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Педагогика и дидактика

Тексты: Robotics Technicl Prmeters of Robots Лексика re область зона rtificil искусственный ttchment прикрепление xis pl. Переведите следующие словосочетания на русский язык: set of instructions; the bility of extreme decentrliztion of informtion nd dt; typicl pplictions of robots; investigtions into new types of robots; number of discrete voltge levels; little mount of different instructions; n ctive re of reserch; stories of rtificil helpers; mss production of consumer nd industril goods; high...



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Unit 4

Тема: Робототехника


  1.  Схемы образования вопросительных и отрицательных предложений во временах Indefinite.
  2.  Порядок  слов  в  вопросительном  английском  предложении.
  3.  Причастия Participle I, Participle II.
  4.  Модальные глаголы.
  5.  Местоимения “some, any, no” и их производные.
  6.  Суффиксы существительных и прилагательных.


  1.  Глагол  to be (There is / There are).
  2.  Глагол to have.
  3.  The Indefinite Tenses.
  4.  Грамматический разбор предложения.


  1.  Robotics
  2.  Technical Parameters of Robots




область, зона








axis  (pl. axes)




because of

потому что;
















в настоящее время, на данный момент









форма, матрица



прямой, непосредственный












зубчатая передача, шестеренка









наподобие; как





полезная нагрузка














to accomplish

выполнять, завершать


to attempt





to carry



to concern

касаться, иметь отношение


     to create



to determine

определять, устанавливать


to employ



to join  





to mean


значить, означать;



to mention



to paint



зд.   окраска


to pick



to place





to reach  



to require



to resemble

быть похожим, напоминать


to understand



to weld



зд.   сварка









широко распространенный

I.     Вспомните, как переводятся следующие слова:

to go; to talk; to tell; to play;  play; player; to write; writer; to help; helper; story; arm; hand; hot.  

II.     Прочитайте и переведите слова, не пользуясь словарем. Обратите внимание на их произношение:

acceleration; accuracy; accurately; action; active; activity; actual; actuator; address; amplitude; animal; aspect;   automatically; autonomous; bit; chemicals; colleague; commercial; continuous; direction; distance; electricity; gas; general; history; hydraulic; industry; inspection; joystick; kinematics; laboratory; liquid; magnetic; manipulator; mass; maximum; mechanics; metal; motor; mouse click; multi-; orientation; patient; piano; parameter; pneumatic; position; production; programmed; real; region; reprogrammable; safety; section; signal; spray; special; technical; structure; temperature; testing; typical; transport; to analyze; to check; to command; to compress; to focus; to install; to lift; to limit; to mimic; to operate; to publish; to specify; universal; word.

III.     Прочитайте, переведите и попытайтесь запомнить следующие слова:

  •  существительные

area; attachment; attempt; axis  (pl. axes); casting; cell; chain; core; degree; die; drive; error; exploration; gear; goods; job; joint; means; painting; place; plane; payload; point; purpose; space; weaponry; welding;

  •  прилагательные

artificial; dangerous; direct; multipurpose; various; widespread;

  •  глаголы

to attempt; to accomplish;  to carry; to concern; to create; to determine; to employ; to join;  to mean; to mention; to paint; to pick; to place; to reach;  to require; to resemble; to understand; to weld.

  •  наречия

currently; directly; like.

IV.    Переведите следующие словосочетания на русский язык:

a)    a set of instructions; the ability of extreme decentralization of information and data; typical applications of robots; investigations into new types of robots; a number of discrete voltage levels; a little amount of different instructions; an active area of research; stories of artificial helpers; mass production of consumer and industrial goods; a high degree of accuracy;

b)   a computer data storage system; the e-mail attachments; the World Wide Web; local-area networks and wide-area networks; magnetic core memory; the Input-Output equipment; integrated circuit technology; fiber-optic cables; VLSI circuits; laboratory research; space exploration; the first digitally operated and programmable robot; hot metal castings; a die casting machine; pneumatic or hydraulics means; special programmed routines;

c)   a computer's memory; a quarter of Earth's population; the robot’s movement, acceleration and speed; “Rossum's Universal Robots”; the robot’s drive system.


V.    Вместо пропусков вставьте нужную форму глаголов “to be”  или “to have” во времени Present Indefinite. Задайте вопрос, дайте отрицательный ответ:

1. Memory a computer data storage system and one of the fundamental components of all modern computers.   2. A computer's memory a set of cells with numbers.   3.   There pictures, documents and other files in the e-mail attachments.   4. A computer a machine that manipulates data according to a set of instructions.   5. The World Wide Web the ability of extreme decentralization of information and data. 6. There two basic network types (local-area networks and wide-area networks).

VI.   Вместо пропусков вставьте нужную форму глаголов “to be”  или “to have” во времени Past Indefinite. Задайте вопрос, дайте отрицательный ответ:

1. The first computers the size of a large room and consumed much power.   2. Throughout the 1960s the computers magnetic core memory.    3. In  2008, there about 600 million people  in the world wide web and in 2009, a quarter of Earth's population the services of the Internet.   4. The transistor the potential to work faster and more reliably and to consume much less power than a vacuum tube.

VII.    Вместо пропусков вставьте нужную форму глаголов “to be” или “to have” во времени Future Indefinite. Задайте вопрос, дайте отрицательный ответ:

1. The main language for communication on the Internet English.   2. Modern computers billions or even trillions of bytes of memory.   3. There computers small enough to build into a watch, which a watch battery as a source of power.   4. Supercomputers in particular highly unique architectures.

VIII.    Прочитайте предложения. Инфинитив в скобках сначала поставьте во время Present Indefinite,  предложения переведите. То же самое сделайте для времен Past and Future Indefinite:

1. Electronics (to use) of the motion of electrons through different media and vacuum.   2. Computers (to consist) of two major elements: Hardware and Software.   3. The Internet (to provide) not only answers to different questions but hours of chat and games.   4. Those computers (to use) vacuum tubes and electric relays.   5. The Input-Output equipment (to refer) to the communication between an information processing system  and the outside world.   6. Common input devices (to include) keyboards and optical scanners.

IX.     Сделайте грамматический разбор английских предложений:

а) 1. In the 1970s integrated circuit technology decreased size and cost of computers.   2. In some human activity technology will be the beginning of new stages in science and engineering.

б) 1. An amplifier is any device that changes, usually increases, the amplitude of a signal.   2. The Internet is the worldwide network that connects millions of computers together via fiber-optic cables and other telecommunications channels.


Схемы образования вопросительных и отрицательных предложений

во временах Indefinite:

 The Present Indefinite:

Computer programs consist of instructions.

Do  computer programs consist of instructions?

Computer programs do not consist of instructions.

A computer program consists of instructions.

Does  a computer programs consist of instructions?

A computer program does not consist   of instructions.

The Past Indefinite:

Computer programs consisted of instructions.

Did  computer programs consist   of instructions?

Computer programs did not consist   of instructions.

The Future Indefinite:

Computer programs   will   consist of instructions.

X.   К предложениям из упражнения VI поставьте вопросы и дайте отрицательные ответы.

Порядок  слов  в  вопросительном  английском  предложении







Вопросительное слово

Вспомогательный глагол





                    0                                 I                    II                 III                           IV

(In all modern computers), (each memory cell) (stores) (binary numbers) (in groups of eight bits).

Поставим к предложению следующие вопросы:

  1.  Общий вопрос ко всему предложению

    Всегда начинается со вспомогательного глагола и, если на нулевом месте есть обстоятельство, то оно переносится на IV место.

   B                    I                II              III                                        IV

(Does) (each memory cell) (store) (binary numbers) (in groups of eight bits in all modern computers)?

  1.  Вопрос к подлежащему

    Подлежащее просто заменяется вопросами Именительного падежа «кто?» (who?) или «что?» (what?) и, если на нулевом месте есть обстоятельство, оно переходит на IV место.

    I           II                  III                                           IV

(What) (stores) (binary numbers) (in groups of eight bits in all modern computers)?

  1.  Вопросы к сказуемому,  дополнению и обстоятельству

    Эти вопросы начинаются с вопросительного слова, за которым следует вспомогательный глагол, а далее соблюдается порядок слов утвердительного предложения.

     A       B                I                      II                  IV

(What) (does) (each memory cell) (do) (in all modern computers)?

   A           B               I                      II                                         IV

(What) (does) (each memory cell) (store) (in groups of eight bits in all modern computers)?

             A              B                I                    II                                     IV

(What numbers ) (does) (each memory cell) (store) (in groups of eight bits in all modern computers)?

      A         B                 I                      II               III                              IV

(Where) (does) (each memory cell) (store) (binary numbers) (in all modern computers)?

                A                 B                   I                   II                III                         IV

(In what computers) (does) (each memory cell) (store) (binary numbers) (in groups of eight bits)?

XI.    Прочитайте и переведите предложения. К каждому предложению поставьте не менее трех вопросов:

а) 1. The first programmable robot appeared in 1961.   2. In 1920 Karel Čapek  first used the word robot in his play.

б) 1. The use of a computer greatly simplifies the programming process.    2. In 2009, scientists developed a manipulator which functions like a real hand.   3. Typical applications of robots will include welding, painting and assembly.   4. As power sources most robots used pneumatic or hydraulics means.   5. Much of the research in robotics focuses not only on specific industrial tasks, but on investigations into new types of robots.

Причастия – The Participles

    Причастие – это неличная форма глагола, которая имеет признаки как прилагательного, так и глагола.

   Простые формы причастий (Participle I и Participle II) образуются от глаголов с помощью окончаний. В предложении могут выполнять функции определения и обстоятельства.

The Participles (Причастия)


P. I



-ed (III ф. гл.)

to design

to form





to read

to write





В функции определения переводятся причастиями оканчивающимися  на:


-нный (-мый; -тый)

    Причастие с относящимися к нему словами образуют причастный оборот.

    В функции обстоятельства (0 и IV место в предложении)  Participle I переводится деепричастиями на –ая; -яя (напр.: readingчитая), а причастный оборот с Participle II можно переводить придаточным предложением.

                        I            II                    III                                              IV

Например:   (We) (can create) (a local network) (interconnecting some computers with cables).

                Мы можем создать локальную сеть, соединяя несколько компьютеров кабелями.

                                            0                                     I                       II                    III

                     (When connected with cables) (some computers) (will create) (a local network).

                 Если соединить несколько компьютеров кабелем, они создадут локальную сеть.


XII.     Образуйте Participle I и Participle II от следующих глаголов:

а) to accelerate; to allow; to become; to contain; to control; to decrease; to exchange; to find; to build into; to form; to include; to interconnect; to jump; to reach; to receive; to serve; to store; to talk; to tell.

б) to accomplish;  to begin; to carry; to connect; to determine; to develop; to employ; to install; to make; to mention; to move; to perform; to pick; to place; to play; to provide; to resemble; to send; to solve; to create; to understand; to use; to write.

XIII.   Прочитайте и переведите предложения, обращая особое внимание на правильный перевод причастий в функции определения:

а) 1. The word “science” developed from the Latin word “scientia” meaning  "knowledge".    2. Digital circuits are electric circuits based on a number of discrete voltage levels.   3. Supercomputers are fast because they're really many computers working together.   4. The built-in computers found in many devices from MP3 players to aircraft and from toys to industrial robots are however the most numerous.

б) 1. Modern computers based on integrated circuits are millions of times more powerful than the first machines.    2. Modern technological developments, including the telephone, and the Internet allowed people to interact on a global scale.    3. In its more general sense, science is a system of acquiring knowledge based on scientific method.    4. Existing tools and knowledge are necessary for different investigations and experiments.   5. The structure of a robot is usually mostly mechanical with a kinematic chain resembling the human arm.   

XIV.    Прочитайте предложения, найдите в них причастия, определите их функцию. Предложения  переведите:

1. Today's electronics engineers have the ability to design devices using integrated circuits.   2.    Currently, there are about 1 million industrial robots working in manufacturing industry.    3. Today industrial robots are in widespread use performing jobs more accurately and reliably than humans.   4. Programmed routines specify the robot’s movement, acceleration, speed of coordinated motions.   5. Internet "chat" allows colleagues to be in contact working at their computers during the day.   6. Using controlled methods scientists collect examples of natural or social phenomena, write down received data referring to the study, and analyze this information.

Модальные глаголы

    Модальные глаголы обозначают не само действие, а указывают на отношение к нему говорящего, то есть указывают на возможность, вероятность, необходимость совершения действия. Само действие при этом выражается инфинитивом (без частицы “to”), который стоит после модального глагола. Например: They can produce these devices.

Модальный глагол





мочь, уметь

(в смысле физической возможности)

I can speak English.

Модальные глаголы имеют одну форму для всех лиц.



(в смысле разрешения или вероятности)

You may use this scanner.


должен, обязан

He must understand.

Схема образования вопросительных и отрицательных предложений

We  can    install this program.

XV.   Прочитайте и переведите предложения. Задайте вопрос, дайте отрицательный ответ:

а) 1. One byte can represent 256 different numbers.   2. They must use electronic elements in their new modifications.   3. You may find this information on the Internet.    4. The Internet can allow people from all over the world to talk to each other.   5. They may use the latest development in their investigations.   6. In its common sense, science may refer to a highly skilled technique or practice.

б) 1. Scientists publish their information so other scientists can check their individual results.   2. These devices must operate in vacuum with very low temperatures.   3. The simplest computers can perform only a little amount of different instructions.   4. A computer must manipulate data according to a set of instructions.   5. Modern computers based on integrated circuits may work much more reliably than the first machines.    6. The transistor-based machines must be smaller, cheaper, faster and more reliable.   7. Documents on the web may contain any combination of computer data, including graphics, sounds, text, video.   8. A person using a simple calculator can perform a basic arithmetic operation.

Местоимения “some, any, no” и их производные

    Местоимение someнесколько, какой-то, какой-нибудь, некоторый употребляется в утвердительных предложениях.

    Местоимение any имеет то же значение, что и some, но употребляется в вопросительных и отрицательных предложениях.

    В утвердительных предложениях “any” может употребляться в значении «любой».

There are some mistakes in this program.

Are there any mistakes in this program?

Yes, there are some.

No, there are not any. (There are not any mistakes in this program.)

XVI.     Вместо пропусков вставьте местоимения some или any:

1. A computer sometimes goes back and perform the instructions in … section of the program.   2. There are … input devices, such as a keyboard, scanner, or joystick.   3. Does a computer store … or all of its programs in memory?   4. … cell of a computer’s memory has a numbered "address" and stores a single number.   5. … common electronic components are capacitors, resistors, diodes, transistors, etc.   6. His report does not include … theoretical aspects of his device’s work.   7. ... VLSI circuits contained more than 3 million transistors on a silicon chip.    8. In … cases ‘bugs’ (errors) make the program to "hang", and it does not answer to … input operations such as mouse clicks or keystrokes.

    В сочетании с thingвещь, предмет, body - тело, one - один, where - где, куда; some, any и no образуют следующие производные:





что-то, что-нибудь, что-либо




ничто, ничего


кто-то, кто-нибудь, кто-либо


кто-то, кто-нибудь




кто-то, кто-нибудь, кто-либо


кто-нибудь, кто-либо

no one

никто, никого


где-то, где-нибудь, куда-нибудь




нигде, никуда


      I see something (somebody, someone) in the room.

Do you see anything (anybody, anyone) in the room?

I see nothing (nobody, no one) in the room.

XVII.     Переведите слова в скобках  на английский язык:

1. There is (что-то) specific in this circuit.   2. Can (кто-нибудь) solve this task?   3. (Никто) included that phenomenon in the investigation program.   4. I found  (ничего) interesting in their crystal collection.   5. We can find this encyclopedia (нигде).   6. They will be in contact with (кем-либо) all day long.   7. Can I find the answer to my question (где-нибудь)?   8. The results of (некоторых) calculations and (некоторых) characteristics of the process are significant.    9. The information stored in a computer’s memory may represent practically (все, что угодно).

Суффиксы существительных и прилагательных

Суффиксы существительных

Корневое слово


Производное слово


to work

to teach

to operate



Существительные, обозначающие лица, производящие действия.




to transform

to move



Отвлеченные существительные



XVIII.    От следующих глаголов образуйте существительные:

  1.  to drive, to learn, to listen, to swim, to run, to play, to lead, to sleep, to design, to construct, to develop, to emit.
  2.  to educate, to suggest, to operate, to occupy, to combine, to expect, to determine, to restrict, to organize, to explore, to create, to transmit.
  3.  to amaze, to require, to enjoy, to disappoint, to manage, to refresh, to achieve, to argue, to excite.  

Суффиксы  прилагательных

Корневое слово


Производное слово


to act

to rely

to depend

to please










XIX.     От следующих глаголов образуйте прилагательные:

  1.  to instruct, to attract, to product, to act.
  2.   to remark, to change, to accept, to desire, to present,  to agree, to suit.
  3.  to differ, to exist, to excel.
  4.  to combat, to please, to triumph, to ignore.

Text A


    Robotics is the engineering science and technology of robots, and their design, manufacture, and application. Robotics concerns to electronics, mechanics, and software. Czech writer Karel Čapek first mentioned the word robot in his play “Rossum's Universal Robots” published in 1920.

    Stories of artificial helpers and attempts to create them have a long history, but first autonomous machines only appeared in the 20th century. The first digitally operated and programmable robot installed in 1961 lifted hot metal castings from a die casting machine. Today, commercial and industrial robots are in widespread use performing jobs more cheaply or more accurately and reliably than humans. Manufacturers must employ robots in jobs which are too dangerous for people. We may use robots in manufacturing, transport; space exploration; weaponry; laboratory research; safety; and mass production of consumer and industrial goods.

    The structure of a robot is usually mostly mechanical with a kinematic chain resembling the human arm. There are some robots which mimic the mechanical structure of humans or various animals. The development and use of such structures in robots are an active area of research because these structures will have widespread use in future.

    As power sources most robots use pneumatic (compressed gases) or hydraulics (compressed liquids) means, electricity, chemicals. The robot’s drive system may be direct or have the joints via gears.

    In 2009, scientists developed a manipulator which functions like a real hand allowing patients to write with it, type on a keyboard, play piano and perform other movements. But most robots in the world are industrial. Currently, there are about 1 million industrial robots working in manufacturing industry.

    An industrial robot is an automatically controlled, reprogrammable, multipurpose manipulator programmable in two or more axes. Having two axes the robot can reach any required point in a plane; with three axes it can reach any point in space. Typical applications of robots include welding, painting, carrying payload, assembly, pick and place,  product inspection, and testing, all accomplished with a high degree of accuracy. All robots use special programmed routines which determine these actions.

Задания к тексту А:

I.     Прочитайте и переведите следующие выражения:

to be first mentioned; fully autonomous machines; the first digitally operated and programmable robot; a die casting machine; to be in widespread use; space exploration; laboratory research; mass production of consumer and industrial goods; mostly mechanical; power sources; pneumatic or hydraulics means; an automatically controlled, reprogrammable, multipurpose manipulator.

II.     Найдите в предыдущем упражнении английские эквиваленты следующих русских выражений:

лабораторное исследование; первый программируемый робот с цифровым управлением; источники энергии; быть упомянутым впервые; пневматические или гидравлические средства; устройство литья в форму; автоматически управляемый, перепрограммируемый, многоцелевой манипулятор; широко использоваться; массовое производство потребительских и промышленных товаров; полностью автономные устройства; в основном механический; исследование космоса.

III.    Сделайте грамматический разбор предложений. К каждому предложению задайте не менее трех вопросов:

1. The first digitally operated and programmable robot appeared in 1961.    2. Today we use industrial robots which perform jobs more cheaply, accurately and reliably than people.   3. As power sources most robots use pneumatic (compressed gases) or hydraulics (compressed liquids) means or electricity.    4. In 2009, scientists developed a manipulator which functions like a human’s hand.

V. Вместо пропусков вставьте модальные глаголы:

1. A new fully autonomous machine … appear in the end of the year.   2. A digitally operated and programmable robot … perform this operation much more accurately.   3. Modern industry … employ robots in jobs which are too dirty or dangerous for humans.

VI. Задайте общий вопрос и дайте отрицательный ответ:

1. There are some robots which mimic the mechanical structure of humans, various animals, and insects.   2. Some robots are in widespread use in mass production of consumer and industrial goods.   3. Some applications of robots include welding, painting, assembly, pick and place, packaging, and testing.

VII.   Ответьте письменно на следующие вопросы:

  1.  What is robotic and what does it concern?
  2.  When did first autonomous machines appear?
  3.  What did the first digitally operated and programmable robot installed in 1961 do?
  4.  Why are robots in widespread use?
  5.  What jobs may we use robots in?
  6.  What is usual structure of robots?
  7.  What do most robots use as power sources?
  8.  How many robots are currently in manufacturing industry?
  9.  What are typical applications of industrial robots?

VIII.   Переведите текст А письменно.

Text B

Technical Parameters of Robots

  •  Number of axes – two axes are required to reach any point in a plane; three axes are required to reach any point in space.
  •  Degrees of freedom which is usually the same as the number of axes.
  •  Working space – the region of space a robot can reach.
  •  Kinematics – the actual arrangement of rigid members and joints in the robot, which determines the robot's possible motions.
  •  Carrying capacity or payload  – how much weight a robot can lift.
  •  Speed – how fast the robot can position the end of its arm. This may be defined as angular or linear speed of each axis or a compound speed when all axes are moving.
  •  Acceleration - how quickly the movement along an axis accelerates.
  •  Accuracy – how closely a robot can reach a commanded position. Accuracy can vary with speed and payload (see compliance).
  •  Repeatability - how well the robot will return to a programmed position.
  •  Motion control – for some applications, such as simple pick-and-place assembly, the robot need merely return repeatedly to a limited number of positions. For more sophisticated applications, such as welding, the orientation and velocity of motion must be continuously controlled.
  •  Power source – some robots use electric motors, others use hydraulic actuators. The former are faster, the latter are stronger and advantageous in applications such as spray painting, where a spark could set off an explosion.
  •  Drive – some robots connect electric motors to the joints via gears; others connect the motor to the joint directly (direct drive).
  •  Compliance - this is a measure of the amount in angle or distance that a robot axis will move when a force is applied to it. Because of compliance when a robot goes to a position carrying its maximum payload it will be at a position slightly lower than when it is carrying no payload.

Задания к тексту B:

I.   Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующим русским выражениям:

угловая или линейная скорость каждой оси; источник питания; рабочая область; ускорение; приводная система; количество осей; несущая нагрузка; повторяемость; управление движением; степени свободы; точность; возможные движения робота; согласованность.

II.    Сформулируйте в нескольких словах содержание каждого абзаца.

III.   Напишите резюме к тексту.

IV.   Ответьте на вопросы:

  1.  What are technical parameters of robots?
  2.  Can you give some examples of the robot’s parameters?
  3.  How many axes are necessary for a robot to reach any point in space?
  4.  Is the freedom degree parameter the same as the parameter of the number of axes?
  5.  Which parameter is responsible for weight a robot can lift?
  6.  How can a robot’s speed parameter be defined?
  7.  What is a difference between accuracy, repeatability and compliance?

V.   Перескажите текст, используя в качестве плана вопросы предыдущего упражнения.



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