

Employer – роботодавець;

Questionnaire – анкетне опитування;

Recommending someone for a position – рекомендація когось на посаду;

Vague – невизначений.


A letter of complaint or claim should always be courteous, dignified, and fair. It should state exactly the cause for complaint and should outline clearly the reasonable adjustment expected. The complainant who imputes blame or becomes sarcastic or abusive only emphasises his own lack of refinement and makes less probable the adjustment he seeks. If the writer gives the impression that he knows that he is dealing with those who are absolutely honest and eager to make any reasonable adjustment, he will seldom fail to get satisfaction. If he has had previous satisfactory dealing with the company, it is well to mention it to substantiate his expressed confidence. It would be an unworthy company indeed that would not respond favourably to such a complaint.

     1436 Weldon Street

     Dallas, Texas

     May 6, 1998

The Glacier Book Company

338 Vine Street

Denver, Colorado


On May the first I ordered from you one copy of Mountain, by Dale Warwick. The book arrived by mail today, and I found that some of the pages were transposed so that the volume was not usable. I should like the privilege of returning the defective book to you in exchange for a perfect copy.

I shall wait for instructions from you.

You may be that I will appreciate your adjusting the matter for me.

     Yours very truly,

     H.C. Bradford

New words

Abusive – образливий, лайливий;

Adjustment – улагодження;

Complainant – позивач;

Confidence – довіра;

Fair – справедливий, чесний;

Impute blame ставити за провину, приписувати;

Lack of refinement – брак вишуканості;

Substantiate – обґрунтувати, підтверджувати;

To be dignified – бути сповненим гідності;

Unworthy – нічого не вартий.

Листові штампи

Для початку листа

Opening phrase

Шановні добродії.

Ми одержали Ваш лист від …

Дякуємо за лист від …

Ваш додаток листа (із вказівкою, проханням про …) розглянуте

Dears Sirs.

We have received your letter of …

We thank you for your letter of …

Your letter enclosing (stating that…, asking us to do…, requesting us to do…, has been considered given proper attention)

У відповідь на Ваш лист від …

In reaply (in response) to your letter of …

У підтвердження нашого (їхньої) телефонної розмови (переговорів, що відбулися в …) повідомляємо, що …

In confirmation of our (their) telephone conversation (talks, held in…) we wish to inform you that…

Посилаючись на наш лист від …

Повідомляємо, що …

With reference to (Referring to) our letter of … we wish to inform your that…

Знову посилаючись на …

Раді повідомити Вам, що …

With further reference to …

We are pleased (We are glad) to inform you that…

На жаль, змушені нагадати Вам, що …

We are sorry (We regret) to have to remind you that…

З Вашого листа ми довідалися, що …

We learn from your letter that …

У зв’язку з нашим листом від …

In connection with our letter of …

І в підтвердженні телеграми від …

And in confirmation of our cable of …

Приносимо вибачення за затримку відповіді на Ваш лист

We offer apologies for the delay in answering your letter

Будь-ласка прийміть наші вибачення за …

Please accept our apologies for …

Ми з жалем довідалися з Вашого листа від …, що …

We regret (We are sorry) to learn from your letter of … that …

На жаль, ми не можемо задовольнити Ваше прохання про …

We are sorry we are unable to meet your request …

Ми з подивом довідалися із Вашого телекса …

We are surprised to learn from your telex...

На додаток до нашого листа від …

Further to our letter of …

Ми повинні нагадати Вам, що…

We have to remind you that …

Маємо задоволення запропонувати Вам

We have pleasure in offering you …

Вам, безсумнівно, відомо, що …

You are no doubt aware that …

Очевидно, Вам відомо, що …

You may know that …

Додаємо копію листа фірми…у зв’язку … (в зв’язку з …)

We enclose (are enclosing) a copy of a letter from…about…(in connection with..)

Просимо взяти до уваги (врахувати), що…

Please note that…

Єднальні фрази листа

Ми виражаємо впевненість в тому, що...

We express confidence that…

Ми зовсім упевнені…

We are sure (confident) that…

У той же час ми хотіли б нагадати Вам, що…

At the same time we would like to remind you that…

Вважаємо необхідним (важли-вим, розумним) для відзна-чення…

We find (consider) it necessary (important, reasonable) to note…

Окрім згаданого вище …

Apart from the above (said)…

На доповнення до згаданого вище …

Further to the above…

Ми були б раді мати можливість …

We would welcome the opportunity…

Користуючись можливістю, нагадати, що…

We are taking the opportunity to remind you that…

Це, звісно, зрозуміло…

It is self understood…

It does without saying…

Звертаємо Вашу увагу на той факт, що …

We wish to draw our attention to the fact that…

We would like you to note that…

We wish to bring to you notice that…

Приймаючи в увагу згадане вище…

In view of the above (said)…

У зв’язку з цим…

In this connection…

У зв’язку з Вашим проханням …

In connection with your reguest…

У зв’язку із згаданим вище …

In connection with the above (said) …

В іншому випадку, ми будемо вимушені…

Otherwise we shall have …

Що стосується Вашого прохання (Вашого замовлення, Вашої вимоги)…

As to (as regards, with regard to) your request (your order, your claim)…

Річ в тому, що …

The matter is …

В умовах, які склалися …

The point is …in the circumstances…

На Вашу думку …

In our opinion…

Ми віримо …

We believe…

Ми думаємо …

We think …

Ми почуваємо …

We feel …

У відповідності з Вашим проханням …

As requested by you …

У випадку затримки в доставці (в оплаті, у пересиланні фахівців) …

In case of delay in delivery (in payment, in sending specialists)…

Ми не маємо ніяких труднощів з …

We have (are having) no difficulty in …

Ми маємо труднощі з …

We have (are having) difficulty in …

Необхідно визнати, що …

We have to admit that …

Поки ще ми не одержали ніякої відповіді …

So far (Up till now) we have received no reply…

Ми не згодні з Вашою точкою зору по наступним причинам…

We cannot accept your point of view for the following reasons…

У випадку вашого відмовлення…

In case of your refusal…

Should you refuse…

У випадку не уплати…

In case of your failure to make payment(s)..

Should you fail you make payment(s)…

Щоб уникати затримки в…

To avoid delay in…

Відповідно до оточеним контрактом…

In accordance with (Under) the contract enclosed…

Ви заявляєте у вашому листі, що…

You state (write, are writing) in your letter that…

Надалі Ви пишете …

Further you write …

Крім того…


Тим не менш…


У першу чергу…

First of all (In the first plase)…

Фактично …

In fact (In actual fact)…

Крім того…


Список основних скорочень, використовувані у діловій кореспонденції

A/C, a/c, acc. (account current) – поточний рахунок;

Adds (addressed) – адресовано;

Adse (addressee) – адресат, одержувач;

Ad (advertisement) – рекламне оголошення;

a.m. (ante meridiem) – до полудня;

app. (appendix) – додаток;

Attn. (attention) – увазі (кого-небудь);

B/E, B.E., b.e. (bill of exchange) – перекладний вексель, витрата;

B/L, b/l, B.L., b.l. (bill of loading) – коносамент;

cc., ce (copies) – вказівка на адресатів копій листа;

CEO (chief executive officer) – виконавчий директор;

Cf (confer) – порівняєте;

Co. (company) – компанія;

Contr. (contract) – контракт;

Corp. (corporation) – корпорація;

Cur 1. (currency) – валюта;

Cur 2. (current) – поточний;

CV (curriculum vitae) – коротка біографія;

Dd 1. (dated) – датований;

Dd 2. (delivered) – доставлю;

Dep., dept. (department) – відділ, міністерств;

Doc. (document) – документи;

Doz., dz. (dozen) – дюжина;

Eaon (except as otherwise noted) – якщо не зазначено інакше;

e.g. (exempli gratia) – наприклад;

enc., encl. (enclosed, enclosure) – вкладений, прикладений, вкладення, додаток;

exc., excl. (except, excluding, exception, exclusion) – крім, виняток;

expn (expiration) – закінчення (терміну);

fig. (figure) – цифра, малюнок, схема;

FY (fiscal year) – фінансовий рік;

h.a. (hoc anno) – в поточному році;

hf. (half) – половина;

H.Q., HQ, h.q. (headquaters) – головне керування (компанії, організації);

Id. (idem) – той же;

i.e. (id est) – тобто;

inc., incl. (including) – включаючи;

inc.(incorporated) – зареєстрований як юридична особа (корпорація);

info (information) – інформація;

inv. (invoice) – рахунок-фактура;

IOU (I owe you) – боргова розписка;

L/C, l.c., l/c. (letter of credit) – акредитив;

LLC (limited liability company) – компанія з обмеженою відповідальністю;

Ltd., ltd. (limited) – з обмеженою відповідальністю;

LOC (letter of commitment) – гарантійний лист;

Mdse (merchandise) – товари;

Memo (memorandum) – записка;

M.O.(1- mail order), (2- money order) – поштовий перевод, грошовий перевод;

M.T. (metric ton) – метрична тонна;

MV (merchant (motor) vessel) – торгове (моторне) судно;

N/A (not applicable) – не застосовано (напр.., пункт в анкеті);

N.B., NB (nota bene) – важливе зауваження;

NC, N.C., n/c (no charge) – безкоштовно;

o/l (our letter) – (посилання) наш лист;

PA (power of attorney) – доручення;

p.a. (per annum) – в рік;

par. (paragraph) – абзац, параграф, пункт;

Plc, PLC (public limited company) – відкрита акціонерна компанія з обмеженою відповідальністю;

PO (post office) – поштове відділення;

pp. (pages) – сторінки;

pp, p.p. (per pro) –  від імені і за дорученням;

qv (quod vide) – дивися (там-то);

R&d (research and development) – науково-дослідницькі і досвідчено-конструкторські роботи (НДДКР);

Ret (receipt) – розписка, квитанція;

Rept (report) – звіт;

Re (regarding) – відносно;

Ref (reference) – посилання;

RМS (root-mean-square) – середньоквадратичний;

Shipt (shipment) – відвантаження, відправлення;

Sig. (signature) – підпис;

tn. (ton) – тонна;

urgt (urgent) – терміновий;

v, vs (versus) – проти;

VAT (value-added tax) – НСД;

V.I.P., VIP (very important person) – особливо важливе обличчя;

v.s. (vide supra) – дв.вище;

v.v. (vice versa) – навпаки;

w/o (without) – без;

& (and) – і (союз);

@ - комерційне at;

# (number) – номер.

Одиниці виміру

Міліметр  millimeter   

Сантиметр  centimeter   

Метр   meter    

Кілометр  kilometer   

Дюйм   inch    

Фут   foot    

Ярд   yard    

Миля   mile    

1 дюйм = 2,54 см = 0,083 фута = 0,277 ярда

1 фут = 30,48 см = 12 дюймів = 0,33 ярда

1 миля = 1,1852 км = 1,15 милі

1 км = 0,62 милі

1 м = 39,37 дюйма = 3,28 фута = 1,09 ярда

1 см = 0,39 дюйма = 0,03 фута = 0,01 ярда

1 ярд = 91,44 см = 36 дюймів = 3 фута


Кв. сантиметр  square centimeter 

Кв. метр   square meter  

Гектар   hectare   

Акр   acre   

1 ар = 100 м2 = 119,6 ярдів2

1 га = 10000 м = 100 ар = 2,47 акрів

1 акр = 0,405 га = 4047 м2 = 4840 ярдів2 

1 миля2 = 2,59 = км2 = 640 акрів

Об’єм рідини

Мілілітр   milliliter   

Літр   liter                                Пінта                         pint                             Кварта                        quart    

Галон   gallon    

Рідка унція  fluid ounce  

Барель   barrel    

Бушель   bushel   


  1.  Борова Т.А. Бізнес-курс англійської мови. – Харків: Підручники і посібники, 1999.
  2.  Давиденко Л., Гриненко І. Письмові завдання з англійської мови. – Тернопіль: Підручники і посібники, 2001.
  3.  Мясоєдова С.В. 266 англійських тем. – Харків: МОСТ-Торнадо, 2000.
  4.  Науменко Л.П. Бізнес-курс англійської мови.

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