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Стилистика. Практикум. THE GUIDE TO PRACTICAL STYLISTICS

Книга

Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

Введение Понятие стиля находится на пересечении нескольких наук: социологии, психологии, эстетики, семиотики, этики, культурологи и собственно лингвистики. Человек, владеющий стилем, - это, прежде всего, образованный и интеллигентный человек. Он пон...

Русский

2014-12-21

878 KB

95 чел.

Введение

Понятие стиля находится на пересечении нескольких наук: социологии, психологии, эстетики, семиотики, этики, культурологи и собственно лингвистики. Человек, владеющий стилем, - это, прежде всего, образованный и интеллигентный человек. Он понимает ситуацию и знает, что принято в подобных ситуациях говорить. Чувство стиля, как и музыкальный слух, может быть врожденным – и тогда важно не утратить его, но чаще всего – это свойство, приобретенное  в опыте речевого общения, чтения художественных текстов, создания собственных текстов, в результате занятий практической стилистикой.

    Исследование художественного текста – это всегда творческий акт. Осмыслив природу произведения словесного искусства, изучив его основные признаки, представив, какие приемы художественной выразительности использует писатель, мы «возвращаемся на круги своя», к набоковскому «читать и размышлять». При всей возможной точности стилистического исследования художественного текста, оно всегда остается субъективным. Этого требует сам объект исследования.

В данной работе мы осуществили попытку проанализировать стилистические явления, подготовить будущих учителей к самостоятельной дальнейшей работе, помочь им развить самостоятельную критическую мысль. Мы надеемся, что такая подготовка сможет устранить штампы в толковании художественных произведений, развить высокую культуру чтения литературы.

Чтение, несомненно, само по себе развивает вкус, мышление и кругозор, соответственно, углубляя и знание языка. Однако, эффект от прочтения художественного произведения может быть многократно усилен правильной подготовкой по стилистике.

Стилистический анализ – не самоцель учебного процесса. Тем не менее, он усиливает познавательное, идейное, эмоциональное и эстетическое воздействие литературы. Стилистический анализ неотделим от синтеза, способного восстановить художественную целостность произведения, продемонстрировать роль каждого отдельного элемента в структуре целого. Приемы анализа не изолированы друг от друга. Практически всегда используются разные приемы в различных сочетаниях. Но главное: знание путей и владение приемами стилистического анализа текста - еще не все. Чтобы избежать субъективности и «раздробленности» анализа текста, надо постоянно помнить, что любые рассматриваемые нами языковые явления существуют в тексте не сами по себе, но как компоненты «композиции целого». Иными словами: мало проанализировать компоненты текста, важно проанализировать текст как смысловое и композиционное целое.

    Наша цель - показать взаимосвязанность и взаимозависимость всех языковых элементов в создании образности, в раскрытии авторского замысла, идейно-художественного единства произведения. При этом мы исходим из утверждения о том, что при прочтении художественных произведений не может быть одной трактовки. Литературное произведение принимает свой окончательный вид только после восприятия конкретным читателем.

    В плане методики обучения интерпретации текста мы исходим, прежде всего, из возможности интерпретации  художественного текста уже на младшей ступени языкового вуза, хотя исследователи далеко не единодушны в решении этого вопроса. Мы попытались по–новому подойти к трактовке принципа взаимосвязи видов речевой деятельности. Как правило, в методической литературе исследуется роль рецепции для обучения репродукции. Взаимосвязь рецептивно-репродуктивной деятельности исследовалась довольно односторонне: изучалась роль рецептивных заданий в становлении репродуктивной компетенции. Таким образом, для различных исследователей проникновение в смысл текста не цель, а средство обучения экспрессивной речи. Что же касается места репродуктивных заданий в системе обучения чтению, то, судя по наиболее известным пособиям по аналитическому чтению, авторы рассматривают задания в говорении и письме, в основном в целях «активизации» лексики и грамматики, что не имеет никакого отношения к обучению интерпретации текста. Мы же позволим себе выдвинуть следующую гипотезу: при обучении анализу роли стилистических средств целесообразно опираться на задания не только в анализе, но и в синтезе, т.е. включать в номенклатуру заданий задачи на использование тех или иных стилистических средств для выражения определенного замысла. Полагаем, что, выполняя предложенные нами задания, студенты учатся интерпретировать текст с максимальным извлечением эксплицитной и имплицитной информации. Это также способствует упорядоченности собственных суждений, логике и выразительности собственной речи на иностранном и родном языке, творческому развитию личности, обогащению видения и кругозора. Это поможет преодолеть сложившийся дуализм формы и содержания и обучить рассмотрению текста как единого целого.

    Изучение стилистики иностранного языка имеет свои особенности. Сложности в овладении стилями речи связаны, прежде всего, с тем, что в данном случае выбор слова – это всегда сознательный выбор, тогда как для носителя языка он является в значительной степени интуитивным. При изучении стилистики художественного текста на первый план выходят проблемы другого порядка: недостаточное знание «мира слова», того бесконечного смыслового пространства, которое за этим словом находится, «картины мира».

    Данное учебное пособие отличается от подобных ему, прежде всего своей направленностью на решение самой, по нашему мнению, важной задачи. Стилистика – это не только украшение речи, не только способность оценить идиостиль автора, но и раскрытие огромного разнообразия путей и способов функционирования языка.

    Наша первая задача – помочь учащимся овладеть принципами стилистического выбора и изучить основные условия этого выбора в иностранном языке. Поскольку студенты-филологи изучают стилистику не только практически, но и как науку, возникает вторая задача – в доступной форме представить основные теоретические понятия, такие как стиль, стилистическое значение, функциональный стиль и другие.

   Это пособие сложилось как результат преподавания стилистики в группах студентов-филологов. Опыт таких занятий приводит к выводу, что изучение стилистики может и должно начинаться на самых ранних этапах овладения языком, а не только на достаточно продвинутом этапе. Вопрос только в формах обучения.

    В пособии рассматриваются те вопросы, которые представляются наиболее важными при изучении иностранного языка. Наряду с ключевыми теоретическими понятиями обсуждаются основные тенденции развития языка, проблемы соотношения стиля и нормы, стиля и моды. Каждый семинар соотносится с определенной темой, и включает следующие аспекты: краткое определение терминов; примеры; анализ роли и функций определенных стилистических приемов; творческие задания, пересекающиеся с общими лингвистическими и переводческими умениями.

    Практические задания содержат несколько аспектов. Авторы осуществили попытку на практике доказать возможность «выхода» узкого стилистического анализа в речь, отойти от традиционного способа «найдите и проанализируйте …»; разработали ряд творческих заданий для каждой рассматриваемой темы. Многие задания связаны с лексической сочетаемостью, выбором слова из ряда синонимов в зависимости от функционального стиля, способами выражения субъективной оценки, экспрессии и эмоционального отношения. Предлагается также исследовать преобразования в значении слова в художественном тексте, особенности индивидуального словоупотребления в языке писателя. Предлагаемые для анализа тексты являются отрывками не только из классических произведений, но и современных русско- и англоязычных поэтических и прозаических работ. Авторы намеренно соотносят русский и английский языки, так как возможность сравнения, и, соответственно проведения лингвистических параллелей способствует лучшему пониманию материала. Кроме того, к сожалению, преподаватели часто сталкиваются с тем, что многие студенты обладают лишь отрывочными знаниями о стилистике родного языка. Цикл семинаров завершается контрольным семинаром, который, по нашему мнению, позволит преподавателю проверить на практике как умения, приобретенные в ходе семинарских занятий, так и творческие способности студентов. С целью упрощения работы на занятиях практикум сопровождается глоссарием, включающим в себя наиболее важные и употребительные стилистические и языковедческие термины.

Практическое пособие призвано ознакомить студентов с современной стилистикой, стилистикой восприятия, которая соответствует задачам профессиональной подготовки учителя английского языка и современному уровню лингвистической науки.

Our practical classes in stylistics will have two main aims:

to develop and perfect your ability to analyze and interpret any piece of art, especially literary

to enable you to express yourselves orally or in writing clearly, coherently and effectively

Any person you know or might think of differs from everybody else. Every human being lives his own life and thus gains his own knowledge of the world, creates and operates his unique picture of the world. During our life we try to share our individual experience with others. Artists (painters, poets, writers, sculptors etc.) are those capable of doing it in most expressive ways. To do so, they employ various means. In painting these are line, colour, perspective, the interplay of shadow and light. In literature we deal with language. Any man of letters creates a work of literature with its help. This process can be represented in the following way:

experience   experience

WRITER → WORK OF LITERATURE  ← READER

encoding   decoding

The writer encodes his experience, his ideas and emotions, his life impressions. But one can give no more than what one has received, and authors try to create for others, in their own writings, aesthetic sensations they have experienced. The reader’s experience is different from that of the writer, but at the same time certain elements of life impressions overlap. Both use language as a kind of universal code for self-expression. To be able to reveal what they have to say, authors make use of all kinds of stylistic devices: phonetic, lexical and syntactical ones. It gives rise to new, unusual associations and streams of thought. It gives the reader a deeper insight into the essence of what the author shares with him – his life experience.

SEMINAR 1.

Definitions of style. Text structure and its stylistic analysis, methods of analysis.

Foregrounding and its levels. Convergence.

Denotation and connotation. Types of connotation.

Sources of connotation.

  •  TASK 1.

Study the following definitions of style and supply your own interpretations. Single out the key-words in each definition:

Style is a trend.

Style is deviations.

Style is a product of individual choices and patterns of choices among linguistic possibilities

Стиль – это способ речевого поведения.

Стиль – это дополнительная информация, которая обнаруживается в тексте наряду с его основным содержанием.

  •  TASK 2.

Comment on the given scheme, suggested by V. Odintzov. Speak of the ways and methods of stylistic analysis. Provide examples of paradigmatic and syntagmatic relations in a text.

СТРУКТУРА

Категории содержания  Категории формы

Тема Материал  Композиция Язык

Идея  Сюжет Приём

ТЕКСТА

План содержания    План выражения

Идея  Архитектоника Композиция

«Лики» образа автора  Сюжет

Образ автора

  •  TASK 3.

Suggest a structure and categories to provide ways of stylistic analysis. Pay attention to the interrelations among them. Begin with: Content vs. Form

These items can be helpful to you: theme – idea – life material – language material – word chain – composition - subject – architectonics – author’s image - …

  •  TASK 4.

a) Explain how the given linguistic elements can be foregrounded on different levels of the language (phonetic; morphological; lexical; syntactical): e.g. Do you understand me? – Get me?

  •  Hello, John, to like, nice, Is anybody home?; What do you mean?; And one fine morning… (the last phrase from Fitzgerald’s “Great Gatsby”)

b) Provide your own examples of foregrounding on various levels.

c) Enumerate the main types, mechanisms and functions of foregrounding. Can we speak of occasional accentuation in literature (prose, poetry, drama)? In what way does foregrounding differ from stylistic devices?

  •  TASK 5.

Study the given information and illustrate your understanding with suitable examples.

In some branches of semantics, connotation is more or less synonymous with intension. Connotation is often contrasted with denotation, which is more or less synonymous with extension.

In everyday usage, connotation has a different meaning. The idea is the following: every word or phrase has two kinds of meaning: primary, literal meanings (sometimes called denotations), and secondary meanings known as connotations. Connotations are thought to colour what a word “really means” with emotion or value judgments.

 For example, a stubborn person may be described as being either strong-willed or pig-headed. Although these have the same literal meaning (i.e. stubborn), strong-willed connotes admiration for someone’s convictions, while pig-headed connotes frustration in dealing with someone.

Native speakers (of any language) intuitively make correct choices. But any language learner should be aware of the implied connotations of his vocabulary.

  •  TASK 6.

Account for various interpretation of denotation and connotation. Suggest your own definition or a basis for comparison.

“Denotation is what is photographed; connotation is how it is photographed” (Fiske)

“Denotation is sometimes regarded as a digital code and connotation as an analogue code”

(Wilden)

At the denotative level this is a photograph of the movie star Marilyn Monroe. At a connotative level we associate this photograph with Marilyn Monroe’s star qualities of glamour, sexuality, beauty, but also with depression, drug-taking and death. At a general level we understand this sign as activating the myth of Hollywood: the dream factory that produces glamour in the form of the stars it constructs, but also the dream machine that can crush them – all with a view to profit and expediency. 

  •  TASK 7.

Identify the type of connotation in the given examples.

  •  

  •  Dissect;
  •   Mum;
  •  notorious;
  •   grown-up;
  •   jerk;
  •  irradiate;
  •  risky;
  •   many a scientist…;
  •  repelling;
  •   to be rolling in money;
  •   splendid;
  •   cool;
  •   many vs. numerous;
  •   eke;
  •   лик,
  •   отпрыск,
  •   грохнуться,
  •   аппелировать

Provide your own examples of various connotation types.

  •  TASK 8.

Synonymic relations within a language

a) You are given the neutral element of a synonymic line. Reconstruct the line, supplying the missing elements.

  •  

  •  Meet;
  •  insane;
  •   talk;
  •  еда;
  •  food;
  •  false;
  •  strong drinks;
  •   квартира;
  •  закрыть глаза;
  •   подарить…

Provide your own examples of various connotation types.

Relations between direct and figurative meanings.

a) Explain the basis of connotation..

  •  

  •  тормозить;
  •  расколоться;
  •  откинуться;
  •   pig;
  •   dough;
  •   legless;
  •   snow;
  •   grandma lane;
  •  sharp;
  •   After wild week-ends Mondays are always a washou

Provide your own examples of various connotation types.

Relations based on formal similarity.

a) Give your associations with the words given.

  •  Everything is sapped and sopped in Lincolnshire (Ch. Dickens);
  •  blob;
  •  Mr. Tangle (a lawyer from Dickens’ “Bleak House”);
  •   tinkle-crackle-giggle-wriggle

b) Provide your own examples of various connotation types.

Restriction.

Study the statements and account for their stylistic effect.

  •  His new CD is a bomb!
  •  He is not bald, he is hair-disadvantaged.
  •  My mother had a propensity to spoil him. (a girl, aged 13, speaking of her little brother;

(J. D. Salinger)

b) Provide your own examples of various connotation types.

  •  TASK 9.

Here is a text to ponder over. After a careful examination make the necessary changes in its vocabulary and structure regarding the target audience:

a bosom friend of yours;

an elderly person whom you highly respect;

other.

Here is an example for you:

 How to fry an egg.

The art of making a sunny-side-up egg

Well, you know, you take a pan, pour some oil on it, and put it on the stove. Then you take an egg and knock it over the pan. It flops there. Oh, and don’t forget to add some salt. Hang around for a couple of minutes and you get it.

Take a jet-black pan and pour some yellowish odorous oil; put it on the blazing brilliant bonfire of a burner. Then take an oval, white snow egg and see how its chalky shell crumbs under a sharp razor, but its interiors slip out to the sizzling pan. Meanwhile take a peck of salt, which rains down to a tiny orange sun of a yolk. In a fleeting moment your fragrant fizzing sunny-side-up is to ready to be served and tasted.

Sally had missed the last bus home because she had had a lot of work to do and she had to take a taxi. She got into the first one that came along and immediately regretted it. The driver seemed a bit crazy. After he had gone through the third red light at high speed she said: “You are driving a bit too fast. Please, slow down. I have been in two car accidents already in my life”. “That’s nothing,” replied the driver. “I have been in over a hundred!”

(after V. Evans)

Reference materials:

Galperin I. R. “Stylistics”

Arnold I. V. “Стилистика современного английского языка”     

Skrebnev Y. M. “Стилистика английского языка”  

Collins V. H. “The Choice of Words”

Lebedeva L.B. 10 Lectures in Style

SEMINAR 2.

Division of the English vocabulary. The neutral layer.

Terms and their classifications.

3.   Foreignisms vs. Barbarisms.

4. Archaisms vs. Historicisms.

5.   Neologisms.

  Language is a living and continually changing thing. Many words used in the past by good writers would not be suitable today; and words used even today in poetry, where choice may be dictated by the needs of rhyme or rhythm, might strike an affected or pompous note in prose. There are so-called “formal words”: words that are not so common English for what is meant, but translations of them into language that is held more suitable for public exhibition. If there is a doubt whether the given word should be regarded as a formal one, the only appeal can be to the practice of good contemporary prose writers. The qualifications of “contemporary” and “prose” are important.

    Sometimes the use of formal words is a sign that speakers or writers wish to be taken as better educated than they really are. Usages prompted by this motive might be called “show-words”. There are so called “genteelisms”, which can be defined as the substitution for the ordinary natural word that would first suggest itself to the mind, of a synonym thought to be less soiled by the common herd, less familiar, less plebeian, less vulgar, less improper. There is a class of words springing into popularity that are called “vogue-words”. They may be new words or they may introduce a new use of an old word. Sometimes a cause of their being taken up is that at first they have the charm of novelty. At a later stage, when they have come into common usage, they are seized upon by people too lazy to select a word more suitable for the context. Often still later the use of such words is extended; their original sense becomes blurred. But it is not necessarily that the person thinking in slang should write in slang, or that the formal words should be avoided as some of them have special and traditional uses.

  •  Task 1.

Study the information and explain the idea of neutrality; enumerate the characteristics of the neutral bulk of the English vocabulary supplying necessary examples. Account for the borderline between neutral and colloquial, neutral and literary words being so blurred. Give examples of various vocabulary items passing from one layer of the language into another: зелень, лопух, чайник, зараза, chick, grass, paralytic etc. 

  •  Task 2.

Study the table suggested by O. Grigoryeva and the given word analysis. Choose any word and show interrelations and shades of meaning.

 Для слова красный в словаре отмечено 5 основных значений: 1. Цвета крови, спелых ягод земляники, яркого цвета мака. 2. Относящийся к революционной деятельности, к советскому строю, к Красной Армии. 3. В народной речи и поэзии для обозначения чего-нибудь хорошего, яркого, светлого. Красный денек. Красный угол (в старых крестьянских избах: передний, противоположный печи, обращенный на юго-восток угол, в котором ставился стол, и вешалась икона). Красная (красна) девица. «Долг платежом красен»(пословица). 4. Для обозначения наиболее ценных пород, сортов чего-нибудь (специальное). Красная рыба. Красный зверь. Красная дичь. Красный лес (из хвойных пород). 5. Сторонник или представитель большевиков, их революционной диктатуры, военнослужащий Красной Армии 0 Красная Армия - название советской армии в период 1918- 1946гг.

Слово красный имеет обширную фразеологию: Красная книга, красная строка, красная цена (разговорное), проходить красной нитью (книжное), красный уголок (устаревшее). С первым значением этого слова обычно связаны определенные ассоциации: страсть, бой быков, кровь, закат, огонь, рябина, стыд. Но у многих оно вызывает и национально-культурные соответствия: флаг, пионерский галстук, праздник Октябрьской Революции 7 ноября.

В восьмидесятые-девяностые годы, когда отношение к Октябрьской Революции в обществе резко поляризовалось, слово красный, как и многие другие, социально маркированные, слова, стало «слугой двух господ». У сторонников коммунистической идеи оно ассоциируется с понятиями: «правда», «справедливость», «наши», «добро», «победа». У противников этой идеи слово красный имеет другие ассоциации: «агрессия», «расправа», «зло», и даже «фашизм».

Народнопоэтическое красный имеет ярко выраженные национально-культурные коннотации. Производное от красный угол словосочетание красный уголок, которое в советское время означало: «помещение при большом доме, в учреждении, отведенное для культурно-просветительской работы», сейчас уже стало устаревшим и вытеснено нейтральным клуб. Но может употребляться и с ироническим оттенком.

  •  Task 3.

You are given a list of words on the register they belong to nowadays. Use your dictionaries to trace the stylistic colouring they used to have.

e.g.Alibi”   =   professional - journalism – literary 

- until recent years never meant anything except a plea by a person that, when an alleged act happened, he was elsewhere, then appeared in print in newspaper reports and is now being used for any grounds for defence against a charge, and in even more slipshod senses with the meaning of excuse.

“Abnormal/anomalous”          formal

Malady/ailment”                   high-flown

Mutual”                                 colloquial

Phenomenon”                        neutral

“Maybe (= perhaps)”              common

Aftermath”                            common

“Aggravating”                         vulgar (in writing)

  •  Task 4.

Give your definition of terms. Be ready to provide examples of terms following the classification given in your lecture.  Explain the effect, produced by the so-called de-terminization.

E.g. Allergic (med) = “allergic to blondes”, “ I have always  been very allergic to this man”, “so allergic to conventional values as to find a sardonic delight in flouting them”  

Provide the necessary contexts to illustrate the de-terminization of the following   terms:

  •  Clone
  •  Slaughter
  •  Immunity
  •  

Task 5.

Study the given extracts and account for their effect. State the nature and role of the terms and elevated vocabulary where misused.

  •  Philip Heatherhead – whom we designate Physiological Philip – as he strolled down the lane in the glory of early June, presented a splendid picture of young manhood. By this we mean that his bony framework was longer than the average and that instead of walking like an ape he stood erect with his scull balanced on his spinal column in a way rarely excelled even in a museum. The young man appeared in the full glory of perfect health: or shall we say, to be more exact, that his temperature was 98, his respiration normal, his skin entirely free from mange, erysipelas and prickly heat…

           At a turn of path Philip suddenly became aware of a young girl advancing to              meet him. Her spinal column though shorter than his, was elongated and erect, and Philip saw at once that she was not a chimpanzee. She wore no hat and the thick capillary growth that covered her cranium waved in the sunlight and fell low over her eyesockets. The elasticity of her step revealed not the slightest trace of appendicitis or locomotor ataxia, while all thought of eczema, measles or spotty discoloration was precluded by the smoothness and homogeneity of her skin.

   At the sight of Philip the subcutaneous pigmentation of the girl’s face underwent an intensification. At the same time the beating of the young man’s heart produced in his countenance also a temporary inflammation due to an underoxydization of the tissues of his face.

   They met, and their hands instinctively clasped by an interadjustment of the bones known only in mankind and the higher apes but not seen in the dog…

    Philip drew the girl’s form towards him till he had it close to his own form, and parallel to it, both remaining perpendicular, and then bending the upper vertebrae of his spinal column forwards and sideways he introduced his face into a close proximity with hers. In this attitude, difficult to sustain for a prolonged period, he brought his upper and lower lips together, protruded them forward, and placed them softly against hers in a movement seen also in the orang-outang but never in the hippopotamus.

                                            (St. Leacock)

17,—Road,

 , Devon

June 7, 1944

Dear Sergeant X,

I hope you will forgive me for having taken 38 days to begin our correspondence but, I have been extremely busy as my aunt has undergone streptococcus of the throat and nearly perished and I have been justifiably saddled with one responsibility after another. However I have thought of you frequently and of the extremely pleasant afternoon we spent in each other's company on April 30, 1944 between 3:45 and 4:15 P.M. in case it slipped your mind.

We are all tremendously excited and overawed about D Day and only hope that it will bring about the swift termination of the war and a method of existence that is ridiculous to say the least. Charles and I are both quite concerned about you; we hope you were not among those who made the first initial assault upon the Gotentin Peninsula. Were you? Please reply as speedily as possible. My warmest regards to your wife.

Sincerely yours, Esme

P.S. I am taking the liberty of enclosing my wristwatch which you may keep in your possession for the duration of the conflict. I did not observe whether you were wearing one during our brief association, but this one is extremely water-proof and shock-proof as well as having many other virtues among which one can tell at what velocity one is walking if one wishes. I am quite certain that you will use it to greater advantage in these difficult days than I ever can and that you will accept it as a lucky talisman.

Charles, whom I am teaching to read and write and whom I am finding an extremely intelligent novice, wishes to add a few words. Please write as soon as you have the time and inclination.

HELLO HELLO HELLO HELLO HELLO

HELLO HELLO HELLO HELLO HELLO

LOVE AND KISSES CHALES

(J. D. Salinger)

  •  Task 6.

Often abbreviation (typical of scientific style and that of official documents) produces unusual effects if misplaced. Study the given passage and make up your own characteristic of any person (it can be one of your group-mates, any celebrity etc.) Let the others guess who you mean.

And then this Bear, Pooh Bear, Winnie-the-Pooh, F. O. P.(Friend of Piglet’s), R. C.(Rabbit’s Companion), P. D.(Pole Discoverer), E. C. and  T. F.(Eeyore’s Comforter and Tailfinder) – in fact, Pooh himself - …

(A.A. Milne)

It was a Special Pencil Case. There were pencils in it marked “B” for Bear , and pencils marked “HB” for Helping Bear, and pencils marked “BB” for Brave Bear.

(A. A. Milne)

Task 7.

  •  Poetic words.

Find the poem “У лукоморья дуб зеленый…” by Pushkin A.S. and supply each poetic word with its neutral synonym.

match poetic equivalents and the given neutral words, be ready to translate them into good Russian, taking care of stylistic colouring:

e.g. “Viands – Food – Яства

Delectable

By the way

Orient

Depreciate

Brethren

East

Denigrate

Praise

Ere

Albion

Occident

Near

Eke

Small

Encomium

There

England

Delightful

Nigh

West

Thither

Before

Exiguous

Brotherhood

  •  Task 8.

a) Find archaisms and historicisms:

Романический, нервический, важатай, живот, тарантас, зело, фильма, житница, покойно, нашествие, уста, repast/collation (= rich/light meal), aver (=say), affluent (= rich), whilst (= while), hath (= has), doff (= do off = take off), don (= do on = put on), faible (= foible = weakness), forceful (= forcible), epistle/missive (= letter), anent (= regarding, about), hither (= here), “remittance man”, sundry/divers (= several) (“God, who at sundry times and in divers places”; “by divers portions and in divers manners”/Bible, Hebrews, I, 1/; “Time travels in divers paces with divers persons”/Shakespeare, As You Like It, III/), “all and sundry” = “one and all” survives…

Identify types of archaisms.

(Phonetic, when a sound or a group of sounds is altered; morphological, when a morpheme is changed; semantic, when the meaning is changed, but the word itself exists; lexical, when the word perished and the notion is substituted by another word; stylistic, when the word changed its stylistic colouring.)

  •  Task 9.

    Neologisms.

 Look through the list of the following neologisms. Try to guess their meaning studying the examples provided. Account for their appearance in the English vocabulary. Single out the possible groups of neologisms and ways of their production

iTV

iTV appearance marks a new era in the development of new TV technologies.

cosmeceutical

The advertised cosmeceutical beauty product is rather popular with teenagers.

pilates

Pilates is offered in health clubs and independent studios.

xenotransplantation

There are evident risks connected with xenotransplantation.

visitation

The divorced couple has finally established the visitation rules.

Third age

Nowadays lots of people reinvent themselves during third age.

radicchio

She likes all kinds of vegetables, but she is particularly keen on radicchio.

screenager

The number of screenagers is constantly growing all over the world.

airport fiction

There was no serious literature in the shop – just airport fiction.

to bookmark

If you want to be on the safe side you’d better bookmark this Internet page.

multi-tasking

This new computer is really multi-tasking.

laptopless

I, for one will not be joining the fun, on 1 January 2000 should be firmly installed on my Hawaiian beach, laptopless, surfboard in hand and no e-mail in sight.

  •  Task 10.

 Make up two groups of words: foreignisms and barbarisms choosing them from the below given list.

  •  

  •  Blitz,
  •  blitzkrieg,
  •  kindergarten,
  •  gourmand/gourmet,
  •   manoeuvre,
  •  personnel,
  •  serviette,
  •  ersatz,
  •  rendez-vous,
  •   tête-à-tête,
  •   dacha,
  •   Gloria
  •  , elite,
  •  boutique,
  •  émigré,
  •  RSVP,
  •   Pelmeny
  •   guru,
  •  solo,
  •  чилл-аут.

  •  Task 11.

a) Brainstorming. Find equivalents to the following words:

Имидж, импичмент, пиар, фаст-фуд, коктейль, драйв, ремейк, чат, кайф, боулинг, релиз, тостер, фейс-контроль, фракция, миксер, мобильник, вице-спикер, смс….

Водомет, извитие, многоостровие, мокроступы, побудка, сверкалец, тихогром, топталище, шаротык, ячество…

b) Rewrite the sentences changing them into neutral style:

Топ-менеджеры вырвались из офиса на бизнес-ланч в ближайший суши-бар, где обсудили новый бизнес-план и свежий драйвовый блокбастер. (по материалам Internet)

-Супер! –прижала  руки к груди Валя. – Вот это музон, вот это драйв! Как вставляет! Пройдет двести лет, и про нас скажут: лаки бэстардз, они были современниками великого ди-джея Кавалера Глюка.

(Б. Акунин)

Шеф, - сказала ассистентка, исполнив задание – единственное за весь рабочий день. – Что это у вас глаза такие диззи, будто вы в нирване? Я тоже туда хочу. Пригласили бы офис-леди куда-нибудь оттянуться. Нет, вирклих. Есть суперный ресторан-клуб, «Холестерин». Полный фьюжн, вам понравится. А на афтерпати можно упасть в «Крысолова». Вы же свободный человек – МэМэ ваша в Ленинбурге.

(Б. Акунин)

  •  This is it – Paris! I kept reminding myself. This is what I came to see. This is the famous Place de la Concorde! This is the Champs Elysees! There ahead of me is the Arc de Triomphe!

(Sh. Norton)

  •  Task 12.

Make the necessary changes in the text following the pattern (neutral, literal, etc…) Explain what kind of changes you had to introduce. Account for the effect produced.

Jim: Ann, could you lend me five quid?

Ann: What for?

Jim: Well, I have got to go and see my mum and dad, and my bike is not working, so I’ll have to get a cab.

Ann: Can’t you call them and say you can’t come?

Jim: Well, I could, except I want to go because they always have lots of food, and the fridge at  our place is empty as usual.

Ann: Can’t you go by tube?

Jim: Erm…

Ann: Still, the answer is no.

                               

Stores LOVE service agreements, for the same reason you’d love to have money fall on you from the sky. As a result, when you buy a product today, you get this bizarre multiple-personality sales pitch, because at the same time that the salesperson is telling you how swell the product is, he’s suggesting it will need a LOT of service:

  SALESPERSON: …so this is an excellent product. Totally reliable.

  YOU: I’ll take it!

  SALESPERSON: It’s going to break.

  YOU: What?

  SALESPERSON: There’s this thing inside? The confabulator? You’re lucky if that baby lasts you a week.

  YOU: So you’re saying it’s NOT a good product?

  SALESPERSON: No! It’s top of the line! Totally dependable!

  YOU: Well, OK, then, I guess I’ll…

  SALESPERSON: Of course, if the refrenestator module blows, you’re looking at a $263,000 repair, plus parts and labor. One customer had to sell a lung.

                                                                  (D. Barry. “Nothing for Something”, the Moscow Times)

Reference materials:

Galperin I. R. “Stylistics”

Arnold I. V. “Стилистика современного английского языка”    

Skrebnev Y. M. “Стилистика английского языка”

Collins V. H. “The Choice of Words”

Lebedeva L.B. 10 Lectures in Style

                      

SEMINAR 3.

1.  Colloquial Vocabulary. Slang.

Professionalisms vs. jargonisms.

3.   Nonce-words.

4.   Vulgarisms vs. taboo-words.

5.  Dialectal words.

Task 1.

Read the text and outline various groups of vocabulary units (terms, slang, jargon, etc)

At this time of year, as the woods around Moscow fill up with mushroom-seekers, I am often reminded of an anecdote about a wealthy Russian émigré who had just arrived in New York. Determined to make her mark on upper-crust society, she organized a grand formal dinner, inviting the richest and most powerful of the city’s elite to a seven-course Russian feast. The second course – a wild mushroom julienne – elicited several compliments, and the woman leapt at the chance to impress her guests further.

    “As a matter of fact,” she began, “I picked these mushrooms myself.” A nervous murmur spread through the room. “Oh, there’s no need to worry,” continued the hostess reassuringly. “We Russians have a long tradition of gathering mushrooms. Besides, I fed some to the dog for lunch, and he’s perfectly fine. ”

     The relieved laughter ended abruptly when the butler burst into the room. “Madame,” he intoned, “the dog is dead!” Pandemonium ensued: screaming, gagging, guests knocking over chairs as they fought their way to the door and the nearest hospital. The stunned hostess collapsed onto her chair, sobbing at her social ruin. Eventually, through her tears, she noticed the butler standing at attention beside the table. “Why are you still here?” she asked.

    “What shall I tell him, Madame?” the butler inquired politely.

     “Tell whom!?”

      “The driver of the truck that killed your dog.”

      Here, where mushroom-picking is a national pastime, I tend to trust the locals, although when I buy from babushkas I still stick to lisichki (chanterelles) and beliye griby (porcini), the only two sorts I can recognize. If you are daring, head out to the woods yourself and use your own harvest in the following recipe. But please feed some to the dog first.

                                                                     (P. Krumm, “Risky Pickings”, the Moscow Times)

 

Poised on the corner of New York’s glitzy Rockefeller Plaza is the world’s first Fashion Café. And inside waiting for me are its owners, Naomi Campbell, Claudia Schiffer and Elle McPherson….

The place is jammed with photographers and journos, pens at the ready. In glide the three gourmet goddesses, all broad smiles (except Naomi, who prefers to pout) and tight T-shirts. With a dollop of American schmaltz, their business partners praise the privilege of working with such beauties and describe how they created the interior. It’s split into a photo studio area and three sections depicting the world’s fashion capitals, Milan, New York and Paris. In the evening, the ceiling becomes a starry night sky.

                                         ….

The party throbs till the early hours with live performances by Duran Duran and the Spin Doctors. Between bopping, we ogle the exhibits in wonderment. Madonna’s corsets, Sharon Stone’s Oscar dress and Claudia’s Guess ad bustier. But the most intriguing objects are two jewel-incrusted gold swords. Do models use them for duels over Vogue covers? Turns out they’re Ivana Trump’s ski poles. I think it’s time to grab my fake Chanel bag and get back to the real world.

                                              (S. Wheeler, “Chanel and Chips”, more!)

  •  Task 2.

Explain the difference between neologisms and nonce-words. Provide examples. Account for the source of associations of nonce words and the effect produced.

e.g. Heffalump - слонопотам, backson – Щасвирнус (A.A. Milne)

  •  

  •  herrible (A.A. Milne);
  •  snark,
  •  

  •  “Reeling and Writhing…and different branches of Arithmetic – Ambition, Distraction, Uglification, and Derision…” (L. Carroll);
  •  

  •  промерзкло,
  •  цверень,
  •   дыплер

  •  Task 3.

Suggest your own translation, preserving the stylistic effect of a nonce - word. (e.g. Б. Заходер «слонопотам, искпедиция»). You are welcome to invent your own nonce-word.

  •  

  •  Seography,
    •   Kleptopigia,
      •  boyology,
      •   bread-and-butterfly,
      •   father-tongue,
      •   yesday.

  •  Task 4.

Slang.

Try to elucidate the etymology of the following slangisms:

  •  

  •  Eye-opener;
    •  hen-party;
    •  beef-cake;
    •   jaw-breaker;
    •   to moonlight,
    •  laughing soup/water,
    •   ice, 
    •  вымораживать,
    •  колбаситься,
    •  врубаться,
    •   бык
  •  

  •  Task 5.

 You are given one element of a synonymic line. Reconstruct the line, supplying the missing elements; you are welcome to enlarge it.  The more variants the better!

 

Neutral                                                Slang                                          Слэнг

To two-time

All that jazz

Jive talk

To be off one’s trolley

Alive & kicking

Прикид

Тормозить

Чумовой

Лох

Глюк

Nonsense, triviality

A car  

To be in love

A lot of money

Sexual

  •  Task 6.

Jargon.

The main distinctive feature of jargon is that it is aimed at preserving secrecy. There can be various types of jargon. Usually jargonisms are classified according to the groups of people they are employed by. Enlarge upon the groups of jargonisms given below.

Тюремный жаргон

Откинуться, ствол, пахан, con, mill, to sing/unbutton, cooler, суфлер, handful, job, …

Криминальный жаргон

Плетка, железо; качели, качалово, кусалово, бодалово, терка; цинкануть; просохатить стрелку; уши греть; перегаситься, bluster, gat, to kipe

Армейский жаргон

Шаркать, полкан, дух, дед, губа, дембель, black hole, barber bait, draft dodger, heat  can, four stripper…

Жаргон наркомана

Косяк, кораблик, захорошеть, накрыть, дунуть, пластилин, марка, винт, to push, to be off, pot, joint, angie

Жаргон спортивных болельщиков

Кони, дворники, мясники, рама, роза, горчичник, Derby, battery, can of corn, gas (heat), a hole in his glove, yard…

Студенческий жаргон

Шпора, заколоть, бомба, костыль, ботан, автомат, to cut a lecture, dorm(hut), fox, to pound the books, frat…

  •  Task 7.

Professionalisms.

a) Study the given list of computing professionalisms and guess their equivalents in the scope of terms. Define the mechanism of meaning transfer. Suggest your own examples of various professionalisms.

Juice

Mess dog

Deep magic

Вставить окна

Аська

Клава

Дрова
Вес(файла)
Винт
Камень
Килограмм
Клик,кликнуть,кликать
Кряк
Мать,Мама
Метр
Мыло,мылить
Мозги,Мозг
Юзать


Distinguish among terms and professionalisms in the given list of words, belonging to the same sphere.

Acting in concert

acid-test ratio

amalgamation

Artcle 8 currency

baby bond

bear/bull

Big Bang/Big Board

“Bill and Ben”

blue chip

bob/D

Kiwi

cats & dogs

cook the books

DPI

NASDAQ

force majeure

in the red/black

lame duck

laundering (of money)

margin

  •  Task 8.

Taboo – words.

Explain the difference between vulgarisms and obscenity - words. Provide short examples of their usage from various literary works (in context!) and say how they influence the text. By what reasons can their usage be justified in a literary text?

  •  Sometimes, ‘F****** hell!’ isn’t the most polite or the most constructive thing to say, but it’s the only possible response in the circumstances.

(Sh. Norton)

  •  Task 9.

Dialectal words.

Elucidate the functions of dialectilisms in literary texts. Provide examples, which are characteristic of your region. What other layers of vocabulary can they overlap?

Стои, ложи, ехай, покласть, ободнять, ага, седня летом - рязанское

  •  Task 10.

Analyze the given abstract paying attention to the usage of the vocabulary items (observe the dialectal peculiarities, pay attention to changes in spelling caused by specific pronunciation).

  •  The important thing, man, is that ah love.., he wraps his arm around her. – What happens sexually…that’s just the detail. The important thing is, man, that ah love everybody that ah know in this room. And ah know everybody: Exept these boys,.. But ah’d love these cunts as well if ah knew them. Ninety per cent of people are loveable, man, once ye get tae ken them… if they believe in themselves enough… if they love & respect themselves, eh…

                                    .  .  .  .  .

  Ah want that kind ay psychic communion, gittin right inside each other’s nut like astral flight & that… he presses his forefinger onto my head. – And that period is now untill I find it. Never had it, man. Had the internal rhythms, but no the joining ay the souls. Never even came close. The eckies help, but the only way you can get the joining ay the souls is if you let her into your head & she lets you into hers, at the same time. It’s communication, man.  … It has to be love. That’s what ah’m really looking for, … love.

(I. Welsh)

  •  Предупредительно прошелестела входная дверь. В проеме с изящной небрежностью утвердился ровно тонированный насыщенным аутентично тропическим загаром, элегантно декорированный от Hugo Boss, эргономично скомпонованный трехразовыми еженедельными штудиями в тренажерном зале дорогого спортклуба World Class гражданин начальник, руководитель пресс-службы банка Андрей Владленович Воронин.

                                                                          (Гаррос - Евдокимов)

  •  Task11.

Read the extract and try to reconstruct the original:

     You can never rouse Harris. There is no poetry about Harris, - no great wish for unachievable. Harris never “cries he doesn’t know why” If Harris’s eyes fill with tears, you can say for sure it is because Harris has been eating raw onions. If you were to stand at night by the sea-shore with Harris, and say, “Listen! Do you hear? Is it the mermaids singing in the water; or the sad spirits, crying for the drowned?” Harris would take you by the arm and say: “I know how it is: you’ve got a cold. Now, I’d like you to go with me. I know a place near here, where you can get a glass of good whiskey – and you’ll be fine.”

Harris always knows a place where you can get something to drink. I believe that if you met Harris in Paradise (supposing such a thing likely), he would immediately greet you with: “So glad you’ve come! I’ve found a nice place not so far from here, where you can get some excellent nectar.”  

                                                          (Jerome K. Jerome)

  

  •  Task 12.

Imagine that you are to take part in a very important meeting/party as you don’t want to look a newcomer you have to adjust to the environment (teenagers, night clubbers, lawyers, businessmen, teachers etc). Make up a short dialogue: 1) introduce yourself, explain why you come here and what you expect; 2) try to find out what the others do and what sort of people they are; 3) ask for information etc using all the necessary items, but be ready with explanations if necessary.

Reference materials:

Galperin I. R. “Stylistics

Arnold I. V. “Стилистика современного английского языка”

Skrebnev Y. M. “Стилистика английского языка”   

Collins V. H. “The Choice of Words”

Lebedeva L.B. 10 Lectures in Style.

                                         SEMINAR 4.

Tropes

The structure of a word.

Simile.

Metaphor.

Metonymy.

  •  Task 1.

A trope is a linguistic unit that has two senses, both felt by the language users. On hearing the exclamation “Oh, you pig!” (with reference to a person) the listener is aware of the traditional meaning of the word and its actual reference which imparts an additional sense of the word – “an untidy, greedy, or rude person”.

If the original meaning is lost or at least no longer associated with the secondary one, there is no trope any more, although there may have been one when it was first created. There is no trope in “legs of a table” or “neck of a bottle”. No one thinks of human legs and necks when using these expressions. These are the “dead” tropes that are dealt with in lexicology, not in stylistics.

First reproduce the utterances that contain tropes, then – trite tropes. Think of your own examples. Let your group mates identify them.

a) We were sitting at a particularly tipsy table. b) One after another those people lay down on the ground and died with laughter. c) We smiled at each other, but we didn’t speak, because there were ears around us. d) She lives at an expensive address. e) Could you help me? I can’t see the needle’s eye. f) If you can meet with Triumph and Disaster and treat those two imposters just the same…g) What’s biting you, I wonder? h) Then there would be seven good years and land would shout with grass. i) Stop flirting! You are always fishing for compliments.

  •  Task 2.

Speak of the main approaches to the classification of tropes (Kuznetz – Skrebnev; Skrebnev; Galperin) taking into account the underlying foundation principles. Can any of the classifications be considered complete?

  •  Task 3.

Explain the difference between trite similes and genuine ones. Enumerate the words which can be called formal demarcators of similes in a text.

Complete the “as…as similes”:

Rose is as mad as a …..; you wouldn’t believe the crazy things she does.

You are not eating enough; you are as thin as a ….. .

He never says a thing. He is as quiet as a …. .

You’ll have to shout. She is as deaf as a ….. .

I’m afraid I can’t read this small print. I am as blind as a …. without my glasses.

What can you say about …

a person who sees everything and never misses a thing?

a plan or course of action that works very well?

someone who eats and drinks a great deal?

someone with a very bad memory?

someone who has been very active and busy all day?

Read the given verse and speak of its message and how it is revealed with the help of similes. What other stylistic elements contribute to the effect produced?

HARLEM

   What happens to a dream deferred?

   Does it dry up

   Like a raisin in the sun?

   Or fester like a sore

   And then run?

   Does it stink like rotten meat?

   Or crust and sugar over –

   Like a syrupy sweet?

   May be it just sags

   Like a heavy load.

   Or does it explode?

  •  Task 4.

Analyse the given similes juxtaposing the two components.

Вскоре над плато взорвется и нагрянет в мой день солнце, как шеренга танцовщиц на лас-вегасскую сцену.               

  (Д. Коупленд/ пер. Ярцев В. С.)

“You are like the East. One loves it at first sight, or not at all, and one never knows it any better”.                                                                               

   (J. Galsworthy)

He ached from head to foot, all zones of pain seemingly interdependent. He was rather like a Christmas tree whose lights, wired in series, must all go out if even one bulb is defective.                                                                           

(J. D. Salinger)

London seems to me like some hoary massive underworld, a hoary ponderous inferno. The traffic flows through the rigid grey streets like the rivers of hell through the banks of dry, rocky ash.                                                                        

  (D. H. Lawrence)

For a long while – for many years in fact – he had not thought of how it was before he came to the farm. His memory of those times was like a house where no one lives and where the furniture has rotted away. But tonight it was as if lamps had been lighted through all the gloomy dead rooms.                                                  

  (T. Capote)

  •  Task 5.

Explain the definition of metaphor given by Max Black: “A metaphor is a kind of filter. We bring forth a system of generally accepted associations.” Provide you own examples filtering the elements of meaning.

…and Juliet is the sun! (warm, caring, giving life, essential for living)

STARS.                              of the moon                              from the shining sun.

            Everlasting tears                      over its separation

                                                                                                         (A. Boese)

Analyse the given poems and compare the ways of creating the image.

ENTER NOVEMBER

Here’s November

The year’s sad daughter,

A loverless maid,

A lamb for the slaughter,

An empty mirror,

A sunless morn,

A withered wreath,

The husk of the corn,

A night that falls

Without a tomorrow,

Here’s November,

The month of sorrow.

     

                 (E. Farjeon)

     NOVEMBER

No sun – no moon!

No morn – no noon –

No dawn – no dusk – no proper time of day –

No sky – no earthly view –

No distance looking blue –

No road – no street – no “t’other side the way”

No end to any Row

No indications where the Crescents go –

No top to any steeple

No recognition of familiar people!

No warmth – no cheerfulness, no healthful ease,

No comfortable feel in any member;

No shade, no shine, no butterflies, no bees,

No fruits, no flowers, no leaves, no birds.

November!

                     (Th. Hood)

  •  Task 6.

a) Account for the basis of associations in the following metaphors.

Life – a river, a road, a hotel…

Eyessun, stars, зеркало души, два бриллианта в три карата

Family life – eternal struggle, a quiet harbour, a nest…

b) Supply your own metaphorical interpretations of the following notions.

Night

Sea

Wedding

Exams

  •  Task 7.

State the number of simple metaphors comprising the following sustained metaphors. Explain why they can be classified as sustained ones.

Mr. Pickwick bottled up his vengeance and corked it down. 

  (Ch. Dickens)

The slash of sun on the wall above him slowly knifes down, cuts across his chest, becomes a coin and vanishes.                                                           

    (J. Updike)

Directly he saw those rolling chalk hills he was conscious of a difference in himself and in them. The steaming stew-pan that was London was left to simmer under its smoky sky, while these great rolling spaces sunned themselves as they had sunned themselves in the days of the Barrow men.                                                  

(W. Deeping)

His countenance beamed with the most sunny smiles; laughter played around his lips, and good-humoured merriment twinkled in his eye.        

   (Ch. Dickens)

Мудра, взросла печальей миллионы лет, радость же всегда в детском обличье, ибо во всяком сердце она рождается заново и чем дальше в жизнь, тем меньше ее, ну вот как цветов – чем гуще тайга, тем они реже.

(В. Астафьев)  

  •  Task 8.

Speak about the role of context in the creation of an image through a metaphor. Discuss the interaction between the nominal and the contextual meanings.

There at the very core of London, in the heart of its business and animation, in the midst of a whirl of noise and notion…stands Newgate.                         

 (Ch. Dickens)

It appears to her that I am for the passing time the cat of the house, the friend of the family.                                                                                        

         (Ch. Dickens)

The waters have closed above your head, and the world has closed upon your miseries and misfortunes forever.                                                                 

(Ch. Dickens)

  •  И еще ты прищурил глаза, и от этого фонари дают такие длинные-длинные лучи, а между ресниц застряла слеза. И эта слеза – это же  самая лучшая линза, самая лучшая оптика для того, чтобы увидеть всю свою жизнь насквозь.

(Е. Гришковец)

  •  Task 9.

As you know, metonymy is another kind of renaming. Unlike metaphor, which brings together rather distant objects and notions, metonymy deals only with the relations existing in reality. Speak of the types of metonymy existing in the language. Label the given samples with the stylistic types of the trope.

“Hair, bosom, hips, bend of the legs, negligent falling hands all diffused…” (W.Whitman.)

A concrete thing used instead of an abstract notion

“It’s me”, answered a low voice.

The container instead of the thing contained

The fish desperately takes the death

A characteristic feature of an object

“The cold nickel burnt my hand”.

The material instead of the thing made of it

I enjoy Chekhov.

The instrument instead of the action performed or the doer himself

The pen stopped.

Part instead of the whole or vice versa

Our boss smokes a pack in one go.

Consequence instead of cause

Man shall not live on bread alone.

Symbol instead of object symbolized

Downing street still keeps silent and suggests no further explanations.

The name of the author instead of his works

Red dress turned round and gave me an angry look.

The place of origin instead of the product itself

There was perfect sympathy between Pulpit and Pew

  •  Task 10.

You are given a short text. After a thorough examination change it into a regular piece of conversation with no tropes employed.

  It’s lumber, man – all lumber! Throw it overbroad. It makes the boat so heavy to pull, you nearly faint at the oars. It makes it so cumbersome and dangerous to manage, you never know a moment’s freedom from anxiety and care, never again a moment’s rest for dreamy laziness – no time to watch the windy shadows skimming lightly o’er the shallows, or the glittering sunbeams flitting in and out among the ripples, or the great trees by the margin looking down at their own image, or the woods all green and golden, or the lilies white and yellow, or the sombre waving rushes, or the sedges, or the orchids, or the blue forget-me-nots.

Throw the lumber over, man! Let your boat of life be light, packed with only what you need – a homely home, simple pleasures, one or two friends worth the name, someone to love and someone to love you, a cat, a dog, a pipe or two, enough to eat and enough to wear, and a little more enough to drink; for thirst is a dangerous thing.

You will find the boat easier to pull then, and it will not be so liable to upset, and it will not matter so much if it does upset; good, plain merchandise will stand water.

You will have time to think as well as to work. Time to drink in life’s sunshine – time to listen to the AEolian music that the wind of God draws from the human heart – strings around us – time to—

                   I beg your pardon, really. I quite forgot.

                                            (J. K. Jerome)

Around noon the last shivering wedding guest arrived at the farmhouse; then for all the miles around nothing moved on the gale-haunted moors – neither carriage, wagon, nor human figure. The road wound emptily over the low hills. The gray day turned still colder, and invisible clouds of air began to stir slowly in great icy swaths, as if signaling some convulsive change beyond the sky. From across the downs came the boom of surf against the island cliffs. Within an hour the sea wind rose to a steady moan, and then within the next hour rose still more to become a screaming ocean of air.

Ribbons of shouted laughter and music – wild waltzes and reels – streamed thinly from the house, but all the wedding sounds were engulfed, drowned and then lost in the steady roar of the gale. Finally, at three o’clock, spits of snow became a steady swirl of white that obscured the landscape more thoroughly than any fog that had ever rolled in from the sea.

                                                      (M. Wilson)

Reference materials:

Galperin I. R. “Stylistics

Arnold I. V. “Стилистика современного английского языка”

Skrebnev Y. M. “Стилистика английского языка”  

Collins V. H. “The Choice of Words”

Lebedeva L.B. 10 Lectures in Style.

                                      SEMINAR 5.

Tropes and lexical stylistic devices.

Epithet.

Hyperbole. Meiosis. Litotes.

Irony.

Symbol.

Euphemism.

  •  Task 1.

What distinguishes epithet from regular descriptive elements? Enumerate types of epithets (semantic and structural). Speak about their connection with other lexical stylistic devices. Account for the stylistic effect of the following epithets.

“Do you think you can bring yourself to take your stinking feet off my bed?” Х asked.

Clay left his feet where they were for a few don’t-tell-me-where-to-put-my-feet seconds, then swung them around to the floor and sat up. “I’m going downstairs anyway.”

 (J.D. Salinger.)

The Matron of Honour turned to him – or, rather, on him. “We didn’t do it for that ”, she said. She gave Mrs. Silsburn a you-know-how-men-are look.        

     (J.D. Salinger.)

Она старше меня и привлекательна на эдакий лак-для-волос-накладные-плечи-пережившая-два-развода манер.                 

   (Д. Коупленд/ пер. Ярцев В. С.)

…мы оба сидели на кушетках в гостиной, когда стремительно (без стука) ворвалась Клэр, ее норково-темная-под-бобрик-стрижка топорщилась.

 (Дуглас Коупленд/ пер. Ярцев В. С.)

Вот твоя собственная личная частная суверенная неприкосновенная комфортабельная выгородка. Метр дробь полтора. Со стороны же другой – ты весь всегда для всех во всем на виду.

(Гаррос - Евдокимов)

  •  Task 2.

Suggest the object the quality of which was used in the following transferred epithets.

He was a thin wiry man with a tobacco-stained smile.

(T. Howard)

The only place left was the deck strewn with nervous cigarette butts and sprawled legs.

(J. Jones)

Leaving indignant suburbs behind them they finally emerged into Oxford Street.

(A. Christie)

He sat with Daisy in his arms for a long silent time.

(Sc. Fitzgerald)

He drank his orange-juice in long cold gulps.

(I. Shaw)

с ними так хорошо поплавать в бассейне, посплетничать или выпить охлажденные напитки с ромом цвета заката в Голливуде, Калифорния.     (Д. Коупленд/ пер. Ярцев В. С.)

  •  Task 3.

Hyperbole in Prose. Hyperbole is used for emphasis or humorous effect. With hyperbole, an author makes a point by overstating it.

Hyperbole is common in tall tales. Here is an example:

At three weeks, Paul Bunyan got his family into a bit of trouble kicking around his little tootsies and knocking down something like four miles of standing timber.

(A Folk Tale)

Hyperbole is often used in descriptions. It emphasizes some qualities of a person or thing by exaggerating them, as in this selection

The skin on her face was as thin and drawn as tight as the skin of onion and her eyes were gray and sharp like the points of two picks

(F. O’Connor)

Hyperbole can also be used to describe a person’s emotions. In the following selection, a boy is pulling a man up from a deep hole. See how hyperbole is used to describe the boy’s thoughts as he struggles.

It was not a mere man he was holding, but a giant; or a block of granite. The pull was unendurable. The pain unendurable.

(J. R. Ullman)

Hyperbole in Poetry. Hyperbole is common in humorous poetry. Hyperbole can make a point in a light-hearted way. It can be used to poke fun at someone or something. For example, read this description of a dull town. 

It's a slow burg—I spent a couple of weeks there one day.

(C. Sandburg)

This poem uses hyperbole in a description of a young boy.

Why does a boy who’s fast as a jet

               Take all day—and sometimes two—

              To get to school?

(J. Ciardi)

Hyperbole can emphasize a truth by exaggerating it.

Here once the embattled farmers stood

               And fired the shot heard round the world.

(R. W. Emerson)

а) Clarify the nature of hyperbole and meiosis. Give examples of trite ones. What would you call the following examples – exaggeration or restraint ?

To live at a stone’s throw; just a moment; не успеешь и глазом моргнуть, слезинка весом в центнер,зарабатываю копейки; с гулькин нос; кот наплакал; Quick as thought, we each seized an oar…(J. K. Jerome); Would you go to the ends of earth for me and back? (Sh. Norton); There was a pause of about half a lifetime…(Sh. Norton)

b) Try to guess the exaggerated variants of the same ideas:

You are extremely thin!

They are very rich.

I am very much tired.

He often acts recklessly.

This book is rather heavy.

c) Elucidate the difference between meiosis and litotes. Provide examples.

  •  War is not healthy for children and other living things.
  •  One nuclear bomb can ruin your whole day.

d) State the nature of the exaggerated phenomenon (size, quantity, emotion, etc)

There did not seem to be brains enough in the entire nursery, so to speak, to bait a fishhook with.

(M. Twain)

People moved slowly then. There was no hurry, for there was nowhere to go, nothing to buy and no money to buy it with, nothing to see outside the boundaries of Maycomb County.

(H. Lee)

He attempted shyly to hide his face as well as he could in the depth of his bowl of coffee.

(K. Chopin)

…he’ll go to sleep, my God he should, eight martinis before dinner and enough wine to wash an elephant.

(T. Capote)

You know how it is: you’re 21 or 22 and you make some decisions: then whissh; you’re seventy: you’ve been a lawyer for fifty years, and that white-haired lady at your side has eaten over fifty thousand meals with you.

(Th. Wilder)

  •  Task 4.

Irony.

Irony is a broad term referring to the recognition of a reality different from its masking appearance. There are several types of irony and all have a certain discrepancy or incongruity.

Verbal irony is a figure of speech in which the actual intent is expressed in words that have the opposite meaning. In some circles, the ability to recognize irony is considered one of the surest tests of intelligence and sophistication. Irony's presence is marked by a sort of grim humour, a detachment and cool expression on the part of the writer when emotions are actually heated. Irony may be confused with sarcasm (a caustic and bitter expression of disapproval under the guise of praise) but it differs in that irony usually presupposes incongruity while sarcasm doesn’t. Sarcasm is calling a spade a spade, but with a certain implication. In general, irony is most often achieved by either hyperbole or understatement.

The second type of irony is dramatic irony. In the drama, irony refers specifically to the knowledge held by the audience but hidden from the relevant characters. Tragic irony is a form of dramatic irony in which characters use words that mean one thing to them but have a foreboding meaning to those who understand the situation better. It can be found in tragedies such as Oedipus the King, in which Oedipus searches for the person responsible for the plague that ravishes his city and ironically ends up hunting himself.

Situational irony exists when there is an incongruity between what is expected to happen and what actually happens due to forces beyond human comprehension or control. The suicide of the seemingly successful main character in Edwin Arlington Robinson’s poem "Richard Cory" is an example of situational irony.

We can also speak of irony as a contextual device and as a general tone of narration, when whole works of literature are permeated with this attitude.

Here are the possible types of incongruity:

INCONGRUITY:

a)  between words and thoughts

e.g.: 'I think he is a nice friend for Roger to have. A thoroughly normal, clean-minded English boy.' 'Oh, thoroughly.' ('Bloody fool, bloody fool.') 'To see the way they eat is a fair treat.'

'Yes, they seem to have enjoyed their food.'('My God, I wish it could have choked them')

(W.S. Maugham)

b)  between words and behaviour

e.g.:  Gwendolen: But we will not be the first to speak.

Cecily. Certainly not.

Gwendolen: Mr. Worthing, I have something very particular to ask you....

(O.Wilde)

c) a device of incompatibility between words belonging to different semantic fields used together (~ слова, различающиеся по линии "значительность-ничтожность")

e.g.: Algernon: And speaking of the science of Life, have you got the cucumber sandwiches for Lady Bracknell?

(O.Wilde)

d) between words contrasted to each other

e.g.: I remember her bringing me up to a truculent and red-faced old gentleman covered all over with orders and ribbons, and hissing into my ear, in a tragic whisper which must have been perfectly audible to everyone in the room, the most astounding details...

(O. Wilde)

e) between an aim and a way of its achieving

e.g.: The Duchess sighed. "I am searching for peace," she said," and if I don't go and dress, I shall have none this evening."

(O. Wilde)

a) Study the existing types of incongruity, analyse them and supply your own examples of various types.

b) Match the examples below with the types of incongruity. Suggest your explanation of what happens (or is meant) in reality:

When a Forsyte was engaged, married, or born, the Forsytes were present; when a Forsyte died – but no Forsyte had as yet died; they did not die; death being contrary to their principles, they took precautions of highly vitalized persons who resent encroachments on their property.

(J. Galsworthy)

…however, it was his ninth birthday, and he was keeping it in the coal-cellar with a select party of two other gentlemen, who, after participating with him in a sound thrashing, had been locked up therein for atrociously presuming to be hungry.

(Ch. Dickens)

«Now, Oliver, my dear, come to the gentleman. As Mr. Bumble said this, he put on a grim and threatening look, and added, in a low voice, “Mind what I told you, you, young rascal!”

 (Ch. Dickens)

  •  You know, proper family conversations about serious, interesting things. Politics, religion and whose turn it was to put out the rubbish.

(Sh. Norton)

c)  Give your ideas concerning the difference between irony and sarcasm. Provide examples.

  •  How did I hear? Oh, I had a nice friendly phone call from the lover you were spending the weekend with. Said how much he liked your underwear.

(Sh. Norton)

d) What makes irony as a contextual device differ from irony as a general tone of narration? Supply examples.

e) Why do authors appeal to irony? Why is it so effective in fiction? How would you formulate its functions? (surfaces inner discrepancies;  helps the author to get his ideas across indirectly; sheds light on the author’s real attitude to his characters and the situations they are in etc.)

  •  Task 5.

Euphemism. In "Elegy for Himself" by C. Tichborne, he writes "and now my glass is run". This is a euphemism which uses the image of an empty hourglass to say that his life is nearing its end and he is going to die

Speak of the origin of euphemisms. In what way is the notion of euphemism connected with the idea of taboo? What aspects should be mentioned in relation to it? (social; cultural; religious; psychological etc.)

In his book “Языковые табу и эвфемия” A.M. Katsev suggests the following classifications of euphemisms:

Conceptual aspect: supernatural forces; death, diseases and various kinds of disabilities; sins and crimes; poverty; physiological phenomena.

Structural and semantic aspects: generalization of a notion; metaphorical and metonymical renaming; negative prefixes; shortening, sound-based analogy; borrowings.

Euphemisms can also be subdivided into neutral and stylistically coloured. (N.N. Amosova)

Match the below-given euphemisms according to the classifications provided and supply the Russian variants: e.g. “nightman”= оператор очистных работ  (ассенизатор)

  •  By George; to join the majority; restricted growth); differently abled; to lose one’s lunch; to let your wind go free,  to go to Denmark; a source; delivery vehicle; underprivileged (poor); sanitation engineer…

If you don’t want to call a spade a spade, you make use of a euphemism. Think of the possible milder ways to express the following:

to take drugs

to beat

to fire

used before by somebody; second-hand

Cancer

Suicide

old person

e) Try to enumerate and account for the main functions of euphemisms. What is the effect produced? (softening things; …)

  •  Task 6.

Symbol.

Study the information and supply your own examples to support the ideas expressed below. 

Symbol is a universal category of art. Its nature is rather heterogeneous and therefore it is often mistaken with such notions as artistic image and metaphor. Still, these notions should not be confused.  Symbol, unlike metaphor, allows variety of interpretations, each of them latent in its semantic. For example, rain in “Farewell to the Arms” by E.Hemingway can stand for frustration, death or its foretoken, depression, hopelessness. Symbol is very emotional; to interpret a symbol one should penetrate into the atmosphere of the text.

The formal difference between metaphor and symbol lies in the fact that we are able to follow the mechanism of metaphor creation and thus we can get which meanings are brought together to beget a third one.

Most scholars believe symbol to be a special type of artistic image. It is one of the essential components of the author’s individual code.

Any symbol possesses the following characteristic features:

Symbol is very much contextually dependant and can have more than one interpretation.

There is no “correct” interpretation of symbols. The interpretation of a symbol rests on the individual qualities of readers.

An idea or notion can become symbolic either through numerous repetitions in a text or when used in the strong position.

Symbol functions as a kind of bridge between reality and figurative meaning.

Symbol helps to elucidate the message of a literary work.

Any symbol gives rise to and at the same time results from associations.

b) Read the tale “The Fisherman and His Soul” by O. Wilde (or choose any other literary work) and speak of the symbolic nature of certain artistic elements. Give your own interpretation of their message and functions.

  •  Task 7.

Try to colour either of the narratives with tropes and other lexical stylistic devices, creating a certain atmosphere:

James Fitt witnessed a horrific plane crash last night. The fire brigade fought the wreckage fire while ambulance men rescued surviving passengers. Ambulances took all the survivors to hospital. No one knows yet what caused the plane to crash. Newspaper and TV reporters have already interviewed many of the survivors. The Civil Aviation Authority has launched a full investigation. They say that someone may have put a bomb on board the aircraft. They hope that the aircraft’s “black box” will provide the vital information but they haven’t found it yet. They are continuing the search.

When I left university, I went traveling all over the world. I was so fascinated by New Zealand that I decided to spend a year there. In order to do so I had to find a job. However, I had enough money to get by for a few months, so I took the opportunity to travel around and see the country. The people I met were friendly, and the landscape was wonderful as well. I also enjoyed the traditions of Maori natives and took every opportunity to talk to them. My journey was great, but I had to return to find a job. Soon I found a job as a waiter. Everybody at work was cool and I really enjoyed my time there.

Reference materials:

Galperin I. R. “Stylistics

Arnold I. V. “Стилистика современного английского языка”

Skrebnev Y. M. “Стилистика английского языка”  

Collins V. H. “The Choice of Words”

Lebedeva L.B. 10 Lectures in Style

                                         SEMINAR 6.

Tropes and lexical stylistic devices.

Oxymoron.

Zeugma.

Pun.

Personification.

Allegory.

Allusion.

Periphrasis.

Antonomasia.

  •  Task 1.

Oxymoron.

Oxymoron represents a conjoining of contradictory notions, which results in a new idea.  Oxymorons have a lot to do with the idea of defeated expectancy. The first element makes it impossible for the second to appear in the same phrase. The two being placed together seem absurd. Still, oxymorons are not that rare and perform a number of functions both in every day speech - trite ones; and in fiction – genuine ones.

Study the given examples of oxymoron. Explain why the two elements put together seem misplaced. Speak of the effect produced and the functions relevant in a work of fiction.

Well-preserved ruins; weapons of peace; going nowhere; voluntary taxes; semiprofessional; silent alarm; suicide victim; fighting for peace; painless torture; eternal life; major minority; painless dentistry; my worst favourite; limited nuclear war; fresh frozen; non-stop flight; the only choice; enormously small; half dead; bad luck.

“overlooking such a trivial peccadillo as the habit of manslaughter”

“legal graft”

“In my life of business”, - said Jeff, “the hardest thing to do is to find an upright, trustworthy, honourable partner to graft with”.

(O. Henry.)

Her lips were…livid scarlet.

(W.S. Maugham)

Heaven must be the hell of a place. Nothing but repentant sinners up there, isn’t it?         

(Sh. Delaney)

  •  Task 2.  

Create a few oxymorons of your own considering the first element:

A brief …

A kind …

A beautiful …

To give a …

To allow …

  •  Task 3.

Zeugma.

Zeugma occurs when a word (usually a verb) has the same grammatical relation to two or more other words, but a different meaning in each application.

Alexander Pope uses this figure in "The Rape of the Lock" (1714) when "black Omens" threaten the heroine with "dire disaster": perhaps she will err in some respect, "Or stain her honour, or her new brocade." "Stain" has a figurative sense when applied to "honour" (meaning the loss of chastity) and a literal sense when applied to "brocade" (a stain on her dress). Here the effect of the zeugma is comical because of the disparate importance of the two threatened disasters yoked together.

Zeugma is rather rare. It is also extremely hard for translation.

Classify the following into zeugmas and semantically false chains.

b) Study the examples below, account for their stylistic effect and try to translate them.

… whether she would break her heart, or break the looking glass; Mr. Bounderby couldn’t at all foresee.

(Ch. Dickens)

…I lost phone and myself.

His disease consisted of spots, bed, honey in spoons, tangerine oranges and high temperature.

(J. Galsworthy)

"Шел дождь и три студента, первый — в пальто, второй — в университет, третий — в плохом настроении".

“Dorothy, at my statement, had clapped her hands over mouth to hold laughter down and chewing gum”.

(J. Barth)

Only at the annual balls of the Firemen…was there such prodigality of chiffon scarves and tangoing and heart-burnings…

(S. Lewis)

Воздух пропитан холодной, влажной дымкой, пахнет дешевым шампунем для пола, дворнягами, сигаретами, картофельным пюре и неудачей.

(Д. Коупленд/ пер. Ярцев В. С.)

A Governess wanted. Must possess knowledge of Rumanian, Russian, Italian, Spanish, German, Music and Mining Engineering.

  (S. Leacock)

  •  Task 3.

Pun.

Pun corresponds to the interaction of two well-known meanings of a word. Whereas zeugma is the realization of two meanings with the help of a verb which is made to refer to different objects, pun is more independent. There needn’t necessarily be a verb in the sentence to which the pun-word refers.

Indicate cases when a pun is created: a) through homonyms; b) through different meanings of a polysemantic word.

‘I see nobody on the road', said Alice.

     ‘I only wish I had such eyes', the King remarked in a fretful tone. ‘To be able to see Nobody! And at that distance too! Why, it’s as much as I can do to see real people, by this light!’

                                              (L. Carroll)

She always glances up, and glances down, and doesn’t know where to look, but looks all the prettier.

(Ch. Dickens)

You have always told me it was Earnest. I have introduced you to every one as Earnest. You look as if your name was Earnest. You are the most earnest-looking person I ever saw in my life. It is perfectly absurd you saying that your name isn’t Earnest.  

(O. Wilde)

“…I’m starting work on Saturday”. - “Oh, yes, she’s been called to the bar”. – “What sort of a bar?”- “The sort you’re always propping up. I’m carrying on the family traditions.

(Th. Smith)

Alice was very glad to find her in such a pleasant temper, and thought to herself that perhaps it was only pepper that had made her so savage when they met in the kitchen.

When I’m a Duchess’, she said to herself (not in a very hopeful tone though), ‘I won’t have any pepper in my kitchen at all. Soup does very well without – Maybe it’s always pepper that makes people hot-tempered’, she went on very much pleased at having found a new kind of rule, ‘and vinegar that makes them sour – and camomile that makes them bitter – and – and barley-sugar and such things that make children sweet-tempered. I only wish people knew that: then they wouldn’t be so stingy about it, you know –’

                                         (L. Carrol)

The first person I see as I step out of my car on my first day at work as a short-haired honorary blonde instead of a scraggy-headed mousey haired mouse has to be PJ.

“Don’t start”, I warned him feeling insecure about my new image.

“I wasn’t going to start anything”, replied PJ. “It’s a good cut Rosy, I like it.”

“What would you know about good cuts?” I snorted, not wanting to admit I was pleased.

“I’m a surgeon, aren’t I?”

(Sh. Norton)

  •  Task 4.

Personification.

Personification (prosopopeia) is a figure of speech in which human qualities are attributed to an animal, object, or idea. There is also a device that we can possibly call “depersonification”, when an animate object is deprived of its animate qualities.

In "Mirror" by Sylvia Plath, for example, the mirror--the "I" in the first line--is given the ability to speak, see and swallow, as well as human attributes such as truthfulness.

I am silver and exact.
I have no preconceptions.
Whatever I see I swallow immediately
Just as it is, unmisted by love or dislike.
I am not cruel, only truthful--

In John Keats' "To Autumn," the fall season is personified as "sitting careless on a granary floor" and "drowsed with the fume of poppies". Iago in Shakespeare's Othello says:

O beware, my lord, of jealousy!
It is the green-ey'd monster which doth mock
The meat it feeds on.

Study the examples of personification given below and divide them into trite ones – those we use in everyday speech not even noticing them, and those possessing expressive artistic value.

The wind sang her mournful song through the falling leaves.

The microwave timer told me it was time to turn my TV dinner.

The video camera observed the whole scene.

The strawberries seemed to sing, "Eat me first!"

The rain kissed my cheeks as it fell.

The daffodils nodded their yellow heads at the walkers.

The water beckoned invitingly to the hot swimmers.

The snow whispered as it fell to the ground during the early morning hours.

The china danced on the shelves during the earthquake.

The car engine coughed and sputtered when it started during the blizzard.

Ну никуда не скроешься от городской жизни. Мухи страдают от головокружения, а пчелы от алкоголизма. Малиновок подкашивает избыток холестерина и психосоматическая язва. Уличные псы заходятся в хроническом кашле курильщиков, заядлых торчков. Сутулые цветы на размокших клумбах подвержены ревматизму и облысению. Даже микробам, воздушным спорам все это начинает действовать на нервы.

(М. Амис/пер. А. Гузман)

 The poems below were written by Walt Whitman. Try to formulate what personification adds to the general impact of the verse. How would you define its main stylistic functions?

Fierce-throated beauty!

Roll through my chant, with all thy lawless music! Thy singing

 Lamps at night;

Thy piercing , madly –whistled laughter! they echoes , rumbling

like an earth-quake, rousing all!

   («To A Locomotive in Winter» W. Whitman)

Be firm, rail over the river,to support those who lean idly…

…Diverge, fine spokes of light…

…Come on ships from the lower bay! pass up or down!…

(“Crossing Brooklyn Ferry” W.Whitman)

  •  Task 5.

Allegory.

A narrative can be called allegoric when the literal content of a work stands for abstract ideas, suggesting a parallel, deeper, symbolic sense.

Allegory is similar to metaphor, but is usually more elaborate. In an allegorical narrative, each character (or, sometimes, object) has both a literal meaning and a consistent metaphorical meaning, and the story proceeds on two levels at once. Thus, when Spenser's Redcross Knight fights with the dragon named Error, we see the battle of a knight and a dragon at the literal level, and a conflict between the (generalized) Christian and the idea of error at the allegorical level.

Allegory  is rather typical of  fables and parables, where authors on account of political repressions of certain epochs and regimes had to make use of this device to mock at destructive ideas and beliefs, stiff superstitions.

Allegory usually represents a generalized idea or vice. An allegoric image is first of all a unity of the individual and the unique.

Herman Melville's “Moby Dick” is deeply allegoric. Recollect the plot of the book and its main images and express your opinion of the book taking into account its allegoric side.

Try to recollect Oscar Wilde’s tales “The Fisherman and His Soul”, “The Selfish Giant”(or Maugham’s story “The Ant and the Grasshopper”). Search for allegoric details and interpret the works with their help.

  •  Task 6.

Allusion.

Allusion can be defined as a hint at or a reference to a well-known literary work, person, event or place.

Allusion can be overt or covert. Allusion is always rich in connotation and very economic. Scholars single out various types of thematic allusions: historical, biblical, mythological, literary ones.

Allusion helps a careful reader not only to perceive the information that is implied in a certain literary work, it also brings to light the author’s opinion and feelings. Undoubtedly, to be able to penetrate into an allusion, the reader should possess certain background knowledge.

Allusion may fulfil several functions in fiction. Some of them have already been mentioned above:

To display the author’s vision of a situation or fact

To establish a number of associations (similarities) between the person, thing or event mentioned and the one in the given text and thus transfers them to the character or place or event under discussion (the function of embodiment)

..

a) Think of some other functions of allusion.

b) Analyze the extracts taking into consideration the allusions employed by the author. What do they add to the message?

№ 540

I took my power in my Hand

And went against the World

‘Twas not so much as David – had –

But I – was twice as bold.

I aimed my Pebble – but Myself

Was all the one that fell –

Was it Goliath – was too large –

Or was myself – too small?

(E. Dickinson)

  •  И пьесы Шекспира…они мне всегда нравились, но казалось, что Шекспир что-то как-то переборщил,  как-то он чересчур сильно… А тут читаешь снова и думаешь, что-то Шекспир даже не дописал. Можно было посильнее. И надо было ему у меня кое-что спросить. Я бы ему рассказал, как оно бывает.

(Е. Гришковец)

  •  Here I was, on a Friday evening, sitting in my bedroom surrounded by the relics of my life, and if Prince Charming had stepped out of the fairy story and asked me really nicely to go to the ball with him, I’d have to decline on account of having nothing to wear. Where was the … Fairy Godmother when I needed her? Come to that, where was Prince Charming anyway?

‘Fancy popping out for a beer?’ asked Barry, appearing in the bedroom doorway yawning and scratching his stomach.

‘Yeah. Got a pumpkin and a couple of white mice?’ I said, laughing only slightly hysterically.

‘Sometimes,’ he said, ‘I wonder about you, Rosie. I really do.’

(Sh. Norton)

c) Allusion is also widely used in titles. Look through the given titles and explain what they stand for.

“The Catcher in the Rye”; “Of Mice and Men”; “East of Eden”; “Pygmalion”; “Orpheus Descending”; “In Our Time”; “For Whom the Bell Tolls”; “Ulysses”, “Vanity Fair”.

d) Try to anticipate the plot judging by the title. E.g.   «The Overwhelming Love of Ecstasy» and «The Overwhelming Ecstasy of Love».

e)What factual information can a careful reader discover or a title betray? E.g. “Winesburg, Ohio”)?

f)Do you believe the title to be relevant for the reader’s interpretation of the book and the author’s message?

  •  Task 7.

Periphrasis.

Periphrasis, or more commonly circumlocution, is what you do when you're 'beating around the bush'. It is a way of speaking or writing all around a topic without getting to the point. It's where you use fifteen words when just one or two would do.
Here's an example. Look at this sentence:

"The reason that I took your picture was in order to make a dartboard."

Here it is again in more concise form:

"I took your picture to make a dartboard." 

Periphrasis here is the use of extra words that really aren't needed, like 'the reason that' and 'in order'

Periphrasis may be used on purpose, especially in writing, as a means of creating anticipation, through delay.
Sometimes it's used to delay bad news too, with the use of euphemisms.
Consider these words spoken by a school Principal:

"In the course of the past several days, it has come to my attention that some certain members of the soon-to-be-graduating class have been behaving in what can only be described as an unseemly manner."

What he is really trying to say is: "Recently I've noticed that the grade 12 class has been misbehaving." 

Periphrasis was more common in earlier centuries, where the writing and speech was far more 'flowery'. Such writing can still be found in poetry, as in phrases like "death's other self" for "sleep".

Politicians are often masters of periphrasis; they use it to avoid giving a straight answer, or to make a statement that will be quoted often.

Periphrasis can also be used to generate a form of pun, by substituting uncommon words, or word phrases, for simpler ones.

What does each sentence below really mean?

"Desist from enumerating your fowl prior to their emergence from the shell."

"It is in the realm of possibility to entice an equine member of the animal kingdom to a source of oxidized hydrogen; however, it is not possible to force him to imbibe." 

«Справа, у кирпичного забора с обгрызенным верхним краем, обосновалась выездная сессия факультета ненужных вещей…»

                                                                                                             (Гаррос - Евдокимов)

In literature periphrasis is sometimes
used for comic effect. If you've read much Shakespeare, you may be familiar with Falstaff as his method of speaking is circumlocutious and humourous.

“Under the impression,” said Mr. Micawber, “that your peregrinations…

(Ch. Dickens)

“He swallowed a glass of liquor…(and then) transacted a similar piece of business.”

(Ch. Dickens)

a) Find and cite your own examples of periphrasis. Try to account for the usage of this device in a certain text.


b)
When learning to write well, it is a good idea to avoid periphrasis. Keep your writing simple and concise, and avoid euphemisms. "Omit needless words" is excellent advice for any writer, especially a beginner.

Recognizing Unwanted Periphrasis in Your Writing:
Here are some word combinations to avoid:

"The fact that"
This expression is often used in combination with
'because of', or 'in light of', or 'in view of', or 'due to'. It can all be replaced with the single word "because"
Instead of saying: "
In view of the fact that I haven't had a shower this week, please keep your distance", be much more concise and say "Because I haven't had a shower this week ...".

"The reason ... "
This is often an unnecessary use of words. Just drop it.
Instead of writing: "
The reason he failed Math was because he missed thirty four classes",
make it much simpler by saying: "
He failed Math because he missed thirty four classes."

"Basically ..."
This word is overused. It shouldn't be used at all.
Instead of saying "
Basically, it's because he's lazy. » just say "It's because he's lazy."

Think of some other overused words and phrases. Suggest your own variants of their replacement.

  •  Task 8.

Antonomasia.

Substituting a descriptive phrase for a proper name, or substituting a proper name for a quality associated with it is called antonomasia. For example: Solomon – wise man; The Land of Lakes – Minnesota.

Study the following examples and explain what is really meant.

You must pray to heaven's guardian for relief.

He proved a Judas to the cause.

There is much of Cicero in this letter.  

She held herself like a daughter of the Caesars.

(W.S. Maugham)

Miss This Miss That Miss Theother

(J. Joyce)

  •  Task 9.

Analyze the given piece and give your interpretation of Moscow (Ryazan etc) or some life experiences.

Ника остался один.

  Тянул через соломинку слабоалкогольный коктейль «текила-санрайз», неспешно разглядывал беззаботных обитателей третьего тысячелетия христианской эры и размышлял о том, как изменилась Москва и москвичи с тех пор, как он впервые приехал в этот город. Всего-то шесть лет прошло, а город не узнать. Вне всякого сомнения, Москва – существо женского пола. У нее ослаблено чувство времени, поэтому в отличие от городов-мужчин она равнодушна к прошлому и живет исключительно настоящим. Вчерашние памятники для нее мало что значат – Москва без сожаления расстается с ними, у нее короткая память и несентиментальное сердце. Это у мужчины сердцебиение  и слезы умиления на глазах, когда он встречает возлюбленную прежних лет. Женщине, во всяком случае, большинству из них, такая встреча неинтересна и даже неприятна, поскольку никак не связана с ее нынешними проблемами и сегодняшней жизнью. Вот и Москва точь-в-точь такая же, обижаться на нее за это бессмысленно. Как поется в одной хорошей песне, она как вода, принимающая форму сосуда, в котором находится.

  Когда Фандорин увидел ее впервые, она была бедной замарашкой, жадной до пестрых иностранных наклеек и завистливой на чужое богатство. Но с тех пор она поправила материальное положение, обрела исконную дебелость и вернулась в свое природное амплуа. Больше всего Москва напоминала Николасу любимый чеховский типаж: красивую, но чуть перезрелую барыньку, немного циничную и пресыщенную, не слишком счастливую в любви, все на свете перевидавшую, но все еще жадную до жизни. Днем эта Аркадина-Раневская-Войницева хандрит, ходит в затрапезе, но к вечеру, как соберутся гости, припудрится, расфуфырится, нацепит бриллиантовое колье из огней, подвесит серьги из прожекторов и превратится в такую светскую львицу, что ослепнуть можно.

(Б. Акунин)

I contemplated this as we walked out of the hospital together. Had I been happy for ages? I hadn’t realized. I just thought it was normal – the tired, bored, dragging sense of life passing by, the lack of spark, the loss of interest in anything. Didn’t other people feel like that, then? Didn’t they wake up with a groan when they realized they were still the same person, still with the same old life and hadn’t changed over night into a princess living in a palace somewhere tropical.

(Sh. Norton)

  •  Task 10.

Account for the usage of certain devices in various kinds of art other than literature. Clarify your understanding by examples. e.g. Cinemametonymy

Music, ikebana; painting; sculpture; architecture – metaphor; dancing – hyperbole, meiosis.

Reference materials:

Galperin I. R. “Stylistics

Arnold I. V. “Стилистика современного английского языка”

Skrebnev Y. M. “Стилистика английского языка”  

Collins V. H. “The Choice of Words”

Lebedeva L.B. 10 Lectures in Style

                         

                                      SEMINAR 7.

Syntax

1. Syntactical stylistic devices, various approaches. Figures of speech.

2. Inversion.

3. Ellipsis.

4. Aposiopesis.

5. Apokoinu construction.

6. Rhetorical questions.

7. Detachment.

8. Represented speech.

9. Parenthetic sentences.

10. Suspense. Climax – anticlimax.

  •  Task 1.

Study the information and explain the possibilities of syntactical stylistic devices in the expressive speech. What is called “figures of speech”? Be ready to distinguish tropes from figures of speech.

Syntax studies ways of word connection in word collocations and sentences, nature and ways of design of the relations between words in the sentences. But the thought, expressed by the sentence, can receive different shades depending on the use of various syntactical patterns, this or that word order in the sentence, this or that way of connection between parts of the utterance. The syntactical designs, existing in language, are capable of expressing approximately identical contents of thought.

Syntactical stylistic devices deal with the syntactical arrangement of the utterance, which makes it emphatic irrespective of the lexical meanings of the employed units. It should be observed that oral speech is usually more emphatic than the written type of speech. Various syntactical structures deliberately employed by the author to create the desired effect, in oral speech are used automatically as a norm of oral intercourse.

  •  Task 2.

Discuss various approaches to the classification of syntactical stylistic devices (Arnold, Kuznetz – Skrebnev; Skrebnev; Galperin); try to single out the basis of this or that list and think of some other approach possible.

  •  Task 3.

Inversion.

English language, being an analytical one, unlike Russian or Latin, is characterized by fixed word order, which is Subject – Predicate – Object. Any change of the usual order is significant and of greater stylistic value than in Russian. Inversion deals with the displacement of the predicate (which is the case complete inversion) or with the displacement of secondary members of the sentence (which is the case of partial inversion) and their shift towards the front, opening position in the sentence. If word order is re-established in questions, we can speak of secondary inversion. It is vital not to mix up grammatical inversion (I am late – Am I late etc.) and stylistic inversion aimed at achieving a certain artistic effect.

Besides conveying the tone and manner of the speaker, inverted structures a connotational meaning. It can be emphasis; representation of colloquial, spontaneous, highly emotive speech; for the sake of suspense etc.

a) Look through the given examples and state whether they contain cases of complete or partial inversion:

The wardrobe had to be next. Off their hangers came dresses that hadn’t fitted me since the 80s. Out of the shelves came trousers I wouldn’t be seen dead in even if the did still fit me. Into the bin-bags went shoes so outdated my granny would have cringed at them.

(Sh. Norton)

Black leather shoes, dirty; suit of boating flannels, very dirty; brown felt hat, much battered; makintosh, very wet; umbrella.

(J. K. Jerome)

“Her sickness is only grief?” he asked, his difficult English lending the question an unintended irony. “She is grieving only?”… “She is only grieving?” insisted Jose.       (T. Capote)

Each man is the whole world, to make over as he will and to fill with a human race he can love, if it is love he has, or a race he must hate, if it is hate he has.

(W. Saroyan)

Whirling wreaths of grey vapour upon the heath. Her face, how grey and grave! Dank matted hair. Her lips press softly, her sighing breath comes through. Kissed.

(J. Joyce)

So am I as rich, whose blessed key

Can bring him to his sweet up-locked treasure

The which he will not every hour survey,

For blunting the fine point of seldom pleasure.

Therefore are feasts so solemn and so rare,

Since, seldom coming, in the long year set,

Like stones of worth they thinly placed are,

Or captain jewels in the carcanet.

So is the time that keeps you as my chest,

Or as the wardrobe which the robe doth hide,

To make some special instant special blest,

By new unfolding his imprison’d pride.

Blessed are you, whose worthiness gives scope,

Being had, to triumph, being lack’d, to hope.

           (W. Shakespare)

b) Read the sentences and make them more expressive with the help of inversion if possible. Explain your choice.

He laughed so much that tears rolled down his cheeks.

So much…

The papers blew away.

Away…

Don’t show these figures to anyone on any account. (should)

On no account…

She remembered the man’s name after he had walked away.

Only after he had walked away…

As soon as he had eaten his dinner, he jumped up and began to dance.

No ….

  •  Task 4.

Ellipsis.

In ellipsis, which is the omission of one of the main members of a sentence, when the missing parts are either present in the syntactical environment of the sentence (context), or are implied by the situation, we must differentiate the one used in the author’s narration to change its tempo and condense its structure from the one used in personages’ speech to reflect oral norms and lend the dialogue a natural and authentic tone.

A) State the function of the following ellipses. Indicate most frequently omitted members of the sentence. Is it possible to reconstruct them or does one need an larger context?

What happiness was ours that day, what joy, what rest, what hope, what gratitude, what bliss!

(Ch. Dickens)

“…what the devil you are laughing at?” – “Not at you, Papa. At life. It’s so damned crazy.”

(E. O’Neill)

  •  Words can help you if your mind can only grasp them…Your…has left you. He’s never going to come back again. Never in the world. Never.

(T. Rattigan)

  •  Implacable November weather. Dogs undistinguishable in mire. Horses, scarcely better; splashed to their very blinkers.

(Ch. Dickens)

  •  А потом мальчик приходит из школы…такой странный…

Родители спрашивают: «Ну как»?

А чего «как»? …Чего «как»? Да точно также! В точности. Вы же там сами были. Вы же… Так что не надо… знаете же…

(Е. Гришковец)

B) Reconstruct the elliptical sentences in given pieces of dialogue. Account for your choice.

  •  “But what colour was this balloon when it – when it was a balloon?”

“Red.”

“I just wondered …. Red,” he murmured to himself. “My favourite colour …. How big was it? ”

“About as big as me.”

“I just wondered …. About as big as Piglet,” he said to himself sadly. “My favourite size. Well, well.”

        (A. A. Milne)  

I’ll take my oath I put it down on that chair,” said George, staring at the empty seat.

I saw it myself, not a minute ago,said Harris.

“Most extraordinary thing I ever heard of,” said George.

“So mysterious!” said Harris.

(J. K. Jerome)

  •  Where are you going?

Out.

When will you be back?

Dunno.

What about you  homework?

‘nt got any.

(Sh. Norton)

  •  Task 5.

Aposiopesis.

Sudden break in the narration, or aposiopesis, is a norm of excited oral speech. As a device it is used to indicate strong emotions or deliberate stop in the utterance to conceal its meaning. Certain phrases, often repeated with the intonation of the nonfinished sentence, become trite aposiopesis. They indicate that the speaker’s idea of the possible continuation of the utterance exists in a very general, non-detailed, vague form.

Consider the given cases of aposiopesis and try to define its cause:

a person is unable to speak (has no information; is overwhelmed with emotions – too much excitement; is scared etc.)

a person is unwilling to speak

a flow of thought and speech is interrupted by an idea or somebody’s remark

other

Hulloa! What’s that for?” – “What’s that for? Why - - ” No, on second thoughts, I will not repeat what Harris said. I may have been to blame, I admit it; but nothing excuses violence of language and coarseness of expression, especially in a man who has been carefully brought up, as I know Harris has been.

(J. K. Jerome)

TYRONE:(Stung – angrily): Be quiet! How dare you talk of something you know nothing about! (Trying to control his temper) You must try to see my side of it, too, lad. How was I to know he was that kind of a doctor? He had a good reputation –

EDMUND: Among the souses in the hotel bar, I suppose!

TYRONE: That’s a lie! I asked the hotel proprietor to recommend the best –

EDMUND: Yes! At the same time crying poorhouse & making it plain you wanted a cheap one! I know your system! By God, I ought to after this afternoon!

TYRONE:(Guiltily defensive) What about this afternoon?

EDMUND: Never mind now. We’re talking about Mama! I’m saying no matter how you excuse yourself you know damned well your stinginess is to blame –

TYRONE: And I say you’re a liar! Shut your mouth right now, or –

                     ……

JAMIE:…What’s the use coming home to get the blues over what can’t be helped. All over - finished now - not a hope!

                            (E. O’Neill)

  •                 303

    The Soul selects her own Society –

Then – shuts the Door –

To her divine Majority –

Present no more –

Unmoved - she notes the Chariots – pausing –

At her low Gate –

Unmoved – an Emperor be kneeling

Upon her Mat –

I’ve known her – from an ample nation –

Choose One –

Then – close the Valves of her attention –

Like Stone –

                     (E. Dickinson)

  •  “Why haven’t you phoned me?  I’ve been worried to – “

“I called you twice last night. Once just after – “

“Are you all right, Muriel? Tell me the truth.”

“I’m fine. Stop asking me that, please.”

“Who drove?”

“He did.”

“He drove? Muriel, you gave me your word of –‘

“Mother, I just told you. He drove very nicely.”

“Did he try any of that funny business with the trees?”

“I said he drove very nicely, Mother. He was even trying not to look at the trees. Did Daddy get the car fixed, incidentally?”

“Not yet. They want four hundred dollars, just to – “

“There’s no reason for – “

“How did he behave - in the car and all?”

“All right”, said the girl.

“Did he keep calling you that awful – “

“No. “

“Muriel, I want to know. Your father –“

“He calls me Miss Spiritual Tramp of 1948”. The girl said and giggled.

“It isn’t funny, Muriel. It’s horrible. It’s sad, actually. When I think how – “

( …….. )

“Mother”, said the girl “we’d better hang up. Seymour may come in any minute.”

“Where is he?”

“On the beach.”

“On the beach? By himself? Does he behave himself on the beach? ”

“Mother”,  said the girl , “ you talk about him as thought he were a raving maniac – “

“I said nothing of the kind, Muriel.” ………

                                             (J. D. Salinger)

  •  Вижукрасиво! Русская зимакрасиво! Не моя уже, чего мне…теперь…А потом приехал туда…и…а там…понятно…А обратно-то – еще хуже. Вообще кошмар.

(Е. Гришковец)

  •  Task 6.

Apokoinu construction.

Apokoinu construction, characteristic of irregular oral speech, presents a blend of two clauses into one, which is achieved by omitting the connecting word; as a result one word appears to belong to two clauses and to acquire a double syntactical function. The main stylistic function of apokoinu construction is to emphasize the irregular, careless or uneducated character of the personages’ speech.

Indicate the type of complex sentences contracted into the following apokoinu constructions. Suggest conjunctions and connecting words which might have joined former clauses. Account for the effect.

There is nothing does irritate me more than seeing other people sitting about doing nothing when I’m working.

(J. K. Jerome)

You’d be surprised at the times we do get our man – sometimes after several years. It’s patience does it – patience and never letting up.

(A. Christie)

There was a whisper in my family that it was love drove him out, and not love of the wife he married.

(J. Steinbeck)

He’s the one makes the noise at night.

(E. Hemingway)

It was I was a father to you.

(S. Beckett)

  •  Task 7.

Rhetorical questions.

Rhetorical question, which is a statement in the form of a question, may presuppose an answer, though the latter is not necessarily required. The positive form of the rhetorical question predicts a negative answer, the negative form – an affirmative answer.

Discuss the nature and function of the following rhetorical questions, account for the effect produced. Is the answer necessary? Is it possible to predict it? What is the sphere of the possible hypothesis? Does it depend on the context or the reader’s background only? Suggest the implied meaning.

“I never see him doing any work there,” continued Harris, “whenever I go in. He sits behind a bit of glass all day, trying to look as if he was doing something. What’s the good of a man behind a bit of glass? I have to work for my living. Why can’t he work? What use is he there, and what’s the good of their banks? They take your money, and then, when you draw a cheque, they send it back smeared all over with “No effect”, “Refer to drawer”. What’s the good of that? That’s the sort of the trick they served me twice last week.”

(J. K. Jerome)

What courage can withstand the everduring and all besetting terrors of a woman’s tongue?

(W. Irving)

What is the force that binds the stars?

            I wore this mask to hide my scars

           What is the power that pulls the tide?

           Never could find a place to hide

           What moves the earth around the sun?

          What could I do but run and run and run?

          Afraid to love, afraid to fail

         A mast without a sail

                       (G.M. Sumner)

Wouldn’t we all do better not trying to understand, accepting the fact that no human being will ever understand another, not a wife a husband, a lover a mistress, nor a parent a child?

(Gr. Green)

  •  Task 8.

Detachment.

Through  detachment secondary members of the sentence acquire independent stress and intonation which leads to their emphatic intensification. The effect is the strongest if detached members are isolated from the rest of the sentence.

Formulate what additional meaning the below-given phrases acquire through detached elements.

It’s a fine summer morning – sunny, soft and still.

(J. K. Jerome)

He is alert to his fingertips. Little muffs, silver garters, fringed gloves draw his attention; he observes with a keen quick glance, not unkindly, and full rather of amusement than of censure.

(V. Woolf)

And life would move slowly and excitingly. With much laughter and much shouting and talking and much drinking and much fighting.

(P. Abrahams)

But the river – chill and weary, with the ceaseless rain drops falling on its brown and sluggish waters, with the sound  as of a woman, weeping low in some dark chamber; while the woods, all dark and silent, shrouded in their mists of vapour, stand like ghosts upon the margin; silent ghosts with eyes reproachful, like the ghosts of evil actions, like the ghosts of friends neglected – is a spirit-haunted water through the land of vain regrets.

(J. K. Jerome)

  •  Task 9.

Represented speech.

Represented speech, which combines lexical and syntactical peculiarities of colloquial and literary speech, allows the writer in a condensed and seemingly objective manner to lead the reader into the inner workings of the human mind. It combines the author’s narrative and the character’s speech. The reader perceives reality both through the author’s and the character’s eyes. The author’s narrative acquires the speech characteristics of his personage.

Represented speech borrows a lot from direct speech: its irregularity, its colloquialisms (slang, interjections, exclamatory elements).   But it also bears features of indirect speech: the usage of the 3d person instead of the 1st person, the preservation of sequence of tenses.

Try to distinguish the speaker(s) and explain how different planes are created.

It turned out to be difficult. He had to stop near a street light. His pencil worked quickly; he was nervous because he felt her presence at his side; he wrote several elliptical sentences. Emotional situation deepened by notebook, he wrote. Young writer, girlfriend. Writer accused of being cold and selfish. Gets idea he must put in notebook. Does so, and brings the quarrel to a head. Girl breaks relationship over this….Perhaps the point of the story should be that the young man takes out his notebook because he senses that this will be the best way to destroy what was left of the relationship. It was a nice idea.

(N. Mailer)

…my God after that long kiss I  near lost my breath yes he said I was a flower of the mountain yes so we are flowers all a womans body yes that was one true thing he said in his life and the sun shines for you today yes that was why I liked him  because I saw he understood or felt what a woman is and I knew I could always get round him and gave him all the pleasure I could leading him on till he asked me to say yes and I wouldnt answer first only looked out over the sea and the sky I was thinking of so many things…

(J. Joyce)

The Invisible Adversary is fleeting across a field.

Gretchen, walking slowly, deliberately, watches with her keen unblinking eyes the figure of the Invisible Adversary some distance ahead. The Adversary has run boldly in front of all that traffic -— on long spiky legs brisk as colt's legs — and jumped up onto a curb of new concrete, and now is running across a vacant field. The Adversary -glances over his shoulder at Gretchen.     

   Bastard, Gretchen thinks.

  Saturday afternoon. November. A cold gritty day. Gretchen is out stalking. She has hours for her game. Hours. She is dressed for the hunt, her solid legs crammed into old blue jeans, her big, square, strong feet jammed into white leather boots that cost her mother forty dollars not long ago, but are now scuffed and filthy with mud. Hopeless to get them clean again, Gretchen doesn't give a damn. She is wearing a dark green corduroy jacket that is worn out at the elbows and the rear, with a zipper that can be zipped swiftly up or down, attached to a fringed leather strip. On her head nothing, though it is windy today.

            She has hours ahead.

                                          (J. C. Oates)

3 Cheers for Pooh!

     (For Who ?)

     For Pooh –

     (Why what did he do?)

     I thought you knew;

    He saved his friend from a wetting!

    3 Cheers for Bear!

    (For where?)

    For Bear –

   He couldn’t swim,

   But he rescued him!

   (He rescued who?)

   Oh, listen, do!

   I’m talking of Pooh –

   (Of who?)

  Of  Pooh!

  (I’m sorry I keep forgetting).

  Well, Pooh was a Bear of Enormous Brain

  (Just say it again! )

  Of enormous brain –

 (Of enormous what?)

 Well, he ate a lot,

 And I don’t know if he could swim or not,

 But he managed to float

 On a sort of a boat

 (On a sort of what?)

 Well, a sort of pot –

 So now let’s give him three hearty cheers

 (So now let’s give him three hearty whiches?)

 And I hope he’ll be with us for years & years,

 And grow in health & wisdom & riches!

 3 Cheers for Pooh!

 (For who?)

 For Pooh -

 3 Cheers for Bear!

 For Pooh –

 (For where?)

 For Bear –

 3 Cheers for the wonderful Winnie-the-Pooh!

 (Just tell me, somebody – WHAT DID HE DO?)

(A.A. Milne)

  •  Task 10.

Parenthetic sentences.

The usage and function of parenthetic sentences strongly corresponds with previously mentioned devices such as represented speech and detachment. One of the most important potentialities of parentheses is the creation of the second plane, or background, to the narrative, or a mingling of “voices” of different speech parties. They can also imply some additional or evaluative information. The parenthetic form of a statement makes it more conspicuous, more important, and less monotonous.

Discuss the linguistic phenomena characterizing parenthetic sentences, provide parallels with detachment and represented speech.

Explain the function of parenthetic sentences in: 1) creating different backgrounds; 2) providing information; 3) emphasis…

I begin to strike out frantically for the shore, and I wonder if I shall ever see home and friends again, and wish I’d been kinder to my little sister when a boy (when I was a boy, I mean).

(J. K. Jerome)

Julia gave her a glance and saw that she was looking grim. (“To hell with her. What do I care what she thinks!”)

(W.S. Maugham)

George said: “Begin with breakfast.” (George is so practical.) “Now for breakfast we shall want a frying-pan -” (Harris said it was indigestible; but we merely urged him not to be an ass, and George went on) – “a tea-pot and a kettle, and a methylated spirit stove.”

(J. K. Jerome)

He keeps that hat now (what is left of it), and, of a winter’s evening,…George brings it down and shows it round…

(J. K. Jerome)

…There were only three days more.

  (“I can stick it out now. It’ll be different when we’re back in London again. I mustn’t show how miserable I am. I must pretend it’s all right.”)

(W.S. Maugham)

  •  Task 11.

Suspense.

Suspense, holding the reader or the listener in tense anticipation, is often realized through:

the separation of predicate from subject or from predicative,

by the deliberate introduction between them of a phrase, clause or sentence (frequently parenthetic);

different kinds of semantic repetition etc.

Its manner and function overlap that of climax and anticlimax, mentioned below.

Analyse the manner in which the following cases of suspense are organized.

Her mind only vaguely grasped what he was saying. Her physical being was for the moment predominant. She was not thinking of his words, only drinking in the tones of his voice. She wanted to reach out her hand in the darkness and touch him with the sensitive tips of her fingers upon the face or the lips. She wanted to draw close to him and whisper against his cheek – she didn’t care what –as she might have done if she had not been a respectable woman.

(K. Chopin)

I have been accused of bad taste. This has disturbed me, not so much for my own sake (since I am used to the slights and arrows of outrageous fortune) as for the sake of criticism in general.

(W.S. Maugham)

  •  You know, proper family conversations about serious, interesting things. Politics, religion and whose turn it was to put out the rubbish.

(Sh. Norton)

This was a man she had heard much of but never seen. He had been her husband’s college friend; was now a journalist, and in no sense a society man or “a man about a town”, which were, perhaps, some of the reasons she had never met him. But she had unconsciously formed an image of him in her mind. She pictured him tall, slim, cynical; with eye-glasses, and his hands in his pockets; and she did not like him. Gouvernail was slim enough, but he wasn’t very tall nor very cynical; neither did he wear eye-glasses nor carry his hands in his pockets. And she rather liked him when he first presented himself.

(K. Chopin)

LOVE IS (NOT)

Love is not flowers, nor is it candy.

It is not the prom, nor is it the limousine

That takes a couple there.

It is not a Hawaiian vacation, nor a car, nor a

house.

It has nothing to do with Christmas presents,

or varsity jackets, or rings.

It is not in any way connected to the

movies, the mall, or even Burger King.

It’s not necessarily related to physical contact,

And it’s got nothing to do with a “special song”.

Love is when you do something stupid

And she says “I’m sorry”,

And means it.

               (G. Strauss)

Небывалая осень построила купол высокий,

Был приказ облакам этот купол собой не темнить.

И дивилися люди: проходят сентябрьские сроки,

А куда провалились студеные, влажные дни?

Изумрудною стала вода замутненных каналов,

И крапива запахла, как розы, но только сильней.

Было душно от зорь, нестерпимых, бесовских и алых,

Их запомнили все мы до конца наших дней.

Было солнце таким, как вошедший в столицу мятежник,

И весенняя осень так жадно лакалась к нему,

Что казалось – сейчас забелеет прозрачный подснежник…

Вот когда подошел ты, спокойный, к крыльцу моему.

   (А. Ахматова)

  •  Task 11.

Climax vs. anticlimax.

In climax we observe parallelism consisting of several steps, presenting a row of relative synonyms placed in the ascending/descending validity of their denotational (which results in logical and quantitative climax) or connotational meanings. The latter type of climax is called emotive and is realized through still another pattern of a structure, based on repetition of the semantic center and the introduction of an intensifier. E.g. I am a bad man, a wicked man, but she is worse. She is really bad. She is bad, she is badness. She is Evil. She not only is evil, but she is Evil. (J. O’Hara)

   Sudden reversal of expectations roused by climax (mainly non-completed), causes anticlimax. It consists in adding one weaker element to one or several strong ones, mentioned before. The main bulk of paradoxes is based on anticlimax. E.g. Women have a wonderful instinct about things. They can discover everything – except the obvious. (O. Wilde)

Distinguish between the logical and emotive climaxes and anticlimaxes in the following examples.

Speak of the modes of organization of anticlimax.

“…what is the use coming home to get the blues over what can’t be helped. All over – finished now – not a hope!”

(E. O’Neill)

“I designed them for each other; they were made for each other, sent into the world for each other, born for each other, Winkle,” said Mr. Ben Allen.

(Ch. Dickens)

How many sympathetic souls can you reckon on in the world? One in ten – one in a hundred – one in a thousand – in ten thousand? Ah!

(J. Conrad)

  •  ‘What are you doing over the weekend?’

              Shopping, dusting, hovering, changing the beds, washing, ironing, cooking, cleaning the windows…

             ‘Nothing’, I said, smiling in anticipation, wondering, where he was going to invite me and how I was going to make my excuse at home.

(Sh. Norton)

That’s a nice girl; that’s a very nice girl; a promising girl!

(Ch. Dickens)

“Mr. Tulkinghorn…should have communicated to him nothing of this painful, this distressing, this unlooked-for, this overwhelming, this incredible intelligence.”

(Ch. Dickens)

I don’t attach any value to money. I don’t care about it, I don’t know about it, I don’t want it, I don’t keep it – it goes away from me directly.

(Ch. Dickens)

“In moments of utter crises my nerves act in the most extraordinary way, when utter disaster seems imminent, my whole being is simultaneously braced to avoid it. I size up the situation in a flash, set my teeth, contract my muscles, take a firm grip of myself, and without a tremor, always do the wrong thing.”

(B. Shaw)

“I never told you about that letter Jane Crofut got from her minister when she was sick. He wrote Jane a letter and on the envelope the address was like this. It said: Jane Crofut; The Crofut farm; Grover’s Corners; Sutton County; New Hampshire; United States of America.” – “What’s funny about it?” – “But listen, it’s not finished: the United States of America; Continent of North America; Western Hemisphere; the Earth; the Solar System; the Universe; the Mind of God – that’s what it said on the envelope.”

(Th. Wilder)

  •  Task 12.

As you might know, politicians have special people producing their speeches – speechwriters. Any speechwriter should be an eloquent master, possessing great command of the language and making ample use of it. Speechwriters employ the whole variety of phonetic, lexical and syntactical stylistic devices. Such “embroidery” helps them to exert considerable influence upon the listeners.

Enlarge upon the politician’s speech using all kinds of figures of speech to emphasize the important parts. Add whatever is necessary.

This country needs strong government. I worry about the present economic situation. People want public money to be spent on public services. It is important that policy decisions are made on the basis of what is right for the nation. Our policies reflect the importance we attach to education etc.

Reference materials:

Galperin I. R. “Stylistics”

Arnold I. V. “Стилистика современного английского языка”    

Skrebnev Y. M. “Стилистика английского языка”  

Lebedeva L.B. 10 Lectures in Style

                                    

SEMINAR 8.

Syntax

Repetition:

ordinary;

anaphora;

epiphora;

framing;

anadiplosis;

prolepsis (syntactic tautology).

Parallelism.

Antithesis

Chiasmus.

Polysyndeton.

Asyndeton.

 

  •  Task 1.

Repetition ordinary.

Repetition proper is reoccurrence of the same element (word or phrase) within the sentence. To be sure, repetition (with its numerous varieties) is not confined to one sentence, but also includes recurrence of the repeated units in neighboring sentences or even recurrence of whole sentences. The function and impact of repetition depends upon the position occupied by the repeated unit. But all seemingly superfluous elements have a stylistic feature in common: additional words and more complicated constructions aim at emphasizing the thought expressed.

Classify the following cases of repetition according to the position occupied by the repeated unit. State their functions and distribution.

You lay down the mallet and start to go round and tell him what you think about the whole business, and, at the same time, he starts round in the same direction to come and explain his views to you. And you follow each other round and round, swearing at each other, until the tent tumbles down in a heap, and leaves you looking at each other across its ruins, then you both indignantly exclaim, in the same breath… “There you are! What did I tell you?”

(J. K. Jerome)

“…He’s never going to come back again. Never in the world. Never.” – “I know. I know. That’s what I can’t face.” – “Yes, you can. That word “never”. Face that and you can face life. Get beyond hope. It’s your only chance.”

(T. Rattigan)

  •  We faced each other over the cold cooker with its cold saucepans, and its cold implications.

(Sh. Norton)

The woods are lovely, dark and deep,

But I have promises to keep,

And miles to go before I sleep,

And miles to go before I sleep.

               (R. Frost)

…itd be much better for the world to be governed by the women in it you wouldn’t see women going and killing one another and slaughtering when do you ever see women rolling around drunk like they do or gambling every penny they have and losing it on horses yes because a woman whatever she does she knows where to stop sure they wouldnt be in the world at all only for us they dont know what it is to be a woman and a mother how could they where would they all of them be…

(J. Joyce)

  •  Task 2.

Anaphora and epiphora.

Anaphora is identity of the initial parts of two or more autonomous syntactical segments, adjacent or at a distance in the text, yet obviously connected semantically. This device serves the purpose of strengthening the element that recurs, helps the reader to fix it in memory and imparts a certain rhythmical regularity to the system of the text. Epiphora is the opposite of anaphora. Epiphora is recurrence of one or several elements concluding two or more syntactical units. It regularizes to a greater extent the rhythm of the text, emphasizes logical and emotional relations of the repeated patterns.

Define the possible functions of anaphora and epiphora. What common functions do they possess? What do they differ by? What extra meaning do these devices communicate to a textual message?

Fog everywhere. Fog up the river, where it flows among green arts and meadows; fog down the river, where it rolls defiled among the tiers of shipping, and the waterside pollutions of a great (and dirty) city. Fog on the Essex marshes, fog on the Kentish heights. Fog creeping into the cabooses of collier-brigs, fog lying out on the yards, and hovering in the rigging of great ships; fog drooping on the gunwales of barges and small boats. Fog in the eyes and throats of ancient Greenwich pensioners, wheezing by the firesides of their wards; fog in the stem and bowl of the afternoon pipe of the wrathful skipper, down in his close cabin; fog cruelly pinching the toes and fingers of his shivering little ’ prentice boy on deck. Chance people on the bridges peeping over the parapets into a nether sky of fog, with fog all round them, as if they were up in a balloon, and hanging in the misty clouds.

(Ch. Dickens)

I dream of rain

I dream of gardens in the desert sand

I wake in pain

I dream of love as time runs through my hand

                                    (G. M. Sumner)

When you're down and they're counting

When your secrets all found out

When your troubles take to mounting

When the map you have leads you to doubt

When there's no information

and the compass turns to nowhere that you know well

Let your soul be your pilot

let your soul guide you

he'll guide you well

When the doctors failed to heal you

when no medicine chest can make you well

When no counsel leads to comfort

when there are no more lies they can tell

No more useless information

And the compass spins

the compass spins between heaven and hell

Let your soul be your pilot

Let your soul guide you

he'll guide you well

                      (G. M. Sumner)

Our hands have met,

But not our hearts

Our hearts will never meet again.

Friends, if we have ever been,

Friends we cannot now remain.

I only know, I loved you once,

I only know, I loved in vain.

Our hands have met,

But not our hearts.

Our hands will never meet again.

              (Th. Hood)

There will always be pain in things… Pity, not for this person or that person, who is suffering, but for all thing – for the very nature of things.

(W. Saroyan)

  •  Task 4.

Framing.

Framing denotes the recurrence of the initial segment at the very end of a syntactical unit. It is also used for emphasis. It can render oral speech, making it more emotional.

Interpret the role of framing in the given examples. Could any other syntactical  devices have been used instead? How would it change the effect?

Good night? ah! no; the hour is ill

Which severs those it should unite,

Let us remain together still,

Then it will be good night.

          (P. B. Shelley)

You would get a scaffolding pole entangled, you would…You’ve made a nice mess, you have.

(J. K. Jerome)

  •  Task 5.

Anadiplosis.

In anadiplosis or coupling the final element (or elements) of a sentence (paragraph, stanza, etc) recur at the very beginning of the next sentence (paragraph, stanza, etc). The concluding part of the proceeding syntactic unit is repeated as the starting point of the next. It lays emphasis on certain parts of the sentence and establishes relations within various parts of the pattern.

Analyse the given quotations. What kinds of relations are established by means of anadiplosis?

We were…talking about how bad we were – bad from a medical point of view I mean, of course.

(J. K. Jerome)

In those days I hadn’t thought that her kind of love – the love she requires and which I was unable to give her – was so important that its absence would drive out the other kind of love – the love that I require and which I thought, in my folly, was by far the greatest part of love.

(T. Rattigan)

The love of wicked men converts to fear,
That fear to hate, and hate turns one or both
To worthy danger and deserved death.
                                                                                                               (W. Shakespeare)

  •  Back and forth he went from garden to shed, from shed to kitchen, from kitchen to garage, carrying boxes of tools and bits of wire, frowning at flower beds and window-sills, scratching his head and looking like there were serious decisions to be made.

(Sh. Norton)

  •  Task 6.

Prolepsis.

Prolepsis, or syntactic tautology implies recurrence of the noun subject in the form of the corresponding personal pronoun. The stylistic function of this construction is communicative emphasis of the “theme”. It is also a typical feature of the oral and “uneducated speech”.

Name the repeated elements and their possible forms and explain their function. How can such a tautology be extended or removed? How would it influence the image?

It was unheard of that she, Julia Lambert, should go behind and congratulate a small-part actress.

(W.S. Maugham)

She had often felt that her talent…was not really herself, not even part of her, but something outside that used her, Julia Lambert the woman, in order to express itself. (W.S. Maugham)

Widow Douglas she adopted me…

(Ch. Dickens)

My husband he never notices me, whatever I’m doing…

(Sh. Norton)

  •  Task 7.

Parallelism.

Repetition, involving the whole structure of the sentence is called parallelism and is differentiated into complete parallelism, presenting identical structures of two or more successive clauses or sentences, and partial parallelism, in which the repeated sentence-pattern may vary.

Classify the following parallel constructions into complete and partial parallelism.

State what other stylistic means are used alongside syntactic parallelism in the following examples.

If it’s sad, nobly or foolishly, the man himself will make it so. If it’s richly sad and full of beauty, it’s man himself so…if it’s bad, ugly or pathetic – it’s always the man himself…

(W. Saroyan)

“I don’t know,” she said. “Nobody ever knows. They haven’t known for thousands of years, and I don’t think they ever will. People either like each other or don’t, and sometimes two people like each other who shouldn’t. I can’t explain myself, and certainly you can’t explain you.”

(R. Bradbury)

They will know that you will not betray them or hurt them. They will know that you will not despise them after the whole world has despised them. They will know that you will see in them what the whole world has failed to see.

(W. Saroyan)

Everyone remembered Ann Taylor, for she was that teacher for whom all the children wanted to bring huge oranges or pink flowers, and for whom they rolled up the rustling green and yellow maps of the world without being asked. She was that woman who always seemed to be passing by on days when the shade was green under the tunnels of oaks and elms in the old town, her face shifting with the bright shadows as she walked, until it was all things to all people. She was the fine peaches of summer in the snow of winter, and she was cool milk for cereal on a hot early-June morning. Whenever you needed an opposite, Ann Taylor was there. And those rare few days in the world when the climate was balanced as fine as a maple leaf between winds that blew just right, those were the days like Ann Taylor, and should have been so named on the calendar.

(R. Bradbury)

  •  Task 8.

Chiasmus.

Chiasmus is also called reversed parallelism, for into its pattern two sentences are included, of which the second necessarily repeats the structure of the first, only in reversed manner. The segments that change places enter opposite logical relations thus producing various stylistic effects (depending on the meanings of the words and the forms of chiasmatic members). Certain witticisms are based upon chiasmus.

When we are happy we are always good, but when we are good we are not always happy.

(O. Wilde)

Nothing can cure the soul but the senses, just as nothing can cure the senses but the soul.

(O. Wilde)

Как говорится, мы тратим молодость на приобретение богатства, а богатство – на покупку молодости.

(Д. Коупленд/пер. Ярцева В. С.)

Look through the given pairs of words and try to provide your own witticisms with a chiasmatic structure.

(teachers – students; time – money; happiness – career – health – family (any two) etc.)

  •  Task 9.

Antithesis.

Antithesis is a figure of speech in which sharply contrasting ideas are juxtaposed in a balanced or parallel phrase or grammatical structure. E.g. Man proposes, God disposes.

a) Study the given examples of antithesis and say what effect it adds to an utterance.

…the surface appears to be very…fine-grained when you get close to it. It’s almost like powder…Okay, I’m going to step off the LEM now. That’s one small step for man; one giant leap for mankind.

     (N. Armstrong)

He for God only, she for God in him.

(J. Milton)

We find ourselves rich in goods but ragged in spirit, reaching with magnificent precision for the moon but falling in a raucous discord on earth.

(R. Nixon) 

b) Try to reconstruct the utterances below based on antithesis:

eg  It was the best of times,….. (it was the worst of times)

(Ch. Dickens)

I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the colour of their skin but …

(M. L. King)

Extremism in defense of liberty is no vice, moderation in the pursuit of justice is… ….

(B. Goldwater)

Brutus: Not that I loved Caesar less, but that I loved Rome….

(W. Shakespeare)

The vases of the classical period are but the reflection of classical beauty; the vases of the archaic period are…

( J. Beazley )

  •  Task 10

Polysyndeton is also a kind of repetition – here conjunctions or connecting words are repeated. It can create the atmosphere of bustling activity, stress equal importance of enumerated factors or emphasize the validity of the indicated phenomena regardless of varying denominations by various parties concerned, etc.

a) State the function of the following examples of polysyndeton. Pay attention to the repeated conjunctions and the number of repetitions.

It is soaked and heavy, and it flops about, and tumbles down on you, and clings round your head, and makes you mad.

(J. K. Jerome)

no thats no way for him has he no manners nor no refinement nor no nothing in his nature slapping us behind like that…

(J. Joyce)

As for Bob Spaulding, he was the cousin who walked alone through town on any October evening with a pack of leaves after him like a horde of Hallowe’en mice, or you would see him, like a slow white fish in spring in the tart waters of the Fox Hill Creek, baking brown with the shine of a chestnut to his face by autumn. Or you might hear his voice in those treetops where the wind entertained; dropping down hand by hand, there would come Bob Spaulding to sit alone and look at the world, and later you might see him on the lawn with the ants crawling over his books as he read through the long afternoons alone, or played himself a game of chess on Grandmother’s porch, or picked out a solitary tune upon the black piano in the bay window. You never saw him with any other child.

(R. Bradbury)

Drunken with what? With wine, with poetry, or with virtue, as you will. But be drunken.

(E. O’Neill)

…what a pair of paws and pots and pans and kettles to mend any broken bottles for a poor man today and no visitors or post ever except his cheques or some advertisement they sent him addressed dear Madame…

(J. Joyce)

The miracle of turning inklings into thoughts and thoughts into words and words into metal and print and ink never palls for me; the technical aspects of bookmaking, from type font to binding glue, all interest me. The distinction between a thing well done and a thing done ill obtains everywhere – in all circles of Paradise and Inferno.      

 (J. Updike)

  •  Task 10.

Asyndeton, like polysyndeton, is a type of syntactical connection but, unlike polysyndeton, offers no conjunctions or connecting words for this purpose. Hence the difference in functions: asyndeton is used mostly to indicate tense, energetic, organized activities or to show a succession of minute actions, immediately following each other. Asyndeton helps to give a laconic and yet detailed introduction into the action proper.

Analyse the following cases of asyndeton, indicating their functions and paying attention to the quality of units, connected asyndetically.

Students would have no need to “walk the hospitals” if they had me. I was a hospital myself.

(J. K. Jerome)

That was about all there was to the meeting of Ann Taylor and Bob Spaulding, two or three monarch butterflies, a copy of Dickens, a dozen crayfish, four sandwiches, and two bottles of Orange Crush.

(R. Bradbury)

You can’t tell whether you are eating apple-pie or German sausage, or strawberries and cream. It all seems cheese. There is too much odour about cheese.

(J. K. Jerome)

Writing sweetie may be letters

     Or just guarding for his papers

     Lines are running after letters

    Wind escaping so hurrying

    Licking sticky envelope

    Bending sealing dropping it

   In the nearest postbox.

Monday, I could wait till Tuesday

           If I make up my mind

          Wednesday would be fine, Thursday's on my mind

         Friday'd give me time, Saturday could wait

         But Sunday'd be too late

                  (G. M. Sumner)

ANYTOWN, U.S.A

Sights, smells, sounds, city.

Pulsating to a violent beat.

The attraction can’t be denied.

The temptation can’t be suppressed.

Full of substance.

Driven by desire.

Drawn in by thousands.

Why do they feel so alone?

              (A. Boese)

  •  Task 11.

Suppose you were to take part in a conference devoted to one of the urgent global issues. Chose one of the speeches and change the given text inserting various kinds of syntactical means of expression in order to render certain ideas or create a certain effect. You are free to enlarge upon it.

In today’s world people seem to be very anxious and suffer from stress. This stress is often harmful and some people need to seek medical treatment in order to recover. However, a more effective solution is for people to learn to relax. This can be achieved through a variety of leisure activities such as sport, reading, music or even gardening. Emphasis is placed on people spending time doing things that they enjoy, the ultimate aim being relaxation. Unfortunately, some people find this impossible and therefore need to take drugs prescribed by their doctor. These drugs are called tranquilizers. They calm people down, but can be dangerous if taken for long periods of time. Alternative methods are much safer and have no side effects.

Loneliness is a disease of modern living, a result of people being more mobile and having more opportunities. With the break-up of family units, there is less of stability to build good relationships. Loneliness isn’t something that can be solved simply by seeing a counselor, speaking to someone on the telephone or being in the company of many people. Advice often given includes: joining clubs, taking up a sociable hobby or even trying a part-time job if you don’t work outside the house. However, none of this advice will provide an easy answer. To ease the feeling of emptiness it takes time. Friendships have to be allowed to grow on and deep bonds can’t be formed with just anyone. Anyone might be like a victim of loneliness at some time or other in their lives. If you change jobs, get married or move, you too might have problems in a new environment.

(after V. Evans)

Reference materials:

Galperin I. R. “Stylistics

Arnold I. V. “Стилистика современного английского языка”

Skrebnev Y. M. “Стилистика английского языка”  

Lebedeva L.B. 10 Lectures in Style

SEMINAR 9.

Phonetic stylistic devices.

Alliteration and assonance. Onomatopoeia.

Rhythm. Meter.

Rhyme.

  •  Task 1.

ALLITERATION IN PROSE
Alliteration is fun to say and enjoyable to hear. Without knowing it, you probably use alliteration to call attention to certain words. Many familiar phrases and expressions use alliteration. These include "down in the dumps," "hale and hearty," and "turn the tables." Tongue twisters rely on alliteration: "rubber baby buggy bumpers”. Many sayings such as these use alliteration:

He who laughs last laughs best.

Time and tide wait for no man.

When writers want to emphasize certain words, they may use alliteration. Notice the ideas that are emphasized by alliteration in these examples.

The deep churned. Something had happened down in the dim, foggy-green depths.

(P. Annixter)

Touch each object you want to touch as if tomorrow your tactile sense would fail.

(H. Keller)

There is always something left to love. And if you ain't learned that, you ain't learned nothing.

(L. Hansberry)

  •  Task 2.

ALLITERATION IN POETRY

Alliteration is one of the poet's most important sound techniques. It makes particular words stand out. It also connects the words to be emphasized. Look for the repeated consonant sounds in this poem:

Then up and spake an old sailor,
Had sailed to the Spanish Main,
"I pray thee, put into yonder port,
For I fear a hurricane."

(H. W. Longfellow)

Often the sounds and meanings of the words combine to create a mood. Here, repetition of b and t stresses a feeling of urgency.

Hear the loud alarum bells--
Brazen bells!
What a tale of terror, now, their turbulency tells!

(E. A. Poe)

The same can be observed in one of Whitman’s poems.

Beat! beat! drums ! – blow! bugles! Blow! –

This line represents the beginning of the verse. It is also repeated several times throughout the poem. Vivid repetition of the sounds [b], [t], [d], [l] evokes in our minds the sound of drumming. The effect is enhanced by abrupt rhythm and punctuation.  

Beat! beat ! drums ! – blow! bugles! Blow!

Through the windows – through doors – burst like a ruthless force.

  •  Task 3.

ASSONANCE. 

Prose writers sometimes repeat vowel sounds to reinforce the meaning of the words. It also helps to create moods. Here, the diphthong / ou / sounds mysterious.

Poetry is old, ancient, goes back far. It is among the oldest of living things. So old it is that no man knows how and why the first poems came.

(C. Sandburg)

In poetry, too, assonance gives emphasis to words that create the required atmosphere. Analyse the lines below. What effect does assonance produce?

And so, all the night-tide, I lie down by the side
Of my darling, my darling, my l
ife and my bride.

(E. A. Poe)

What consonant sounds are repeated in the following lines? What for?

Swing low, sweet chariot,
Comin' for to carry me home.

Find the examples of assonance in the following selections.

Slow things are beautiful:
The closing of the day,
The pause of the wave
That curves downward to spray
.

(E. Coatsworth)

Cacophony: harsh joining of sounds.

We want no parlay with you and your grisly gang who work your wicked will.                                                         

(W. Churchill)

  •  Task 5.

Say what makes the sentence and the text  below so elevated and impressive.

  •  Night came on, and a full moon rose high over the trees into the sky, lighting the land till it lay bathed in ghostly day.

(J. London)

  •  Sea just touch my tongue so salty

& wash me with your water-body

May be I will choose a warm wave to follow

Sea-water lick away fine sand crumbles

Just lick away even my eye-wrinkles

For me, just run away with my wrinkles

But now simply sinking my boat

& I, I even can’t swim dear

So you are only for me today

You are only for me sea-water (I want you to be mine)

Sea-water don’t mention that I’m so slim

But look & see how handsome I am

& take away my eye-wrinkles

Sea in water I meet the bottom quietly

& close my eyes & rush like a warm wave

& become a warm wave seaworthy

  •  Task 6.

Onomatopoeia.

The use of words to imitate sounds is called onomatopoeia. Bang, pop, hiss, and sizzle, tattarrattat are typical examples. Explain the difference between direct and indirect onomatopoeia. Supply examples.

Find examples of onomatopoeia in the following poem. Interpret the verse.

Cynthia in the Snow

It SHUSHES
It hushes
The loudness in the road.
It flitter-twitters,
And laughs away from me.
It laughs a lovely whiteness,
And whitely whirs away,
To be
Some otherwhere,
Still white as milk or shirts,
So beautiful it hurts.

(G. Brooks)

  •  Task 7.

 Rhythm. 

Rhythm is usually defined as a regular repetition of certain elements: phonemes, morphemes, syllables, lexemes, parts of sentences, sentences and even passages of text. Most laymen believe that we can only speak of rhythm when we deal with poetry whereas prose is devoid of it. This approach is erroneous. Both poetry and prose are characterized by  rhythm.

Rhythm in prose

By contrast to poetry, where we first of all speak of the phonological level of repetitions – and thus – rhythm, rhythm in prose is more or less syntactically based. It is rather difficult to catch it, but it is still present and fulfils a number of functions. Rhythm in prose is aimed at emphasizing ideas and emotions, it is a powerful means of creating a certain atmosphere, it can imitate movement, behaviour. Rhythm makes texts slow or dynamic, narration – smooth or abrupt. It enables the author to express his ideas and feelings in a more coherent and suggestive way.

Interpret the passages below accounting for the interrelation between its message and change of rhythm.

In the garden back of our house we planted vegetables, you know, peas and corn and such things. We went to Columbus in early March and as soon as the days became warm I went to work in the garden. With a spade I turned up the black ground while she ran about laughing and pretended to be afraid of the worms I uncovered. Late in April came the planting. In the little paths among the seedbeds she stood holding a paper bag in her hand. The bag was filled with seeds. A few at a time she handed me the seeds that I might thrust them into the warm, soft ground. There in the dusk in the spring evening I crawled along the black ground to her feet and groveled before her. I kissed her shoes and the ankles above her shoes. When the hem of her garment touched my face I trembled. When after two years of that life I found she had managed to acquire three other lovers who came regularly to our house when I was away at work, I didn’t want to touch them or her. I just sent her home to her mother and said nothing. There was nothing to say. I had four hundred dollars in the bank and I gave her that. I didn't ask her reasons. I didn't say anything. When she had gone I cried like a silly boy. Pretty soon I had a chance to sell the house and I sent that money to her.

(Sh. Anderson)

Soft sucking lips kiss my left armpit: a coiling kiss on myriad veins. I burn! I crumple like a burning leaf! From my right armpit a fang of flame leaps out. A starry snake has kissed me: a cold nightsnake. I am lost!     

(J. Joyce)

                                     …

I hold the websoft edges of her gown and drawing them out to hook them I see through the opening of the black veil her lithe body sheathed in an orange shift. It slips its ribbons of moorings at her shoulders and falls slowly: a lithe smooth naked body shimmering with silvery scales. It slips slowly over the slender buttocks of smooth tarnished silver and over their furrow, a tarnished silver shadow…

                                                  (J. Joyce)

Мощный механический организм большого банка функционирует исправно. Активы преумножаются. Операции совершаются. Кредиты выделяются. Платежи осуществляются. Проценты начисляются. Money talks. Бизнес встречает деньги.

                                                                            (Гаррос - Евдокимов)

Rhythm in poetry.

Rhythm in poetry is closely connected with the idea of meter. English versification has 5 main types of  meter:

Iambus  - +

Trochee  + -

Dactyl  + - -

Amphibrach - + -

Anapest   - - +

 

In his book “Разговор о стихах” E.G. Etkind singles out 10 kinds of rhythm:

Rhythm of meter stresses

Rhythm of end stresses

Rhythm of end accords (rhyme)

Rhythm of syllables number (syllabic)

Rhythm of end pauses

Rhythm of interior pauses (caesuras)

Rhythm of interior accords (interior rhymes)

Rhythm of real stresses

Phrase rhythm (syntactical)

Rhythm of stanzas

All these types of rhythm perform particular functions. Rhythm not only organizes a poem, it also introduces logical accents, creates its atmosphere.

  •  Task 8.

Rhyme.

Rhyme is another significant means of creating artistic images. It has two main aims:

the phonic function: provides a kind of basement for the whole poem

semantic-rhymical – makes the reader anticipate certain words

Rhymes can be classified in accordance with several factors:

position in a poem: initial; internal; end rhymes; cross-rhyme; adjacent; framing type

degree of sound coincidence: full (consonants are rhymed as well as vowels) or incomplete (partial) – (either consonants or vowels are rhymed); eye-rhyme; rich or poor

ending of a rhyme: open; closed

meter: male; female; dactyl

In any verse rhyme is subordinated to the general message of the poem.

a) Provide examples of all metrical types.

b) Define the type of rhyme in the examples below.

Defend-impend; feature-creature; tenderly-slenderly; better-letter, both-growth; never-whether; eyes- joys; vow-grow, home-come;

When the lamp is shattered

The light in the dust lies dead –

When the cloud is scattered

The rainbow’s glory is shed.

When the lute is broken,

Sweet tones are remembered not;

When the lips have spoken,

Loved accents are soon forgot…

(P.B. Shelley.)

c) Analyse the poem considering rhythm and rhyme as powerful means of creating artistic images.

“The Jazz of This Hotel”:

Why do I curse the jazz of this hotel?

I like the slower tom-toms of the sea;

I like the slower tom-toms of the thunder;

I like the more deliberate dancing knee

Of outdoor love, of outdoor talk and wonder.

I like the slower deeper violin

Of the wind across the fields of Indian corn;

I like the far more ancient violoncello

Of whittling loafers telling stories mellow

Down at the village grocery in the sun;

I like the slower bells that ring for church

Across the Indiana landscape old.

Therefore I curse the jazz of this hotel

That seems so hot, but is so hard and cold.

(V. Lindsey)

d) Give a careful interpretation of E. Poe’s “Raven”. Explain in what way phonetic stylistic devices helped the author to make the atmosphere of the poem so gloomy and mysterious.

THE RAVEN
by Edgar Allan Poe (1845)

Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered, weak and weary,
Over many a quaint and curious volume of forgotten lore,
While I nodded, nearly napping, suddenly there came a tapping,
As of some one gently rapping, rapping at my chamber door.
"'Tis some visitor," I muttered, "tapping at my chamber door;

Only this, and nothing more."

Ah, distinctly I remember it was in the bleak December,
And each separate dying ember wrought its ghost upon the floor.
Eagerly I wished the morrow;- vainly I had sought to borrow
From my books surcease of sorrow- sorrow for the lost Lenore,
For the rare and radiant maiden whom the angels name Lenore,

Nameless here for evermore.

And the silken sad uncertain rustling of each purple curtain
Thrilled me- filled me with fantastic terrors never felt before;
So that now, to still the beating of my heart, I stood repeating,
"'Tis some visitor entreating entrance at my chamber door,
Some late visitor entreating entrance at my chamber door;

This is it, and nothing more."

Presently my soul grew stronger; hesitating then no longer,
"Sir," said I, "or Madam, truly your forgiveness I implore;
But the fact is I was napping, and so gently you came rapping,
And so faintly you came tapping, tapping at my chamber door,
That I scarce was sure I heard you"- here I opened wide the door;

Darkness there, and nothing more.

Deep into that darkness peering, long I stood there wondering, fearing,
Doubting, dreaming dreams no mortals ever dared to dream before;
But the silence was unbroken, and the stillness gave no token,
And the only word there spoken was the whispered word, "Lenore!"
This I whispered, and an echo murmured back the word, "Lenore!"

Merely this, and nothing more.

Back into the chamber turning, all my soul within me burning,
Soon again I heard a tapping somewhat louder than before.
"Surely," said I, "surely that is something at my window lattice:
Let me see, then, what thereat is, and this mystery explore-
Let my heart be still a moment and this mystery explore;

'Tis the wind and nothing more."

Open here I flung the shutter, when, with many a flirt and flutter,
In there stepped a stately raven of the saintly days of yore;
Not the least obeisance made he; not a minute stopped or stayed he;
But, with mien of lord or lady, perched above my chamber door-
Perched upon a bust of Pallas just above my chamber door,

Perched, and sat, and nothing more.

Then this ebony bird beguiling my sad fancy into smiling,
By the grave and stern decorum of the countenance it wore.
"Though thy crest be shorn and shaven, thou," I said, "art sure no craven,
Ghastly grim and ancient raven wandering from the Nightly shore-
Tell me what thy lordly name is on the Night's Plutonian shore!"

Quoth the Raven, "Nevermore."

Much I marvelled this ungainly fowl to hear discourse so plainly,
Though its answer little meaning- little relevancy bore;
For we cannot help agreeing that no living human being
Ever yet was blest with seeing bird above his chamber door-
Bird or beast upon the sculptured bust above his chamber door,

With such name as "Nevermore."

But the raven, sitting lonely on the placid bust, spoke only
That one word, as if his soul in that one word he did outpour.
Nothing further then he uttered- not a feather then he fluttered-
Till I scarcely more than muttered, "other friends have flown before-
On the morrow he will leave me, as my hopes have flown before."

Then the bird said, "Nevermore."

Startled at the stillness broken by reply so aptly spoken,
"Doubtless," said I, "what it utters is its only stock and store,
Caught from some unhappy master whom unmerciful Disaster
Followed fast and followed faster till his songs one burden bore-
Till the dirges of his Hope that melancholy burden bore

Of 'Never- nevermore'."

But the Raven still beguiling all my fancy into smiling,
Straight I wheeled a cushioned seat in front of bird, and bust and door;
Then upon the velvet sinking, I betook myself to linking
Fancy unto fancy, thinking what this ominous bird of yore-
What this grim, ungainly, ghastly, gaunt and ominous bird of yore

Meant in croaking "Nevermore."

This I sat engaged in guessing, but no syllable expressing
To the fowl whose fiery eyes now burned into my bosom's core;
This and more I sat divining, with my head at ease reclining
On the cushion's velvet lining that the lamplight gloated o'er,
But whose velvet violet lining with the lamplight gloating o'er,

She shall press, ah, nevermore!

Then methought the air grew denser, perfumed from an unseen censer
Swung by Seraphim whose footfalls tinkled on the tufted floor.
"Wretch," I cried, "thy God hath lent thee- by these angels he hath sent thee
Respite- respite and nepenthe, from thy memories of Lenore!
Quaff, oh quaff this kind nepenthe and forget this lost Lenore!"

Quoth the Raven, "Nevermore."

"Prophet!" said I, "thing of evil!- prophet still, if bird or devil!-
Whether Tempter sent, or whether tempest tossed thee here ashore,
Desolate yet all undaunted, on this desert land enchanted-
On this home by horror haunted- tell me truly, I implore-
Is there- is there balm in Gilead?- tell me- tell me, I implore!"

Quoth the Raven, "Nevermore."

"Prophet!" said I, "thing of evil- prophet still, if bird or devil!
By that Heaven that bends above us- by that God we both adore-
Tell this soul with sorrow laden if, within the distant Aidenn,
It shall clasp a sainted maiden whom the angels name Lenore-
Clasp a rare and radiant maiden whom the angels name Lenore."

Quoth the Raven, "Nevermore."

"Be that word our sign in parting, bird or fiend," I shrieked, upstarting-
"Get thee back into the tempest and the Night's Plutonian shore!
Leave no black plume as a token of that lie thy soul hath spoken!
Leave my loneliness unbroken!- quit the bust above my door!
Take thy beak from out my heart, and take thy form from off my door!"

Quoth the Raven, "Nevermore."

And the Raven, never flitting, still is sitting, still is sitting
On the pallid bust of Pallas just above my chamber door;
And his eyes have all the seeming of a demon's that is dreaming,
And the lamplight o'er him streaming throws his shadow on the floor;
And my soul from out that shadow that lies floating on the floor

Shall be lifted - nevermore!

  •  Task 9.

Try to write a small passage trying to imitate some natural sounds or to create a certain phonetic effect.

Reference materials:

Galperin I. R. “Stylistics

Arnold I. V. “Стилистика современного английского языка”

Skrebnev Y. M. “Стилистика английского языка”  

Lebedeva L.B. 10 Lectures in Style

                                 

SEMINAR 10.

1.  Graphics as a kind of code. Linguistics vs. Extralinguistics.

2.  Violation of spelling and punctuation.

3.  Interrelation of types/prints.

4.  Paragraph division.

5. Shape poems.

      

  •  Task 1.

Study the information and explain the relevance of graphics in general stylistic analysis. Is graphics closer to stylistic devices or expressive means? Does it combine linguistic and extralinguistic components? Is it similar/different from the other above mentioned devices?

A literary work exists in a specific form unlike that of other fine arts. Marble or wood, from which a sculpture is made, is an inseparable part of its nature. A broken statue ceases to exist. The paper, on which a book is printed, does not influence its literary merits. It remains what it is - whether it is printed out or is read or is said and is heard. Nevertheless, as the perception of literary works descends predominantly through reading, instead of audition, their graphic design appears to be of great relevance. Not the format of the book or intelligibility of a font matters in this case, though it, certainly, too is important as a matter of convenience readings and general aesthetic impression, but the relationship of fonts, division into paragraphs and arrangement of lines, capitals, italic, punctuation marks.

The graphics represents the special system of signs and rules of their usage intended for the verbal report also suitable for visual perception while reading.

One of the characteristic features of poetry is that its aesthetic effect depends as much on its graphical arrangement as on the phonetic effects. The graphic form of a verse mirrors its frame and adjusts the reader to emotionality and expressiveness of the report. All these means are stylistically indispensable to render the meanings that in oral speech are transmitted by prosodic elements, stress, tone of a voice, prolongation of some notes etc.

  •  Task 2.

Analyze the following cases of graphon, guess the dialect (e. g. Scottish, Irish, cockney…) and read the text aloud observing its phonetic peculiarities. Indicate the causes which produced the mispronunciation (or misinterpretation)

So ye have tae watch oot before ye call it love. It’s just another form ay entertainment. See if the feelings transfer tae yir everyday life, then call it love. Love’s no jist for weekenders.        

  1.  Welsh)
    •  Э-я фа пасатыню удаляюсь

  Ата прекарасаных седешенеха мест.

(И. Тургенев)

“Oh, don’t pay no’tention to me. I jis studyin’ how simple you an’yo’ pa is. You is bof de simplest somebody I eva come’ crost.”

“You got to say plumb out w’at you mean, Aunt Dice,” insisted the girl doggedly, suspicious and alert now.

“Well, dat w’y I say you is simple,” proclaimed the woman, slamming down her iron on an inverted, battered pie pan, “jis like you says, dey gwine put yo’ pa’s picture yonda in de picture paper. An’ you know w’at readin’ dey gwine sot down on’neaf dat picture?” Martinette was intensly attentive. “Dey gwine sot down on’neaf: ‘Dis heah is one dem low-down’ Cajuns o’ Bayeh Teche!’”

All the blood flowed from Martinette’s face, leaving it deathly pale; in another instant it came beating back in a quick flood, and her eyes smarted with pain as if the tears that filled them had been fiery hot.

“I knows dem kin o’folks,” continued Aunt Dicey, resuming her interrupted ironing. “Dat stranger he got a li’le boy w’at ain’t none too big to spank. Dat li’le imp he come a hoppin’ in heah yistiddy wid a kine o’box on’neaf his arm. He say’ ‘Good mo’nin, madam. Will you be so kine an’ stan’ jis like you is dah at yo’ i’onin’ , an’ lef me take yo’ picture?’ I’ lowed I gwine make a picture outen him wid dis heah flati’on, ef he don’ cl’ar hisse’f quick. An’ he say he baig my pardon fo’ his intrudement. All dat kine o’ talk to a ole nigga’ oman! Dat plainly sho’ he don’ know his place. ”

                                                           (K. Chopin)

THE FLOWER GIRL. Ow, eez ye-ooa san, is e? Wal, fewd dan y' de-ooty bawmz a mather should, eed now bettern to spawl a pore gel's flahrzn than ran awy athaht pyin. Will ye-oo py me f'them? [Here, with apologies, this desperate attempt to represent her dialect without a phonetic alphabet must be abandoned as unintelligible outside London.]     

(B. Shaw)

THE FLOWER GIRL [springing up terrified] I aint done nothing wrong by speaking to the gentleman. Ive a right to sell flowers if I keep off the kerb. [Hysterically] I'm a respectable girl: so help me, I never spoke to him except to ask him to buy a flower off me. [General hubbub, mostly sympathetic to the flower girl, but deprecating her excessive sensibility. Cries of Dont start hollerin. Whos hurting you? Nobody's going to touch you. Whats the good of fussing? Steady on. Easy, easy, etc., come from the elderly staid spectators, who pat her comfortingly. Less patient ones bid her shut her head, or ask her roughly what is wrong with her. A remoter group, not knowing what the matter is, crowd in and increase the noise with question and answer: Whats the row? What she do? Where is he? A tec taking her down. What! him? Yes: him over there: Took money off the gentleman, etc. The flower girl, distraught and mobbed, breaks through them to the gentleman, crying wildly] Oh, sir, dont let him charge me. You dunno what it means to me. Theyll take away my character and drive me on the streets for speaking to gentlemen. They—

                                           (B. Shaw)

  •  Task 3.

Rewrite the above given abstracts, keeping to Standard English. Explain what kind of changes, except spelling, you had to introduce.

  •  Task 4.

Graphical expressive means can render some paralinguistic speech components, which accompany real communicative situation. How would you transfer punctuation marks in a real talk?

by intonation;

by gestures;

by facial expression;

by interjections;

by pause fillers (er, well, so…);

“We might go in your umbrella”, said Pooh.

     “?”

     “We might go in your umbrella”, said Pooh.

     “??”

     “We might go in your umbrella”, said Pooh.

     “!!!!!!”

                            (A.A. Milne)

And running along, and thinking how pleased Eeyore would be, he didn’t look where he was going… and suddenly he put his foot in a rabbit hole, and fell down flat on his face.

          BANG!!!???***!!!                                                                   

      Piglet lay there, wondering what had happened.

                            (A.A. Milne)

Glances and recollections, letters of  sorts

is what we get from each other. Rose called.

I had forgotten. Well, no I hadn’t. I’d stopped.

expecting. We learn. Not much. Not finally.

                      (W. Bronk)

…because you were the vehicle whereby it was boldly imposed upon the cold night sky. I have never known pain so ungainsayable. I beg you, What - ?

“Jump.”

“Jump?”

Jump.

“Jump -”

“JUMP!”

“Imagine the moon,” advised a little dog who had been eavesdropping, “as only slightly higher than the Albert Memorial. Or consider the Albert Hall….”

(J. Updike)

  •  Task 5.

What is the function of dots/dash accompanied by aposiopesis? What emotional state is emphasized:

embarrassment;

secrecy;

interruption;

nervousness;

indecision;

lost thought;

emotional flow

James rose from his chair. “There!” he said, “there! I knew there was something wro-” He checked himself, and was silent, staring before him, as though he had seen a portent.

                                                    (J. Galsworthy)

As Freezing persons, recollect the Snow

First – Chill – then Stupor – then the letting go –

                      (E. Dickinson)

“Guardian, dear Guardian!!! If you please - I –I have something, really something important. Probably you should know it - to tell you – I really have intrust to tell you - that Richard and Ada - have fallen in love”

(Ch. Dickens)

“until I have – blown to fragments – the –   a – detestable – serpent – Heep! I’ll partake of no one’s hospitability, until I have – a – the – moved Mount Vesuvius – to eruption – on – a – the – abandaned rascal – Heep! Refreshment – a – underneath this roof – particularly punch – would – a – choke me – unless – I had – previously – choked the eyes – out of the head – a – of interminable cheat, and liar – Heep! I – a – I’ll know nobody – and – a – say nothing –

and – a – live nowhere – until I have crushed – to –  a – undiscoverable atoms – the – transcendent and immortal hypocrite and perjurer – Heep ! ”

(Ch. Dickens)

  •  Jean:No.

Billy: Not even the pension people. I don't tell them my business. But, as I say—

Jean: Grandad! I promise. If I want anything—

Billy: Probably don't give you much in that job, do they? You tell them what you're worth, they're robbers. -

Jean: They pay pretty well.

Billy: How much was your fare up here? (He is getting slightly carried away.)

Jean: No, Grandad, please— I don't want it. .

Billy: Hold your bloody noise. If I want to give it to you, you shall have it. Here just a minute—     

Jean: Please—

Billy: What's the matter? Isn't it good enough for you?

Jean: It isn't that —

Bill y: Well then. Do as you're told...

(J. Osborne)

  •  Task 6.

Study the given abstract and account for the absence of punctuation.

What type of narration do we have, who is/are the speakers?

What can you say about emotional state of the character (love, hatred, reminiscences, dream, delirium etc…)?

Is it possible to divide the passage into syntagms? How can we see the borders between different parts? Can they be emphasized in some other way?

What makes the given text coherent?

…and then I asked him with my eyes to ask again yes and then he asked me would I yes to say yes my mountain flower and first I put my arms around him yes and drew him down to me so he could feel my breasts all perfume yes and his heart was going like mad and yes I said yes I will Yes.

                                                  (J. Joyce)

                                      (extract) Eimi

did you ever keep caterpillars did you ever have them make cocoons did you ever wait did you ever hear a rustling a dim thudding a desperate thin knocking it was a moth trying to escape from the cocoon but something is wrong it can’t it will die in there you must help it you really can’t help helping it you can’t stand the tinying noise you slit the cocoon Out Flops A Monstrous Unthing which Dies dies because it did Not escape Itself because it was Helped because it cannot Grow you let it out but It Cannot Grow it had better died inside the Cocoon at least that would have been a natural death a doom caused by itself’s weakness by itself’s inability to burst forth and to live! Living to grow! growing to be.

                                                                            (e. e. cummings)

  •  Task 7.

Explain why the author uses capital letters (or vice versa) in following phrases:

  1.  to highlight the inscription;
  2.  to render loud, irritated tone;
  3.  to ask for help;
  4.  to copy children’s handwriting;
  5.  to emphasize; to make the fact significant;
  6.  ….

And he wrote on one side of the paper:

                            HELP!

                         PIGLET(ME)

     and on the other side:

            IT’S ME PIGLET, HELP  HELP.

                            (A.A. Milne)

Not Tibbs!’ he cried – his tone became

            A shade or two less hearty –

   ‘Why, no’, said I. My proper name Is Tibbets – ’ ‘Tibbets?’ ‘Aye, the same’.

           ‘Why, then YOU’RE  NOT  THE  PARTY!’

                              (L. Carroll)

The head Sublime, the heart Pathos, the genitals Beauty,

                                                  the hands & feet Proportion.

                       …

                                           (W. Blake)

[since feeling is first]

since feeling is first

who pays any attention

to the syntax of things

will never wholly kiss you;

     5   wholly to be a fool

while Spring is in the world

my blood approves

and kisses are a better fate

than wisdom

10   lady i swear by all flowers. Don’t cry

- the best gesture of my brain is less than

your eyelids’ flutter which says

we are for each other: then

laugh, leaning back in my arms

15      for life’s not a paragraph

And death i think is no parenthesis

                   (e. e. cummings)

  •  Task 8.

Read the same abstract differently putting emphasis on the parts in different types;

Find the cases when graphics is accompanied by some other devices and explain them;

outline the key words among italicized;

Does the sense of a phrase depend on types? If yes, explain in what way?

‘Who are you?’ said the Caterpillar.

     This was not an encouraging opening for a conversation.

    Alice replied, rather shyly, ‘I – I hardly know, sir, just at present – at least I know who I was when I got up this morning, but I think I must have been changed several times since then.’

    ‘What do you mean by that?’ said the Caterpillar sternly. ‘Explain yourself!’

    ‘I can’t explain myself, I’m afraid, sir,’ said Alice, ‘because I’m not myself,   you see.’

    ‘I don’t see,’ said the Caterpillar.

    ‘I’m afraid I can’t put it more clearly,’ Alice replied very politely, ‘for I can’t understand it myself to begin with; and being so many different sizes in a day is very confusing.’

                          …

   ‘Not a bit,’ said the Caterpillar.

   ‘Well, perhaps your feelings may be different,’ said Alice; ‘all I know is, it would feel very queer to me.’

   ‘You!’ said the Caterpillar contemptuously. ‘Who are you?

                               (L. Carroll)

‘You might make a joke on that said the little voice close to her ear: “something about “you would if you could”, you  know’.

‘Don’t tease so’, said Alice, looking about in vain to see where the voice came from; if  you’re so anxious to have a joke made, why don’t you make one yourself?’

                         …

‘I know you are a friend,’ the little voice went on; ‘a dear old friend, and an old friend. And you won’t hurt me, though I am an insect’.

                       (L. Carroll)

      CHAPTER   XI

                 Waking.

AND IT  REALLY was a kitten, after all.

                    (L. Carroll)

  •  Task 9.

Define the functions of various types and provide examples:

Character description;

Pause making;

Providing coherence and logic;

Putting emphasis;

Supplying facts;

Increasing significance, emotional tension;

  •  Task 10.

Analyse the given verses and account for the effect produced, paying attention to the unusual usage of various elements. Provide parallels.

emptied. hills. listen.

,not, alive, trees, dream(

ev:ery:wheres:ex:tend:ing:hush

)

andDark

IshbusY

Ing-roundly-dis

tinct;chuck

lings,laced

ar:e.by(

fleet&panelike&frailties

!throughwhich!brittlest!whitewhom!

f

 l o a t?)

             r

               h y t h m s

                                  (e.e.cummings)

*snowflake

l(a)

le

af

fa

ll

s)

one

l

iness

                               (e.e. cummings)

* a leaf falls/ loneliness

un(bee)mo

vi

n(in)g

are(th

e)you(o

nly)

asl(rose)eep

                            (e.e. cummings)

*unmoving are you asleep & bee in the only rose

 

  •  Task 11.

Explain paragraph division in the below given extracts.

The crowd was quiet, and one by one the people left the cafe. Mules were waked up and untied, automobiles cranked, and the three boys from Society City roamed off down the road on foot. This was not fight to hash over and talk about afterwards; people went home and pulled the covers up over their heads. The town was dark, except for the premises of Miss Amelia, but every room was lighted there the whole night long.

Marvin Macy and the hunchback must have left the town an hour or so before daylight. And before they went away this is what they did:

They unlocked the private cabinet of curios and took everything in it.

They broke the mechanical piano.

They carved terrible words on the cafe tables.

They found the watch that opened in the back to show a picture of a waterfall and took that also.

They poured a gallon of sorghum syrup all over the kitchen floor and smashed the jars of preserves.

They went out in the swamp and completely wrecked the still, ruining the big new condenser and the cooler, and setting fire to the shack itself.

They fixed a dish of Miss Amelia's favourite food, grits with sausage, seasoned it with enough poison to kill off the county, and placed this dish temptingly on the cafe counter.

They did everything ruinous they could think of without actually creaking into the office where Miss Amelia stayed the night. Then they went off together, the two of them.

That was how Miss Amelia was left alone in the town.

(B. McCullers)

• The crowd was pushing harder. The men in front were jammed against the jail, and the men behind were trying to get within earshot. Those in the middle were squeezed against each other so tightly they could not move in any direction. Everyone was talking louder.

    Jim's face pressed between the bars and his fingers gripped the iron until the knuckles were white.

   The milling crowd was moving across the street to the vacant lot. Somebody was shouting. He climbed up on an automobile and began swearing at the top of his lungs.

   A man in the middle of the crowd pushed his way out and went to his automobile. He got in and drove off alone.

  Jim stood holding to the bars and looking through the window. The sheriff had his back to the crowd, and he was saying something to Jim. Jim did not hear what he said.

 A man on his way to the gin with a load of cotton stopped to find out what the trouble was. He looked at the crowd in the vacant lot for a moment, and then he turned around and looked at Jim behind the bars. The shouting across the street was growing louder.

                                                                                    (E. Caldwell)

  •     У меня в жизни этого уже не будет. Никогда!

  Никогда. Но раньше было как-то…я не знаю…а домой пришел, а дома нет! Ну, в смысле…что ли…Но с другой стороны, чего жаловаться-то…Очень многие ведь. Просто в моей жизни этого не будет…И совсем даже – необязательно…А дома нет….

  Просто…ну, нужно как-то понять, разобраться…ведь что получается, или…Хотя конечно, ничего не попишешь…оно все так…конечно.

  Да! Да, да, да, я и сам так думаю…

  Не стоит… это ведь…

  Я бы не стал так однозначно…

 Это уж - как  хотите…

(Е. Гришковец)

Read the abstract and divide it into paragraphs according to:

A) logical criteria:

chronology;

characters;

summing up factual information

B) artistic impression:

1. emphasis;

2. pause;

3. detalization/generalization;

4. change of time

5. …

He might have been put together from parts of the tree, for his nose was like a wooden peg, his legs were strong as old roots, and his eyebrows were thick, tough as strips of bark. Among the topmost branches were beards of silvery moss the colour of his centre-parted hair, and the cowhide sycamore leaves, sifting down from a neighbouring taller tree, were the colour of his cheeks. Despite his canny, tomcat eyes, the general impression his face made was that of someone shy and countrified. Ordinarily he was not the one to make a show of himself, Judge Charlie Cool; there were many who had taken the advantage of his modesty to set themselves above him. Yet none of them could have claimed, as he could, to be a graduate of Harvard University or to have twice travelled in Europe. Still, there were those who were resentful and felt that he put on airs: wasn’t he supposed to read a page of Greek every morning before breakfast? and what kind of man he was it that would always have flowers in his button-hole? If he wasn't stuck up, why, some people asked, had he gone all the way to Kentucky to find a wife instead of marrying one of our own women? I do not remember the Judge's wife; she died before old enough to be aware of her, therefore all that I repeat comes second-hand. So: the town never warmed up to Irene Cool, and apparently it was her own fault. Kentucky women are difficult to begin with, keyed-up, hellion-hearted, and Irene Cool, who was born a Todd in Bowling Green (Mary Todd, a second cousin once removed, had married Abraham Lincoln) let everyone around here know she thought them a backward, vulgar lot: she received none of the ladies of the town, but Miss Palmer, who did sewing for her, spread news of how she'd transformed the Judge's house into a place of taste and style with Oriental rugs and antique furnishings. She drove to and from Church in a Pierce-Arrow with all the windows rolled up, and in church itself she sat with a cologned handkerchief against her nose: the smell of God ain't good enough for Irene Cool. Moreover, she would not permit either of the local doctors to attend her family, this though she herself was a semi-invalid: a small backbone dislocation necessitated her sleeping on a bed of boards. There were crude jokes about the Judge getting full of splinters. Nevertheless, he fathered two sons, Todd and Charles Jr., both born in Kentucky where their mother had gone in order that they could claim to be natives of the bluegrass state. But those who tried to make out the Judge got the brunt of his wife's irritableness, that he was a miserable man, never had much of a case, and after she died even the hardest of their critics had to admit old Charlie must surely have loved his Irene. For during the last two years of her life, when she was very ill and fretful, he retired as circuit judge, then took her abroad to the places they had been on their honeymoon. She never came back; she is buried in Switzerland. Not so long ago Carrie Wells, a school-teacher here in town, went on a group tour to Europe; the only thing connecting our town with that continent are graves, the graves of soldier boys and Irene Cool; and Carrie, armed with a camera for snap-shots, set out to visit them all: though she stumbled about in a cloud-high cemetery one whole afternoon, she could not find the Judge's wife, and it is funny to think of Irene Cool, serenely there on a mountain-side still unwilling to receive. There was not much left for the Judge when he came back; politicians like Meiself Tallsap and his gang had come into power: those boys couldn't afford to have Charlie Cool sitting in the courthouse. It was sad to see the Judge, a fine-looking man dressed in narrowcut suits with a black silk band sewn around his sleeve and a Cherokee rose in his buttonhole, sad to see him with nothing to do except go to the post office or stop in at the bank. His sons worked in the bank, prissy-mouthed,   prudent men who might have been twins, for they both were marsh-mallow-white, slump-shouldered, watery-eyed. Charles Jr., he was the one who had lost his hair while still in college, was vice-president of the bank, and Todd, the younger son, was chief cashier, in no way did they resemble their father, except that they had married Kentucky women. These daughters-in-law had taken over the Judge's house and divided it into two apartments with separate entrances; there was an arrangement whereby the old man lived with first one son's family, then the other. No wonder he'd felt like taking a walk to the woods.

                                              (T. Capote)

At ten o'clock everything changed. The big glass doors of the bank folded open and a river of people dipped in for money and brought the money to Marullo's, and took away the fancy foods Easter calls for. Ethan was busy as a water skater until the sixth hour struck. The angry firebell from its cupola on the town hall clanged the sixth hour. The customers drifted away with their bags of baked meats. Ethan brought in the fruit stands and closed the front doors, and then for no reason except that a darkness fell on the world and on him, he pulled down the thick green shades and the darkness fell on the store. Only the neon in the cold counter glared a ghostly blue. Behind the counter he cut four fat slices of rye bread and buttered them liberally. He slid open the cold doors and picked out two slices of processed Swiss cheese and three slices of ham. "Lettuce and cheese," he said, "Lettuce and cheese. When a man marries he lives in the trees." Lie mortared the top slices of bread with mayonnaise from a jar, pressed the lids down on the sandwiches, and trimmed the bits of lettuce and ham fat from the edges. Now a carton of milk and a square of waxed paper for wrapping. He was folding the ends of the paper neatly when a key rattled in the front door and Marullo came in, wicle as a bear and sack-chested so that his arms seemed short and stood out from his body. His hat was on the back of his head so that his stiff iron-gray bangs showed like a cap. Marullo's eyes were wet and sly and sleepy, but the gold caps, on his front teeth shone in the light from the cold counter. Two top buttons of his pants were open, showing his heavy grey underwear. He hooked little fat thumbs in the roll of his pants under his stomach and blinked in the half-darkness.

                                                        (J. Steinbeck)

  •  Task 12.

Explain whether all text elements are necessary or some of them can be omitted. What kind of text equivalent or symbol would you use to substitute it? Would it be possible to reconstruct afterwards?

…but nothing seemed to disturb the good humour of the jolly old man, who marched on, chanting his melodious refrain:

(L. Carrol)

(L. Carrol)

  •  Task 13.

Suggest the title to the given poems and explain your choice;

Comment on the sequence of words: is it possible to change places? How would you start reciting them orally?

Compare the poems as far as the message goes and the linguistic means used.

О, где же те мечты? Где радости, печали,

                           Светившие нам столько долгих лет?

                               От их огней в туманной дали

                                  Чуть виден слабый свет…

                                           И те пропали,

                                                 Их нет.

                                                                    (А. Апухтин)

и

кто

придя

в  твои

запретныя

где б не был до того никто

найдет безмолвныя твои

и тайны  света низведя

в тьме безответныя

родит тебе мечты

тот светлый ты

твоя звезда  живая

твой гений двойника

его смиренно призывая

смутясь  молись  издалека

а   ты а ты вечерняя  звезда

тебе туда

глядеть

где я

я

( И. Рукавишников )

the time of daffodils (who know

the goal of living is to grow)

forgetting why, remember how

in time of lilacs who proclaim

the aim of waking is to dream,

remember so (forgetting seem)

in time of roses (who amaze

our now and here with paradise)

forgetting if, remember yes

in time of all sweet things beyond

whatever mind may comprehend,

remember seek (forgetting find)

and in a mystery to be

(when time from time shall set us free)

forgetting me, remember me

                                                           (по материалам Internet)

Task 14.

A) Rearrange the given elements and explain the chain of words and associations (cherry in blossom, exams ahead, birds singing, piles of tests, the fluttering heart, an open textbook,a love note...)

B) Think of your own shape poem based on associations, ask your group mates to entitle it and account for the effect.

Reference materials:

Galperin I. R. “Stylistics

Arnold I. V. “Стилистика современного английского языка”

Skrebnev Y. M. “Стилистика английского языка”  

Lebedeva L.B. 10 Lectures in Style

SEMINAR 11.

Functional styles

  •  Task 1.

Discuss different classifications and approaches to the problem of functional styles.

  •  Task 2.

Analyse the following table. Indicate the basic style-forming characteristics of each functional style and find the overlapping features.

features

colloquial

official documents

scientific

newspaper

1. sphere of social life

2. main function

3. type of relation between the members of communication

4.prepared/unprepared speech

5. limitations

6. topical range

7. prevailing form of speech

8. form of expression

9. peculiarities of lexical meaning

10. evaluation

11. emotiveness

12. expressiveness

  •  Task 3.

To what functional style can these types of discourse belong? Explain.

An sms, an e-mail message, a review, a horoscope, a TV program, a love note, a crib, stock exchange listing, a manual, a booklet, a toast, a tourist guide-book, …

  •  Task 4.

Define the style and account for your answer.

Fly with “Aeroflot”!

School № 10 requires a teacher of Russian.

The tiger is a huge mammal predator.

Do not enter! High voltage!

BBC Journal is my favourite news programme.

Water turns into ice at  0 °C.

That  thunderstorm was terrific! And I got such a fright!

Все граждане России, достигшие 18 лет, имеют право участвовать в выборах президента.

Выставка, посвященная 300-летию флота, работает ежедневно с 12.00 до 18.00.

Игроками российской сборной по теннису была одержана блестящая победа.

  •  Task 5.

Provide the given vocabulary items with synonymous ones from the other styles.

the above-given

cost

application

supervise

purchase

interval

expediency

come into force

manufacture

annihilate

  •  Task 6.

What official documents can express the message rendered by the standard colloquial phrases?

You can use my car.

Can I leave work and have a two weeks’ rest?

Do you have a vacancy?

Please, get my salary for me.

I’m sorry, I’m late. I got stuck in a terrible traffic jam downtown.

Do you happen to know someone wanting a house in the country?

I’ve made up my mind: next week I will buy your garage.

I want to sell my PC.

I could teach Russian to foreigners.

  •  Task 7. 

The Russian language employs interstyle synonyms. These are words very close in meaning but diverging in spheres of application. English is no different from Russian in this respect. Fill in the table so as to illustrate the stylistic difference between the words in each pair.

Official

General usage

проживать

жить

изолированная (комната)

отдельная

принадлежать

дата

выйти из строя

поставить (deliver)

on behalf of

term (срок)

at the rate

on condition that

with regard to

to grant

  •  Task 8.

Supply a variety of cues appropriate in different communicative situations. Your interlocutor is:

a close friend of yours;

your parent;

an authority of some kind.

You introduce your friend.

You’ve left your watch behind and need to know the exact time.

You want to get to a museum but don’t know the way.

You inquire your interlocutor about his vacation.

You ask your interlocutor to your place.

You reject someone’s invitation to the theater.

You congratulate your  interlocutor on his birthday.

You need to say that he\she is wrong.

  •  Task 9.

Choose among the supplied variants the ones you find most appropriate for a certain style.

The purposes of the procedure of internal quality assurance are analysis of work fulfilled within the framework of the Project, analysis of approved project solutions for compliance with the customer’s requests/requirements/needs/wants/desires and methodological principles of implementation/functioning/execution/running, integrity and completeness of the implemented model, evaluation of the project records/credentials/papers/documentation compliance with the standards of the utilized implementation methodology, evaluation of observance of the approved procedures, introduction/publicity/exposure /spotlight of problems and working out recommendations on their auxiliary/further/more /supplementary solving.

CAUTION: In order to avoid a risky/ hazardous/unsafe/harmful situation, this appliance must never be connected to a timer switch.

Important

1.  Read the instructions for use carefully and look at the illustrations before using the appliance.

2. Keep these instructions for use for future reference/orientation/suggestion/mentioning.

3. Check if the power/voltage/current indicated on the appliance corresponds to the local mains voltage (110-127V or 220-240V) before you connect the appliance.

4. Never use any accessories/garnishing or parts from other manufacturers or that have not been specifically advised by ABC. Your assurance/agreement/guarantee will become invalid/worthless/unsound if such accessories or parts have been used.

5. Do not use the appliance if the mains cord, the plug or other parts are damaged. If the mains cord of this appliance is scratched/dented/ damaged /spoiled, it must always be replaced by ABC or a service centre authorized/sanctioned/approved /authorized by ABC, in order to avoid hazardous situations.

6. Never let the appliance run unattended/on its own.

7. Switch the appliance off before coming off/ detaching /cracking any accessory.

8. Never immerse/dip/engross the motor unit in water or any other fluid.

  •  Task 10.

Find the stylistic mistakes in the given texts; correct them and explain your choice.

October 16, 1990 Dear Sirs:

Contract N°175/91

 Further to our talks with Mr.Brown, held 2 days ago, we should be obliged if you would confirm in writing the changes of the wording of Clause N°8 of our Contract viz: «Payment of the total contract value is to be effected against presentation of the following documents:

1. Full set of clean «on board» Bills of Lading covering the goods sent to your country.

2. Invoice in three copies.

3. Specification in three copies.

4. Certificate of quality.

  Payment for the goods delivered is to be done in the following way: 25 per cent of the value of the goods to be paid in advance while signing the Contract; the balance of 75 per cent is to be paid by bills in 90 days. Drafts are to be drawn on your firm after the delivering the last parcel of the goods».

We hope that you will not object to the new wording.

Yours faithfully, Soj uzraznoexport Vasiliy Kozlov, Manager

VFK: Ko

The Cables Birchwood Surrey

January 4, 1991 Dear Mrs Drummond,

Very many thanks for your kind letter. Me and my husband accept your invitation to dinner for next Saturday. We have both a great deal of news to tell you when we meet.

Yours sincerely. Anita O'Day

Dear Miss L.,

I am writing that which I fear I have not the courage, on

so short an acquaintance, to tell you.

The moment you came into my life I loved you.

Before we met I did not believe love at first sight feasible. But you opened my eyes, and caused me to see this wonderful truth in life—the sudden eye-opener of all that is lovely and divine in a human soul.

May I call on you? Meet me, OK?

Be as merciful as you are beautiful, and save from me despair.

Yours ever, John Kaminsky, Head Dentist

Advertisement in Times 24 March. 1989

Dear Sir,

I wish to apply for the post supplied for three years at Senior Lecturer level as described in your advertisement. I am a graduate of the University of Leningrad and have the degree of C.Sc. (i.e. Candidatus Scientarium—that’s the same as Ph.D.).

The offered post seems rather cool to me as it belongs to the field in which I specialize.

I enclose my curriculum vitae in which all details and three recommendations are set out.

Please, do consider my application and send me the necessary forms.

Sincerely, Ally

  •  Task 11.

Render the message of the sentence in various ways using different functional styles.

Intrinsic motivation works better than extrinsic one.

The picture impressed everybody.

Language is the main means of communication.

Water can turn into ice.

Sharks can be dangerous for man.

  •  Task 12.

Analyze the given texts taking into consideration the clash of styles.

«Через несколько дней молодой медик гулял с девушкой по сильно пересеченной местности на берегу моря. Он изо всех сил старался понравиться. Конечно, говорил грудным и страстным голосом, конечно, нес всякий вздор, даже врал, что он челюскинец и лучший друг Отто Юльевича Шмидта. Он предложил руку, комнату в Москве, сердце, отдельную кухню и паровое отопление. Девушка подумала и согласилась».

(И. Ильф, Е. Петров)

«Любая культура постоянно подвергается бомбардировке со стороны падающих на нее, подобно метеоритному дождю, случайных отдельных текстов. Речь идет не о текстах, включенных в определенную связную традицию, оказывающую влияние на ту или иную культуру, а именно об отдельных возмущающих вторжениях. Это могут быть обломки других цивилизаций, случайно выкапываемые из земли, случайно занесенные тексты отдаленных во времени и пространстве культур. Если бы тексты не имели своей памяти и не могли бы создавать вокруг себя определенной семантической ауры, все эти вторжения так и оставались бы музейными раритетами, находящимися вне основного культурного процесса. На самом деле они оказываются важными факторами, провоцирующими динамику культуры. Связано это  с тем, что текст, подобно зерну, содержащему в себе программу будущего развития, не является застывшей и неизменно равной самой себе данностью. Внутренняя не-до-конца-определенность его структуры создает под влиянием контактов с новыми контекстами резерв для его динамики».

(Ю. М. Лотман)

  •  I held the phone to my ear for a while, listening to the dialing tone change to the snotty-voiced cow saying Please Hang Up, wishing a dozen different impossible and selfish things along the lines of Natasha still being a little girl, living at home under my jurisdiction and not being subject to the whims and fancies of the male students, bartenders, nightclub owners and drug pushers of Leicester, and too far away for me to march over there and bring her safely home by midnight.

(Sh. Norton)

  •  Task 13.

 Clash of styles has already entered all spheres of communication. Still politics bears the palm. Look through the article below. Outline the following elements:

borrowings and supply their Russian equivalents;

most popular words;

political terms.

Do you find the text convincing? What linguistic elements create the effect?

Власть и наука

Сугубо утилитарный, нередко попросту высокомерный подход российский власти к науке - явление не новое. Еще Козьма Прутков заметил, что «перед Шуваловым свой стяг склонял великий Ломоносов». В период всевластия коммунистической идеологии это печальное обстоятельство приобрело еще более гипертрофированный, доходящий до абсурда характер. С одной стороны, власть не жалела средств на ВПК, развитие которого непредставимо без постоянного прогресса в целом ряде прикладных и фундаментальных направлений науки. С другой - в представлении партийно-правительственных бонз ученые были такими же «винтиками» и послушными «подручными партии», как писатели, ИТР, журналисты... Очевидно, что мнение «винтика» при строительстве в расчет приниматься не может, тем более, если речь идет о «великой стройке светлого будущего всего человечества». В результате мы, например, угробили генетику, проморгали компьютерную революцию, потеряли все из-за косности и ограниченности нашего политического руководства, которое просто не могло выйти за рамки своих замшелых представлений и понять, что общественный прогресс определяется не классовой борьбой, а в первую очередь научно-техническими достижениями.

Власть и наука - это те институты современной цивилизации, от которых в огромной степени зависит динамика процессов развития общества и государства. Этот постулат особенно актуален для России, переживающей ныне один из сложнейших (но и самых многообещающих!) периодов своей истории. Сегодня для нас нет, и не может быть иной политики, никакой другой национальной идеи, кроме политики ощутимого улучшения экономической ситуации, кроме идеи повышения уровня и качества жизни людей, целенаправленного формирования на этой основе свободного и ответственного человека. Потому что лишь свободные граждане, живущие достойной жизнью, способны создать гражданское общество и правовое государство и гарантировать нашу страну от очередных перекосов в развитии.

Между тем именно сейчас в обществе заметен некоторый перебор эмоций при дефиците плодотворных, перспективных идей. Вероятно, подобная ситуация характерна для любого переходного периода, но тем более возрастает роль науки и ученых в жизни страны. Первые признаки того, что власть начинает это осознавать, кажется, просматриваются. Но пока нет полной уверенности, что это не временное явление, продиктованное конъюнктурой момента, а постоянно действующий фактор. Дело в том, что на заре становления новой России наша Академия наук была привлечена и принимала самое непосредственное и активное участие в государственном строительстве. Особенно в областях, связанных с оборонной и внешнеполитической сферами. Но этот «роман» власти с наукой, увы, развивался по уже знакомому сценарию и продлился недолго.

В результате мы имеем то, что имеем: власть дает ученым некое весьма скромное содержание, своего рода пособие по безработице, а ученые при таком раскладе получают возможность ни за что не отвечать, не нести никакой ответственности за состояние дел в стране. Назвать подобное положение вещей прискорбными - значит, ничего не сказать. Мощный долговременный негативный эффект сложившегося между властью и наукой модуса взаимоотношений состоит в первую очередь в том, что общество не может преодолеть поистине самоубийственный потенциал существующих антиинтеллектуальных настроений. Последние, в свою очередь, всегда были и будут благодатной почвой для возникновения тоталитарных тенденций, что увеличивает опасность очередного поворота на бесплодный, тупиковый путь развития. Думается, приводить для подтверждения этой аксиомы исторические примеры не требуется -они общеизвестны.

Но уместно напомнить, что в государствах, по нашим меркам вполне благополучных, дело обстоит как раз наоборот. Руководители таких государств пользуются интеллектуальными услугами, всем объемом знаний и умений своего общества отнюдь не спорадически, не из конъюнктурных соображений и не в авральных ситуациях, а на системной, постоянной основе. Такова традиция, и только при таком подходе диалог власти с наукой становится небесплодным. Стоит ли говорить, что в этом случае ученый не рассматривается в качестве «винтика» и даже просто человека, знающего много больше других. Здесь существует прочно укоренившееся понимание того непреложного факта, что технологии в современном мире развиваются стремительно, а в связи с этим столь же быстро возрастают возможности и способность ученого, всей сферы науки непосредственно влиять на жизнь общества.

Представляется, что нынешний этап в жизни России может стать в этом отношении переломным. Есть, как мне кажется, определенные предпосылки к тому, чтобы наметившийся между властью и наукой очередной диалог постепенно перерос в своего рода конвергенцию и приобрел характер устойчивого позитивного фактора общественно-политического прогресса и социально-экономического развития российского государства. По целому ряду признаков можно судить, что мы преодолеваем самые нелегкие времена переходного периода и вступаем в качественно новый этап государственного развития, этап, возможно, и не столь «романтичный», как прежний, но тем более предполагающий востребованность реально существующего интеллектуального потенциала.

Конечный результат начатого Россией колоссального движения зависит и от власти, и от науки, от нового образа их отношений. При этом задача власти - поддерживать и культивировать здравые, конструктивные силы и идеи, формировать благоприятную конкурентоспособную среду для деятельности ученых. Это обязательное и необходимое условие, реализация которого немыслима без развития демократии и преодоления бюрократизма, создающего атмосферу беспредельной безответственности.

Несомненно, что и демократия не является идеальным общественным строем. Идеал, как известно, недостижим в принципе. Но именно демократия при всех ее издержках есть наиболее надежный гарант от крупных ошибок, от застоя и воинствующего антиинтеллектуализма. В условиях демократии, поддерживаемой сильным дееспособным правовым государством, содружество власти и науки будет чрезвычайно перспективным и плодотворным.

(Е. Велихов, НГ.)

  •  Task 14.

a) Analyse the given example of style imitation in literature. Define its functions. Find all the devices, which create the style of official documents and comment on the effect produced. 

            PLAN TO CAPTURE BABY ROO

1. General Remarks. Kanga runs faster than any of Us, even Me.

      2. More General Remarks. Kanga never takes her eye off Baby Roo,

       except when he’s safely buttoned up in her pocket.

      3. Therefore. If we are to capture Baby Roo, we must get a long start,    

        because Kanga runs faster than any of Us, even Me.(See 1.)

    4. A Thought. If Roo had jumped out of Kanga’s pocket and Piglet had jumped in, Kanga wouldn’t know the difference, because Piglet is a Very Small Animal.

    5. Like Roo.

    6. But Kanga would never have to be looking the other way first, so not to see Piglet jumping in.

      7. See 2.

      8. Another Thought. But if Pooh was talking to her very excitedly, she might look the other way for a moment.

              9. And then I could run away with Roo.

      10. Quickly.

      11. And Kanga wouldn’t discover the difference until Afterwards.

(A.A. MILNE)

ORDER OF LOOKING FOR THINGS.

1.Special place .           ( To find Piglet.)

2.Piglet.                       ( To find who Small is.)

3.Small.                      ( To find Small .)

4.Rabbit.                   ( To tell him I’ve found Small.)    

5.Small Again.         ( To tell him I’ve found Rabbit.)

(A.A. Milne)

b) Quote the phrases which perform the following functions:

emphasize Rabbit’s self-esteem;

make a pause for thinking;

establish logical relations  and integrity within the document;

make a logical emphasis;

provide factual information;

make this or that fact significant…

Try to characterize each personage according to the given “documents”.

Try to make your own plan of fulfilling some trifle task in a serious way.

  •  Task 15.

Rewrite the given text keeping to one of the intentions. You are:

an old millionaire, writing memoirs;

writing a manual “How to Be a Success and Get Your First Million”;

sending an urgent message to your business partner;

being interviewed;

etc

Google's shares were first floated on the market a year ago

Google $4bn share sale hits stock

Shares in Google have dropped after the internet search engine announced plans to sell another 14 million shares to raise $4bn (£2.2bn; 3.3bn euros). 

The stock sale, which comes as Google celebrates its first anniversary as a listed company, will partly be used to help fund possible acquisitions.

Google stressed that it had no current deals in the offing, and it also would use the money to fund running costs.

Shares in Google lost $5.09, or 1.79%, to close at $279.75 on Thursday.

China beckons 

We believe the company is building a war chest for future acquisitions 


Mark Rowen, Prudential analyst

"The principal purpose of this offering is to obtain additional capital," Google said in a filing with the US Securities and Exchange Commission.

The company said that until suitable buying opportunities arose, it would invest the proceeds of the offering in "highly liquid, investment grade securities".

"We believe the company is building a war chest for future acquisitions," said Prudential analyst Mark Rowen in a note to clients.

Citigroup analyst Mark Mahaney said he expected Google to "use the proceeds for an acquisition, most likely in international markets."

Commentators have suggested that Google may use the cash to gain a stronger foothold in China, following a move by internet rival Yahoo to take a 40% stake in Chinese auction website Alibaba.com.

Merrill Lynch analyst Lauren Rich said Google could have Chinese internet search engine Baidu.com in its sights. Baidu's shares soared 350% on their first day of trading on the US Nasdaq stock exchange earlier this month.

Google has been steadily expanding its operations beyond its core internet search sites, to include free e-mail, web logs and online comparison shopping.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/

Wall Street giants see oil rising

Oil prices are being influenced by a number of factors

Wall Street giants Goldman Sachs and Merrill Lynch have revised upwards their predictions for the price of oil. 

Oil prices rose to a record of $67.10 a barrel last week on supply and refinery worries and there are fears that prices will not fall and may go even higher.

US light crude will cost an average of $67 per barrel this year, $13.50 higher than a previous forecast, Goldman said.

Merrill, meanwhile, expects to pay an average of $56 a barrel this year, up $6 from its earlier target.

On the horizon 

Look to the long-term, however, and there is a divergence of views on what will happen to the price of oil.

In our view, recent strength has been driven by short-term supply disruptions and renewed geopolitical tensions 


Merrill Lynch

Goldman Sachs expects that a barrel of US light crude will still cost close to $60 at the end of the decade.

While Merrill's global energy team also raised its forecasts for long-term US crude prices by 40%, it sees a more manageable price of $42 a barrel by 2009.

The difference in outlook is based on how they view investment by oil companies in coming years and how successful that spending will be on finding new fields and easing refinery bottlenecks.

"In our view, recent strength has been driven by short-term supply disruptions and renewed geopolitical tensions," Merrill's global energy team said.

"Longer-term, we believe $60 a barrel oil is unsustainable and expect prices to retrace."

US commodities guru Jim Rogers has told Reuters that oil will prices will soar upwards to $100 a barrel.

"I don't know about the next quarter or even next year...but it will go to over $100 a barrel," he said.

Mr Rogers, who sees strong oil prices as being based on strong demand and shortage of supply, pointed out there have been no great oil discoveries in "more than 35 years".

'People nervous' 

In the current environment, however, any easing of prices seems likely to be short-lived.

After dropping on Wednesday following the publication of robust US stockpile figures, oil prices started climbing again on Friday after a blaze at a major Venezuelan refinery.

Crude oil prices rose following the fire at the massive Paraguana refining complex, which, combined with a halt in Ecuador's exports, and a reported blast at the Aqaba port of Jordan, was enough to give the market the jitters.

In electronic trading on Friday, a barrel of light sweet crude for delivery in September gained $1.33, to $64.60 per barrel.

In London, Brent crude gained $1.43 to $63.83.

Also suppliers in the Opec group of producing nations are pumping at their highest rate in a quarter century, with not much in the way of spare capacity to make up any shortfalls.

Ecuador, South America's fifth-largest oil producer, normally produces 200,000 barrels of oil a day, but has been hit by protests in Amazon provinces over the level of investment from foreign operators.

"The market is concerned about short supplies and even 200,000 barrels is able to make people nervous," said Dariusz Kowalczyk, a Hong Kong-based investment strategist at CFC Seymour Securities.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/

New look for global clothing industry

By Andrew Walker
BBC economics correspondent

The end of textile quotas could lead to greater Chinese exports

Some momentous changes are coming in the global textile and clothing industry. 

At the end of 2004, a system of quotas that regulates trade between rich and poor countries comes to an end.

The changes are the final stage in a ten year phasing out of long standing restrictions in the textiles trade.

But there are many companies in both rich and poor countries which believe the result will be a free for all, with China making huge inroads into their business.

Some of those inroads can best be seen at the retail end of the sector.

Price matters 

At the Cha Cha clothing outlet in London's Southall, owner MS Chadha says 50% of his stock is currently produced in China, while just 20% comes from the UK.

He expects even more of his stock to come from China once the quota restrictions are ended.

Mauritius would be a prime example of a country which has thrived under the quota regime but now faces some problems


Mark Duckenfield, London School of Economics

"In my area, the only thing that matters is price," he says.

The textile quotas were originally introduced by major industrialised countries to protect their textiles and clothing sectors from cheap competition from the developing world.

"While you had free trade relatively in automobiles, steel and coal, you didn't have that for textiles and clothing," says Mark Duckenfield, an expert on trade policy at the London School of Economics.

However, by giving quotas to individual developing nations, it also gave them a guaranteed share of the rich countries' markets.

Winners and losers 

That guarantee will disappear with the quota system, and many fear that China and India will take their market share.

"China and India would be more competitive because they are able to produce larger quantities at lower cost than some of these other countries," says Mr Duckenfield.

"Mauritius would be a prime example of a country which has thrived under the quota regime but now faces some problems."

And what about the rich countries, whose workers and companies the quotas were originally supposed to protect?

Elizabeth Fox, of the British Apparel and Textile Confederation, says the industry she represents has moved up market, away from the mass produced clothing that China sells.

Chinese clothing keeps European stores stocked but supplies are low

Job fears 

Increasingly, members of the UK's 195,000-strong textiles workforce are finding jobs in companies at the top end of the market "where there are larger margins and much smaller quantities needed of each particular style or size", Ms Fox says.

But she acknowledges that there are some businesses in Britain that feel uneasy about the prospect of an unleashed Chinese clothing industry.

Peter Booth, of the Transport and General Workers Union, is even more worried about the prospects in the UK and in some of those developing countries that fear Chinese competition.

"We've seen hundreds of thousands of jobs shed here in the UK as the retailers have moved systematically to the lowest cost producing areas. Our concern was for the terms and conditions of workers worldwide because this was a process of global exploitation in the guise of free trade," he says.

Whether you call it exploitation or not, it is clear that there will be people who lose from the changes sweeping the textile and clothing world.

But some will gain - businesses in China and India and, perhaps, shoppers in Western cities such as London. Freer trade probably means they will pay less for their clothes.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/

  •  Task 16.

Work out a few advertisement slogans praising a number of goods you like. Here are a few examples: explain what linguistic means you had to employ to make your advertisement expressive.

This box is only as good as the thinking outside of it. (Hewlett Packard)

Most servers replace yesterday’s servers. This one replaces tomorrow’s.

Whatever you are. Whatever you do. The Allianz Group is always on your side.

What you want. Where you want it. (Ericsson mobile infotainment)

We’ve gone a long way to make your journey feel really short. (Iberia airtravel)

You never actually own a Patek Philippe. You merely look after it for the next generation. (Annual calendar by Patek Philippe)

  •  Task 17.

Try to make a convincing advertisement of your own making use of familiar stylistic devices. Be ready to identify those you’ve used.

Dear Customer,

  I’d like to tell you about three different cars:  the BMW (€ 20,000), the Volvo (€ 15,000) and the Mini (€ 11,000). Cars are getting faster and faster and the new BMW can reach speeds up to 200 mph. The BMW is the most expensive of the three, but as you know, the more you pay, the more you get. It comes with a fitted car stereo and air-conditioning. However, using almost twice as much petrol as the Mini, it is the least economical of the three. The Mini offers value for money, whereas the BMW offers speed and comfort. If you are looking for a small, economical car, the Mini is as good a bargain as you will find anywhere. Because of its small size it is not such a comfortable car as the BMW, but it is the best car available for those who prefer simplicity to luxury. Finally, the Volvo is the best value for those who would rather buy a family car. Seating up to six passengers comfortably, it is much more spacious than the other two cars and it is not as expensive as the BMW. It is quite fast too, reaching speeds of up to 190 mph – nearly the same speed as the BMW!

Why don’t you come down to the showroom and have a look yourself?

(after V. Evans)

Reference materials:

Galperin I. R. “Stylistics

Arnold I. V. “Стилистика современного английского языка”

Skrebnev Y. M. “Стилистика английского языка”  

Lebedeva L.B. 10 Lectures in Style

SEMINAR 12.

1.   Complex stylistic analyses. Revision.

2.   Poem analyses.

Prose analyses.

Part 1.

  •  Task 1.

Match the stylistic devices, their definitions and the examples.

Russian term

English term

Definition

Example

1. Эпитет

Epithet  

Is a structure consisting of two steps, the lexical meanings of which are opposite to each other.

I would give the whole world to know.

2. Сравнение

Simile

Is a clash of two opposite meanings within the same context, which is sustained in oral speech by intonation. If bitter, socially or politically aimed it is called sarcasm.

Andrew’s face looked as if it were made of a rotten apple.

3. Метафора

Metaphor

Is broken word order

Into a singularly restricted and indifferent environment she was born.

4. Олицетворение

Personification

Renders the character’s thoughts which were not uttered aloud. It is a purely literary phenomenon never appearing in oral speech.

Why do we need refreshment, my friends? Why can we not fly? Is it because we are calculated to walk?

5. Метонимия

Metonymy

Is a statement in the form of question which needs no answer.

“Very windy. Isn’t it?”- “Very.”- “But it’s not raining.” – “Not yet.”- “Better than yesterday.”

6. Гипербола

Hyperbole

Is a sentence with one of the principal members omitted.

Passage after passage did he explore; room after room did he peep into.

7. Ирония

Irony

Is a word or group of words giving an expressive characterization of the object described.

Mr. Boffin looked full at the man, and the man looked full at Mr. Boffin.

8. Несобственно-прямая речь

Represented speech

Is observed when some parts of the sentence or sentences are repeated. It is employed as a means of emphasis.

“Did you hit the woman with a child?”- “No, sir, I hit her with a brick.”

9. Антитезa

Antithesis

Is a transfer of the name of one object to another with which it is in some way connected.

He looked at the distant green wall. It would be a long walk in this rain, and a muddy one…. Anyway, what would they find? Lots of trees.

10. Инверсия

Inversion

Compares two things which are quite unlike one another by identifying one with the other or replacing one with the other.

Fine open-faced boy; generous and soft in heart; wavy flaxen hair.

11. Риторический вопрос

Rhetorical question

Is a pattern of two steps where the second repeats the structure of the first in a reversed manner.

Stoney smiled the sweet smile of an alligator.

12. Эллипсис

Elliptical sentences (ellipsis)

Is play on words.

The doctor wrapped himself in a mist of words. He’s a brick. He’s a snake. He’s a tiger. He’s a mule.

13. Повтор

Repetition

A kind of context that allows to realize two meanings of the same polysemantic word without the repetition of the word itself.

A smile would come into Mr. Pickwick’s face; the smile extended in a laugh; the laugh into a roar, and the roar became general.

14. Синтаксический параллелизм

Parallel constructions (parallelism)

Is a description of an object or an idea as if it were a human being.

The hall applauded.

15. Хиазм

Chiasmus

Joins two antonymous words into one syntagma.

On your left you can see the well preserved ruins of this ancient temple.

16. Каламбур, игра слов

Pun

Present identical structure of two or more successive clauses or sentences.

Mr. Stiggins…took his hat and his leave.

17. Зевгма

Zeugma

Is a comparison of two things which are quite different, but which have one important quality in common. The purpose of it is to highlight this quality.

In marriage the upkeep of a woman is often the downfall of a man.

18. Оксюморон

Oxymoron

Is a deliberate exaggeration of some quantity or quality.

The long arm of the law will catch him in the end.

  •  Task 2.

Identify the stylistic devices in the passages:

The laugh in her eyes died and was replaced by something else.

For every look that passed between them, and the word they spoke, and every card they played, the dwarf had eyes and ears.

“If there’s a war, what are you going to be in?” – “The Government, I hope,” Tom said. “Touring the lines on an armored car, my great belly shaking like a jelly. Hey, did you hear that? That’s poetry.”

Her family is one aunt about a thousand years old.

The girl gave him a lipsticky smile.

The silence as the two men stared at one another was louder than thunder.

There comes a period in every man’s life, but she is just a semicolon in his.

“I’m going to give you some good advice.” – “Oh! Pray don’t. One should never give a woman anything she can’t wear in the evening.”

Up came the file and down sat the editor, with Mr. Pickwick at his side.

Gentleness in passion! What could have been more seductive to the scared, starved heart of that girl?

Poor boy….No father, no mother, no anyone.

It was better that he knew nothing. Better for common sense, better for him, better for me.

The coach was waiting, the horses were fresh, the roads were wet, and the driver was willing.

There are so many sons that won’t have anything to do with their fathers, and so many fathers who won’t speak to their sons.

The mechanics are underpaid, and underfed, and overworked.

I hear your voice – it’s like an angel’s sigh.

He held the cigarette in his mouth, tasting it, feeling its roundness, for a long time before he lit it. Then, with a sigh, feeling, well, I’ve earned it, he lit the cigarette.

And then in a moment she would come to life and be as quick and restless as a monkey.

The sky was dark and gloomy, the air damp and raw.

“Our father is dead.” – “I know.” – “How the hell do you know?” – “Station agent told me.” – “How long ago did he die?” – “About a month.” – “What of?” – “Pneumonia” – “Buried here?” – “No. In Washington.”

She had her breakfast and her bath.

…whispered the spinster aunt with true spinster-aunt-like envy.

A team of horses couldn’t draw her back now; the bolts and bars of the old Bastille couldn’t keep her.

It was you who made me a liar, - she cried silently.

I have only one good quality – overwhelming belief in the brains and hearts of our nation, our state, our town.

I looked at the gun, and the gun looked at me.

The evening is spread out against the sky like a patient etherized upon a table.

England has two eyes, Oxford and Cambridge. They are the two eyes of England, and two intellectual eyes.

           29. Stone, bronze, stone, steel, stone, oakleaves, horses’ heels over the paving.

                      And the flags. And the trumpets. And so many eagles.

30. Ah, if I had as many dolla’ as I had promised from Celestine, I would n’ have to work, je vous garantis.

Part 2.

                                                              The stone top     

                                                           The damp echo

                                                     The cold wind                                                          

                                                   The held breath

                                               The fading foothills                     5

                                           The small trees

                                       The missed turning

                                   The hopeless face

                               The chinks of light                                 

                           The life-line sky                                            10

                       The greening moss

                   The cold echo

               The stone steps

           The lost recourse

       The pelting rain                                                                  15

   The howling winds

The stone tower                                               The    stone    body

  •  Task 1.

Think of a suitable title for the poem, you are free to choose from the given variants or to think of your own one.

Suicide;

Coldness;

Tower;

Stone body;

  •  Task 2.

Was it significant to show the direction of the poem or not? Explain.

  •  Task 3.

Make a list of linguistic peculiarities of the given text and explain the author’s intentions following the table.

Phenomenon                                 Result                                     Reason

Grammar:

1) the definite article, capitalized;

2) the absence of personal pronouns;

3) …

Punctuation:

1) no full stops;

2)…

  •  Task 4.

Some of the words are repeated but in different combinations. Find the examples of such repetitions and explain the effect produced (e.g. stone top, tower, body, steps…).

  •  Task 5.

Find the examples and explain what lexical meanings of adjectives/participles render the atmosphere (especially in the upper part), motion, etc?

  •  Task 6.

Some of the lines are numbered. Is it significant that “The life-line sky” is given No. 10?

  •  Task 7.

What pictographic peculiarities of the letter “T” are used?

  •  Task 8.

How is the rhythm of the poem created (sound, visual …)?

  •  Task 9.

The image is created on different levels:

1) lexical (“The stone tower – top - body”);

2) graphical;

3) …

Find the examples and comment upon them.

  •  Task 10.

Try to write your own poem following the scheme “article – adjective - noun”, but mind the unity of form and content.

Part 3.

             5  Heather


As if.

As if the physical proximity can make up for emotional distance.

He’s holding me tightly, but there’s no love or tenderness in it, just desperation. Perhaps it’s to do with the realisation that I’m slipping away from him, slipping away from this world he wants me to inhabit: his world, which is not our shared world.

It’s not our shared world cause I’m his, his property and he won’t relinquish it easily. I’m a source of comfort, a teddy bear for a grown-up wee boy. Only they’d never see him as that and if they did see throgh the mind-shaking immaturity of this supposedly successful man, they’d only find it endearing, like I once did. Only I don’t now, because it’s sad and pathetic.

He’s a fucking retard.

what does he get out of acting like that?

He thrives while I’m dying inside.

He should be dying too, but he’s not.

He’s not because he has me to do it for him.

what do I want? Love is not enough. It has to do with being in love. I love my mother, my father. I don’t want another mummy and daddy. I used to. I used to by default because I didn’t know what I really wanted.

I don’t wan’t to be protected. Hugh protects.   

I used to need that too.

But Hugh, I’ve been growing up inside, growing up more than you want me to. You used to tell me that I had to grow up. You’d fear me if you saw who I really was. I think you already do. That’s why you’re holding on, holding on for dear life.

Dying inside.

Growing up inside.

How do you reconcile them?

                                                               (I. Welsh “Ecstasy”)

  •  Task 1.

What is the tone of the narration? Who is the speaker? What can you say about the speaker’s emotional state?

  •  Task 2.

What type of inner speech is given by the author:

dialogue;

monologue;

autodialogue;

4)   stream of consciousness?

  •  Task 3.

What kind of graphical means does the author make use of to render the interior speech:

quotation marks;

italic type;

the absence of punctuation;

paragraph division;

text continuum?

  •  Task 4.

What is the principle (logical, associative, both…) of paragraph division? Is it possible to the order of the paragraphs? Is it possible to single out a “one word combination” paragraph?

  •  Task 5.

There are a lot of cases of anadiplosis on different levels (sentence, paragraph …). Find the examples and explain the author’s intentions.

  •  Task 6.

What kind of stylistic devices create “the stream of consciousness” effect:

ellipsis;

punctuation peculiarities;

violation of spelling;

  •  Task 7.

There are many cases of lexical, syntactical repetition in the given abstract. Find the suitable examples and comment on them.

  •  Task 8.

What stylistic devices does the author use to create:

the atmosphere;

stream of consciousness;

feelings and emotions?

  •  Task 9.

Try to foresee the future events and further behaviour of the character. By what facts were you guided in your choice?

литература

  1.  Амосова Н.Н.«Этимологические основы словарного состава англ. яз.» -   М., 1956.
    1.  Бабенко Л.Г. «Филологический анализ текста» (учебник) – М., 2004.
    2.  Бабенко Л.Г., Казарин Ю.В. «Филологический анализ текста» (практикум) – М., 2003.
    3.  Горшков А.И. «Русская стилистика» - М., 2001.
    4.  Григорьева О.Н. «Стилистика русского языка» - М., 2000.
    5.  Кацев А.М. «Языковые табу и эвфемия» - Л., 1988.
    6.  Кирсанова С.В. «Обсуждаем прочитанное» - М., 1991.
  2.  Кухаренко В.А. «Seminars in Style» - М., 1971
  3.  Galperin I. R. “Stylistics
  4.  Arnold I. V. “Стилистика современного английского языка”     

10. Skrebnev Y. M. “Стилистика английского языка”  

11.Collins V. H. “The Choice of Words”

Lebedeva L.B. 10 Lectures in Style


 

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