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АНГЛІЙСЬКА БЕЗ КОРДОНІВ підручник з англійської мови для студентів нефілологічних спеціальностей

Книга

Педагогика и дидактика

Книга призначена для студентів усіх напрямів підготовки нефілологічних спеціальностей. Мета підручника – розвиток усних і писемних навичок, ознайомлення та засвоєння культурологічних особливостей країн, мову яких вивчають у межах дисципліни “Англійська мова”. Цей підручник знадобиться всім, хто прагне підвищити рівень володіння англійською мовою.

Украинкский

2014-03-27

19.12 MB

129 чел.

Колесник Д. М., Куроченко Ю. С.,

Махиня Н. В., Ланських О. Б.

FREEWAY ENGLISH 

for students of non-linguistic specialities

АНГЛІЙСЬКА БЕЗ КОРДОНІВ

підручник з англійської мови

для студентів нефілологічних спеціальностей

Черкаси – 2011

CONTENTS

PREFACE

6

INTRODUCTORY PHONETIC-ORTHOEPIC COURSE

8

PART I. BASIC TOPICS

INTRODUCTION. Getting acquainted. Communicative and social expressions

12

LESSON 1. Family relations (Family Tree, Love and Marriage, Horoscope Signs)

18

LESSON 2. Appearance and Character (Body Language – from Head to Toe)

26

LESSON 3. Dwelling and its Types

35

LESSON 4. Time and Dates

44

LESSON 5. Natural Phenomena in Weather and Seasons

52

LESSON 6. Global Environmental Problems  

63

LESSON 7Modern Means of Communication (Telephone, Mobile Phone, Internet, Skype, ICQ)

72

LESSON 8. Computer in our Life

82

LESSON 9Youth Problems (Generation Gap, Drug Addiction, Depression, Crime, Youth Movements)

94

LESSON 10. Shops and Shopping (Internet shopping)

105

LESSON 11. Food and Meals (Table Manners, National Cuisine) 

118

LESSON 12. Health and Diseases (Keeping Fit, Treatment)

129

LESSON 13. Leisure Time

141

LESSON 14. Arts (Theatre, Cinema, TV, Music, Painting, Modern Arts)

151

LESSON 15. In the town (Directions, Street Notices)

165

LESSON 16. Traveling and Going through Customs (Air, Sea, Train, Hiking, Customs Control)

174

LESSON 17. Hotel (Room types / rates, hotel types / facilities)

188

LESSON 18. Home and Foreign Holidays and Traditions (Religious and National)

203

LESSON 19. Ukraine (History and Present Days)

212

LESSON 20. English-speaking countries (English language variations)

222

LESSON 21. Money, Currency, Finance

235

LESSON 22. Job Hunting

245

BASIC LEXICAL TOPICS FOR EXAM

255

PART II. GRAMMAR THEORY  

The article

269

Noun. Plural of Nouns 

271

Adjective. Degrees of Comparison of Adjectives 

273

Pronoun 

275

Verb. Verbs to be, to have, to do 

277

Construction there is / there are

277

Indefinite Group of Tenses:                          

279

                                                         Present Indefinite

                              Past Indefinite

                              Future Indefinite

Continuous Group of Tenses:

281

                                                         Present Continuous

                                 Past Continuous

                               Future Continuous

Perfect Group of Tenses:

283

                                                          Present Perfect

                           Past Perfect

                                     Future Perfect

Perfect Continuous Group of Tenses:

285

                                                           Present Perfect Continuous

               Past Perfect Continuous

            Future Perfect Continuous

Passive Voice

287

Sequence of Tenses. Indirect Speech

289

Conditional Clauses

291

Infinitive

293

Complex Object 

295

Complex Subject 

296

The Participle 

297

The Gerund 

298

Modals and their equivalents 

300

PART III. GRAMMAR PRACTICE (EXERCISES)   

The article

302

Noun. Plural of Nouns 

305

Adjective. Degrees of Comparison of Adjectives

308

Pronoun 

311

Verb. Verbs to be, to have, to do

314

Indefinite group:

316

                                          Present Indefinite

                     Past Indefinite

318

                     Future Indefinite

321

Continuous group:  

323

                                           Present Continuous

                     Past Continuous

325

                     Future Continuous

328

Perfect Group:

330

                                           Present Perfect

                     Past Perfect

333

                     Future Perfect

336

Perfect Continuous group:

339

                                           Present Perfect Continuous

            Past Perfect Continuous

342

          Future Perfect Continuous

344

Passive Voice 

346

Sequence of Tenses. Indirect Speech  

349

Conditional Clauses

353

Infinitive

357

Complex Object 

360

Complex Subject 

362

The Participle 

364

The Gerund 

367

Modals and their equivalents 

370

APPENDICES

Appendix 1. List of Irregular Verbs

374

Appendix 2. Verbs to use instead of ‘SAID’ in reported speech

377

Appendix 3. Types of Questions

378

Appendix 4. Punctuation / Capitalization

379

Appendix 5. Numbers (Cardinals / Ordinals / Decimals)

381

Appendix 6. Measures (Linear / Liquid Measure of Capacity / Weight / Sizes / Temperature Equivalents)

382

Appendix 7. Flora and Fauna Glossary

384

Appendix 8. Phraseological Units and Expressions  

387

LITERATURE  

395


A WORD TO THE READER

If you’re holding this book it means you’re searching for success, success in life, in communication, in business, in private relations. Welcome to the world of profund knowledge and numerous opportunities. Here you will find everything in the way of grammar, vocabulary, information and pleasant sights. We hope that our book will appeal to you much.

Thank you for choosing us!

Authors.

 

ПЕРЕДМОВА

Сучасний етап розвитку міжнародних відносин, нові умови підготовки фахівців у навчальних закладах України актуалізують потребу переосмислити якість викладання іноземних мов у вищій школі. Цілком очевидно, що багатьом вітчизняним посібникам та підручникам з іноземних мов потребують модернізації, нового лексичного та інформативного наповнення, задля формування в майбутніх фахівців навичок усного та писемного мовлення, що відповідатимуть запитам сучасного суспільства. Заповнити таку прогалину – головне завдання пропонованого підручника.

Книга призначена для студентів усіх напрямів підготовки нефілологічних спеціальностей. Мета підручника – розвиток усних і писемних навичок, ознайомлення та засвоєння культурологічних особливостей країн, мову яких вивчають у межах дисципліни Англійська мова. Цей підручник знадобиться всім, хто прагне підвищити рівень володіння англійською мовою.

З-поміж інших видань підручник вирізняється багатством тематики, що уможливлює детальний аналіз майже всіх сфер життя британського й американського суспільства, висвітлює традиції, що становлять його основу. Широке використання статистичного матеріалу допомагає краще усвідомити соціокультурні реалії буття й свідчить про обґрунтованість викладених фактів та узагальнень.   

Тематичне наповнення підручника, детальні словники, різноманітні лексичні й мовні вправи та діалоги представляють актуальні для повсякденного спілкування теми. Текстовий та ілюстративний матеріал, “крилаті” вислови і прислів’я підручника адаптовано із сучасних зарубіжних і вітчизняних друкованих та інтернет-видань. Матеріали підручника активно та успішно використовують викладачі кафедри іноземних мов у практиці викладання дисципліни Англійська мова.

Структурна побудова кожної теми максимально сприяє активізації мовленнєвих навичок із урахуванням різноманітних комунікативних завдань. Єдиний методичний підхід до різних видів мовної діяльності та добору вправ допомагає викладачеві системно планувати заняття, послідовно формувати комплекс умінь і навичок, зважаючи на конкретні цілі кожного заняття.

Підручник складається з трьох частин: лексично-розмовної, теоретичної та практичної граматики, що дає змогу оптимізувати навчальний процес, покращити засвоєння окремих аспектів мовної діяльності.

Лексично-розмовна частина висвітлює розмовні теми повсякденного спілкування загальним обсягом у 22 уроки, яким передує вступний урок. Кожний урок містить 4 блоки завдань різної складності та змістового наповнення: перший блок – вправи найпростішого лексичного рівня, другий – спрямований на розвиток діалогічного мовлення, третій – монологічного й четвертий блок – комунікативні завдання. Усі уроки починаються зі вступного тексту та завдань до нього, розроблених відповідно до лексичного наповнення уроку. Комунікативний характер мовних вправ забезпечує раціонально організовану практику діалогічного та монологічного спрямування.

У теоретичній частині з’ясовано основні аспекти курсу граматики англійської мови з поясненнями та прикладами. Матеріал викладено доступно, із урахуванням різнорівневих знань студентів. Пояснюючи граматичні явища, автори підручника намагалися максимально керуватися знаннями студентів у галузі української мови, використовуючи її визначення й термінологію, відступаючи від цього лише у випадках, зумовлених специфікою англійської мови.

Практична граматична частина містить тренувальні вправи з граматики англійської мови та має на меті закріплення теоретичного матеріалу, висвітленого в другій частині підручника.

Урокам передує вступний фонетико-орфоепічний курс, де подано англійський алфавіт, основні правила читання звуків і букв англійської мови; з’ясовано особливості наголосу, інтонації та порядку слів у реченні. У кінці підручника розміщено додатки – граматичний і лексичний довідковий матеріал, необхідний для виконання завдань підручника та кращого засвоєння мови.

Матеріал підручника доступний в електронному вигляді й може бути використаний для курсу дистанційного навчання. Електронний варіант підручника є зручною та доступною альтернативою друкованого примірника та уможливлює вибіркове використання лексичного й граматичного матеріалу.

 Автори будуть вдячні за зауваження та пропозиції, висловлені за адресою jugreen@ukr.net  

*****

 Автори висловлюють глибоку подяку колективові кафедри іноземних мов за допомогу в доборі матеріалів видання, слушні зауваги та практичну апробацію книги в навчальному процесі; ректорові Черкаського державного технологічного університету, професору Лезі Ю. Г. за сприяння у виданні підручника.

Автори


INTRODUCTORY
 PHONETIC-ORTHOEPIC COURSE

Англійський алфавіт  

Aa

Jj

Ss

Bb

Kk

Tt

Cc

Ll

Uu

Dd

Mm

Vv

Ee

Nn

Ww

Ff

Oo

Xx

Gg

Pp

Yy

Hh

Qq

Zz

Ii

Rr

  1.  Звуки і букви

Фонетична будова англійської мови відрізняється від фонетичної будови української мови, оскільки має суттєві відмінності в артикуляції органів мовлення (у вимові звуків). Фонетичними і графічними особливостями англійської мови є те, що в ній один звук  передають на письмі різними буквами і сполученнями літер і, навпаки, одна і та сама буква може позначати різні звуки, тобто читатися по-різному. Особливо це характерно для англійських голосних букв, кожна з яких має від 5 до 10 звукових значень. Наприклад, буква a: fate [fet], fare [ә], far [:], fat [fæt], again [ә'gen].

Це призводить до того, що в англійській мові наявна велика невідповідність між написанням і вимовою слів. 26 букв англійського алфавіту передають 44 звуки (20 голосних і 24 приголосні).

Окремі звуки передають на письмі різними буквами і буквосполученнями. Наприклад, звук k передають на письмі буквами k, c, ck, ch.

Для графічного зображення фонем (звуків) використовують особливі знаки фонетичної транскрипції, де кожній фонемі відповідає певний знак. Знаки фонетичної транскрипції звичайно беруть у квадратні дужки. Надзвичайно важливо дотримуватися довготи і напруженості голосного звука, оскільки зміна його довготи зумовлює зміну значення слова. Наприклад, beat [bi:t] – бити і bit [bt] – шматочок, dark [:k] – темний і duck [dΛk] – качка.

  1.  Порядок слів у реченні, наголос та інтонація

Для англійської мови характерний сталий порядок слів. Порядок слів, за якого підмет стоїть перед присудком, а прямий додаток – після присудка, є типовим для англійського розповідного речення, наприклад: She loves children. Ive read a lot recently.  

Англійська інтонація відрізняється від української характером піднесення і пониження тону голосу, ритмом і розподілом фразового наголосу.

В англійській мові є два основні тони – низхідний (спадний) і висхідний. Англійський низхідний тон виражає смислову завершеність висловлювання. Йому властивий більш різкий і глибокий спад, ніж український. Англійський звичайний низхідний тон схожий на український низхідний тон, який уживають, виражаючи категоричний наказ або команду, наприклад: Геть звідси! або Раз, два, три!.

Англійський висхідний тон свідчить про незавершеність висловлювання. Він не такий різкий і стрімкий, як в українській мові, починається з більш низького тону, підвищення в ньому відбувається поступово. Графічно англійський низхідний тон зображають знаком ↓, а висхідний – ↑, які ставлять перед наголошеним складом.

Кожне слово в англійській мові має свій постійний наголос, але не всі слова в мовному потоці виділяють наголосом. Виділення окремих слів у мовленні, порівняно з іншими, називають фразовим наголосом.    

В англійському реченні наголошеними, як правило, бувають лише однозначні слова: іменники, прикметники, смислові дієслова, числівники, прислівники, питальні та вказівні займенники. Ненаголошеними звичайно є службові слова (артиклі, сполучники, прийменники, допоміжні й модальні дієслова, особові та присвійні займенники). Графічно наголос зображають вертикальною лінією перед наголошеним складом, наприклад, sentence ['sentәns].  

  1.  Типи складів, буквосполучення, дифтонги. Способи їх вимови

Вимова голосного в англійській мові залежить від наголосу та її положення щодо інших букв. В англійській мові, на відміну від української, існують не два типи складів (відкритий і закритий), а чотири, унаслідок впливу букви r на вимову голосного, що стоїть перед нею.   

В англійській мові є дифтонги, у яких, на противагу українським дифтонгам, зв’язок між елементами тісніший: [a], [ә], [әu] тощо.

Усі англійські приголосні в будь-якій позиції вимовляють без пом’якшення.

Англійські дзвінкі приголосні в кінці слів не оглушуються. Оглушення кінцевого дзвінкого приголосного в англійській мові призводить до зміни значення слова: bed [bed] – ліжко, bet [bet] – заклад, парі, side [sad] – сторона, site [sat] – місцезнаходження, будівельний майданчик, інтернет-сторінка.

Кінцеві англійські глухі приголосні вимовляють енергійніше й виразніше, ніж у рідній мові. Дзвінкі приголосні в кінці слів вимовляють без голосного призвуку. Наприклад, cap [kæp], coat [kәut], aле bed [bed], tag [tæg].

В англійській мові є кілька звуків, яких немає в українській мові, наприклад, [h], [w], [θ], [ð], [ŋ].

Читання голосних у чотирьох типах складів

Буква

Закритий склад

Відкритий склад

Голосний+r+приголосний

Голосний+ r+голосний

a

rat [ræt]

rate [ret]

star [sta:]

stare [stεә]

o

hot [ho:t]

hope [hәup]

sport [spo:t]

more [mo:]

u

bus [bΛs]

use [ju:s]

turn [tз:n]

pure [pjuә]

e

ten [ten]

Pete [pi:t]

her [hз:]

here [hә]

i

still [stl]

smile [smal]

bird [bз:d]

fire [faә]

y

system [sstәm]

type [tap]

myrtle [mз:tl]

tyre [taә]

Читання голосних буквосполучень

Деякі приголосні в англійській мові впливають на вимову голосних, які стоять поряд.

Буквосполучення

Читання

Приклади

a+s+приголосний 

[α:]

ask, fast, pass

a+l+приголоснийу закритому складі під наголосом 

[o:]

small, salt, tall

a+l+k (l не читають)

[o:]

talk, chalk

wa, qua+r+приголосний (r не читають)

[o:]

war, warm,  quarter

wa, qua+(крім r, l)

[o]

want, quantity  

wa, quaу відкритому складі 

[e]

wave, quake

ai, ayпід наголосом 

[e]

stain, day

au, aw

[o:]

author, law

ea, ee

[i:]

sea, steel

earпід наголосом, якщо за цим сполученням не стоїть приголосний

[ә]

dear

еarперед приголосним 

[з:]

learn, early

eerпід наголосом 

[ә]

engineer

ewякщо не стоїть після l, r, j  

[ju:]

few, dew

еwпісля l, r, j

[u:]

flew, drew, jewel

i+ld

[α]

mild

i+nd

[α]

find

i+gh

[α]

flight

o+ld

[әu]

old, gold

oo+k

[u]

took, look

oo+приголосний

[u:]

mood, shoot, foot

oa

[әu]

road, load

ou, ow

[αu]

[Λ]

[u]

out, town, loud

country

group

uпісля r, l, j, а також перед голосним

[u:]

rule, blue,  June

ui

[ju:]

suit

ui після r, l, j  

[u:]

fruit, juice

Вимова деяких приголосних та їх сполучень

Буквосполучення

Читання

Приклади

c+e, i, y

[s]

place, pencil, icy

c – в інших випадках

[k]

crystal, cubic, can

g+e, i, y

[d3]

page, giant, Egypt

gв інших випадках

[g]

go, big, gave

j

[g]

[d3]

get, give

jet, just

sу кінці слова, після голосного та дзвінкого приголосного, усередині слова між голосними 

[z]

his, plans, because

sв інших випадках

[s]

so, stand, lamps

th

[θ]

[ð]

think, thin, thank

this, that, with

sh

[]

show, ship

ch, tch

[t]

inch, match

ph

[f]

physics, telephone

wперед r на початку слова не читають 

write, wrong

qu

[kw]

quick, equipment

wh+голосний (крім o)

[w]

what, when, why

wh+o

[h]

who, whom, whose

tureу ненаголошеній позиції

[t∫ә]

lecture, culture

tion, ssionу ненаголошеній позиції

[n]

motion, session

ci+ненаголошений голосний

[]

social, electrician

Читання дифтонгів

Буквосполучення

Читання

Приклади

ai

[e]

say, baby, train, plate, table, waiter, Spain

oa, or, ow

[әu]

no, smoke, those, motor, only, Poland, hotel, oak, coat, foam, grow

igh, ild, ind

[α]

five, nine, ice, eye, my, side, night, sight, mild, find

ow, ou

[αu]

how, count, flower, cloud, hour, now

ow

[o]

boy, noise, boil, voice, choice, toy

ear, ier, eer

[ә]

dear, clear, beer, really, ear, cheer, tier, pierce, engineer

eir

[εә]

where, there, their, chair, hair, care

ure, oor

[uә]

sure, poor, moor

ia

[αә]

diamond, giant

our

[αuә]

sour, flour, hour


PART I 

BASIC TOPICS

INTRODUCTION 

Getting acquainted. Communicative and social expressions

You cannot shake hands with a clenched fist (Indira Gandhi)

It’s nice to be important, but it's more important to be nice.

What this world needs is a new kind of army – the army of the kind.

Kindness is the language which the deaf can hear and the blind can see (Mark Twain)

Don't wait for people to be friendly, show them how.

You can't live a perfect day without doing something for someone who will never be able to repay you.

We have two ears and one mouth so that we can listen twice as much as we speak (Epictetus)

INTRODUCTORY TEXT*

Notes to the text:

to shake (shook; shaken) hands with smb – потиснути руку

to be introduced to smb – бути представленим комусь

to introduce oneself – представитися

to introduce smb to smb – представити когось комусь

handshaking – рукостискання

formal / informal get-togethers – офіційні / неофіційні зустрічі

to touch(ed) – торкатися

newcomer – новачок

When people abroad have a company or when they are invited to formal or informal get-togethers, they usually make a point of trying to make others fell comfortable and relaxed. On the whole, they tend to be informal.

Men shake hands, but usually only when they are introduced. Male friends and business associates who haven’t seen each other in a while may shake hands when they say hello. Women usually don’t shake hands when being introduced to each other. When a woman and a man are introduced, shaking hands is up to the woman. Americans rarely shake hands to say good-bye, except on business occasions.

 Handshaking is rather rare in Britain as well, but it is a correct thing to do on the Continent. When an Englishman passes a friend in the street he only touches his hat. He doesn’t shake hands when he stops to talk.

At parties, interviews and other formal and informal situations you meet people you haven’t met before you have to introduce yourself to them, or they introduce themselves to you. You also have to introduce people you already know to one another.

Here are a few rules of introduction which are useful to remember:

  1.  men are introduced to women;
  2.  young people to older ones;
  3.  old friends to newcomers;
  4.  a young girl to a married woman;
  5.  women are never presented to a man.

*Тут і далі для укладання та ілюстрування тестів і вибірки крилатих висловів використано інформацію з електронних джерел. – Прим. авт. 

TOPICAL VOCABULARY

1. General

1. Загальна лексика

get (got; got) acquainted with smb / become acquainted with smb / make smb acquaintance / meet smb

познайомитися

acquaintance, n

знайомий

to have (had; had) a nodding acquaintance

мати далеке знайомство

to nod(ed)

кивати головою

to address(ed) smb

звернутися до когось

to know (knew; known) smb

бути знайомим із кимось

to know smb by sight

знати когось особисто (в обличчя)

visiting / calling card

візитівка

to spell (spelt; spelt) one’s name

вимовити чиєсь ім’я по буквах

to make (made; made) friends with smb

потоваришувати з кимось

to make a friendly chat  

приємно поговорити

2. Greeting and good-byes / attracting attention

2. Привітання і до побачення / як привернути увагу

How do you do!

Здрастуйте!

Good morning! / Morning! (until 12 p.m.)

Доброго ранку!

Good afternoon! / Afternoon! (until 5-6 p.m.)

Добрий день!

Good evening! / Evening! (until 10-11 p.m.)

Доброго вечора!

Hello! How are you?

Здрастуйте! Як ви?

Hello! How are you getting on?

Здрастуйте! Як життя?

Hello! Nice to meet you!

Здрастуйте! Радий зустрічі!

Hi!

Привіт!

Thanks, I’m very well / fairly (quite) well / fine / all right / not bad / so-so / more or less all right / a bit tired

Дякую, у мене все гаразд / досить добре / нормально / непогано / так собі / більш-менш нормально / трохи стомлений.

Thank you! – Not at all / It’s all right / Don’t mention it!

Дякую! – Немає за що.

You’re welcome.

Будь ласка.

It’s very kind of you.

Дуже люб’язно з Вашого боку.

Give my best regards to / remember me to / say “Hello” to (your mum / friend / relatives)

Передай привіт (мамі / другові / родичам).

Good bye! (Bye!)

До побачення!

Good night! (Night!)

На добраніч!

See you later / tomorrow!

Побачимося пізніше / до завтра!

Have a nice evening!

Приємного вечора!

Excuse me, please

Вибачте, будь ласка!

May / Can I have your attention, please?

Я перепрошую!

Look here! / Look / Watch out!

Стережися!

3. Conversational openings

3. Як розпочати розмову

We met at…, didn’t we?

Ми вже знайомі, чи не так?

We’ve met before? / Haven’t we met before?

Ми вже знайомі? (Зустрічалися раніше?)

We’ve already been introduced.

Нас уже представили один одному.

Could I have seen you somewhere?

Ми раніше зустрічалися, чи не так?

Your face seems familiar to me.

Ваше обличчя мені знайоме.

Your name sounds familiar.

Ваше ім’я мені знайоме.

I’ve heard so much about you.

Я так багато про Вас чув.

4. Forms of address

4. Форми звертання

first name

to friends

Mr. Hunter

to a man

Mrs. Hunter

to a married woman

Miss Brown

to a girl or unmarried woman

Sir

to an older man / to an officer in the armed forces / as a title followed by the first name / to male customers / to a stranger in the street to attract attention

Madame  

used by shop assistants, waiters to female customers.

Miss

to a woman-teacher by primary school children

doctor (alone)

to medical practitioners

Doctor Brown

to a person with a degree (PhD – Doctor of Philosophy)

professor (with / without surname)

to a university professor

Ladies and Gentlemen

to an audience

officer

to a policeman

waiter / porter / nurse

to a person of certain occupation

VOCABUALARY PRACTICE

BLOCK I

1. We use certain expressions in different social situations.

e.g. I’m sorry I’m late! – Don’t worry. Come and sit down.

Match the expressions and responses. When do we use these expressions?

How are you?

Sleep well!

Hello, Jane!

Yes. Can I help you?

How do you do?

Good morning!

See you tomorrow!

Fine, thanks.

Good night!

Pleased to meet you, Ela.

Good morning!

Not at all. Don't mention it

Hello, I’m Ela Paul.

Thanks.

Cheers!

Same to you!

Excuse me!

That’s very kind. Thank you.

Bless you!

Bye!

Have a good weekend!

How do you do?

Thank you very much indeed.

Hi, Peter!

Make yourself at home.

Cheers!

2. Fill in the blanks with the necessary words in brackets.

1. I’m very much … (glad, obliged, upset). 2. Let me … (tell, introduce, invite). 3. Please, give your wife my …. for the invitation (attraction, welcome, thanks). 4. You are very … (stupid, kind, persistent). 5. Happy to make your … (acquaintance, addiction, greeting).

3. Complete the following sentences.

1. How’s your sister….? 2. Thank you for… 3. It’s such a great pleasure to… 4. Remember me to… 5. Your face seems…. 6. I’ve heard so…..

4. Translate into English.

1. Дозвольте представитися. 2. Як поживають твої родичі? – Добре, непогано. 3. На добраніч, до завтра! 4. Ваше обличчя мені здається знайомим, ми десь раніше зустрічались? 5  Він привітався з ним і потиснув руку.

5. Match the sentences with the correct photos. The first was done for you.

  1.  _c_ “Goodbye! Have a nice journey. Send us a postcard!”
  2.  ___ “Goodbye! Thank you for a lovely evening”. “You must come to us next time.”
  3.  ___ “Goodbye! It has been most interesting talking to you. We’ll let you know by post.”
  4.  ___ “Bye! See you later. Are you doing anything tonight?”
  5.  ___ “Bye-bye! Thank you very much for having me.”
  6.  ___ “Goodbye! Here’s my number. Please, get in touch if you have any problems.”
  7.  ___ “Goodbye! Drive carefully and call us when you get there!”
  8.  ___ “Goodbye! Good luck in the future. I’ve really enjoyed our lessons together.”

BLOCK II

1. Address the following people.

  1.  your aunt Mary Smith
  2.  a friend of your own age (Sandra Robinson)
  3.  Sandra’s father / mother
  4.  a university professor PhD (Richard Hage, 1st meeting)
  5.  a girl of 17 not married (Sandy Breach)
  6.  a stranger of 25 / 50
  7.  your English teacher
  8.  an elderly woman in the street
  9.  a policeman
  10.  your doctor (George Franklin)

2. Insert a suitable form of address.

  1.  “…could you tell me the shortest way to the museum?” (to a stranger)
  2.  “How nice to see you again, …” (to your old friend)
  3.  “…. may I have the wine list, please?” (to a waiter in a restaurant)
  4.  “It hurts here a lot, ….” (to your doctor Mike Price during the examination)
  5.  “…., I’m honored to start this annual ceremony of movie awards” (to an audience)

3. Fill in prepositions or adverbs where necessary.

  1.  He greeted… me… a smile.
  2.  The chairman introduced the lecturer … an audience.
  3.  Remember me… your mother. She is such a nice person.
  4.  How are you getting …? Not too bad, thanks you.
  5.  It was necessary to make introductions … all around. There were many people present at the party.
  6.  You took me … somebody else.
  7.  Your name has slipped … my mind.

BLOCK III

1. Read the following dialogues.

  1.  Harry, have you met Mr. Grey?
  2.  No, we haven’t met.
  3.  Come along, then. I’ll introduce you to him if you like.
  4.  With pleasure.
  5.  Mr. Grey, I’d like to introduce Mr. Smith, a friend of mine.
  6.  How do you do, Mr. Smith! Pleased to meet you.
  7.  How do you do, Mr. Grey! I’m very glad to know you.

*****

  1.  Can you do me a favor, Jim? Would you mind introducing me to Miss Jones?
  2.  Oh, yes, with pleasure, though it’s rather strange you don’t know each other yet.
  3.  I just didn’t have a chance to get acquainted with her. Is she a nice girl?
  4.  Yes, of course and she has a friendly dog.

*****

  1.  Hi, Jane!
  2.  Oh, Peter, hello, how are you? You see, I’m in a trouble. My car has broken and in half an hour I must be in the airport to meet my great grandfather. He’s coming back from Brazil.
  3.  It’s not a problem. Get in my car, I’ll give you a lift.
  4.   This is so nice of you. Peter, thank you so much.
  5.  Don’t mention it.

2. Complete the conversations with the correct expressions.

I’m sorry / excuse me / of course / pardon

A _______! Can I get past?

B _______?

A Can I get past, please?

B _______ . I didn’t hear you. Yes, _______ .

A Thanks a lot.  

That’s right / what a pity / congratulations / never mind / I hear

A ______ you’re going to get married soon. _______ !

B ______, next July. July 21. Can you come to the wedding?

A _______! That’s when we’re away on holiday.

C _______ . we’ll send you some wedding cake.

A That’s very kind.  

Hurry up / all right / oh, dear / just a minute / I haven’t got a clue

A ______! Look at the time! _______ , or we’ll miss the train.  

B _______! I can’t find my umbrella. Do you know where it is?

A _______ . But you won’t need it. It’s a lovely day. Just look at the sky!

B Oh, ________ . Let’s go, then.

3. Make up your own dialogues with the following word combinations. 

  1.  Hello, hi, it’s good to see you again, here you are, I’m glad we’ve met, nice to see you, glad to meet you, cheerio, bye.
  2.  I beg your pardon, Mr. Hopkins, that’s me, it’s my name, I guess, I saw you somewhere, I bet I know your name, I’m sorry you took me for somebody else.

4. Translate the following dialogues into English.

  1.  Ось іде Білл. Він один з моїх найкращих друзів. Ти його знаєш?
  2.  Ні, ніколи його раніше не зустрічав.
  3.  Хочеш із ним познайомитися?
  4.  Звичайно.

*****

  1.  Добрий день, пане Хілле. Чудовий день, чи не так?
  2.  Прекрасний! Як ви почуваєтеся?
  3.  Добре, дякую. А ви?
  4.  Сьогодні набагато краще. Бувайте.
  5.  До побачення. Був радий зустрітися.

*****

  1.  Добрий день, пане Блейку. Я прийшов попрощатися.
  2.  Добрий день, пане Брауне. Ви від’їжджаєте?
  3.  Так, повертаюся додому. Я тут свою роботу закінчив.
  4.  Шкода, ви нам дуже сподобалися.
  5.  Дякую, усього найкращого.
  6.  Передавайте вітання своїй дружині.
  7.  Дякую, обов’язково. Бувайте.

BLOCK IV

Topics for discussion and essays.

  1.  Speak about Ukrainian etiquette. Does it differ much from the world nations?
  2.  Speak about Ukrainian superstitions.
  3.  Americans tend to be much more casual and informal meeting people, Germans and Japanese keep distance while talking, Asians prefer to use less eye and physical contact… What about Ukrainians?
  4.  People shake hands to greet each other. Do you know any other forms of greeting?
  5.  What are some good / insulting gestures in your country? Can you think of some gestures that have different meanings in different countries?
  6.  What are some gestures that you used when you were a child that you don’t use anymore?
  7.  What are some gestures you know that relate to the sporting world?


LESSON 1

Family relations (Family Tree, Love and Marriage, Horoscope Signs)

Love me, love my dog.

In time of test, family is best.

The family is the nucleus of civilization.

A social unit where the father is concerned with parking space, the children with outer space, and the mother with closet space.

I don’t care how poor a man is; if he has family, he’s rich.

INTRODUCTORY TEXT

Notes to the text:

the master of a prosperous farm – господар ферми, що процвітає

handsome – гарний (про чоловіків)

merry – веселий

wrinkled face – обличчя в зморшках

shrewd eyes – проникливі очі

to court(ed) – залицятися, домагатися прихильності

steady – наполегливий

now and then – час від часу

to be born – народитися

it goes without saying – безперечно

to accept(ed) the invitation – погодитися на запрошення

to be in love with / to fall in love with smb / to fall out of love – бути закоханим / закохатися / розлюбити

to add(ed) – додати

to marry(ed) – одружитися, вийти заміж

George Meadows, the master of a prosperous farm, was then a man of 50, and his wife was a year or two younger. Their three daughters were lovely and their two sons were handsome and strong. They were merry, industrious and kindly. They were happy and deserved their happiness. But the real master of the house was not George, it was his mother. She was about 70, tall, with grey hair and though her face was wrinkled, her eyes were dark, bright and shrewd.

I knew the story of George’s mother and his uncle, whose name was also George. About fifty years ago uncle George and his younger brother Tom had both courted Mrs. Meadows when she was Emily Green. George was a good-looking fellow, but not so steady as his brother, that’s why Emily chose Tom. George had gone to sea for twenty years. Now and then he sent them presents. Then there was no news of him. When Tom died Mrs. Meadows wrote George about it but they never got an answer and decided that he must be dead…

Some days ago to their greatest surprise they got a letter, which informed them that George Meadows, who was ill and felt that he had not much longer to live wanted to see the house in which he was born. I was invited to come and see him.

 It goes without saying I accepted the invitation. I found the whole family in the kitchen. I was amused to see that Mrs. Meadows wore her best silk dress. I was introduced to the old captain. He was very thin and his skin hung on his bones like an old suit that was too large for him. He had lost nearly all his teeth. It was strange to see those two old people and to think that half a century ago he had loved her and she was in love with another.

“Have you ever been married, Captain Meadows?” I asked. – “Not me”, he said and added: “I said I would never marry anyone but you, Emily, and I never have”. There was some satisfaction in his voice.

1. Comprehension questions.

  1.  How old was George Meadows?
  2.  How old is his wife?
  3.  How many children did they have?
  4.  What were his daughters / sons like?
  5.  Why did they deserve happiness?
  6.  Who was the real master of the house?
  7.  How old was George’s mother?
  8.  Who had courted Mrs. Meadows when she was Emily Green?
  9.  Whom did Emily marry?
  10.  What did George, Tom’s brother, do?
  11.  Why did George go to sea?
  12.  Why did Mrs. Meadows decide that George was dead?
  13.  What did a letter inform them of?
  14.  Why had Captain Meadows never married anyone?

2. Find in the text English equivalents to the following.

Господар ферми, п’ятдесятирічний чоловік, милі донечки, гарні та сильні сини, заслуговувати щастя, залицятися, обрати когось, стати моряком, не мати жодних звісток, будинок, де він народився, залишилось мало жити, безперечно, погодитися на запрошення.

TOPICAL VOCABULARY

1. Name

1. Ім’я

name / first name / Christian name

ім’я

patronymic / middle name

по батькові

surname / second name / family name / last name

прізвище

maiden name

дівоче прізвище  

namesake

тезка

nickname

прізвисько

to call(ed) smb after

назвати когось на честь

2. Age

2. Вік

to be (was / were; been) born

народитися

generation

покоління

to be twenty years old / be a man of twenty

виповнилося 20 років

nearly / about twenty

близько 20 років

under / on the right side of twenty

більше ніж 20 років

over / long past / on the wrong side of / turn twenty

понад 20 років

to be back in one’s second childhood

вдаватися до дитячих витівок

to be of age / to be under age

бути повнолітнім / не досягти повноліття  

teenager

підліток

grown up / adult

дорослий

middle aged (elderly) person

літня людина

to be as old as the hills

бути старим, як світ

to die(ed) of an illness / for one’s country / in childbirth

померти через хворобу / за країну / у дитинстві

to be of short-lived stock

народитися в сім’ї, де всі рано помирали

to outlive(d) smb by (over) 10 years

пережити когось на 10 років

to speak (spoke; spoken) ill of the dead

погано говорити про померлих

3. Origin

3. Походження

to have roots at / to be / to come from

мати коріння з / походити від

countryman

співвітчизник

4. Family

5. Сім’я

relatives / relations

родичі

close / distant relatives / remote kinsman

близькі / далекі родичі /чорт козі дядько

ancestors

пращури (предки)

husband / wife

чоловік / дружина

parents

батьки

father (dad, daddy) / mother (mum)

батько / мати

son / daughter

син / дочка

child (children, pl.)

дитина (діти, мн.)

first-born / baby / toddler

первісток / новонароджена дитина / дитина, яка починає ходити  

the only child

єдина дитина

twins / triplets

близнюки / трійнята

grandfather (grandpa / granddad) / grandmother (granny / grandma)

дідусь / бабуся

grandparents / great grandparents

дідусь / бабуся (разом) / прабатьки (прадідусь / прабабуся)

grandson / granddaughter

онук / онучка

uncle / aunt

дядько / тітка

cousin

двоюрідний брат / сестра

distant cousin

троюрідний брат / сестра

nephew / niece

племінник (небіж) / племінниця (небога)

in-laws

родичі чоловіка / жінки

father-in-law / mother-in-law

тесть, свекор / теща, свекруха

son-in-law / daughter-in-law

зять / невістка

to adopt(ed)

усиновити / удочерити

orphan / orphanage

сирота / притулок для дітей

step(foster) child / half brother(sister)

нерідна дитина / зведений брат (сестра)

step(foster) parents

нерідні батьки

nanny / baby-sitter

нянька

to christen(ed) a child

охрестити дитину

godfather / godmother

хрещений / хрещена

godson / goddaughter

хрещеник / хрещениця

to be pregnant / carry(ed) a child / to be in the family way / to expect(ed) a baby

бути вагітною / очікувати дитину

to give birth to a child

народити дитину

midwife

акушерка

maternity hospital

пологовий будинок

to bring (brought; brought) up / to raise(ed)

виховувати дитину

to take after / to resemble(d) / to be the image of / to be as like as two peas

бути схожим на / точна копія когось / схожі як дві краплини води

to inherit(ed)

успадкувати

5. Marriage

6. Шлюб

date(ed) / to go out with

побачення / ходити на побачення / зустрічатись із кимось

movie date

побачення в кіно

single / married

неодружений (незаміжня) / одружений (заміжня)

bachelor / spinster

парубок (холостяк) / стара діва

to become engaged with smb / engagement

заручитися з кимось / заручини

to propose (proposal)

освідчитися (освідчення)

to marry(ied) smb / to get married with

одружитися (вийти заміж)

to approve of smb / parents’ consent

схвалювати когось / згода батьків

wedding / civil / church

весілля / цивільне / церемонія в церкві (вінчання)

bridegroom (fiancé) / bride (fiancée)

наречений / наречена

best-man / bridesmaid

боярин / дружка

newly-weds / just married / happy couple

щойно одружені / щаслива пара

to go on a honeymoon

поїхати в медовий місяць

to divorce(d) / to separate(d) / to break off (broke; broken)

розлучитися / роз’їхатися / розірвати стосунки

ex-boyfriend / girlfriend / husband / wife

колишній хлопець / дівчина / чоловік / дружина

widow / widower

вдова / вдівець

to get widowed

овдовіти

to preserve a union

зберегти союз

What do you do for a living? / What are you? / What’s your profession (job, occupation, trade)?

Чим ви заробляєте на життя? / Хто ви за фахом? / Ваша професія?

VOCABUALARY PRACTICE

BLOCK I

  1.  Match the words with explanations in columns.
  1.  niece

a. child of an earlier marriage of one’s wife or husband

  1.  nephew

b. mother of one’s wife / husband

  1.  teenager

c. daughter of one’s brother / sister

  1.  single

d. unmarried man

  1.  stepchild

e. son of one’s brother / sister

  1.  mother-in-law

f. woman who hasn’t married after her husband’s death

  1.  bride

g. not married, engaged lady

  1.  twins

h. child of one’s uncle / aunt

  1.  favorite (pet)

i. boy / girl in his / her teens

  1.  orphan

j. two children born together of the same mother

  1.  aunt

k. child who has lost one / both parents by death

  1.  cousin

l. sister of one’s father / mother

  1.  widow

m. person treated as a favorite

  1.  Odd man out. In every line choose one word that doesn’t fit the given category.
  2.  father, mother, sister, brother, cousin;
  3.  mother-in-law, father-in-law, stepfather, sister-in-law, son-in-law;
  4.  engagement, wedding, marriage, honeymoon, happy couple, divorce;
  5.  first-born, baby, adult, toddler, child;
  6.  nickname, name, middle name, surname.

3. Match the story with the correct words.

Bride, civil, engaged, reception, bridegroom, honeymoon, consent, propose, wedding, toast.

One evening, though being nervous, Joe decided to _____ to his girlfriend Linda. She accepted his proposal, they became _____ and he gave her a ring. After a year they have saved enough money to get married (they were both over 18 and didn’t need their parents’ _____ ). Some people have a religious ceremony with a priest, but Joe and Linda decided on a ______ ceremony in a registry office. On the day of ______ Linda, the ______ was very calm, but Joe, the ______ , was nervous. Afterwards, at the ______ , speeches were made and guests drank a ______ to the happy couple, who finally left for a ______ in Spain.  

       4. Translate into English.

1. Мій батько на три роки старший за мою матір. 2. Вона заміжня? – Ні, вона овдовіла, бо втратила чоловіка на війні. 3. Ми з двоюрідним братом тезки та схожі, як дві краплини води. 4. Вона стара, як світ, але має добрий вигляд на свій вік. 5. Завжди приємно зустріти співвітчизника за кордоном. 6. Він успадкував від прадідуся талант гри на скрипці. 7. Вона одразу погодилася вийти за нього, оскільки обручка була з діамантом. 8. У весільну подорож вони поїхали на Гавайї на власній яхті. 9. Мої друзі всиновили дитину за кордоном. 10. Я інколи сварюся зі своїм літнім сусідом, бо ми з різних поколінь.

BLOCK II

1. Read the following dialogues.

  1.  So my daughter has consented to become your wife. Have you fixed the day of the wedding?
  2.  I’ll leave that to my fiancée.
  3.  Will you have a church or private wedding?
  4.  Her mother will decide that, sir.
  5.  What will you live on?
  6.  I’ll leave that entirely to you, sir.

*****

Bush and Clinton are remote relatives

  1.  Did you happen to know that George Bush and Bill Clinton are distant cousins?
  2.  Well, I’ve never heard of it! Where on earth did you find that out?
  3.  I’ve just read it in “The Japan Times”, in the October 23, 2010 issue.
  4.  What information agency does the paper refer to?
  5.  Reutor-Kyoto from London.
  6.  Oh, that’s a reliable source. What does the article say?
  7.  Both presidents share royal ancestors traced back to the 13th century in England.
  8.  Any relationship to Queen Elisabeth of Britain?
  9.  Exactly. Bush is her 13th cousin. It’s a matter of common knowledge now.
  10.  How very interesting! And who is the common ancestor Bush and Clinton descend from?
  11.  Both descend from King John of England, Bush through John’s son Henry III and Clinton through his daughter Eleanor.
  12.  Fancy that! Both have connections to ancient noble families and even to the royal ones!

2. Find the logical order of the following dialogue parts.

  1.  Any relations to Dr. Breed, the director of the Laboratory?
  2.  The fourth generation in this location.
  3.  And you are a Breed?
  4.  It’s a small world, I would say.
  5.  His brother. My name is Marvin Breed.

*****

  1.  My dear, I had accepted him a night before.
  2.  What made you quarrel with Conrad?
  3.  What was the harm in that?
  4.  Well, he proposed to me again last night.

*****

  1.  Why do you say “will be”? He actually is and we’ve already got the first quarrel as close relations.
  2.  I hear your sister Helen and Harry have got married lately.
  3.  Now Harry will be your brother-in-law, won’t he?
  4.  Oh, yes. They registered the other day and became husband and wife.

3. Translate the anecdotes into English.

 Що вона сказала, коли ти їй освідчився?Я їй не освідчився. Перш ніж я встиг розтулити рота, вона сказала мені, що любить Шекспіра, Кіплінга та По. У мене не було жодного шансу. Чи можу я отримати згоду дівчини, яка вже закохана в трьох молодих людей?

*****

 Чому ти розірвала заручини з Томом?Він мене обдурив. Сказав, що він –спеціаліст із нирок та печінки, а потім я дізналася, що він працює в м’ясному магазині.

*****

Дружина: Любий, ти пам’ятаєш, що в цей день 25 років тому ми були заручені?Двадцять п’ять років тому, – крикнув розсіяний професор, – господи, чому ж ти мені не нагадала раніше. Звичайно, нам уже давно час одружитися.

BLOCK III

  1.  Look at the family tree and complete the sentences below.

Albert and Mary Dodds

 

Barry = Sheila

Jill = Paul

                (died 1995)

John = Susan

    

      

 

Eve

Anna

Tom

Timothy

            

1.  John is Jill’s ……………………………………………...

  1.  Timothy is Jill’s …………………………………………
  2.  Eve and Ana are Timothy’s ……………………………...
  3.  Eve is Sheila’s ……………………………………………
  4.  Albert Dodds is Tom’s …………………………………...
  5.  Barry is Eve’s …………………………………………….
  6.  Susan is Timothy’s ……………………………………….
  7.  As Paul died in 1995, Jill is a …………………………….
  8.  Tom is Mary’s ……………………………………………
  9.  The only two people who are not related are …………….

  1.  Draw your own family tree and write a short summary of your family background (family history).

  1.  Read the information and answer the questions about yourself and your country:

Family background (=family history).

My grandfather was a market gardener in Ireland. He grew flowers, fruit and vegetables, and sold them in the market every day. He worked hard all his life and when he died, his son (now my uncle) and daughter (my mother) inherited a large house and a garden (received this house and garden from my grandfather when he died). They carried on business together until my mother met my father. They got married, moved to England, and I was born two years later. They didn’t have any more children, so I’m the only child.

Family names

When you are born, your family gives you a first name, e.g. James, Kate, Sarah and Alex are common first names in Britain. Your family name (also called your surname) is the one that the entire family share e.g. Smith, Brown, Jones, and O’Neill are common surnames in Britain. Some parents give their children a middle name, but you do not usually say this name in Britain unlike in Ukraine. Your full name is all the names you have, e.g. Sarah Jane Smith.

Changing times

 Society changes and so do families. In small places, people may decide to live together but do not get married. They are not husband and wife but call each other their partner. There are also many families in some parts of the world where the child or children live(s) with just their mother or father; those are sometimes called single-parent families.

  1.  What’s your first name?
  2.  What’s your surname?
  3.  Is that a common name in your country?
  4.  Do you have a middle name?
  5.  Are you the only child?
  6.  Who is your oldest friend?
  7.  Do you work? If so, how many of your work colleagues are also your friends?
  8.  Do you have any ex-boyfriends / girlfriends?
  9.  Are single-parent families common in your country?
  10.  In your country, do more and more people live together without getting married?

  1.  Dot this task even if you don’t believe in astrology and never read horoscopes. It’s for your fun and language skills improvement.

Step 1. Define your Zodiac sign by studying the following chart.

Model: My Zodiac sign is Gemini because I was born on the 28th of May.

Step 2. Comment on every column of the chart, agreeing or disagreeing with the descriptions and qualities given there.  

Model: Though I’m a Gemini by horoscope I can’t even draw. Being a typical Gemini I’m fond of talking

Horoscope Chart

Zodiac sign

Personality good points

Personality bad points

Appearance

Typical job

You like

You dislike

Aries

March 22-April 20

Energetic, enthusiastic

Jealous,

bossy

Rather long neck

Politician, surgeon

New clothes, sport

Waiting

Taurus

April 21-May 21

Reliable,

very loving

Stubborn, easily embarrassed

Beautiful complexion, large feet

Farmer, business person

Comfort, gardening

Change, haste

Gemini

May 22-June 22

Entertaining, charming, versatile

Quickly bored, impatient

Slim

Journalist, artist

Talking, being among people

Being laughed at, waiting

Cancer

June 23-July23

Kind, sensitive

Too easily hurt, possessive

Small eyes

Baker, nurse

Being with friends, shopping

Sharing feelings, criticism

Leo

July 24-August 23

Brave, generous

Stubborn, ambitious

Oval face, large eyes

Lawyer, soldier

Winning, children, pets

Unhappy friends, being ignored

Virgo

August 24-September 23

Witty, charming, sympathetic

Untidy, irritable, nervous

High forehead, straight nose

Secretary, mechanic

Being punctual, systemic

Crowds and noise, sitting still for a long time

Libra

September 24-October 23

Charming, cooperative

Indecisive, flirtatious  

Beautiful smile

Beautician, politician

Peace and quiet, being fussed over

Ugly places, loud arguments

Scorpio

October 24-November 22

Caring, protective

Moody, jealous

Broad face, intense eyes

Scientist, detective

Winning, collecting things

Making mistakes, being asked personal questions

Sagittarius

November 23-December 22

Honest, optimistic

Hot-headed, gambler at heart

Sparkling eyes, overweight

Teacher, writer, vet

Traveling, gambling, parties

Waiting, making promises

Capricorn

December 23-January 19

Hard-working, careful

Unforgiving, anxious

Serious-looking

Banker, civil servant

Home and family, privacy

New things and ideas, untidiness

Aquarius

January 20-February 19

Loyal,

caring

Rude, self-interested

Very tall

Engineer, photographer

Surprises, being with friends

Violence, fighting, people who show off

Pisces

February 20-March 21

Loving, caring, creative

Self-pitying, hot-tempered

Short, large eyebrows

Actor,

writer

Poetry, romantic places

Noisy, crowded places, being second

BLOCK IV

Topics for discussion and essays.

  1.  Is it difficult to be the only child in a family?
  2.  Speak about different nationalities in your family if any?
  3.  Speak about your family’s surname origin.
  4.  Speak about the problem of being a bread-maker in the family.
  5.  Speak about twin people in the world.
  6.  Discuss the problem of one-parent families.


LESSON 2

Appearance and Character (Body Language – from Head to Toe)

 

Custom is a second nature.

Character cant say anything except variations on Hello’.

How things look on the outside of us depends on how things are on the inside of us.

Let us be grateful to the mirror for revealing to us our appearance only.

Why not be oneself? That is the whole secret of a successful appearance.

Clothes and manners do not make the man; but, when he is made, they greatly improve his appearance.

INTRODUCTORY TEXT

Notes to the text:

wash-standумивальник (для рук)

forehead – чоло

a mop of brown hair – копиця каштанового волосся

hints of curls – натяк на кучері

to tingle(ed) – тремтіти

to stroke(ed) – гладити, пестити

steel-grey eyes – сірі очі з голубим відтінком

salty air of the sea – солоний присмак моря

honest eyes – чесні очі

sensuous lips – чуйні губи

stern and harsh – суворий та жорсткий, напружений

chin and jaw – підборіддя та щелепа

Looking in the mirror (abridged from “Martin Eden” by Jack London)

He got up and tried to see himself in the dirty looking glass over the wash-stand. He saw the head and face of a young fellow of twenty. Above a square-domed forehead he saw a mop of brown hair, nut-brown, with a wave to it and hints of curls, making hands tingle to stroke it. But he passed it by, and dwelt long and thoughtfully on the high square forehead. What kind of brain lay behind it?

He wondered if there was soul in those steel-grey eyes that were often quite blue of color and that were strong with the salty air of the sea. Well, they were honest eyes, he concluded. The brown sunburn of his face surprised him.

His mouth might have been an angel’s mouth, had not the full, sensuous lips a habit of drawing firmly across the teeth. At times so tightly did they draw, the mouth became stern and harsh. The chin and jaw were strong and just hinting of aggressiveness. And between the lips were teeth that were white and strong and regular.

1. Comprehension questions.

How does the author describe:

a) Martin’s hair?

b) Martin’s eyes?

c) Martin’s mouth?

d) Do you think the author likes or dislikes his hero? Prove it.   

2. Find in the text English equivalents to the following.

Брудне дзеркало, рівні зуби, душа, солоний присмак моря, міцні щелепи, натяк на агресію, чуйні губи, коричнева засмага, цікавитися (дивуватися), копиця каштанового волосся, молодик двадцяти років, високе квадратне чоло, пестити (гладити), тремтіти, чесні очі, напружений рот, дійти до висновку.

TOPICAL VOCABULARY

1. The human body

1. Людське тіло

attractive / unattractive

привабливий / непривабливий

impressive / unimpressive

виразний / невиразний

good-looking / pleasant-looking / beautiful / charming / lovely / pretty

приємної зовнішності / красивий / чарівний / милий / гарненький

common / plain / usual / ordinary

звичайний / простий  

ugly / ill-favored / eyesore

негарний / потворний

handsome

гарний (про чоловіків)

height / shape

зріст / статура (форма)

tall / short / middle-sized (medium / average)

високий / низький / середнього зросту

2. Build (frame) / figure

2. Тулуб / фігура

large / heavy / sturdy / powerful

великий / важкий / міцний / могутній

small / slight / stocky / slim / graceful

маленький / тендітний / коренастий / худий / граційний

feeble (weak) / frail / delicate / / iron constitution of a body

слабкий / тендітний / витончений / залізна конституція тіла

stooping posture

горбата (сутула) постава

well-made / ill-made / lean / slender / fat / stout / bony / clumsy figure

добре складений / погано складений / худий / стрункий / товстий / повний / кістлявий / незграбна фігура

3. Gait / step

3. Хода / крок

steady / heavy / light / shuffling / limping / swaying

твердий / важка / легка / шаркати ногами / кульгати / хитатися

measured footsteps

розмірені кроки

to stride (strode; stridden) with a firm step

упевнено крокувати

4. Parts of the body

4. Частини тіла

broad / narrow shoulders

широкі / вузькі плечі

chest / waist

грудна клітина / талія

leg / foot (pl. feet)

нога (від стегна до п’яти) / стопа (мн. стопи)

upper / lower limb(s)

верхні / нижні кінцівки

arm / hand / palm

рука / рука (кисть і пальці) / долоня

fingers: thumb / index (forefinger) / middle / ring / little

пальці: великий палець / вказівний / середній / безіменний / мізинець

toe / nail

палець на нозі / ніготь

head / neck

голова / шия

hair (color): red / fair / blond / chestnut / grey / black (dark) / brown / brunette  

волосся (колір): руде / світле / блондин(ка) / каштанове / сиве / чорне (темне) / шатен(ка) / брюнет(ка)

hair (type): thin / thick / straight / short / long / wavy / curly / curled / tangled / bold-headed

волосся (тип): тонке / товсте / пряме / коротке / довге / хвилясте / кучеряве / заплутане / лисий  

to comb(ed) / brush(ed) one’s hair

причісувати волосся (гребінцем, щіткою)

hair-cut / hair-do (hair-style) / parting (center, side) / fringe / plait / lock / hair care   

стрижка / зачіска / проділ (по центру, збоку) / чілка / коса / кучер / догляд за волоссям

hair drier / hair rollers / hair curler / hair spray

фен / бігуді / плойка / лак для волосся

face: oval / square / long / round / wrinkled / weather-beaten / freckled / scar / mole / wart

обличчя: овальне / квадратне / довге / кругле / у зморшках / обвітрене / у ластовинні / шрам / родимка / бородавка

full face / profile

анфас / профіль

complexion: pale / sunburnt (tanned)

колір обличчя: блідий / засмаглий

forehead

чоло

nose: straight / aquiline / hooked (turned up)/ snub / pointed / fleshy   

ніс: прямий / орлиний / кирпатий / курносий / загострений / м’ясистий

mouth

рот

lips: full (thick) / thin / twisted / well-cut  

губи: повні / тонкі / скривлені / чітко окреслені

teeth: (un)even / perfect / false teeth (dentures) / sparse

зуби: (не)рівні / ідеальні / вставні / рідкі

jaw / cheekbones

щелепа / вилиці

cheeks: clean-shaven / stubby (stubble) / with dimples

щоки: поголені / неголені (щетина) / з ямочками

chin: double / massive / pointed

підборіддя: подвійне / масивне / загострене 

eyes: blue / brown / hazel / dark / grey / bulging / cross-eyed / short-sighted / long-sighted /  sunken

очі: блакитні / темно-карі / світло-карі / темні / сірі / витрішкуваті / косоокий / короткозорий / далекозорий / запалі

eyebrows: bushy / arched / thin

брови: густі / дугою / тонкі

to raise / frown(ed) one’s brows

дивуватися / хмурити брови

eyelashes

Вії

ears: lop-eared / earlobe / to pierce (ed) ears

вуха: капловухий / мочка вуха / проколоти вуха

eyelids: heavy / swollen with tears

повіки: важкі / опухлі від сліз повіки  

5. Traits of character

5. Риси характеру

split personality (double-faced) / behavior / merit / weakness / fault / self-esteem / manners

роздвоєна особистість (дволикий) / поведінка / гідність / слабкість / недолік / самооцінка / манери

sleepyhead / sweet-tooth / chatter-box  

сонько / ласун / балакун

emotional states:

1) positive: 

cheerful (merry) / calm /  serious / easy-going / trustworthy / proud / obedient / happy (glad) / in high spirits (in a good mood) / excited / dedicated

емоційний стан:

1) позитивний:

веселий / спокійний / серйозний / добродушно-веселий / надійний (заслуговує на довіру) / гордий / слухняний / щасливий (радісний) / в хорошому настрої / схвильований / відданий

2) negative: 

bore (to be bored – I’m bored) / nuisance / irritable / hot (quick, short)-tempered / disobedient / superstitious / boastful / touchy / villain / self-confident (assured) / upset (sad / in low spirits (in a bad mood) / disappointed / depressed (distressed)

2) негативний:

нудний (мені нудно) / надокучливий / дратівливий / запальний / неслухняний / забобонний / хвалько / образливий / негідник / самовпевнений / засмучений (у поганому настрої) / розчарований / пригнічений (у відчаї)

powers of mind:

smart (clever, bright, intelligent) / wise / witty (quick-witted) / stupid (dull, silly, fool) / well (ill)-bred / educated / illiterate / gifted (talented)

розумові здібності:

розумний / мудрий / кмітливий / дурний / добре (погано) вихований / освічений / безграмотний / обдарований (талановитий)   

volitional powers:

1) positive: 

brave / courageous / hard-working / attentive / responsible / generous / tactful / polite / reliable / sociable / honest (frank, sincere) / fair (just) / independent / strong-willed / flexible / persistent

2) negative:

coward / timid (shy) / hesitant / stubborn / irresolute / weak-willed / lost / foxy (cunning) / unreliable / rude / strict / selfish / impolite / greedy / irresponsible / lazy (idle)    

вольові якості:

1) позитивні:

хоробрий / відважний / працьовитий / уважний / відповідальний / щедрий / тактовний / увічливий / надійний / дружній (товариський) / чесний (відвертий) / справедливий / незалежний / вольовий / гнучкий / наполегливий

2) негативні:

боягуз / сором’язливий / сумнівний / упертий / нерішучий / слабовольний / розгублений / хитрий / ненадійний / грубий / суворий / егоїст / неввічливий / жадібний / / безвідповідальний / лінивий

to stand (stood; stood) one’s ground

бути принциповим (стояти на своєму)

to lose (lost; lost) one’s temper

вийти з себе

6. Special features

6. Особливі риси

bamboozler

обманщик (розм. дурисвіт), шахрай

big mouth / big-head 

базікало / хвастун

crook / doormat 

пройдисвіт / безхарактерна людина (розм. квач, легкодуха людина)

layabout / loner / lunatic

дармоїд / одинак, відлюдько / схиблений

a pain (in the neck) / prat / psycho

надокучлива людина / ідіот / псих

slob / sucker / swot

нечепура, хамло / новачок, йолоп, тютя / зубрило

wally 

міський гуляка / жигало

VOCABUALARY PRACTICE

BLOCK I

1. Fill in the gaps with prepositions.

  1.  When I entered I heard somebody speak …. a ringing voice. Such a voice is typical …. young age.
  2.  Your aunt looks young …. her age.
  3.  When she smiled, two pretty dimples appeared .… her cheeks.
  4.  The newcomer was a short stout man, carefully dressed, … a round good-natured face.
  5.  His thin face was dark and ended … a short beard that looked Spanish.
  6.  Why are you shouting … the top … your voice? Can’t you talk … a whisper?
  7.  Jane was eleven years old, tall … her age, and very dark.
  8.   The girl has a pretty face … brave brown eyes. She is … medium height and has a slender figure. Her elder sister Pauline is quite different … her.

2. Complete the sentences with the suitable words. More than one answer is possible.

  1.  She’s got blond………………………………………
  2.  He’s got very pale……………………………………
  3.  They have both got curly…………………………….
  4.  I would say he was medium…………………………
  5.  Her brother has got very broad………………………
  6.  She doesn’t like men with hairy……………………..
  7.  Last time I saw him he had grown…………………..
  8.  He has got very muscular……………………………
  9.  Both men were very good-…………………………..
  10.  All of them have got dark……………………………

3. Complete the sentences with the correct words.

cool, lazy, rude, sweet, friendly, sporty, stupid, selfish, shy

  1.  He never gets angry or nervous, doesn’t lose his temper even in a difficult situation. He is___________.
  2.  She doesn’t like to work. She just sits and watches TV. She is so_______________!
  3.  She is sincere, she always smiles and talks to you. She’s _____________________.
  4.  He doesn’t know anything. And he doesn’t want to study. He’s ________________.
  5.  She really cares about other people. She’s always helpful. I find her very _________.
  6.  He plays football, basketball, tennis and rugby. He goes jogging every morning. He is really very _____________.
  7.  She only thinks about herself and never cares about others. She’s ________________.
  8.  It’s difficult for him to talk to some people, especially girls. He’s so ______________.
  9.  She never says “please” or “thank you”. She is so _______________!

4. From these jumbled words, find combinations to describe people, as in the example. Some of the combinations are hyphenated. Use a dictionary if necessary.

Model: good-looking

5. WANTED! MISSING! Complete the gaps in these police posters.

BLOCK II

1. Match these words with their opposites.

clever     introverted

extroverted   tight-fisted

rude    courteous

cruel    gregarious

generous    kind-hearted

unsociable   half-witted

2. Form nouns of the following adjectives. Use a dictionary to help you.

Model: kind – kindness

punctual optimistic reliable lazy

confident generous ambitious  stupid

sensitive  strong  flexible shy

3. Translate the sentences using the words and phrases from the box.

tiring, boring, thriftiness, self-confidence, important, feel at ease, patience, persistence,

capacity for small talk, sense of humor

  1.  Шкода, що мені не вистачає …
  2.  Їм вдалося так швидко купити цей будинок завдяки … його дружини.
  3.  У його дружини зовсім немає … Вона така …
  4.  Ця робота дуже … і вимагає великого …
  5.  … – дуже ... риса науковця для досягнення мети.
  6.  Вона має … Вона … в будь-якій компанії.

4. Read the text and do the activities that follow.

Body Language. From Head to Toe

English has many colloquial expressions to do with the body – from head to toe! Here are some of the most common ones.

 To keep your head is to remain calm, but to lose your head is to panic and do something foolish.

 An egghead is an intellectual, and someone who has their head screwed on is very sensible.

If you split hairs you are very pedantic, but if you don’t turn a hair you are very calm. To be scatterbrained is to be very forgetful, but to have a brain-wave is to have a very clever idea. If you have something on the brain, you can’t forget it, and if you pick someone’s brains, you talk a problem over with them to see if they have any good ideas.

 To pay through the nose is to pay a very high price for something, but if you turn up your nose at something you despise it. If you are all ears, you listen very attentively, and if you keep your ear to the ground you listen and watch out for signs of future events. To see eye to eye with someone is to agree with them, and if you don’t bat an eye, you show no surprise or excitement.

If you are down in the mouth, you are rather depressed. A stiff upper lip is a traditionally British quality of not showing any emotions in times of trouble. To have your tongue in your cheek is to say one thing and mean something else. To have a sweet tooth is to have a taste for sweet food, and to do something by the skin of your teeth is to manage to do it.

 To stick your neck out is to do something risky or dangerous, and to keep someone at arm’s length is to avoid getting too friendly with them. To be high-handed is to behave in a superior way, but to lend someone a hand is to help them. If you have a finger in every pie, you are involved in many different projects, and if you have green thumb you are very good at gardening. To be under someone’s thumb is to be under one’s influence.

If you have a heart to heart with someone, you have an intimate talk, and if you learn something by heart, you learn it completely.

If your blood boils, you are furious about something, and if it freezes in your veins, you are terrified. If you put your back into something, you put a lot of effort into it.

If you pull someone’s leg, you tease them, and if you don’t have a leg to stand on, you have no reason or justification for what you do. To put your foot down is to insist on something and to land on your feet is to be very fortunate.

  1.  Translate from the text colloquial expressions given in the bold type.
    1.  Complete the sentences with the suitable expressions from the text.

See eye to eye, by the skin of your teeth, has his head screwed on, by heart, pick your brains, green thumb, have a finger in every pie, pulling my leg, on the brain, under her thumb.

  1.  We got up so late this morning that we had to run to the station, and we just caught the train … .
  2.  All the children had to learn the poem.
  3.  I’ve got a problem I’d like to discuss – can I come and … this afternoon.
  4.  John does everything his mother says – he’s certainly … .
  5.  Tom and his sister disagree about everything – they simply don’t … .
  6.   I never know whether Sam is being serious or whether he is … .
  7.  Sue certainly has … – her plants grow very well.
  8.  You really … – you are involved in so many things!
  9.   James is very sensible – he certainly … .
  10.  I can’t forget that song – I’ve got it … .

c)  Match expressions having the same meaning.  

1. keep one’s head

a. put one’s back up

2. keep a stiff upper lip

b. think about something all the time

3. have one’s hair stand on end

c. not to turn a hair

4. blood boils

d. not to bat an eye

5. be down in the mouth

e. be in a bad mood

6. have something on the brain

f. move away because of fear

7. get cold feet

g. make blood freeze in one’s veins

8. put one’s feet in it

h. do or say the wrong thing

BLOCK III

1. You want to know about the following: someone’s general appearance / their height / their weight.

What questions do you need to ask? Complete these questions.

What …………………………………………..?

How …………………………………………...?

How much …………………………………….?

Now answer the questions about yourself.

  1.  How tall are you?
  2.  How would you describe your build?
  3.  How much do you weigh?
  4.  What kind of hair have you got? What color is it?
  5.  Would you like it to be different? If so, what would you like?
  6.  Do you think you have any special features?
  7.  Are there any special features you would like to have?
  8.  Do you like beards?

 

2. How would you describe a person in each of these cases?

  1.  He never bought me a drink all the time we were together.
  2.  I have to tell her what to do every minute of the working day. She wouldn’t even open a window without someone’s permission.
  3.  He often promises to do things but half the time he forgets.
  4.  She’s always here on time.
  5.  I don’t think he has done any work since he has been here.
  6.  She finds it difficult to meet people and talk to strangers.
  7.  He could work in any department, and it doesn’t matter to him if he’s on his own or part of a team.
  8.  The greatest thing about her is that she is so aware of what other people think or feel.
  9.  He always makes people angry or upset because he doesn’t consider feelings of other.
  10.  He wants to get the supervisor’s job and then becomes boss for the whole department.

3. Agree or disagree with the following statements.

  1.  Complicated people are always difficult.
  2.  Opposites attract.
  3.  Somebody simple-hearted and cheerful will make a good match for someone serious, calm, deeply intelligent.
  4.  Someone stingy will get along well with someone generous.
  5.  A witty guy will make a good match for a simple-minded girl.
  6.  A person with an artistic mind will get along well with a person with a rational mind.
  7.  All men are as stubborn as sheep.
  8.  Dependent, demanding behavior of a woman turns off a lot of men.
  9.  Compassion is a womanly trait.

4. Study the article and do the following activities.  

a) Match the following headings with the paragraphs A-D: conclusion / arguments against cloning / introduction of the topic / arguments for cloning;

b) Complete the text gaps (1-7) wit the following linking words: although, despite, even though, however, in spite of, on the other hand, whereas;

c) Write a short essay with the title ‘Is cloning a step to future or the end for the mankind?’

Does Mother Nature Know Better?

A Cloning – using genetic engineering to make exact copies of living plants and animals – has been in science fiction for years. Since 1997, with a cloning of a sheep Dolly, it has become part of real life and the subject of public debate.

B For some people, human cloning is acceptable in medicine (1) __________ the criticism that it is unnatural. For example, human tissue can be cloned for use in organ replacement or gene therapy. Also, organs could be provided by human clones. When a child is suffering from a fatal disease and needs an organ donor, its parents could have a younger cloned brother or sister – effectively an identical twin. This would provide 100% donor compatibility (2) _________ an organ donated from another brother or sister would only stand a 25% chance of being successful. Moreover, couples who can’t have children may wish to have a child from themselves. Finally, endangered animals could be cloned to increase their numbers.

C (3) ________ , there are many arguments against cloning. (4) _________ many people saw the cloning of Dolly as a major breakthrough, it is just another step towards ‘playing with nature’. Firstly, (5) _________ what they say, scientists have no idea of the long-term effects of genetic engineering. More and more genetically altered plants are being produced, and cloned farm animals are next. (6) ________ , creating ‘perfect’ plants and animals could eliminate the great variety of species on our planet. Furthermore, some scientists say we could transplant organs from cloned animals into humans, (7) ________ the risks to health are enormous and many people find the idea repulsive.

D It is clear that we need to regulate genetic engineering and stop experiments now, before it is too late!

BLOCK IV

Topics for discussion and essays.

  1.  Are you happy with your personality? Would you like to be different?
  2.  Are you more introverted (focused on your inner world) or more extraverted (focused on other people and the outer world)?
  3.  What do you think is more important: beauty or character?
  4.  When and why do you think personality can change?
  5.  In what job do you think appearance is essential? Why?
  6.  What personality traits do you consider important in a good friend / a boss / a partner?
  7.  Do you agree with the saying ‘A beauty lives an easier life’? Prove your point.
  8.  What makes a student popular with others?
  9.  What traits of character in your opinion do students appreciate in a teacher?
  10.  What is ideal of male / female beauty?


LESSON 3

Dwelling and its Types

My home is not a place, it is people.

Burn not your house to rid it of the mouse.

Keep a thing seven years and you will find a use of it.

Home is a place you grow up wanting to leave, and grow old wanting to get back to.

It takes hands to build a house, but only hearts can build a home.

A man travels the world over in search of what he needs and returns home to find it.

May your home always be too small to hold all of your friends.

INTRODUCTORY TEXT

Study the most common types of housing.

 

Notes to the text:

detached / attached dwellings – маєток (окремий будинок), окреме житло / прикріплений будинок, будинок на декількох власників

to vary (ed) in scale and amount – відрізнятися масштабами та кількістю

mortgageзаставна (плата по іпотечному / нерухомому кредиту)

to rent(ed) a house / flat – орендувати будинок / квартиру

landlord / landlady – власник житла (чол. / жін.)

semi-detached house – половина двоквартирного будинку з окремим входом (будинок на два власники)

terraced house – таунхаус (будинок стрічкової забудови)

duplex house – двоквартирний будинок / duplex apartment – квартира на двох поверхах із внутрішніми сходами (Am.)

to share(ed) a wall – мати спільну стіну  

thatched / tiled roof – солом’яний / черепичний дах

to retire(ed) – піти на пенсію

co-ownership – співвласництво

self-contained – автономний

to share(ed) a lease in a partnership – мати частку оренди в партнерстві

occupantорендар, мешканець

maisonetteмаленький будинок, двоповерхова квартира

basement – підвальне приміщення

Houses can be built in a large variety of configurations. A basic division is between free-standing or detached dwellings and various types of attached or multi-user dwellings. Both sorts may vary greatly in scale and amount of accommodation provided. Some of the terms listed are only used in some parts of the English speaking world.

When people buy a house, they usually borrow money from a bank or an organization called a Building Society. This money, which is a mortgage, is often paid back over 25 years. Other people rent a house or a flat paying rent weekly or monthly to a landlord or a landlady – the owner of the house.  

Detached house. A detached house has land all around it. More and more modern homes are detached, although in areas where building land is expensive, the houses may be very close to each other.

Semi-detached house. These houses share a central wall. Typically a semi has a small garden in front and a fence divides a larger garden at the back.

Terraced house. Terraced houses are attached to each other in a long row. They are usually found in towns and cities and were earlier called townhouses. They usually have three or four storeys.  

Duplex house. Duplex houses are usually two separate residences, attached side-by-side, but the term is sometimes used to mean layered apartments on two different floors (particularly in urban areas such as New York and San Francisco). The duplex house often looks like either two houses put together, or as a large single home, and both legally and structurally, shares a wall between halves. The duplex home is a single townhouse section with two different entrances. The jargon terms “triplex” and “four-plex” are names for similar structures with three or four housing units.

Country cottage. Country cottages are often stone buildings which were part of a farm. Some country cottages are very old and may have a thatched or a tiled roof. Today many people who work in the cities buy cottages so that they have a place to go for the weekends.

Bungalow. A bungalow is a house where all the rooms are on the ground floor. As there are no stairs, many older people dream of going to live in a bungalow when they retire.

Villa. Villa is a large house with big gardens or a rented house in a holiday resort or tourist area.

Block of flats. A block of flats is a large building divided into several apartments.

Condominium. Condominium is a form of ownership with individual apartments for everyone, and co-ownership (by percentages) of all of the common areas, such as corridors, hallways, stairways, lobbies, recreation rooms, porches, rooftops, and any outdoor areas of the grounds of the buildings.

Apartment (UK – flat). It is a relatively self-contained housing unit in a building which is often rented out to one person or a family, or two or more people sharing a lease in a partnership, for their exclusive use. Sometimes called digs (slang).

Studio apartment or Studio flat (Br), or Bachelor apartment or Efficiency apartment. It is a suite with a single room that doubles as living / sitting room and bedroom, with a kitchenette and bath. The unit is designed for a single occupant or possibly a couple.

Maisonette. It is an apartment / flat on two levels with internal stairs, or which has its own entrance at street level.

Mother-in-law apartment. It is a small apartment either at the back, in the basement, or on an upper level subdivision of the main house, usually with a separate entrance (also known as a “Granny flat” in the UK, Australia and New Zealand).

Penthouse. It is the top floor of multi-storied building.

Movable dwellings. They are the cheapest form of housing to buy. Mobile homes or park homes can be moved from place to place by trucks. They are located in special mobile home parks called mobile villages. They are usually on the outskirts of cities. Besides, one should mention Travel trailer or Caravan used by people for traveling.  

1. Comprehension questions.

  1.  What is the basic division of housing?
  2.  Where do people get money to buy real estate?
  3.  What is mortgage?
  4.  What kind of houses and their specific features can you name?
  5.  Why do many people working in cities buy cottages today?
  6.  Why do older people prefer bungalows?
  7.  What is condominium?
  8.  How mane people can a studio apartment seat?
  9.  What other apartments can you name?
  10.  What movable dwellings do you know?  

2. Find in the text English equivalents to the following.

окреме житло, заставна, орендувати будинок / квартиру, пересувне житло, внутрішні сходи, підвальне приміщення, мати спільну стіну, власник житла, половина двоквартирного будинку з окремим входом, двоквартирний будинок, солом’яний / черепичний дах, піти на пенсію, двоповерхова квартира, автономний вхід.

TOPICAL VOCABULARY

1. General

1. Загальна лексика

building / to erect(ed) a building / to pull(ed) down a building

споруда / збудувати споруду / зруйнувати споруду  

dwelling house

житловий будинок

home / to feel (felt; felt) at home / homeless

дім (оселя) / бути як вдома / безпритульний

residential area / district

житлова місцевість / район

property

власність (майно)

storey / story (floor) / two-storied building / to live(ed) on the ground floor  (Br.) / to live on the first floor (Am.)  

поверх / двоповерхова будівля / жити на першому поверсі

to move(ed) / into / out / housewarming party / block

заїхати / виїхати / входини / квартал

tenant / lodger / occupant  

орендар (наймач)

to furnish(ed) the house / flat

меблювати будинок / квартиру

to let (let; let) a house (flat) / to rent(ed) a house (flat)

здавати в оренду будинок (квартиру) / орендувати будинок (квартиру)

real estate / real estate agency (agent)

нерухомість / агентство з нерухомості (агент)

mortgage / downpayment / to pay (paid; paid) interest  

заставна / перший внесок / сплачувати відсотки

2. Types of Dwelling (see also introductory text)

2. Типи житла

hut / country house (weekend house) / sky-scraper / palace / castle / barracks

хатина / дача / хмарочос / палац / замок / казарма

3. House parts

3. Складові будинку

roof:

flat / tiled / slate / attic

дах:

плаский (рівний) / черепиця / шифер / горище

chimney / rainwater pipe

димар / стічна труба

window:

double-glazed window / wooden / window (folding) shutter / Venetian blind (jalousie) / rolling shutter

вікно:

склопакет / дерев’яний / ставні, що закриваються / жалюзі / маркіза

door:

front / back / door lock / spyhole (peephole)

двері:

парадні двері / задні двері / замок у дверях / вічко

step / stairs / staircase landing / handrail / porch

сходи (зовнішні) / сходи (внутрішні) / майданчик зі сходами / поручні / ганок  

4. Premises and Outhouse

4. Прилегла територія та прибудинкова забудова

yard / back yard / garden / kitchen garden / lawn / flower-bed / parterre / fence / hedge / path / pond / fountain / summer house / court / green-house / garage (two-car garage) / pavement / sidewalk (Am.) / litter bin / shed (barn) / cowshed / pigsty / stable / poultry

двір / задній двір / сад / город / газон / клумба / квітник / паркан / живопліт (огорожа) / стежка / ставок / фонтан / альтанка / корт / теплиця / гараж (гараж на 2 авто) / тротуар / смітник / сарай / корівник / свинарник / конюшня / пташник  

to trespass(ed) / “no trespass”

порушувати кордон приватної власності / прохід заборонено

5. Repairing a House

5. Ремонт будинку

construction materials:

wood / metal (stainless steel, iron, copper, brass, bronze) / plastic / brick (brickwork) / cement / concrete / concrete-mixer / glass / stained glass / marble / stone   

будівельні матеріали:

дерево / метал (нержавіюча сталь, залізо, мідь, латунь, бронза) / пластик / цегла (цегляна кладка) / цемент / бетон / бетонозмішувач / скло / вітраж / мармур / камінь

paint:

to paint(ed) / paint comes off (peals off) / freshly painted / unpainted / to repaint(ed)

фарба:

фарбувати / фарба лущиться / щойно пофарбовано / нефарбований / перефарбувати

wallpaper / to paper(ed) / parquet(ed) / linoleum / plaster / whitewash(ed)    

шпалери / поклеїти шпалери / паркет / постелити паркет / лінолеум / штукатурка / побілка (білити)

condition of a house:

to be in a good condition / to be in the state of neglect / to need(ed) repairing

стан будинку:

бути в хорошому стані / бути в занедбаному стані / потребувати ремонту

construction workers:

carpenter / brick-layer / locksmith / painter / plasterer / plumber / fitter  

будівельники:

столяр / муляр / слюсар / маляр / штукатур / водопровідник / монтажник

6. House Fittings and Accommodations

6. Оснащення квартири та зручності

house fittings:

modern conveniences / bell (door-bell) / electric meter / extension cord / bulb (75 watt bulb) / safety fuse / candle / candlestick / lamp / standard lamp / wall lamp / lampshade / lantern / plug / socket / central heating / water

supply / tap / telephone directory / inquiry

accommodations:  

to take a bath (shower) / to ring (rang; rung) the bell / to press(ed) the bell / to switch(ed) on (off) the light / to take (took; taken) the readings of the meter / bulb fuses / to screw(ed) in (out) a bulb / tap is dripping (leaking) / to fix(ed) the tap / to flush(ed) / to get (got; got) clogged

оснащення квартири:

сучасні зручності / дзвінок / електричний лічильник / запобіжник пробка” / подовжувач / лампочка на 75 Вт /лампочка перегоріла / свічка / підсвічник / лампа / торшер / бра / абажур / ліхтар / штепсельна вилка / розетка / центральне опалення / водопостачання / кран / телефонна книга / телефонний довідник

зручності:

прийняти ванну (душ) / подзвонити у дзвінок / натиснути на дзвінок / увімкнути (вимкнути) світло / зняти показники лічильника / вкрутити (викрутити) лампочку / кран тече / полагодити кран / злити воду в туалеті / засмітитися  

7. Housekeeping

7. Ведення домашнього господарства

to keep (kept; kept) house / to sweep (wept; swept) / to wipe(ed) / to polish(ed) / to air(ed) / to clean(ed) the garbage  

вести домашнє господарство / замітати / витирати (мити) / натерти до блиску / провітрювати / прибрати сміття  

8. Household appliances

8. Побутові прилади

iron / ironing board / washing machine / clothes (carpet) brush / stepladder / bucket / vacuum cleaner / dishwasher / fan / oil radiator / TV set with a remote control / hair drier / toaster / microwave oven / electric kettle / coffee maker / mixer / refrigerator

праска / дошка для прасування / пральна машина / щітка для одягу (килиму) / драбина / відро / пилосос / посудомийна машина / вентилятор / масляний радіатор / телевізор із дистанційним керуванням / фен / тостер / мікрохвильова піч / електричний чайник / кавоварка / міксер / холодильник

9. Rooms and Interiors

9. Кімната та інтер’єр

hall:

rack / mirror / umbrella stand / chest of draws for shoes / rug

передпокій:

вішалка / дзеркало / стійка для парасоль / комод для взуття / килимок   

living room (lounge):

sofa / cushion / arm-chair / carpet / wall-to-wall carpeting / curtain (blind) / coffee table / ashtray     

вітальня:

диван / подушка / крісло / килим / килимове покриття / штора / журнальний столик / попільничка  

bedroom:

wardrobe / double bed / bedclothes / blanket / coverlet / mattress / pillow / bedside table / pajamas

спальня:

шафа / подвійне ліжко / постільна білизна / ковдра / покривало / матрац / подушка / приліжкова тумбочка / піжама

dining room / study / utility room / spare room

їдальня / кабінет / комірчина / вільна кімната

kitchen:

sink / taps / cooker hood / coоker / oven / cupboards / saucepan / frying pan / working top / pot holder / spice jar / dish drainer / washing-up liquid / corkscrew / grater / table-mat 

кухня:

мийка / крани / витяжка / плита / духова шафа / буфет (шафки) / каструля / сковорідка / робоча поверхня / прихватка / баночка для спецій / сушка для посуду / рідина для миття посуду / штопор / терка / серветка на стіл під гаряче   

nursery (Children’s Room):

bunk-bed / desk / storage box / set of toys / wall bars

playpen

дитяча:

двох’ярусне ліжко / стіл / підліжкова скриня / набір іграшок / “шведська стінка”

манеж

baby carriage / pram

дитяча коляска

teething ring

кільце для прорізування зубів

baby powder

дитяча присипка

baby bath

дитяча ванночка

diaper

дитяча пелюшка

rattle

дитяче брязкальце

сrib / cradle

дитяча колиска

sling

слінг для дитини, перев’яз (альтернатива колясці)

bathroom:

bath tub / shower cabin / hot (cold) water tap / bath foam / bath sponge / bidet / towel / towel rail / toilet roll holder / washbasin / toilet / toilet pan / toilet lid / cistern / soap / shower gel

ванна:

ванна (резервуар) / душова кабіна / кран для гарячої (холодної) води / піна для ванни / мочалка / біде / рушник / тримач для рушників / тримач для туалетного паперу / умивальник / туалет / унітаз / кришка унітазу / бачок / мило / гель для душу     

VOCABUALARY PRACTICE

BLOCK I

1. Complete these sentences with the correct adverb or preposition.        

  1.  He put the plates…. the cupboards.
  2.  I took the ham …. of the fridge, made myself a couple of sandwiches, and then I put the rest of the ham …. in the fridge.
  3.  I usually sit …. the sofa and my husband sits … the armchair.
  4.  I was bored, so I turned … the television.
  5.  You normally cook it …. the oven for about forty minutes.
  6.   I took the butter … of the fridge and put it … the table.

2. Here are some things you find in the lounge or kitchen with the jumbled letters. What are they and where do they belong?

skin  nacitusr rapcet  shadriswhe  teklet

faos  veon  digref  hiamcrar  pobcadru acepasnu

3. Find the correct ending on the right for each of these sentence beginnings on the left, then put the sentences in the most logical order.

1. I cleaned

the light

2. I went

into bed

3. I set

a wash

4. I switched off

my teeth

5. I had

to sleep

6. I put on

the alarm clock

7. I got  

my pyjamas

4. Where would you look for the following things in a typical house?

1. a rake  5. suitcases   9. a grater

2. cutlery  6. a tumble-dryer 10. old empty boxes

3. dental floss  7. a power point

4. a coat-hanger 8. a porch  

5. Write down

  1.  three things in the lounge and kitchen you can turn on / off
  2.  three things in the kitchen you can wash
  3.  three things in the lounge and kitchen you can sit on
  4.  two things you can use to boil water

BLOCK II

1. Fill in the room and place labels on the plan of the house.

    

2. Fill the gaps with a suitable word.

  1.  I’ve got a darkroom in the … where I develop films. It’s perfect because there are no windows down there.
  2.  Is there a … where I can plug in this radio?
  3.  You’d better have a … under your drink in case you mark that side-table. It’s an antique.
  4.  The waste-bin’s full again. I’ll empty it. Are there any more …? Where are they?
  5.  We keep out skis up in the ………….. during the summer. They’re out of the way up there.
  6.  You’ll find the garden-chairs in the  at the bottom of the garden. Bring them up and we’ll have a drink on the … and watch the sunset.
  7.  The light-switch for the stairs is on the  as you come out of your bedroom.
  8.  I’ve moved to a … now as I found I couldn’t manage the stairs any more at my age.

3. Read the following dialogue.

An Apartment to Let

  1.  I was told that you have an apartment to let.
  2.  Yes. I have a spare apartment for rent.
  3.  How many bedrooms are there?
  4.  Two bedrooms entirely furnished.
  5.  How much is the rent? What are your terms?
  6.  89 dollars a week, including laundry.
  7.  What about other services?
  8.  They are to be paid monthly.
  9.  Do you think I could have a look at the apartment, please?
  10.  Yes, sure, but it’s a mess now, I’m afraid. The former tenant has just left. By tomorrow it will have been cleaned up.
  11.  Well, I’d like to see the kitchen then, only to make sure, it’s equipped to cook.
  12.  This way, please. Here you are. There is a built-in cupboard.
  13.  All right, but there isn’t enough light.
  14.  You can easily screw in a brighter bulb. Appliances are sold just across the street.
  15.  Thank you. When do you think I can move in?
  16.  The day after tomorrow, sir.   

4. Act as interpreter, translate Ukrainian lines into English.

Examining an Apartment

  1.  Here is apartment14.
  2.  Щодо розміщення будинку та стану парадних сходів – тут усе в порядку.
  3.  Let’s see what it’s like inside the apartment.
  4.  Не можу повернути ключ в замку.
  5.  But it’s a wrong key. It’s for your mother’s house.
  6.  О, та невже! Ось це – мабуть той ключ.
  7.  I can’t see anything. Where is the light-switch?
  8.  Ось він, знайшла. Тьмяне світло в коридорі, варто зазначити.
  9.  It won’t be a problem to replace the light bulb later.
  10.  Звичайно, я думаю цей вузький коридор веде на кухню.
  11.  Oh, look, the kitchen is rather spacious and well-equipped.
  12.  Проте краще було б мати електричну плиту замість газової.
  13.  Gas is much cheaper than electricity.
  14.  Вікно виходить на тихий двір і є балкон.
  15.  So, you can keep your numerous tins and cans there, as well as dry your laundry.
  16.  Так, це дуже зручно.

BLOCK III

1. Imagine you’ve just moved into a new flat, and for the first six months you can only have six of the following. Which would you choose?

sofa  carpets  dishwasher   cooker  curtains  fridge  

hi-fi   bed   washing machine kettle   saucepans  armchair  

food mixer TV  dining table  desk

2. Study the advertisements and find the following.

  1.  a house in Scotland
  2.  an 18th – century flat
  3.  a four-bedroomed house
  4.  a house with a big garden
  5.  a house with double glazing
  6.  the cheapest house
  7.  the most expensive house

SOUTH CAMBRIDGESHIRE

GLEN AFFRIC, SCOTLAND

DEPTFORD

WEST WIMBLEDON

FOREST HILL

3 bedroomed detached bungalow, quiet village cul-de-sac, large plot, double garage, conservatory, stone fireplace, luxury fitted kitchen, fitted bedroom, 5 miles Cambridge. Convenient shops, amenities.

₤ 87, 500

Traditional stone-built cottage in conservation village in the most beautiful glen in Scotland. ¼ acre garden, 2 receptions, 3 bedrooms, kitchen, bathroom, Full Central Heating.

₤ 46, 000

Two bedroomed first floor flat. Gregorian about 1780, 30 seconds river, Central Heating. Close to tubes, buses, shopping. Garden, off-road parking. Not Docklands. ₤ 59, 950   

1920’s 3 bedroomed house in quiet cal-de-sac. Well maintained throughout. 17 foot fully fitted kitchen, 2 receptions, double glazing replacement windows. Small sunny 30 foot garden.

₤ 102, 950  

Spacious Edwardian 4 bedroomed semi-detached. Many original features, quiet road. Beautiful 29ft lounge, second reception, excellent decorative order. Sunny garden. Close BR (15min London Bridge).

₤ 142, 500

3. Now act as a real estate agent. Offer your client apartments and houses using the ads. Try to give more detailed description of the apartment or the house if your client is interested in. Answer his / her questions.

MANHATTAN

BRONX

BROOKLYN

QUEENS

LONG ISLAND

West village

$ 370,000

256 West 10th Street

2 bedroom, 2 bath, 1,400 sq. ft. loft; elevator, dining area, terrace, fireplace, high ceilings, skylights; maintenance $ 1.326, 52% tax deductible, listed at $ 395,000, 4 weeks on market (Broker: Siverman Group)

Wakefield

$ 180,000

601 East 236th Street

2 family, 35-year old detached brick house; 3 bedroom, dining room in primary unit; 2 bedroom, eating kitchen in other; 1 bathroom in each; 3 car garage, taxes $ 2,100, listed at $ 240,000, 16 weeks on market (Brokers: Albert L.Bryan; Cazizoda Realty)

Kensington

$ 187,000

321 Albertmarle Road

7 bedroom, 1 bath, 79-year-old detached wood-frame house; dining room, parquet floors, rear deck, taxes $ 1,512, listed at $ 229,000, 26 weeks on market (Broker: Mary Kay Gallaher)

Forest Hills

$ 278,000

94, 68th Avenue

3 bedroom, 1 bath, 80-year-old attached brick house; dining room, fireplace, 1 car garage; taxes $ 1,600, listed at $ 299,400, 4 weeks on market (Broker: Kingdom Realty)

Glenwood Landing

$ 205,000

6 Woodland Avenue

3 bedroom, 2 bath, 71-year-old brick house; dining room, study, fireplace, 1 car attached garage; taxes $ 2,100, listed at $ 219,000, 7 weeks on market (Brokers: Richard B.Arnold, Coldwell Banker, Sammis)

BLOCK IV

Topics for discussion and essays.

  1.  Describe a house of your dream.
  2.  What do you think could be an ideal apartment for a family of four?
  3.  If you were to redecorate your apartment / house and to rearrange furniture what would you do and why?
  4.  Speak about advantages / disadvantages of living in a flat / private house.
  5.  Speak about the problem among average Ukrainians of buying own dwelling in their country.
  6.  Speak about the problem of nuisance neighborhood.
  7.  Speak about the problem of homeless people.


LESSON 4

Time and Dates

Time does not change us. It just unfolds us.

Time! The corrector when our judgments err.

Time is a dressmaker specializing in alterations.

Time is the only thief we can’t get justice against.

Time is what we want most, but... what we use worst.

Men talk of killing time, while time quietly kills them.

Time is what prevents everything from happening at once.

INTRODUCTORY TEXT

Notes to the text:

to tell (told; told) the time – сказати, котра година

to point(ed) to a place – вказати кудись (на місце)

to tell the time by shadows – визначати час за тінню

trees and cliffs – дерева та кручі

to cast (cast; cast) shadows – кидати тінь

common practice – поширена практика, звичай

equal part – рівна частина

to invent(ed) – винаходити

to measure(d) the time – вимірювати час

striped candle – смугаста свічка

knotted rope – зв’язана мотузка

oil lamp – масляна лампа

ancient Babylon – стародавній Вавилон

dawn / daybreak – світанок, ранкова зоря

length of the day – довжина / тривалість дня

turning of the earth on its axis – обертання землі навколо осі

standard time – декретний (поясний) час

time zone – часовий пояс

Everything about Time

When people began living together they needed some way of telling the time. One of the ways was the sun. When a man planned to meet another he pointed to a place in the sky and said, “I’ll meet you when the sun is there”. It was also possible to tell the time by shadows. Many trees and cliffs casting shadows served as timepieces. At night one could tell the time by the stars. The first timepiece anyone made was a sundial. It tells the time by shadows. The first sundial was made in Egypt about 3,500 years ago. It was common practice to divide the time between sunrise and sunset into twelve equal parts or hours.

No one knows why 12 was chosen as the number or hours for the day. Later the night was divided into 12 hours, too.

The water clock was invented as long as the sundial. It was used in Greece more than 2,000 years ago. Before true clocks were invented fire was also used to measure the time. Striped candles, knotted ropes and oil lamps could all measure the time by burning.

The first true clocks were made nearly 1,000 years ago. The first watches were made about 500 years ago.

There are 60 seconds in a minute and 60 minutes in an hour. We probably have 60 because 60 was a very important number to the people who lived in ancient Babylon, a land from which many of our ideas came.

There are seven days in a week. The seven days of the week are named in honor of the sun, the moon and five of the planets. Sunday is the sun’s day, Monday is the moon’s day, Tuesday is Mars’ day, Wednesday is Mercury’s day, Thursday is Jupiter’s day, Friday is Venus’ day and Saturday is Saturn’s day.

The planets were named after Roman gods and goddesses. The beginning of the day is dawn or daybreak, then comes morning, noon, afternoon, evening and night. We can’t change the length of the day. It is made for us by turning of the earth on its axis. The sun rises in the east in the morning and sets in the west in the evening.

We know that the time is not the same all over the world. For this reason, the world has been divided into time zones. All the places in each zone have the same time. It is called standard time.  

1. Comprehension questions.

  1.  What was the ancient way of telling the time?
  2.  How could one tell the time by nature?
  3.  What was the first timepiece?
  4.  When were the first true watches / clocks made?
  5.  What is specific about number 60?
  6.  Who are seven days of the week named after?
  7.  How is the day made for us?
  8.  What is standard time?

2. Choose the correct answer.

  1.  At night one can tell the time by…

a) stars    b) shadows    c) moon

  1.  The first timepiece anyone made was a…

     a) watch     b) sundial    c) bell

  1.  The first sundial known was made in...

a) Babylon    b) Egypt   c) Britain  

  1.  The first true clocks were probably made…years ago.

a) 2,000     b) 3,500   c) 1,000

  1.  The world has been divided into…zones.

     a) clock     b) time    c) standard   

TOPICAL VOCABULARY

1. Time means

1. Часові засоби

timepiece (timekeeper) / clock / alarm-clock

digital clock / mechanical clock / tower clock  

/ watch (wrist watch) / sundial / sandglass (hourglass) / pendulum (balance, ticker)

хронометр / годинник настінний / будильник / цифровий / механічний / баштовий / наручний годинник / сонячний / пісочний / маятник

face / dial of a watch (clock) / hand of a watch (clock) / hour hand / minute hand / second hand (also used things) / figures on the face of a watch

циферблат годинника / стрілка годинника / годинна / хвилинна / секундна / цифри на циферблаті годинника  

2. Periods of time

2. Часові проміжки

today / yesterday / tomorrow

сьогодні / вчора / завтра

the day before yesterday / the day after tomorrow / two days ago / in two days

позавчора / післязавтра / два дні тому / через два дні  

second (60 seconds in a minute)

секунда ( 60 секунд у хвилині)

minute (60 minutes in an hour)

хвилина (60 хвилин у годині)

hour (24 hours in a day)

година (24 години в добі)

day (7 days in a week)

день (7 днів у тижні)

24 hours

доба

week / fortnight (2 weeks in a fortnight)

тиждень / два тижні

month (12 months in a year)

місяць (12 місяців у році)

year (52 weeks in a year)

рік (52 тижні в році)

leap year (366 days)

високосний рік (366 днів)

decade (10 years in a decade)

десятиріччя (10 років у десятиріччі)

century (100 years in century)

вік (100 років у віці)

age (historical / geological period) / the Ice age / the Stone Age / the Middle Age / the age of the computer

вік (історичний / геологічний період) / льодовиковий період / кам’яний період / середні віки / комп’ютерний вік

era (long period, several decades)

ера (тривалий період, декілька десятиріч)

spell (indefinite but short)

короткий проміжок часу (невизначений, проте короткий)

for a while (indefinite but not too long)

на якийсь час, ненадовго

dawn / daybreak

світанок, ранкова зоря

sunrise / sunset

схід сонця / захід сонця  

a.m.=ante meridiem 0.00-12.00    

p.m.=post meridiem 12.00-24.00

midday / noon=12.00

midnight=24.00

до опівдня

після опівдня

полудень

північ

date / What’s the date? / What date is it today?

дата / Яка сьогодні дата?

days of the week:

Sunday / Monday / Tuesday / Wednesday / Thursday / Friday / Saturday

дні тижня:

неділя / понеділок / вівторок / середа / четвер / п’ятниця / субота  

months of the year:

spring months: March / April / May

summer months: June / July / August

autumn months: September / October / November

winter months: December / January / February

місяці року:

весняні місяці: березень / квітень / травень

літні місяці: червень / липень / серпень

осінні місяці: вересень / жовтень / листопад

зимові місяці: грудень / січень / лютий

3. Time passing (duration)

3. Тривалість часу

to last(ed) for / to run (ran; run)

тривати

to take / It takes me…to do smth.

займати / Це забирає (Мені потрібно) …

two hours ride

дві години їзди

ten minutes walk

десять хвилин ходу (пішки)

to pass(ed) / to elapse(ed)

проходити / минати

temporary (provisional) / permanent

тимчасовий / постійний

timeless / eternal

вічний

4. Time phrases

to tell the time

to measure the time

local time

to count years

to wind (wound; wound) the watch

to set the watch by the radio / by TV channel  

to go (went; gone) right / wrong

to be fast / slow

to gain(ed) / to lose (lost; lost) 5 minutes

to come (to be) in time / to come exactly (sharp)

4. Часові вислови

сказати, котра година

вимірювати час

місцевий час

вести літочислення

завести годинник

заводити годинник за радіо / за ТБ

йти правильно / неправильно

поспішати / відставати

поспішати / відставати на 5 хвилин

прийти вчасно / прийти точно (рівно)

just in time

як раз вчасно

to be late (for)

запізнюватися

to be short of time / to lack time / to have no time

бути обмеженим у часі

It’s high time

Давно прийшов час

What time is it? / What’s the time, please? / Excuse me. Have you got the time, please?

Котра година?

It’s getting late / it is late

Уже пізно

It’s still early

Ще рано

Could you spare me a minute?

Чи не могли б Ви приділити мені хвилину уваги?

Wait a moment, please. / Just a minute, please.

Зачекайте хвилинку, будь ласка.

5. Approximate time

for ages

recently / lately

a long time ago

the other day (=a few days ago)

for the time being (=for now / until)

some other time  

5. Приблизний час

сто років / довго

нещодавно / останнім часом

давно

нещодавно, на днях

нині, на деякий час

іншим разом

6. Prepositions of time

6. Прийменники часу

at (at a certain time)

at 8 o’clock / at 3.30 / at midnight

о …

о восьмій / о пів на четверту / о півночі   

on (on a day)

on Monday / on July 14 / on the second day

у …

у понеділок / 14 липня / наступного дня

in (in a period)

in the morning / in April / in 2010 / in a week

в, у, через …

уранці / у квітні / у 2010 / через тиждень

Important exceptions:

at Christmas (X-mas) / at Easter / at the weekend / at night

Важливі винятки:

на Різдво / на Пасху / на вихідних / уночі

by (not later than) / until

до (не пізніше ніж) / доти, поки

between

між

from…to (till)

із … до

during (when) / throughout (for the whole period without a stop) / for (how long)

протягом (коли) / певний час без зупинки / як (довго)

 

VOCABUALARY PRACTICE

BLOCK I

  1.  Telling the time. Learn how to do it correctly.

past  

3.00 – it’s three o’clock sharp

3.05 – it’s five minutes past three

3.10 – it’s ten minutes past three

3.15 – it’s a quarter past three

3.20 – it’s twenty minutes past three

3.25 – it’s …..

3.30 – it’s half past three

to

3.35 – it’s twenty-five minutes to four

3.40 – it’s twenty minutes to four

3.45 – it’s a quarter to four

3.50 – it’s ten minutes to four

3.55 – it’s five minutes to four

4.00 – it’s four o’clock sharp

Remember:

  1.  We can say quarter past / to six or a quarter past / to six. We don’t say fifteen past six. For other times, we say minutes: nineteen minutes past six not nineteen past six.
  2.  We can also say the time like this: six fifteen, two thirty, ten forty, six nineteen, etc. but for 6.05 we say: six oh five not six five.
  3.  In American English: 10.05 – five after ten.

2. Tell what’s the time:

a) in words

9.30, 7.10, 5.00, 10.20, 4.05, 5.45, 11.15, 2.34, 3.52, 8.02 a.m. / p.m.

b) write the time in figures

a quarter past three, half past five, a quarter to six, twenty-five to nine, twenty to eleven, ten to four, five to nine, twenty-three minutes to six, twenty-five to two.   

3. Put these words in order.

a minute  a year    a day    a week

an hour   a second   a month

4. Read the following dates.

9.05.1945  24.08.1991  28.06.2010

22.01.2001  4.07.1776  31.12.1805

5. Complete the text with at, on, in.   

There’s one bus from London which gets here … ten o’clock … the morning and then another which gets in … four o’clock … the afternoon. That’s … weekdays, but … the weekend the timetable is a bit different. … Sunday there are still two buses but the second one arrives … five thirty; … Sunday there is just the one bus … two o’clock. And … the winter, the service doesn’t run at all … Sundays.  

6. Fill in the gaps with age, era, spell, time.

  1.  The Minister said that before the new law came into force there would be a ….. of six months when people could hand in firearms without being prosecuted.
  2.  The twenty first century will be seen by historians as the …. of electric cars.  
  3.  These factories mark the beginning of a new …. of industrial development of the country.
  4.  For a ….. I thought I would never find a job, but then I was lucky.
  5.  We had a very cold …… in February when all the pipes froze up.

BLOCK II

1. Replace the underlined time expressions with the more ‘approximate’ time expressions.

  1.  I went to the library three days ago.
  2.  This dictionary isn’t great but it’ll be OK until I’m more advanced.
  3.  I haven’t been to the cinema for the last three months.
  4.  And I haven’t been to a concert for three or four years.
  5.  I went to Egypt with my parents but that was ten years ago.  

2. Cross out incorrect answers.

  1.  The teacher told us to finish our work by / until Monday.
  2.  We can’t leave by / until the others get back.
  3.  I’ve been in the army for / since I was eighteen.
  4.  They’ve worked here for / since / during six months.
  5.  I visit my uncle every week for / since / during the winter.
  6.  I was at university for / since / during four years.
  7.  She’s going back to France in / after three months’ time.
  8.  He left the office during / throughout the lunch break.
  9.  It was hot during / throughout August; we didn’t have one day under 30 degrees.
  10.  I booked a table in the restaurant by / for next Saturday.

3. Read the following dialogues.

  1.  What time is it now?
  2.  It’s a quarter to five.
  3.  Is it? Isn’t your watch too fast?
  4.  No, it isn’t. It’s even slow a little bit.
  5.  I’m afraid I’m late for my lectures.

*****

  1.  It’s about time we make a move.
  2.  Really? Can’t we stay a bit longer?
  3.  I’m afraid not. You see, we promised our foreign relatives we’d be back by 12 at the latest.
  4.  I see. What a pity.
  5.  Thank you for a lovely meal.
  6.  I’m glad you enjoyed it. You must come again some other time.

*****

  1.  Are you doing anything special on Saturday night?
  2.  No, I don’t think so. Why?
  3.  Well, I’m having a little party and I’d like you to come.
  4.  Thank you. That would be very nice. When?
  5.  Half past seven.
  6.  Fine. I’ll see you then.

4. Complete the dialogue.

  1.  Excuse me, could you tell me the exact time by your watch? It seems to me my watch is slow.
  2.  ……………………………………………………………………………………………..
  3.  Oh, yes. Thank you very much. It’s the 12th of May today, isn’t it?
  4.  ……………………………………………………………………………………………..
  5.  And what’s the day today?
  6.  ……………………………………………………………………………………………..
  7.  I’d like to buy tickets to Prague in advance. I’m leaving in three weeks.
  8.  ……………………………………………………………………………………………..
  9.  I prefer to go by train.

BLOCK III

1. Can you complete these sentences with the correct number?

  1.  The Olympic Games usually last about … weeks.
  2.  Rembrandt was born in the … the century.
  3.  President Kennedy died in … . That’s … years ago.
  4.  It takes approximately … hours to fly from Tokyo to New York.
  5.  Some athletes can run 100 meters in less than … seconds.
  6.  The … was the decade in which the USA and USSR (at that time) were both trying to be the first country to put a man on the moon.

2. Read the poem and tell what happened to Solomon Grundy during a week.

 Solomon Grundy

Was born on Monday,

Christened on Tuesday,

Got married on Wednesday,

Fell ill on Thursday,

Got worse on Friday,

Died on Saturday,

Was buried on Sunday –

That was the end of Solomon Grundy.

3. a) Tell what is….

… the fifth month of the year?

… the third season of the year?

… the last day of the week?

….the last month of the year?

….the tenth month of the year?

… the first day of the week?

b) Tell how many…

     …weeks are there in a month / year?

     …weeks are there in a fortnight?

     …days are there in a leap year?

     …seasons are there in a year?

     …days are there in a week?

     …years are there in a decade?

     …years are there in a century?

     …seconds are there in a minute?

     …minutes are there in an hour?   

     ... months are there in a year?

4. Speak about yourself and your country completing these sentences.

  1.  On weekdays I usually get up at … and leave home at … .
  2.  I always clean my teeth in … .
  3.  I don’t go to school / college / University / work on … .
  4.  I usually have a holiday on / in … .
  5.  I have been in my present school / college / University / job for … .
  6.  I have been studying English since … .
  7.  I haven’t spoken English since … .
  8.  It takes me … to get to school / college / University / work.
  9.  You can’t get a driving license until … .
  10.  It rains a lot during … .

5. Read the joke and say how you personally appreciate time.

A preacher went into his church and he was praying to God.

While he was praying, he asked God, ‘How long is 10 million years to you?’

He replied, ‘1 second’.

The next day the preacher asked God, ‘God, how much is 10 million dollars to you?’

And God replied, ‘A penny’.

Then finally the next day the preacher asked God, ‘God, can I have one of your pennies?’

And God replied, ‘Just wait a sec’.

BLOCK IV

Topics for discussion and essays.

  1.  Explain the saying ‘Time is money’.
  2.  Explain why the time is not the same all over the world.
  3.  People often say that time flies, time changes and we can’t turn back the time. Express your opinion on the topic.
  4.  Describe peculiarities and express your opinion on ‘Some people are early birds others are night owls’.    
  5.  Does waiting for something bother you?
  6.  Do you think you manage your time wisely?
  7.  If you could stop time, what would you do and why?
  8.  If time travel were possible, which period of world history would you like to return to? Why?


LESSON 5

Natural Phenomena in Weather and Seasons

There is no bad weather, there are bad clothes.

Rainbows apologize for angry skies.

A lot of people like snow. I find it to be an unnecessary freezing of water.

The best thing one can do when it’s raining is to let it rain.

Snowflakes are kisses from heaven.

Bad weather always looks better through a window.

It is best to read the weather forecast before praying for rain.

Climate is what we expect, weather is what we get.

INTRODUCTORY TEXT

Notes to the text:

to forecast(ed) the weather – прогнозувати погоду

to have one thing in common – мати щось спільне / спільну річ

accurate – точний

complicated – складний

weather balloons – метеозонд, кулька-пілот

altitude – висота (над рівнем моря)

satellite – супутник, супутникова антена

to be processed by computer – обробляти на комп’ютері

to take into account – узяти до уваги  

coast – узбережжя

basic equipment – базове (основне) обладнання

wind meter – флюгер  

to get worse – погіршуватися

to beat (beat; beaten) the experts – перемогти експертів

Do-It-Yourself-Forecast

When the wind is in the west, the weather is always best.

When the wind’s in the south, the rain’s in its mouth. 

Have you heard sayings like these before? Or have you heard that when cows lie down it’s going to rain? May be you’ve heard that a sunny Christmas Day means we’re going to have a warm Easter. Many cultures have traditional ideas about how to forecast the weather and they all have one thing in common: they are not very accurate. Most of them are about as accurate as saying that the weather tomorrow will be more or less the same as today. The weather is too complicated to be forecasted easily.

How do meteorologists go about trying to forecast the weather? The first thing they need is information, and lots of it. Data is constantly collected from weather stations around the world. Weather balloons tell us what is happening at high altitude. Satellites give us images of cloud cover and wind direction. All this information is processed by computer and combined with information about the normal climate of a region to produce the forecast. Even so, we can only accurately forecast the weather for the next couple of days.

Can’t we amateurs forecast the weather at all, then? Yes, we can, but to be a great amateur meteorologist you need to do some of the things the experts do. First of all, collect your information. You need to know about the climate in the area where you live. What’s a typical summer like? How much rain normally falls in October? If your area never gets fog in the summer, then a forecast of fog in July is unlikely to be accurate. The next thing to be taken into account is local geography. Are there any mountains nearby? They could affect the wind. Are you by the coast? That could affect rainfall. You also need some basic equipment: a good thermometer, a barometer to measure pressure in the atmosphere and, if possible, a wind meter.

Then it’s a question of using your eyes, and even your ears. Listen to the radio. Is there a lot of static? With the fall of atmospheric pressure the weather will get worse. Go outside and listen. Do sounds seem clearer than usual? Is there a kind of ring around the sun or moon? It could mean that it’s going to rain. Is your barometer rising and do the clouds seem to be getting higher? It probably means that the weather is clearing up. With a little practice, your forecasts will become more accurate one day.

Making your own forecasts can be a lot of fun, and you might even beat the experts!

  1.  Comprehension questions.
  2.  What’s the common thing about the weather forecast that all cultures have?
  3.  Is it easy to forecast the weather?
  4.  What’s the first thing a meteorologist needs to forecast the weather?
  5.  What’s the function of weather balloons / satellites / computers in weather forecasting?
  6.  What are the things an amateur meteorologist needs to do to predict weather?
  7.  What equipment should an amateur meteorologist have?
  8.   You will even beat the experts one day, won’t you?

  1.  Choose the best answer according to the text.
  2.  What does ‘them’ in passage 1 refer to?

a) different cultures    b) traditional ideas about the weather

c) most weather forecasts    d) the weather on different days

  1.  The writer does not mention that forecasters collect information about…

a) the weather very high in the atmosphere b) the accuracy of forecasts in the past

c) the amount of clouds over an area  d) the way the wind is blowing  

  1.  What does the writer say you need to know about your area?

a) the forecasts of the experts    b) the general patterns of weather

c) how rains affect local people    d) how summer fog is caused

  1.  The writer suggests that the amateur forecaster should…

a) buy a lot accurate equipment    b) get a good map of the area

c) make notes about changes in the weather  d) live in a flat area away from the sea  

  1.  You might be able to forecast good weather when…

a) the reading on your barometer is falling  b) you can hear sound very clearly

c) low clouds start to disappear    d) the moon is very bright in the sky

  1.  To make accurate forecasts, you need to have…

a) experience in forecasting    b) good planning

c) time to watch the weather change   d) a good memory

TOPICAL VOCABULARY

1. General

1. Загальна лексика

weather / weather forecast / to predict weather / meteorologist

погода / прогноз погоди / передбачати погоду / метеоролог

season / spring / summer / autumn (fall, Am.) / winter

пора року / весна / літо / осінь / зима

to affect(ed)=to influence=to impact / to depend(ed) on (upon)

впливати на / залежати від  

to clear(ed) up / to get colder / to get milder /

прояснюватися / холоднішати / теплішати

air humidity

вологість повітря

degree / Fahrenheit / Celsius (Centigrade) 

градус / за Фаренгейтом / за Цельсієм

midsummer Day (22nd of June)

середина літа (літнє сонцестояння, 22 червня)

midwinter Day (22nd of December)

середина зими (зимове сонцестояння, 22 грудня)

2. Natural Features

2. Властивості природи  

continents – e.g. Asia, Europe   

континент – напр. Азія, Європа

countries – e.g. China, Brazil

країни – напр. Китай, Бразилія

islands – e.g. Sicily, Corsica, Hong Kong  

острови – напр. Сицилія, Корсика, Гонконг

group of islands – e.g. the Bahamas, the Balearics

групи островів – напр. Багамські (архіпелаг в Атлантичному океані), Балеарські (західна частина Середземного моря, Іспанія)

oceans – e.g. the Atlantic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean, the Arctic Ocean  

океани – напр. Атлантичний, Тихий, Арктичний

seas – e.g. the Red Sea, the Dead Sea

моря – напр. Червоне (Африка), Мертве (кордон ІзраїльЙорданія)

lakes – e.g. Lake Tanganyika, Lake Titicaca

озера – напр. Танганьїка (Танзанія), Тітікака (кордон Перу та Болівії)

rivers – e.g. the Nile, the Mississippi

річки – напр. Ніл (Африка), Міссісіпі (США)

falls – e.g. Niagara Falls, the Iguaçu Falls

водоспади – напр. Ніагарський (Північна Америка), Ігвесу (Бразилія)

mountains – e.g. Mount Everest, Mount Fuji

гори – напр. гора Еверест (Джомолунгма), Гімалайї, висота 8848 м; Фуджі (Японія, вулкан та гора)

mountain ranges – e.g. the Andes, the Alps  

гірські хребти – напр. Анди (Південна Америка), Альпи (Європа)

jungles – e.g. the Amazon (the Amazon rainforest)

джунглі – напр. Амазонка (Південна Америка, тропічний, вологий ліс)

forests – e.g. the Black Forest  

ліси – напр. Шварцвальд (гори в Німеччині)

deserts – e.g. the Sahara, the Gobi   

пустелі – напр. Сахара, Гобі (територія Монголії, Китаю)

3. Seasons’ Features

3. Особливості пір року

spring:

spring months: March, April, May

to awake (awoke; awoken) from winter sleep

to be fill(ed) with new life

to shine (shone; shone) brightly

earth is warmed by the rays of the sun

days become longer

snow melt(ed)s / thaw / puddles

little streams flow merrily

to bud / to blossom(ed)

to grow green / fresh green grass / green leaves

to fill(ed) the air with fragrance (scent)

twitter of birds

revival of nature

весна:

весняні місяці: березень, квітень, травень

прокидатися від зимової сплячки

наповнюватися новим життям

яскраво світити

земля обігрівається променями сонця

дні стають довшими

сніг тане / відлига / калюжі

маленькі струмки весело течуть

випускати бруньки / квітнути

зеленіти / свіжа зелена трава / зелене листя

наповнювати повітря ароматом

спів птахів

відродження природи

summer:

summer months: June, July, August

unbearably hot weather

to go bathing / to lie in the sun

to do (did; done) the gardening

farmer’s busy season

to cut (cut; cut) the grass / to make the hay

to plough(ed) / to sow (sowed; sown)

early fruits / vegetables

to pick(ed) mushrooms / berries

to gather(ed) flowers   

to have (had; had) storms with lighting / thunder / hail

dew on flowers

літо:

літні місяці: червень, липень, серпень

нестерпно спекотна погода

купатися / лежати на сонечку (засмагати)

займатися садівництвом

у фермера багато роботи

зрізати (косити) траву / скласти сіно

орати / сіяти

ранні фрукти / овочі

збирати гриби / ягоди

рвати квіти

мати бурю із блискавкою / громом / градом

роса на квітах

Indian summer:

warm weather

soft carpet of dying leaves

nature is slowly falling asleep

a soft breeze

the sky seems sad

silent gardens

бабине літо:

тепла погода

м’який килим згасаючого листя

природа поступово засинає

теплий вітер (бриз)

сумне небо

тихі сади

autumn (fall):

autumn months: September, October, November

cool weather / it often rains / it drizzles (sleet) / it’s muddy and wet / sky is covered with heavy clouds

season of harvesting / to gather crops

to ripen(ed) in orchards

woods (forests) turn yellow (brown)

leaves fall off

to make multi-colored carpet

birds fly (flew; flown) away

осінь:

осінні місяці: вересень, жовтень, листопад

прохолодна погода / часто йде дощ / мряка (дощ зі снігом) / брудно і вогко / небо вкрите важкими хмарами   

пора врожаю / збирати врожай

достигати у плодових садах

ліси стають жовтими (коричневими)

листя падає

утворювати кольоровий килим

птахи відлітають  

winter:

winter months: December, January, February

the sun shines rarely / it rises late and sets early

low temperature / it drops to zero

lakes / rivers / streams are frozen

roads are covered with slippery ice / deep snow

bare trees

a piercing wind

snowfall / snowstorm / blizzard

to snow heavily / snowflakes / snow-work / snow-bank (snow-drift) / slush

to make a snowman / to play snowballs  

зима:

зимові місяці: грудень, січень, лютий

сонце світить рідко / встає пізно та сідає рано

низька температура / падає до нуля

озера / річки / струмки замерзають

дороги вкриті крижаною кіркою / глибокий сніг

голі дерева

пронизливий вітер

снігопад / завірюха / хуртовина (буран) снігопад / сніжинки / візерунки / замет (кучугура) / талий сніг

ліпити сніговика / грати в сніжки

4. Weather Conditions

4. Погодні умови

weather:

1) positive:

calm / mild / fine (good) / warm / windy / clear / favorable

2) negative:

bad / cloudy / showery / rainy / sunny (sunshine) / heat / changeable (unsettled, unstable) / wet (humid) / cold / cool (chilly) / snowy / windless / stuffy / frosty / foggy (misty) / nasty (abominable, awful) / severe / dull (gloomy) / unfavorable / dry

погода:

1) позитивні прикметники:

спокійна / м’яка / хороша / тепла / вітряна / ясна / сприятлива

2) негативні прикметники:

погана / хмарна / злива / дощова / сонячна / спекотна / мінлива (нестабільна) / волога / холодна / прохолодна / сніжна / без вітру / задуха / морозна / туманна / огидна (бридка) / сувора / похмура / несприятлива / суха  

rain / rainfall (shower, downpour) / continuous (uninterrupted) rain / rainbow

дощ / злива / затяжний дощ / веселка

thunderstorm / thunder / lighting / hail

гроза / грім / блискавка / град

It looks like rain / It’s pouring down rain / It’s raining cats and dogs / It’s sprinkling (drizzling) / I’m wet through (I’m wet to the skin)

Схоже на дощ / Ллє як із відра / Мряка / Я змок до нитки  

temperature:

hot / warm / chilly / cold / freezing

температура: 

спекотно / тепло / прохолодно / холодно / дуже холодно

wind:

breeze / strong wind / gale / hurricane / offshore / choppy / side (cross) / head / fair (favorable) / north-west

how can the wind blow:

fierce / furious / great (intense, powerful) / mad / howling / roaring / violent / sharp / shrewd   

вітер: 

бриз / сильний вітер / шторм (буря) / ураган / з берега / поривчастий / боковий / зустрічний / попутний / північно-західний

як дме вітер:

люто / несамовито / сильно / оскаженіло / завиває / ревуче / шалено / пронизливо / люто

5. Climate

5. Клімат

hot / cold / dry / wet / mild / tropical / subtropical / insular / continental / moderate

спекотний / холодний / сухий / вологий / м’який / тропічний / субтропічний / острівний / континентальний / помірний

6. Disasters:

6. Катастрофи

volcanic eruption

виверження вулкану

earthquake / drought

землетрус / посуха

flood / tsunami (seismic sea wave)

потоп / цунамі (гігантські хвилі як наслідок підводних землетрусів)

hurricane / tornado / sandstorm

ураган / торнадо / піщана буря

avalanche (snow-slip)

сніжна лавина

mud flow (torrent) / landslide (landslip)

зсув ґрунту

watersprout (whirlwind – water) / tornado (land)

водяний смерч / торнадо (на суші)

VOCABUALARY PRACTICE

BLOCK I

  1.   Identify weather conditions in these pictures.

 

1 ____________                                             4 _____________  

2 ____________                                             5 _____________

3 ____________                                             6 _____________

2.   What disaster is being described in each of these sentences?

  1.  It lifted a car about ten feet off the ground, and then we saw it disappear down the street.
  2.  It was about two meters deep and we watched as most of our furniture just floated away.
  3.  The grass turned yellow and most of the crops died.
  4.  The walls began to move visibly, and large cracks opened up in the ground.
  5.  We could see the lava slowly advancing towards the town just ten miles away.  

  1.  True or false? If a sentence is false, write a true sentence about the weather conditions.
  2.  It often pours with rain in the desert.
  3.  It gets quite chilly in the desert in the evening.
  4.  Thunder makes noise.
  5.  Lighting can kill people.
  6.  A shower is a gentle breeze.
  7.  A spell of hot weather may end in a thunderstorm.
  8.  If it is humid, the air will be very dry.
  9.  Below zero, water turns to ice.
  10.  Heavy rain means that it is pouring with rain.
  11.  When it’s foggy you need sunglasses.

  1.  Complete these scales.

…………..→ wind → strong wind → ……………→ hurricane

…………. → hot → warm →not very warm → cold→ ………….

  1.  Give two nouns to go with the adjectives. Try not to repeat the nouns you choose.

Model: sandy beach / shore

1 sandy  2 steep  3 shallow  4 rocky  5 turbulent  6 dangerous  

  1.  Complete the sentences, as in the model.

Model: The Nile is a river.

  1.  The Atlantic is …………………………………………....
  2.  The Alps are ……………………………………………...
  3.  Greece is ………………………………………………....
  4.  The Sahara is …………………………………………......
  5.  The Amazon is ……………………………………….......
  6.  The Mediterranean is ………………………………….....
  7.  The Bahamas is ………………………………………......
  8.  Africa is ……………………………………………….....
  9.  Crete and Corsica are ………………………………….....
  10.  Everest is he highest ………………………..in the world.
  11.   Michigan and Erie are two of the great ……………….…
  12.  The ‘Great Bear’ is a group of ……………………….…..

  1.  Do the Autumn Crossword Puzzle by using the clues below.

Across

3. Autumn is when _ _ _ _ _ _ fall off of trees.

4. In Autumn the weather begins to _ _ _ _ down.

6. In Autumn, a _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ may be seen in a farmers field.

8. Autumn is a good time to enjoy _ _ _ _ that has grown through much of the year.

9. In Autumn people pick _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ and carve them with scary faces.

Down

1. In Autumn _ _ _ that has grown in fields is ready to be bundled for animal feed.

2. Autumn begins in the month of _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _.

4. In Autumn, it is fun to see _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ leaves on trees.

5. Many farmer’s crops are ready for _ _ _ _ _ _ _ in Autumn.

7. Fall is also called _ _ _ _ _ _.

Answers:  Across 3. leaves 4. cool 6. scarecrow 8. corn 9. pumpkins

Down 1. hay 2. September 4. colorful 5. harvest 7. autumn

BLOCK II

    1. Say the following in one word.

  1.  wet light cloud near the ground, which is difficult to see through clearly;
  2.  rather cold, in a way that makes you feel uncomfortable;
  3.  a gentle pleasant wind;
  4.  a short period of light rain;
  5.  very cloudy and dash;
  6.  extremely cold;
  7.  a storm with a lot of snow and strong winds;
  8.  frozen raindrops that fall as small balls of ice;
  9.  soft white pieces of frozen water that fall from the sky in cold weather;
  10.  a mixture of snow and rain.

  1.  Match the words and their definitions.

1.   forecast

a. the amount of rain, snow etc. that falls;

2.   precipitation

b. rain, snow, sleet, or hail that falls to or condenses on the ground;

  1.  rain

c. weather conditions of a place or area;

  1.  mist

d. a light gentle wind;

  1.  weather

e. thick water vapor which is difficult to see through;  

  1.  climate

f. water falling in drops from the clouds;

  1.  fog

g. small dirty pool of rain water;

  1.  drizzle

h. water vapour at or near the earth’s surface, less thick than fog;

  1.  shower (downpour)

i. a heavy fall of rain;

  1.  breeze

j. rain in small fine drops, thin continuous rain;

  1.  puddle

k. conditions over a particular area, at a specific time with reference to sunshine, temperature, rain and so on.  

  1.  Read the text and decide which answer, A, B, C, D best fits each space for questions    1-10. The first is done for you.

Seasonal Affective Disorder

Have you (0) ever thought, ‘Oh, no! Not another grey rainy day!’? Bad weather can really affect your mood, (1) ……… it? Most of us get depressed at some point (2) ……….. the winter, and we can’t wait for spring to come. For some people, (3) …………. , those dark, cold winter days can cause real medical problems.   

Doctors have (4) ………… a condition which is (5) ………….. as SAD (Seasonal Affective Disorder) and it can be a big problem in countries in northern Europe where the winters are long and dark. SAD sufferers find it difficult to (6) …………… , often feel depressed or anxious and their behavior affects the people (7) …………. them.

The whole problem is caused by a lack of sunlight. Bright light affects the chemistry of the brain, although scientists don’t understand (8) ………… how. There are two main cures. The first is to travel to a country that has a warm (9) ………… , with bright, sunny winters. The second is to use (10) …………. light. So, if it’s raining and you are depressed, perhaps it’s time you had a holiday in the sun!  

0 A hardly

B ever

C soon

D every

1 A doesn’t

B wouldn’t

C can’t

D isn’t

2 A during

B while

C into

D of

3 A despite

B although

C yet

D however

4 A invented

B developed

C discovered

D produced

5 A called

B known

C regarded

D named

6 A imagine

B consider

C wonder

D concentrate

7 A around

B among

C nearby

D by

8 A accurately

B mainly

C closely

D exactly

9 A weather

B sunshine

C climate

D season

10 A false

B artificial

C fake

D pretend

  1.   Choose the correct option.
  2.   This area has a very comfortable ……….. all year around.

A weather B climate  C barometer  D data

  1.   About a hundred trees were destroyed  in the ………… .

A static   B shower  C hurricane  D mist

  1.   Watch you don’t step in that big ……….. of water!

A flake   B gust   C flash  D puddle

  1.   On Win a Million, the game show, four …………… answer questions to win money.

A producers  B presenters  C contestants  D cameramen   

  1.   We might have to cancel the trip because it’s starting to rain …………….. .

A tough   B hard   C badly  D wetly

  1.   Put the news on. I just want to see ………………….. .

A headlines  B titles  C headings  D labels

  1.   Let’s hope the weather ……………. up before the wedding.

A clears   B cleans  C comes  D goes

  1.   Last year it snowed, but this winter has been quite ……………

A mild   B soft   C gentle  D smooth

  1.   Can I borrow your umbrella? It’s …………. with rain outside.

A dropping  B pouring  C running  D flowing

  1.   Translate the following dialogues in English.
  2.  Дощ іде?
  3.  No, it isn’t. It has stopped raining.
  4.  Думаю, погода зміниться.
  5.  I think so.

*****

  1.  Сніг припинився?
  2.  Not yet. It has been snowing for two hours.
  3.  Усюди повно снігу. Ходімо на лижах.
  4.  I can’t. Urgent business.

*****

  1.  What summer sports do you go in for?
  2.  I like swimming and rowing. What about you?
  3.  Я також люблю плавання, але не люблю веслування.
  4.  Вам подобаються зимові види спорту?
  5.  Yes, I’m fond of skating and skiing.

*****

  1.  Сьогодні мороз?
  2.  Так, 15 градусів нижче від нуля.
  3.  Не забудь одягти дублянку / пуховик / шубу.
  4.  I won’t.

*****

  1.  Погода чудова, чи не так?
  2.  Так. Дуже тепло і сонячно.
  3.  Let’s go for a walk.
  4.  Я не проти.

BLOCK III

  1.  a) Complete the following text with suitable words.

The single greatest influence on Japanese weather is the wind. During the summer it (1)………. from the Pacific, causing (2) ………. and humid weather, but in winter, the north-westerly (3) ………… from Siberia are very cold and it (4) ………….. heavily on the mountains of the north-west. The south-eastern parts receive cold dry air. Between June and mid July, there is a (5) ………….. of wet weather when the rice fields get the water vital for the growth. After that, there is less (6) …………... rain, but the air is still (7) ………….. . Autumn, however, is drier, and usually very pleasant.      

b) Describe the weather in your own country, its specific part or your own region. Use topical vocabulary (point 3).

  1.  a) Read the text about life in the Nordic countries and find:
  2.  another word for ‘Nordic’, used to refer to countries such as Norway;
  3.  manufactured items produced in those countries;
  4.  items of clothing important for a cold country;
  5.  examples of winter sports

The region north of the Arctic Circle is known as ‘The land of the midnight sun’ because the sun never sinks below the horizon during the summer time. This means that in the winter the sun never rises above the horizon and there is very little sunlight.

Try to imagine living in a country where sometimes there are only a few hours of daylight for the winter months of the year. People wake up in the dark, go to work in the dark and return home at night in the dark. Normal temperatures are often around 00 C, although they can drop much lower and outdoors everyone wears furs, hats, boots, gloves and scarves to keep warm. Ordinary trees and houses, mountains and parks are suddenly transformed by the brilliance and sparkle of snow and ice, which make the long dark nights seem lighter.

Scandinavia is famous for its glassware, candles and light wooden furniture. In winter you quickly understand why. Candles burn in houses and in the windows of hotels, shops and restaurants. Shop windows glitter with displays of crystal vases, glass tableware and sculptures as well as brightly colored wooden toys and jewelry made of local gemstones. All of those things bring color and light to winter days.

Of course, with ice and snow come the winter sports. Skis come in many shapes and sizes as Scandinavian children usually learn to ski at a very early age. Although downhill skiing in the mountains is popular, cross-country skiing is also common and can be practiced in the flatter parts of the region. Snowboarding, which is rather like surfing, is also common on the ski slopes, particularly among the younger skiers. Ice sports are popular, too. Not only can you go ice skating on many of the thousands of frozen lakes but fishing through a hole in the ice is also popular.

 b) Say as many words as possible about your reaction to life in a cold climate. Include what you found strange or surprising, what the advantages and disadvantages might be and whether or not you would like to live in a cold place.

  1.  a) There are a lot of sayings and expressions with weather in English. Here are ten well-known ones for you to match with their meanings.

Sayings and expressions

Meanings

1. Make hay while the sun shines

a. extremely happy

2. Come rain or shine

b. disappeared without trace

3. Every cloud has a silver lining

c. in dreamland and completely unrealistic

4. It never rains but it pours

d. even a difficult situation may have some good aspects

5. A storm in a teacup

e. to take advantage of an opportunity

6. It’s an ill wind that blows nobody any good

f. a big fuss made over unimportant matter

7. On cloud nine

g. to save something so that you can use it if bad times come

8. Gone with the wind

h. in any event, whatever happens

9. Saving for a rainy day

i. someone usually profits from every misfortune

10. Head in the clouds

j. troubles don’t come along and one problem will bring others

b) Think about sayings in your own language about the weather and explain them in English.    

BLOCK IV

Topics for discussion and essays.

  1.  Where do you get your weather information?
  2.  Are there any special traditions associated with different season in your country?
  3.  Do you sometimes feel under the weather? When?
  4.  Speak about the problem of disasters’ influence / consequences on humanity.
  5.  How can extreme weather conditions affect the economy and social life in countries?
  6.  Can a person influence weather?
  7.  Why are sometimes / often weather forecasts wrong and don’t come true?
  8.  Why do you think the weather on our planet changes with years?


LESSON 6

Global Environmental Problems  

Man is a child of his environment.

If a tree dies, plant another in its place.

When we heal the earth, we heal ourselves.

I’m not an environmentalist. I'm an Earth warrior.

We cannot command nature except by obeying her.

Take care of the earth and she will take care of you.

The frog does not drink up the pond in which he lives.

There are no passengers on Spaceship Earth. We are all crew.

INTRODUCTORY TEXT

Notes to the text:

natural destruction – руйнування (знищення) природи

humankind (humanity) – людство

to do damage – завдати шкоди (збитків)

greenhouse effect – парниковий ефект

hole in the ozone layer – дірка в озоновому шарі  

species of plants and animals – види рослин та тварин

to give off gases – виділяти гази

to be harmful – бути шкідливим

smog – густий туман із димом і кіптявою, смог

fossil fuel – видобувне паливо

volcanic eruption – виверження вулкану

dust and ash – пил та попіл  

to be caused by – бути спричиненим чимось  

to poison(ed) – отруювати  

Natural Destruction

For all the talk of what humankind has done to cause destruction to the planet, we should not forget that nature itself is a powerful force, capable of doing damage on a huge scale. The greenhouse effect and the hole in the ozone layer are indeed made worse by the industrialized society we live in. However, we must remember that there are certain species of plants and animals which, quite naturally, give off gases that are very harmful to the atmosphere. And only 50 years ago in London, hundreds of people died from the smog which hung over the River Thames. What is interesting here is that smoke and gases from industry, vehicles and fossil fuel were ingredients in this deadly mixture. The other vital ingredient, though, was the completely natural fog, and who would have thought that it could be harmful?

In the early days of the industrial revolution, poets, painters and philosophers described how the polluted urban skies made them think of the end of the world. Well, towards the end of the 19th century, the volcanic eruption of Krakatoa nearly made it happen! Thousands of dust and ash were thrown into the air and, for years afterwards, there were red sunsets caused by the light filtering through this natural pollution. Remembering scientists’ pet theory about the dinosaurs dying out because of a huge volcanic eruption, we were lucky that humankind saved this time.

So, next time you look out from your garden or balcony and see a beautiful sunset, think of the possibilities. It could be the result of our activities poisoning the air we breathe, or it might just be worth turning on the radio to check there haven’t been any major eruptions lately!     

  1.  Comprehension questions.
  2.  What force does nature possess?
  3.  How are greenhouse effect and the hole in the ozone layer worsened?
  4.  What can certain species of plants and animals do to the atmosphere?
  5.  How could be the volcanic eruption of Krakatoa described?
  6.  What were red sunsets caused by?

  1.  Define whether the text statement is true (T) or false (F).

1.   Humankind has done much to cause destruction to our planet.

T / F

  1.  Nature itself has no powerful force to do damage on a huge scale.

T / F

  1.  The greenhouse effect and the hole in the ozone layer are made better by the industrialized society we live in.

T / F

  1.  Certain species of plant and animal give off gases that are very useful to the atmosphere.

T / F

  1.  Only 50 years ago in London hundreds of people enjoyed the smog which hung over the River Thames.

T / F

  1.  Towards the end of the 19th century, the volcanic eruption of Krakatoa looked like the end of the world.

T / F

  1.  Red sunsets were caused by the light filtering through the rainbow in the sky.

T / F

TOPICAL VOCABULARY

1. General

1. Загальна лексика

earth / planet

планета Земля / планета

ecology / environment protection (conservation)

екологія / захист навколишнього середовища (збереження)

nature lover

прихильник природи

overpopulation / urban problems / natural calamities

перенаселеність / проблеми міста / стихійне лихо

waste / garbage / trash / refuse

сміття, мотлох, бруд, відходи

to pollute(d) / pollution (contamination) / to damage(d) (to harm, to hurt, to corrupt) / to deteriorate(d) / to poison(ed)

забруднювати / забруднення / руйнувати (шкодити, кривдити, псувати) / погіршуватися / отруювати

victim / threat (hazard) / to threaten(ed)

жертва / загроза / загрожувати

to become (became; become)  extinct

вимирати, зникати

to change(d), to alter(ed) / to remove(d)

змінювати(ся) / видаляти, усувати

to throw (threw; thrown) / to dump(ed) wastes

викидати / зливати відходи

to pull(ed) down / to demolish(ed), to destroy(ed)

зносити / руйнувати

to cut (cut; cut) down / to chop(ped) down

зрізати

to consume(d) water / air / oxygen

споживати воду / повітря / кисень

to purify(ied) / purification / purifying installations

очищувати / очищення / очисні споруди

concern / to be concerned with

турбота, інтерес / цікавитися, займатися

to ban(ned) / to forbid (forbade; forbidden)

забороняти

to take measures / to survive(d) / to recycle(d) / to save(d)

уживати заходів / виживати / переробляти / зберігати

to assume(d) global proportions

набути глобальних розмірів

to raise(d) voice in defense of nature

ставати на захист природи

Green Peace (the ‘Greens’ / ‘Friends of the Earth’)

організація Грін Піс (Зелені / Друзі Планети)

greenhouse effect / blanket of gasses

парниковий ефект / газова завіса

global warming

глобальне потепління

2. Harmful substances

2. Шкідливі речовини

refuse / ash / chemical salts / tar / phenol / bacteria (bacterium, sg.) / sulphur dioxide / carbon dioxide

сміття / попіл, зола / хімічні солі / смола / фенол / бактерії / сірчистий газ / вуглекислий газ

gasoline / fertilizer / pesticide

бензин / добриво / пестицид (засіб для боротьби зі шкідниками)

petroleum oil / lime / lead

нафта / вапно / свинець

radioactive isotopes

радіоактивні ізотопи

CFC (chlorofluorocarbon – a chemical that damages ozone layer)

фреон

3. Water Pollution

3. Забруднення води

acid rain

кислотний дощ

water (fresh, drinking) / supply of water

вода (прісна, питна) / запас води

to run out of water / careless overuse of water

не вистачає води / недбале поводження з (зловживання) водою

cesspool / sewage / shallow waters

вигрібна яма, стічний колодязь / стічні води / мілина

marine life / fishery / overfishing

морське життя / рибальство / надмірний вилов риби

oil spills / oil tanker / oil slick

вилив нафти / нафтовий танкер / нафтова пляма, плівка  на воді

off-shore drilling operations

морські свердлильні операції (з видобування нафти)

dams building

будівництво дамб

to build new water facilities

будувати нове водне устаткування   

4. Air Pollution

4. Забруднення повітря

pure (clean) / dirty air

чисте / брудне повітря

to breathe(d) the air / to choke with

дихати повітрям / задихнутися

smog / smoking chimney / car exhaust fumes / smoke from factories

смог (густий туман із димом і кіптявою) / димар / вихлопні гази авто / дим із фабрик  

to burn (burnt; burnt) / combustion

спалювати / згоряння

to irritate(d) eyes / lungs

подразнювати очі / легені

destruction of the ozone layer

руйнування озонового шару

destruction of rainforests

знищення (вирубка) тропічних лісів

5. Noise Pollution

5. Шумове забруднення

to annoy(ed) people / to be subjected to noise / to damage hearing

дратувати людей / страждати від шуму / руйнувати слух

constant exposure to noise

постійне страждання від шуму

‘sonic’ pathology

звукова (акустична) патологія

decibel norm (decibel – unit for measuring relative intensities of sounds)

норма децибел (децибел – одиниця виміру відносної сили звуку)

traffic jams in rush-hours (can also be referred to point 4)

затори в годину пік

6. Soil (solid) Pollution

6. Забруднення ґрунту

deforestation / soil erosion

вирубування лісів / ерозія (руйнування) ґрунту

lack of sanitary conditions

брак належних санітарних умов

metal cans / glass bottles / plastic containers / garbage cans (dumpster)

металеві банки / скляні пляшки / пластикові ємкості / сміттєві баки

aerosol cans (sprays)

аерозольні балончики (спреї)

garbage dump (land hill)

смітник, звалище

VOCABUALARY PRACTICE

BLOCK I

  1.  Choose a proper word from the box to complete the phrases.

bank, resources, global, tropical, acid, ozone, industrial, car exhaust

  1.  the … layer    5. … warming
  2.  … rain     6. … fumes   
  3.  … waste    7. … rainforest  
  4.  a bottle …    8. natural or human …

  1.  Complete the definitions.
  2.  Conservation is the protection of natural things, e.g.……………………… and ………………………………………………………………………………………...
  3.  Acid rain is rain that contains dangerous chemicals. It is caused by………………………
  4.  The ozone layer is a layer of gases that stop dangerous radiation from the sun from reaching …………………………………………………………………………………...
  5.  Global warming is an increase in world temperature caused by an increase in…………...
  6.  CFC (chlorofluorocarbon) is a chemical which …………………………………………..

  1.  If we want to look after the environment, there are certain things we should and shouldn’t do. Complete these two lists in suitable ways.

We should:

……………………….. paper, bottles and clothes.

……………………….. tropical rainforests.

………………………... more trees.

………………………... water and energy.

We shouldn’t:

……………………….. paper, bottles and clothes.

……………………….. the ozone layer.

……………………….. water and energy.

………………………. tropical rainforests.

  1.  Test your knowledge on environment. Are these statements true or false?
  2.  CFCs protect the ozone layer.
  3.  ‘Greens’ believe in conservation.
  4.  A hole in the ozone layer could increase skin cancer.
  5.  Cutting down tropical rainforests increases the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
  6.  Plastic can’t be recycled.

  1.  Confusable words. Circle the correct word in each sentence.
  2.  You can’t wear your favorite sweater because it isn’t clear / clean.
  3.  We could see for miles because it was such a clear / clean sky.
  4.  After seven years in the city, he had had enough of rural / urban life.
  5.  One modern problem facing many of us is that of fog / smog. 
  6.   Companies are being forced to bring out / take out green products if they want to keep their customers satisfied.
  7.  We are rapidly going out of / running out of fossil fuels.
  8.  There are very few poisonous / poisoned snakes in the wild in this country.
  9.  Industrial / Occupational pollution is reaching dramatic levels in certain parts of the world.    

  1.  Find the correct order of events in the following sentences.
  2.  By the end of the summer, many water supplies will have dried up.

A now → end of the summer → many water supplies dry up

B now → many water supplies dry up → end of the summer

  1.  We’ll have written about 50 letters to our ‘Local Greens’ by the end of the month.

A now → we write 50 letters → the end of the month

B now → the end of the month → we write 50 letters

  1.  By the time you finish your shower, you will have used 500 liters of water.

A now → you finish your shower → you use 500 liters of water

B now → you use 500 liters of water → you finish your shower

  1.  Translate into English.

У перекладі з англійської мови Грінпіс означає зелений мир. Грінпіс – міжнародна організація захисників навколишнього середовища. Вона захищає всі географічні сфери планети, зокрема і тропічні ліси – “легені” планети. Ця організація виникла на початку 70-х років XX століття. Сьогодні вона нараховує мільйони представників із 15 країн. Міжнародна штаб-квартира організації розташована в Лондоні.

BLOCK II

  1.  Use the correct preposition in each gap to complete the phrase.
  2.  to refer …………………. something
  3.  to accuse somebody ……………….. something
  4.  to depend ………………… somebody …………………… something
  5.  to take care ………………….. something
  6.  to inform people ………………… something

  1.  Complete the sentences using the words from the box.

survive, extinct, green, countryside, endangered, fumes, pollution, farmland

  1.  We’re quite …………. in our house and we recycle almost all our rubbish.
  2.  People can’t ………… without fresh drinking water.
  3.  Water ………… is often caused by local industries.
  4.  Irrigation is very important for …………… in areas with little rainfall.
  5.  All the …………. from cars and other traffic cause many health problems.
  6.  We should act now to protect …………… animals all over the world.
  7.  A walk in the …………… can really help get rid of the stress in modern life.
  8.  We have to realize that there is no way we can bring a species back once it is ………….

  1.  Choose the correct option.
  2.  Someone who loves and cares for the environment, including animals and plants, is a nature lover / nature liker.
  3.  A place to deposit used bottles for recycling is called a bottle bin / bottle bank.
  4.  A product that does not in any way harm the environment is called environmentally friendly / environmentally fair.
  5.  The proper place to dispose of your crisp packet is a litter bin / litter dump.
  6.   A destructive product of pollution in the atmosphere is acid rain / chemical rain.

  1.  Fill in the gaps of the text using the derivatives of the words in right-hand column. There is an example at the beginning.  

Improving Zoos

The (0) protection of animals is one of the main concerns of the World Zoo (1) ……….. , an international society that helps zoos maintain high standards for their animals – and for their (2) ……… . Made up of (3) ………. such as zoologists, the WZO also helps zoos around the world exchanging valuable (4) ………. about their animals’ health, breeding habits, etc. The (5) ……….. of such an organization helps zoos to keep moving in the right (6) ………… . Animal rights (7) ………… keep a close eye on zoos to make certain that the (8) …………. the animals receive is safe and not cruel. They sometimes even send (9) ………… to the zoos for a first-hand look. The WZO has helped in the (10) …………. of a number of truly wonderful zoos around the world, where animals can live safely and happily and can be viewed and appreciated by many people.     

protect

organize

visit

science

inform

create

direct

active

treat

inspect

manage

  1.  a) Fill in the gaps of the text using the words-derivatives in right-hand column. Translate the text in Ukrainian.

It’s Getting Hotter

There seems to be little doubt that (1) ……….. warming is a real phenomenon. Temperatures are rising in many places (2) of the ……… and (3) ………… farmland is being lost as sea levels rise due to melting of the polar ice. This could cause major problems for mankind in the future. (4) ……… disagrees, though, about whether this (5) ……….. change is being caused by human actions or not. Some believe that the climate has always changed like this and it has (6) ………… causes, while others think what is happening is unique. One explanation is the greenhouse effect. This is where (7) ………… in the atmosphere traps the suns’ rays, like a giant greenhouse. While nobody claims that releasing chemicals into atmosphere can be (8) ………… , not everyone is convinced that all the temperature change is due to (9) …………. activity. It’s an important question, because a (10) ………… can only be found once we understand exactly what is causing the problem.         

globe

world

value

science

environment

nature

pollute

harm

industry

solve

b) Answer the following questions:

  1.  What is one result of increasing world temperature?
  2.  Why is the sea level rising in some parts of the world?
  3.  What is one explanation for the increase in temperature?  

BLOCK III

  1.  a) Oil tanker, oil slick, deforestation, construction industry: how do these forms of pollution affect the environment? What other forms of pollution can you think of?

b) Rewrite these sentences correctly, using the expressions for introducing an opinion.

  1.  From my opinion, there is no point recycling things if large businesses are allowed to pollute our natural environment.
  2.  To concern me, the government is doing everything it can to protect the environment.
  3.  To my view, we should worry about running out of fossil fuels when it happens, not before.
  4.  It seems me that children should be taught how to care for the environment from a very young age.

c) Discuss whether you agree or disagree with the statements in b)  

  1.  Study the text about the ways of rubbish recycling and reducing in Europe and think how it is / can be done in your native country.

Rethink Rubbish

Come on, admit it. We’ve all got clothes in our wardrobe that we haven’t worn for years and we know we’ll never wear again. Taking your clothes to a local charity shop or recycling bin is a great way of getting rid of a load of rubbish and creating extra space at the same time!

Buying second-hand clothes is now definitely in vogue too. Vintage boutiques offer range of designers classics, but can be a bit on the expensive side, so why not raid your local charity shop to pick up a real bargain? You can create your own distinct look and feel good about your recycling effort.

Hate junk mail? Around one million tones of junk mail and magazines get binned each year. But it’s easy to cut down on the rubbish in your bin by registering with the Mailing Preference Service. Send them your details and they’ll make sure that you don’t receive piles of unwanted offers and advertisements through your letterbox.     

A massive 60% of the contents of your dustbin can be recycled. So why not give your bin a break and drop off your paper, card, glass bottles, jars and cans at the recycling banks located at most supermarkets? By doing this you’ll reduce your household waste by nearly one third!  

Did you know that if you’re really clever, there’s ₤34 million worth of empty aluminium drink cans in the UK just waiting to be collected and recycled? The reason is that aluminium is really valuable and the sort that’s made into the billions of drink cans we see on our supermarket shelves can be recycled and used time and time again to make new drink cans.

 We produce over 26 million tones of household rubbish in the UK every year, so there is plenty of scope for us to Rethink Rubbish in the home! By thinking about the types of goods we buy, how we use them and where we dispose of them, we can dramatically reduce the amount of rubbish our homes produce. Whilst we can’t get rid of rubbish altogether, there are hundreds of ways in which we can cut down what we throw away.

  1.  a) Beetle, grasshopper, ladybird, mosquito… what do you know about these insects? What other insects do you know the names of in English? / if you could study an insect, what kind would you choose and why?    

b) Read an article about ants. Seven sentences have been removed from the article. Choose from sentences A-H the one which fits each gap (1-7). There is one extra sentence you don’t need to use.     

A They are fed enormous quantities of honey until their bodies become so big that they can’t move.

B They destroy every living thing in their path.

C Ants follow the trail that other ants have left to locate a food source.

D These are all female and infertile.

E These ants don’t have a permanent home.

F Once this critical period is over and the first workers are at work, the colony rapidly develops.

G This is generally the best way to get rid of ants from your garden.

H All ant species will fight to protect their colony and some will attack other species.   

An Ant’s Eye View

They are found all over the world. They can lift up to 50 times their own body weight. They seem to behave in complicated ways, yet each individual is typically no more than a couple of centimeters long. There are more than 4,500 species of ants, with most of them found in the rainforests. Unfortunately, due to deforestation in these areas,  many species will never be recorded.

 Ants live in a colony, which is built around the queen. She is the largest ant and her sole occupation is producing eggs, while all her physical needs are taken care of by the worker ants around her. 1_________ They perform such functions as foraging for food and defending the colony from attack, as well as tending to the queen and the colony’s eggs.

A colony is founded when a new queen sets off in search of a possible location. Once she has chosen her spot, she begins to lay eggs, some of which are for eating during the difficult first few months. 2_________ Each species has its own characteristic way of doing things. The leafcutter ant, for example, cuts sections from leaves which it carries back to the nest. These are used as a kind of fertilizer for fungus gardens the ants create underground. There, the leaves provide a rich source of nutrients for the fungus, which the ants eventually consume.

Besides, there’s the honeypot ant. These ants select certain workers to act as living containers for food. 3________ They act as a store for the food and feed other ants by producing the honey when they receive the right chemical signals. These signals are an important part of all ants’ lives and are used for, among other things, establishing identity and indicating the source of food. This also helps to explain how such simple beings can display such a complex behavior. 4_________ If an obstacle blocks the ants’ path, they swarm in all directions, attempting to go around. The ants who discover the shorter way will get there faster and leave a stronger scent trail. Gradually, as more and more ants follow this trail, it becomes even stronger, until all the ants are following the quicker route.

This kind of communication is very important in nomadic species, such as the army ant. 5_________ Instead, they form a nest using their own bodies, with millions of them hanging from a tree. When they decide to move on, the whole colony marches through the forest, carrying the queen and the eggs. The sight of a column of these ants on the move is one of the most frightening sights in the rainforest. 6_________ Insects, young birds, lizards and other small animals that fail to escape in time can look forward to a rather unpleasant end.

It’s not just the army ant, though, that can be a threat. 7__________ They do this using acid produced in their bodies as a weapon. After a successful attack, some species of ant will take eggs from the losing colony and return them to their own, raising the ants to work as slaves.  

  1.   Study and translate challenges for water conserving. Can you think of any other?
  2.  More than a billion people don’t have access to clean drinking water and face problems caused by pollution, diseases and droughts in some areas.
  3.  Problem of leaking pipes and faulty equipment that cause loses of water.

What to do:

  1.  Take short showers instead of baths to save water.
  2.  To turn down water tap while brushing teeth or washing hands.
  3.  To fill a sink with water to wash up instead of leaving the tap running.
  4.     To use dishwashers and washing machines when they are full and if possibly on a short cycle.
  5.  To use rainwater for the garden that is recycled to water plants.
  6.  To sweep pavements and balconies instead of washing them.
  7.     To report to local council about any leaks or waste in neighborhood.

BLOCK IV

Topics for discussion and essays.

  1.  What are the main threats to the environment today?
  2.  How can ordinary people help protect the environment?
  3.  Do you personally do anything to protect the environment?
  4.  What environmental problems does your local area face? What solutions can you think of?
  5.  What is more important: economic development or preserving the environment?
  6.  Are companies more or less environmentally responsible now than they were in the past? Why do you think that is?
  7.  Tell how fines stimulate people not to pollute the surrounding.  
  8.  If humans are really intelligent and not simply manipulated by their genes like any other animal, why can’t they do anything about overpopulation?
  9.  What do you think of people who smoke cigarettes indoors?
  10.  If you could choose one alternative energy source to develop which one would you choose? Why?


LESSON 7

Modern Means of Communication (Telephone, Mobile Phone, Internet, Skype, ICQ)

Two monologues do not make a dialogue.

Every improvement in communication makes the bore more terrible.

The more elaborate our means of communication,

the less we communicate.

Communication is not only the essence of being human,

but also a vital property of life.

The trouble with talking too fast is you may say something you havent thought of yet.

I just wish my mouth had a backspace key.

Good communication is as stimulating as black coffee, and just as hard to sleep after.

INTRODUCTORY TEXT

Notes to the text:

transmitting and receiving messages – передача та отримання повідомлень 

flat images – пласкі зображення

satellite communication channels – канали супутникового зв’язку

cells – стільники

effective range – радіус дії

cluster – кластер

digital cell communication – цифровий стільниковий зв’язок

long-distance telephone service – міжміське телефонне обслуговування

Telegraph and Telephone

Communication is a set of electrical and electronic means of messaging. Electrical means of communication were invented in the 19-th century. They were telegraph and telephone where information was transmitted by electrical signals through wires.

The basis of telegraphy was laid by Shilling in 1832 in Russia. Shilling designed the first complex of devices for electrical telegraph communication. In 1837 an American inventor Morse constructed an electromechanical telegraph apparatus for transmitting and receiving messages by means of a special code. The transmitter of his apparatus was a telegraph key, the receiver was an electromagnet. The first telegraph communication line equipped with Morse apparatus was put into operation in 1844 in the USA.

Since that time telegraph communication has been improved. Modern means of telegraph communication are telex and fax. Telex is an international teleprinter exchange service and fax is phototelegraphy. It is based on the achievements of electronics, radio engineering, electrical engineering and optics. Fax (abbreviation of ‘facsimile’) is the system of transmitting stationary flat images using cable radio relay and satellite communication channels. It is widely used for quick transmission of central newspapers’ texts and photos, documents, schemes and drafts. But for telex and fax we shouldn’t receive the latest news so fast.

The history of telephone communication goes back to 1876 when an English inventor Bell designed the first telephone apparatus. The first telephone station was built in 1878 in the USA. Telephone communication is based on converting sound vibrations into electrical signals at the microphone, transmitting these signals along the cable and reconverting them into sound vibrations of speech at the receiver. Telephone communication with moving objects is performed by means of radiotelephone. Without radiotelephone we couldn’t communicate with ships, aircrafts, automobiles and other vehicles.

The first generation of mobile communication systems dates back from the middle of 1940-s when the Bell Laboratories Research Centre (USA) put forward an idea of dividing an area into small parts called cells. Every cell is served by a transmitter of a limited effective range and a limited number of channels. Different frequencies are used in different cells. Several cells are grouped into a cluster. A cluster may have up to 15 cells. Such a system is called an analogue system of cell communication.

The second generation of mobile communication systems was born in the late 1980-s on the basis of digital methods of signal processing. Such systems represent a fully connected network of computing devices. The Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) was developed in 1982. It is a unified all-European standard of digital cell communication used in many countries. Digital cell communication possesses the best technical and economic characteristics. It is widely used in telephony, radio broadcasting and television. The number of users of analogue and digital mobile communication systems in the world amounts to tens of millions. Digital cell communication is generally used in long-distance and international telephone service. At present almost all of long-distance and international telephone stations work on the basis of digital cell systems.

1. Comprehension questions.

1. What is communication?

2. When were electrical means of communication invented?

3. Who designed the first complex of devices for electrical telegraph communication?

4. What are modern means of telegraph communication?

5. What is telephone communication based on?

6. What is the Global System for Mobile Communications?

7. Where is digital cell communication mostly used?

2. Find in the text English equivalents to the following.

Засоби передачi повідомлень, за допомогою спеціального коду, уводити в дію, канали супутникового звязку, пропонувати ідею, єдиний загальноєвропейський стандарт, цифровий стільниковий звязок, технічні характеристики, міжміське телефонне обслуговування, міжнародна телефонна станція.

3. Find the synonyms to the following words.

device, to transform, up-to-date, to send, net, technology, investigation, subscriber, territory, to construct.

4. Make the annotation of the text, completing the following sentences.

1. The title of the text is ...

2. The main problem touched upon in the text is ...

3. There are ... logically connected parts in the text ...

4. The first (second, etc.) part describes (speaks about, discusses, touches upon, etc.) ...

5. The conclusion made by the author is that ...

TOPICAL VOCABULARY

1. General

1. Загальна лексика

apparatus / device

апарат, пристрій

advantage 

перевага

amount / to amount(ed) to 

кількість, сума / доходити до, рівнятись

access / to gain(ed) an access

доступ / отримати доступ

to advance(d) / advanced

удосконалюватися, робити успіхи, просувати / сучасний, досконалий, передовий

aerial

антена

broadcasting / radio broadcasting, telecasting

передача, трансляція (радіо та телебачення)

to communicate(d) / communication

передавати, повідомляти / зв’язок, спілкування

channel

канал

to convert(ed) / to transform(ed) / conversion

перетворювати / перетворення

to carry(ied) / to carry on / to carry out

нести / продовжувати, вести (справу) / виконувати

to call(ed) / call

викликати, називати / виклик

to conduct(ed) / conductor

проводити (електрику, світло) / провідник

digit / digital

цифра / цифровий

to develop(ed) / development

розвивати(ся) / розвиток

to equip(ed) / equipment

устаткувати / устаткування

to exchange(d) / exchange

обмінювати / обмін

frequency

частота

to generate(d) / generation

виробляти, виробництво / покоління

to improve(d) / improvement

покращити, удосконалити / удосконалення

information / datum (pl. data)

інформація, дані

to message(d) / message / messaging 

повідомляти / повідомлення / обмін повідомленнями, передача повідомлень

means / by means of

засіб, засоби / за допомогою

net / network

сітка, мережа

to operate(d) / to put (put; put) into operation / to operate on-line

працювати, діяти / вводити в дію / працювати в режимі “он-лайн

to process(ed) / processing

опрацьовувати (дані) / опрацювання (даних)

to provide(d) / provider / supplier

забезпечувати, постачати / провайдер, постачальник

to receive(d) / receiver

отримувати / приймач

to range(d) / range

коливатися у відомих межах / діапазон, межа

reverse charge call (Br.) / collect call (Am.)

дзвінок, що погоджується оплатити особа, якій телефонують

to serve(d) / to service(d) / service

слугувати / обслуговувати / обслуговування

telephone directory / phone book

телефонний довідник

to transmit(ted) / transmission / transmitter

передавати / передача / передавач

to unify(ied) / unified  

об’єднувати, уніфікувати / єдиний, уніфікований

user / subscriber / customer

користувач

up-to-date / modern

сучасний

wave

хвиля

2. Useful Expressions

2. Корисні вислови (фрази)

to ring someone (up) / to give someone a ring (all Br. only) / to give someone a buzz (informal)

дзвонити кому-небудь

to phone someone (up) / to make a call (to a place) / to call someone (up) (mainly Am.)

телефонувати

to make a private (business) call

телефонувати за особистим питанням / у справі

trunk call

міжміський виклик

to get through

додзвонитися

the line is engaged / the number is busy (Am.)

номер зайнятий

to put smb through / to connect smb (Am.)

з’єднати 

to cut off / to be cut off

роз’єднати / бути роз’єднаним (про телефонну розмову)

to cancel the call

скасувати виклик

the phone is out of order

телефон не працює

a poor / bad line

погано чути через пошкодження на лінії / поганий зв’язок

a crossed line

лінія, на якій чути розмови інших людей

the line may go dead

зв’язок може бути втрачений

not to take the call

не приймати виклик

to hold the line / hold (Am.) / hold on

чекати на лінії / не класти слухавку

to hang up / to ring off (Br. only)

покласти слухавку

to ring someone back(Br.) / to get back to someone (Am.) or to phone / call someone back

зателефонувати пізніше

to clear the line / to get the caller off the line

звільнити лінію

to be on the phone

мати приватну телефонну лінію, чекати на лінії, розмовляти зараз по телефону

ex-directory number (Br.) / an unlisted number (Am.)

приватний номер, незазначений у телефонному довіднику

VOCABULARY PRACTICE

BLOCK I

  1.  Paraphrase the following sentences.

1) He hung up on me. 2) After two rings the telephone went dead. 3) She waited for her party to answer. 4) She has left a word she will come back in an hour. 5) Hold the line. 6) Go ahead. 7) You are wanted on the phone. 8) Then trunks phoned to say that there was no reply from the given number. 9) Mr. White is making a trunk call. 10) You’ve got the wrong number.

  1.  Match the terms on the left with the explanations on the right.

1. Internet enabled TV

a) location on the Internet where a company puts web pages

2. web site

b) technology that integrates data, sound and video: participants in different / distant virtual places hold a meeting as if they were face to face

3. virtual reality

c) a device to send a copy of a paper document – for instance a scientific article – from Trento University to Cambridge University

4. fax

d) TV set used as an Internet device

5. video teleconferencing

e) a device that can send and receive voice or data without the use of wire

6. wireless smart phone

f) technology that allows users to see a computer-simulated world in which they can move

  1.  Translate the following sentences into English.
  2.  За допомогою функції bluetooth можна передавати зображення з одного телефона на інший.
  3.  Чи можу я замовити міжміську розмову звідси, із готелю?
  4.  Такий спосіб спілкування, як листування, уже не актуальний на сьогодні.
  5.  Я ніяк не можу набрати номер. Весь час короткі гудки. Напевно, апарат не працює.
  6.  Сьогодні кожен другий має доступ до Інтернету, за допомогою якого ми можемо отримати будь-яку інформацію.
  7.  Мобільний телефон удосконалюють із кожним роком, додаючи до нього bluetooth, GPS, MP3 програвач.
  8.  Сучасні засоби зв’язку, такі як ICQ, Skype, CDMA, набули широкого застосування.
  9.  Перевага мобільного телефона полягає в тому, що ти можеш зв’язатись із будь-ким де б ти не був.

  1.  Study the text and do the following.

a) match the headings to the paragraphs.

A Differences between people and animals

B Communication today

C How we communicate

D History of communication

b) answer these questions.

  1.  Which animals are mentioned? What can they do?
  2.  What is special about human communication? What can we do?
  3.  Which four forms of media are mentioned in the last paragraph?
  4.  What is good and bad about information technology today?

c) what do you think?

  1.  What can animals do that people can’t?
  2.  How do you like to communicate?
  3.  What is happening in information technology today?

PEOPLE – the great communicators

1_____________________________________

We can communicate with other people in many different ways. We can talk and write, and we can send messages with our hands and faces. There is also the phone (including the mobile), the fax, and e-mail. Television, film, painting, and photography can also communicate ideas.

2_____________________________________

Animals have ways of exchanging information, too. Bees dance and tell other bees where to find food. Elephants make sounds that humans can’t hear. Whales sing songs. Monkeys use their faces to show anger and love. But this is nothing compared to what people can do. We have language – about 6000 languages, in fact. We can write poetry, tell jokes, make promises, explain, persuade, tell the truth, or tell lies. And we have a sense of past and future, not just present.

3_____________________________________

Communication technologies were very important in the development of all the great ancient societies:

• Around 2900 BC, paper and hieroglyphics transformed Egyptian life.

• The ancient Greeks loved the spoken word. They were very good at public speaking, drama, and philosophy.

• The Romans developed a unique system of government that depended on the Roman alphabet.

• In the 14th century, the printing press helped develop new ways of thinking across Europe.

4____________________________________________________________________________

Radio, film, and television have had a huge influence on society in the last hundred years. And now we have the Internet, which is infinite. But what is this doing to us? We can give and get a lot of information very quickly. But there is so much information that it is difficult to know what is important and what isn’t. Modern media is changing our world every minute of every day.

BLOCK II

1. Read the following dialogue.

Assistant 1: Sunder’s Enterprises, good morning.

Mr. Shapiro: Good morning. May I speak to Andrew Tirelli, please.

Assistant 1: I’m sorry, Mr. Tirelli is at the meeting at the moment. Can he call you back?

Mr. Shapiro: Yes, this is Peter Shapiro from De Mario, I’m at 457-4765.

Assistant 1: I’ll tell him to call you right back.

Mr. Shapiro: Thanks.

(A bit later)

Mr. Tirelli: Mr. Shapiro, please.

Assistant 2: I’m sorry, Mr. Shapiro just stepped away from his desk. May I take a message?

Mr. Tirelli: I’m just returning his call.

Assistant 2: O.K. I’ll give him a message.

Mr. Tirelli: Thanks. Good-bye.

2. Find the logical order of the following dialogue parts.

The phone has just rung in the Jackson’s house and Kenny has gone to answer it.

  1.  – I’m still here at school. I’ve decided to stay and work on my history project with Carol.
  2.  – Wait a minute…
  3.  – Hey, Mom. It’s Debbie.
  4.  – Hello?
  5.  – Thanks, Mom.
  6.  – See you later.
  7.  – Have you had anything to eat yet?
  8.  – Sure.
  9.  – No, but I’ll go to the Pizza Place later.
  10.  – Can you pick me up there at 8 o’clock?
  11.  – O.K., dear, bye.
  12.  – Debbie, dear. Where are you?
  13.  – Hi, Kenny. Can I talk to Mom, please?

3. Fill the gaps in these phone conversations with suitable words or phrases.

A: Hello.

B: Hi……………Sandra?

A: No, sorry. I’m ………………Sandra’s not here at the moment.

B: Oh. Do you know when she’ll………………?

A: No, I’ve no idea.

B: OK. Well in that case, could I ……………… a ……………… for her?

A: Yes, of course.

B: Could you ask her to………………. this evening, please?

A: Sure. What’s your name?

B: Catherine. I’m a colleague from work. She’s got my number.
A: Right. I’ll tell her.

B: Thanks very much. Bye-bye.

A: Bye.

BLOCK III

1. Study the information and express your ideas.

  1.  Do you think it is useful to know the rules while using a cell phone?
  2.  You are in the Opera House and suddenly someone calls you. How would you answer?
  3.  Being on the lecture you’ve got an emergency call. What would you do?
  4.  Sitting at the table your cell phone rings. What are your actions?

Basic Cell Phone Etiquette

Some rules you can follow to be a better mannered cell phone user include:

  1.  Keep your phone on vibrate or silent and if you take a call you should step into a secluded area so that the rest of the public does not hear your intimate conversation. Let’s face it, not everyone wants to know the details of your personal life.
  2.  When you do speak on your cell phone keep your voice in control, you don’t need to shout!
  3.  Turn off your phones when you’re at a theatre, other entertainment venues, before interviews, presentations and meetings, at weddings, at funerals and at other ceremonies.
  4.  Try to maintain a space bubble around you if you must talk on your phone so that others aren’t forced to hear your private conversations.
  5.  Last but not least, driving and talking on your cell phone is not a good idea, especially if it is a distracting or upsetting conversation! If you must answer your phone while driving pull over.

2. Add other advantages and disadvantages of using mobile phone from your own experience.

Advantages:

  1.  you can carry a mobile phone with you so you don’t miss important calls.
  2.  if you are lost, you can call for directions.
  3.  if you are in an accident, you can call the police or ambulance – and if the phone has a camera, you can take pictures of the accident.
  4.  you can listen to music, texts, play games when you’re bored.
  5.  all mobile phones have a calculator and a phone book.
  6.  you can use a mobile phone to call your customers or boss if you are running late to a meeting.
  7.  you can surf Internet & connect with the whole world by mobile.
  8.  you can chat & make video conference.
  9.  keep in touch with friends and family.
  10.  good for emergencies.

Disadvantages:

  1.  mobile phones can be expensive.
  2.  they can damage your ear.
  3.  sometimes the reception is poor in some areas, limiting your connectivity (you can’t talk underground or on planes).
  4.  people use the phone while they are driving, and this can cause problems.
  5.  they can limit your face to face time with friends and family.
  6.  they can get you in trouble at school.

3. Read the text. Choose the most suitable (for you) means of communication and speak about its advantages among others.

Modern means of communication

FAX (Facsimile Telegraphy) – Facsimile telegraphy deals with the transmission of typewritten or handwritten message, drawings, graphics, pictures or any matter which cannot be sent through telegraphs, telephones or teleprinters. This machine operates by converting the variances of light reflected from the image of the original matter into electrical impulses which can be reconverted onto the image form on reception. Connections can be made over very long distances using the public telephone networks or radio links.

Fax is perhaps the speediest system presently available and transmitting and receiving a standard letter size document takes approximately four minutes, irrespective of the amount of matter on it. In this system there is no scope for copying errors and so high order skills required at high skills. Even typed matter can be transmitted more effectively through fax than through the teleprinter since the former completely does away with the element of checking for errors inadvertently incorporated during transmittal of the matter.

ELECTRONIC MAIL (E-Mail) – This, too, is a progeny of computer technology. It facilities the transmittal of messages through the use of computer storage and computer inter-links, thus eliminating postal delays. The message is simply keyed into the system. The signals, converted into digital pulses are stored in the computer’s memory for retrieval. The

message can be retrieved at the recipient’s convenience. Thus apart from being time saving, electronic mail is a more convenient and unobtrusive method of sending a message as the sender can be sure of not disturbing the recipient. In close inhouse communication, links are established either by the CPU of computer network Internet workstations. In distant communication between offices at different locations, an extensive network of microwave or satellite technology is used for the transmission of electronic mail.

Usually group communication takes place in person, in the same room but the new technology provides a facility for discussion with the group of persons on the Internet. You can conduct a meeting, hold a group discussion or brief people scattered across the country or around the world. You can consult a number of experts through computers using decision support systems for their views before making a decision or for finalizing a plan of action. In teleconferencing, the attention is focused on the idea or concept that is being communicated. This is an advantage of the method but sometimes this overemphasis on the message with a corresponding neglect of the person communicating it, may not be fully in tune with the corporate culture, which needs dynamic medium of communication.

CDMA/GSM In cellular service there are two main competing network technologies: Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) and Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA). Today, most major cellular carriers use either CDMA or GSM. There are camps on both sides that firmly believe either GSM or CDMA architecture is superior to the other. Cell phones are used to communicate internationally and locally. Cell phones are already used to download music, text messaging, taking pictures, short videos and video games.

SKYPE is a software application that allows users to make voice calls over the Internet. Calls to other users within the Skype service are free, while calls to both traditional landline telephones and mobile phones can be made for a fee using a debit-based user account system. Skype has also become popular for its additional features which include instant messaging, file transfer, and video conferencing.

ICQ was a popular instant messaging computer program, which was first developed by the Israeli company Mirabilis, then bought by America Online, and since April 2010 owned by Digital Sky Technologies (Russia). The name ICQ is a homophone for the phrase ‘I seek you’. The first version of the program was released in November 1996 and ICQ became the first Internet-wide instant messaging service, later patenting the technology. ICQ has over 100 million accounts registered.

4. Read the article and tell if there should be adopted restrictions on cell phone use in our country.

SHOULD THERE BE RESTRICTIONS

ON CELL PHONE USE?

Said they would   Said they would    Said they would    Said they would    Said they would

ban the use of       ban the use of        ban the use of       ban the use of        ban the use of

   cell phones         cell phones in        cell phones in        cell phones in          cell phones

 while driving             schools                restaurants               theatres                 entirely

 

There are many talks about putting restrictions on the use of cell phones. For example, in New York, cell phones were supposed to be banned in restaurants sometime in 2006 or 2007 but this bill was reconsidered because many people thought it was an overregulation people’s behaviour.

Previously mentioned, driving while on your cell phone can be a dangerous thing. In Canada, as of April 1, 2003, it is only illegal to drive with a cell phone in Newfoundland and Labrador.

As you can see from the graph, having cell phones banned while driving received the highest percent of voters and this is probably due to the fact that driving with a cell phone has the most dangerous impact on society out of all the categories as it is the only one that can be the cause of immediate death. The other uses on the graph simply cause distraction, annoyance or rudeness.

With the increased use of cell phones, there is an increased call for a ban of them in certain situations. There will always be a conflict between the restriction of cell phones to benefit society versus freedom to communicate.

5. What do you think about the following statement?

Internet Craze

The Internet has forever changed the way we live. Its importance will continue to grow. Most of the world is conducting its business, receiving its media (TV, films, music), and staying in touch solely via the Internet.

The Internet Will Change Our Lives In Every Aspect. The use of the Internet around the world is doubling every few months. The Internet has already changed with way we communicate. Business has invested billions in the Internet. The Internet is becoming faster all the time, you can already watch video or listen to Mp3s via the Internet. Many people now live at home and work via the Internet. The Internet has created unlimited new business opportunities. Most people use email instead of writing letters to keep in touch with their friends.

The Internet Is Just A New Form Of Communication, But Will Not Change Everything In Our Lives. The Internet, while interesting, is just a fad. People want to go out and meet other people when they do their shopping. It is too difficult to use the Internet and computers, most people do not have the patience. Reading on a computer screen is uncomfortable and people will never stop wanting to read, listen to music and be entertained in traditional ways. The Internet creates cultural homogenization – some would say Americanization, and eventually people will get tired of this. The only real interaction between people must take place face to face on not ‘virtually’. The Internet is mainly used by teenagers and other people who have lots of time to waste.

BLOCK IV 

Topics for discussion and essays.

  1.  Recall the day when the mobile phone turned out to be of great help to you.
  2.  Say what services you get by phone.
  3.  State advantages and disadvantages of having a mobile phone.
  4.  What is the fastest way to send information (pictures)?
  5.  What can you get having Internet at home?
  6.  What is the difference between Skype and ICQ?
  7.  Is it necessary to have our own page in Internet?
  8.  Do you happen to know other (alternative) / more advanced means of communication used today?


LESSON 8

Computers in our life 

Never let a computer know you’re in a hurry.

To err is human, but to really foul things up

requires a computer.

Computers have lots of memory but no imagination.

I had a life once… now I have a computer and a modem.

I just wish my mouth had a backspace key.

Computers eat time – we only think they run on electricity.

In God we trust, all others we virus scan.

There are three kinds of death in this world. They are

heart death, brain death, and being off the network.

INTRODUCTORY TEXT

Notes to the text:

evolution of computersеволюція комп’ютерів

desktop – настільний комп’ютер

laptop (notebook computer) – ноутбук

palmtop – портативний комп’ютер

PDA (Personal Digital Assistant) – кишеньковий комп’ютер, що виконує спеціальні функції

programming languages – мови програмування

USB drive (Universal Serial Bus) ЮСБ драйвер

Internet access – доступ до інтернету

networking capabilitiy – можливість організації мережі

Our Lives and Computer Technology

Using a computer to write about computers is like searching for ‘Google’ on Google! Computer technology is so much a part of our lives, that we cannot imagine a life without it. Computers serve as efficient data storage systems and excellent information processors. They can store, organize and manage huge amounts of data. Moreover, they operate on incomparable speeds, thus saving human time and effort to a large extent. True, they are an integral part of our lives. It is said that inventions change the way we live. Computer technology is a classic example of this adage. It has indeed changed our way of living.

Computer technology that is in daily use today finds its roots in the oldest computing systems like Abacus and slide rules. The evolution of computers can be traced back to calculators and punched cards, which were some of the earliest computing devices. Analogue computing devices evolved into digital information processors and from then on, there was no looking back! For a closer look at the major events in the computer history, you must go through the full timeline of computers.

For many years after 1960, when the third generation computers were created, desktops remained to be popular for personal and business use. Research in computer technology continued, giving rise to the development of laptops, palmtops, miniature tablet PCs and PDAs. As we see today, they serve as ‘personal digital assistants’ in the literal sense of the term! Their small size endows them with portability, thus adding to user convenience. As they can be operated on batteries, they provide computer users with mobile computing capabilities. How has this affected our lives? Well, we can remain connected to the world at all times. Work is no more location-dependent!

Computer operating systems are a vital component of the computer technology. They help in the management of a variety of computer operations and in the sharing of computer resources. They handle the scheduling and execution of computer programs, help in the management of files and handle interrupts. They manage multiple user profiles and user accounts, thus playing a major role in maintaining computer security. Certain types of operating systems offer distributed processing capabilities and support multitasking and multi-user operations. The most important role of an operating system is to provide the users with an interactive interface. They have made the interaction with computers, a user-friendly experience and made it easy for the common man to make friends with the computer technology.

Computers, as we all know, can perform complex mathematical operations and process large amounts of information. Thanks to their computational powers, long and complex calculations can be performed within seconds. They can be programmed to execute complex instruction sequences through the use of programming languages. That reminds us of the software industry, one of the most progressive industries of the world. Computer technology gave rise to this industry and changed the face of the world.

The multimedia capabilities possessed by the computers make them one of the ideal audio-visual media. They can be made to play movies and music. They offer support to a variety of storage media like CDs, DVDs, floppy disks and USB drives. Computer hard disks are also capable of storing and playing audio and video. And how has this affected our lives? Well, it is due to these storage and audio-visual media, that we can maintain soft-copies of data. Gone are the days, when we used to document on paper! Gone are the days when students maintained traditional notebooks. Many of them possess notebook computers today. Today’s education is about PowerPoint presentations and e-homework assignments. TVs and radios were once, the only means of entertainment, but not any more. Today’s entertainment is about the computer and Internet technology!

Perhaps, one of the major advantages of the computer technology is its ability to provide us with Internet access. Computers possess networking capabilities, which makes it possible to connect multiple computers and achieve an exchange of information between them. Network communication is possible, thanks to the networking features offered by the computer technology.

1. Find in the text English equivalents to the following.

Система зберігання даних, працювати з незрівняною швидкістю, невід’ємна частина нашого життя, перфокарта, дослідження в комп’ютерній технології, виконання комп’ютерних програм, контролювати переривання, інтерактивний інтерфейс, дружній досвід, гнучкі диски, обмін інформацією.

2. Complete the following sentences.

1. … serve as efficient data storage systems and excellent information processors.

2. They operate on incomparable speeds, thus saving … .

3. Computer technology is a classic example of … .

4. For many years after 1960, when the third generation computers were created, desktops remained … .

5. Research in computer technology continued, giving rise to the development of … .

6. … endows them with portability, thus adding to user convenience.

7. … are a vital component of the computer technology.

8. Certain types of operating systems offer … .

9. The most important role of an operating system is … .

10. Thanks to ..., long and complex calculations can be performed within seconds.

TOPICAL VOCABULARY

1. General

1. Загальна лексика

to add(ed) / addition

додавати / додавання

access / accessible

доступ / доступний

back-up copy

додаткова копія на дискеті / диску

artificial brain

штучний інтелект

binary / double / dual

двійковий, бінарний

CAD (computer-aided design)

автоматизоване проектування

сomplicated, complex, compound

складний

control / supervision

керування / контроль

circuit

cхема / ланцюг / контур

computer-literate man

людина, яка має досвід роботи з компютером

сonsole (keyboard)

пульт, клавіатура

to conduct(ed) an experiment

проводити дослід

capacity / faculty

потужність, ємкість, продуктивність

chip

чип

data (pl. від datum)

дані, інформація

equation / equation editor

рівняння / редактор математичних формул та рівнянь

extensive (memory)

велика / потужна (пам’ять)

floppy disk

дискета

general-purpose / digital / analogue computer

універсальний / цифровий / аналоговий комп’ютер

notebook computer (laptop, handheld computer, palmtop, netbook, smartphone)

ноутбук (портативний комп’ютер, смартфон)

hard disk (drive) / monitor / keyboard / mouse / modem / printer / scanner

жорсткий диск / монітор / клавіатура / мишка / модем / принтер / сканер

hardware / software

апаратне / програмне забезпечення

unit / component / device / element

пристрій, блок

іnstruction / command

команда / інструкція

to input(ed) / input

уводити (дані) / уведення

to output(ed) / output

виводити (дані) / виведення

listing / copying / printing / recording

друк, лістинг (відображення на папері або на екрані результату дії) / копіювання / друк / запис

memory / storage

пам’ять

media (pl. від medium)

носій інформації

network / net

мережа

user-friendly

легкий у використанні

reliable / reliability

надійний / надійність

2. Computer Related Verbs

2. Дієслова комп’ютерного спрямування

to perform(ed) / to operate / to function

виконувати / керувати / діяти

to process(ed) / processing

опрацьовувати (дані) / опрацювання (даних)

to program(med) / program / programmer

програмувати / програма / програміст

to print(ed) / to copy(ied) / to record(ed)

роздруковувати / копіювати / записувати

to switch(ed) / to switch in(on) / to switch off

перемикати / вмикати / вимикати

to store(d) / to keep (kept; kept)

запамятовувати, зберігати

to screen(ed) / screen

показувати на екрані / екран

to display(ed) / display

виводити (дані) на дисплей / дисплей

to select(ed) / to assemble(d)

вибирати / збирати

to count(ed) / to compute(d) / to calculate(d)

рахувати / проводити розрахунки

to control(led) / to operate(d)

керувати, контролювати

to feed (fed; fed) / feed

подавати, живити / живлення, подання матеріалу

to plug(ged) in / to unplug

увімкнути, вставити вилку в розетку / вимкнути

to install(ed) / to update(d) / to fix(ed)

встановлювати, монтувати / модернізувати, обновити (інформацію, дані) / закріпляти, застосовувати, вирішувати

to connect(ed) / to disconnect

з’єднати / роз’єднати

to surf(ed) / to surf the Net / Internet / Web 

переходити з одного сайту на інший / блукати в мережі

to browse(d) / browser

переглядати (шукати файли, каталоги) / браузер (програма перегляду Web, навігатор; розм. бродилка)  

to hook(ed) up / to boot(ed) up

підключити, з’єднати / запуск комп’ютерної системи, вхід у систему

to cut (cut; cut) / to paste(d)

вирізати / вставити, вставка (операції під час редагування тексту, зображення)

3. Special Computer Vocabulary – Комп’ютерна термінологія (визначення)

adware

a software application which displays unwanted pop-up advertisements on your computer while in use. Adware is often installed on your computer at the same time as free software or shareware

application

any program designed to perform a specific function directly for the user. Examples: Microsoft Word, Excel, Outlook or Adobe Photoshop

browser

a program or tool such as Internet Explorer or Mozilla that enables you to browse or surf the World Wide Web and view internet sites

bug

a defect or fault in a computer program that prevents it from working correctly. Bugs are caused by mistakes or errors made by the programmers

cache

a sort of fast memory used for temporary storage of recently accessed web pages. Enables the browser to display them more quickly on the next visit

cookies

a small piece of information on the times and dates you have visited web sites in order to identify users and prepare customized web pages for them

crash

a crash, in computing, is what happens when a program, or the entire operation system, unexpectedly stops working

cursor

a blinking symbol on the screen that shows where a new text will be entered

driver

a special program which enables a computer to work with a particular piece of hardware such as a printer

e-business

business done over the Internet or any Internet-based network

e-mail

electronic mail: messages sent from one computer to another over the Internet

FAQ

frequently asked questions

firewall

specialized hardware or software designed to prevent unrestricted or unauthorized access into or out of a computer or network

font

a particular kind of lettering (examples: Arial, Bookman, Times New Roman)

hardware

the physical equipment or touchable parts of a computer system, the CPU (central processing unit), the monitor, the keyboard, the mouse, the external speakers, the scanner, the printer, etc.

hit

a visit to a website

home page

the main page or opening page that appears when you visit a web site. It usually contains links to the other pages

login

process by which a user enters a name and password to access a computer

modem

a device that enables a computer to send and receive information over a telephone line. You need a modem to connect to the Internet, to send email, to fax

netiquette

network etiquette: a set of informal rules defining proper behavior on the Internet

portal

a website that acts as a gateway or entry point to the Internet (for example, Yahoo). Typically, a portal offers a search engine and links to other sites grouped into categories, as well as news or other services

program

a sequence of instructions that a computer can interpret and execute in order to do a particular job. Programs are collectively referred to as “software”

provider

company that provides access to the Internet

scanner

a piece of hardware, peripheral device, used to scan a document and create a digital copy

spam

unwanted, irrelevant or inappropriate e-mail messages, especially commercial advertising. Also referred to as ‘junk e-mail’

spreadsheet

a program used to enter and arrange numbers and financial information

spyware

software that collects information, without your knowledge, about your web-surfing habits and uses it for marketing purposes. Very often contained in free downloads or shareware programs

trojan

a program hidden in a useful software application and used to gain access to your computer. It performs malicious actions: displaying messages or erasing files. Trojans may be found in a hacked legitimate program or in free software

videoconference

interactive, audiovisual meeting between two or more people in different geographic locations using two-way video technology

virus

a malicious self-replicating program that spreads by inserting copies of itself into other executable code or documents, and causes problems on a computer. It acts in a way similar to a biological virus. The infected file is called a host

WYSIWYG

What you see is what you get. (pronounced ‘wizzy-wig’) Enables you to see on the screen exactly what will appear when the document is printed

WWW

World Wide Web: A hypertext information system consisting of a network of web pages which runs on the Internet and can be accessed with a browser

worm

a self-replicating computer program, similar to a computer virus. It infects additional computers by making use of network connections, often clogging networks and information systems as it spreads

zip

to zip a file is to compress it so that it occupies less space in storage and can be transferred quickly over the Internet

computer-literate

to have experience of working with computers and know how to use them

VOCABULARY PRACTICE

BLOCK I

1. Add another word, abbreviation, or part of a word, to complete common ‘computer’ words and phrases.

1. soft ……….

7. a computer …………

2. a word ...……….

8. ………..- ROM

3. floppy …………

9. laser ………….

4. ……….- friendly

10. lap …………

5. ……….- literate

11. spread ………..

6. key ………...

12. ………..- mail

2. Can you remember what these symbols mean?

1.      3.     5.      7.

2.      4.     6.

3. Complete the text with the words in the box.

systems   memory   task   terminals   desktop   CAD   applications

The first microcomputers, also known as (1) … PC’s, were for single user only, and this clearly distinguished them from minicomputers. Another important difference was that ‘minis’ were much more powerful than ‘micros’: they could execute more than one (2) … simultaneously and were used as file servers for (3) … and workstations. However, modern microcomputers have operating (4) … and network facilities that can support many simultaneous users. Today, most personal computers have enough (5) … to be used for word processing and business (6) … . Some PCs can even handle multitasking and (7) … applications. As a result, the division between ‘minis’ and ‘micros’ is now disappearing.

4. Translate the following sentences into English.

  1.  Інформація у вигляді даних і програм відома як програмне забезпечення, а електронні та механічні частини, що утворюють компютерну систему, називають апаратне забезпечення.
  2.  Студентів нашого факультету навчають працювати з компютером, складати програми та інтегральні схеми.
  3.  Робота з компютером підвищує цікавість студентів до навчання.
  4.  Ноутбук може слугувати студентові як бібліотекарем, так і консультантом.
  5.  Усю інформацію можна отримати у вигляді роздруківки.
  6.  Джек зберіг свою доповідь у компютері та зробив додаткову копію на диску.
  7.  На сьогодні багато компютерних програм легкі у використанні.
  8.  Інтернет значно впливає на наше повсякденне життя.

5. Read, smile and find in the Internet similar computer jokes either in English or in Ukrainian.

BLOCK II

1. Read the following dialogue.

Hooking Up My Computer

Peter:  Hi Jack. Can you give me a hand?

Jack:  Sure. What’s up?

Peter:  I’ve just bought a new computer and I’m having some problems hooking everything up.

Jack:... and I’m a geek. Yeah, I know. I'd be happy to help.

Peter:  Thanks! I’ve connected all the cables from my monitor, mouse and keyboard, and I’ve plugged it in.

Jack:  Have you installed the software yet?

Peter:  No, I haven’t. Do I need to?

Jack:  Not always, but it’s best to install drivers for your keyboard and mouse, as well as your printer.

Peter:  Will the computer boot up without those?

Jack:  Of course. Boot up the computer and then we can update the drives.

Peter:  OK. What’s that thing (points to a computer component)

Jack:  Oh, that’s a memory reader. You can insert things like SD cards from your camera and mp3 players into it.

Peter:  That’s handy.

Jack:  You’ve bought a nice system. How big is the hard drive?

Peter:  I think it’s 750 gigabyte.

Jack:  Good... The computer’s booted up. Let’s install those drivers.

Peter:  Before we do that, can I get online?

Jack:  Do you have a modem?

Peter:  Yes, I do. I think I have a cable modem.

Jack:  Hmmm... yes you do. Is the Ethernet cable plugged in?

Peter:  What’s that?

Jack:  It’s the cable that connects your modem to your computer.

Peter:  Let’s surf the Internet!

Jack:  Just a moment... First we need to launch the browser.

Peter:  The browser?

Jack:  It’s the program that allows you to surf the Internet.

Peter:  Oh ... I’ve got a lot to learn.

Jack:  Yes, you do. I can see I’m going to be here all day...

2. Read the dialogue and fill in the missing words. The first letter of each missing word is given.

Interviewer:  Can you explain how a (1) p… computer works?

Tom Bryant:  Sure. A pen computer usually (2) r… on rechargeable batteries. You hold the computer with one hand and with the other you use an electronic (3) s… to write, draw and make selections on a flat LCD (4) s… .

Interviewer:  That means it doesn’t have a keyboard.

Tom Bryant:  That’s right. You write (5) i… with the stylus like a pen.

Interviewer:  And how does the computer (6) r… what you write?

Tom Bryant:  It reads the (7) p… of the pen and sends signals to the screen. The computer then translates the movement of the pen into characters or performs the functions like ‘delete’. The operating system recognizes specific gestures like drawing a circle or crossing out a (8) w… .

Interviewer:  Can these operating systems really recognize (9) h…?

Tom Bryant:  Yes, they can be trained to recognize (10) c… written in your own handwriting. A lot of hand-held computers use Microsoft Windows CE or the Palm OS from Palm Computing.

3. Computers have many applications in a great variety of fields.

a) Look at these photographs of different situations and match them with texts 1 to 4 below.

a

b

c 

d 

1. Computers can help students perform mathematical operations and solve difficult questions. They can be used to teach courses such as computer-aided design, language learning, programming, mathematics, etc. PCs are also used for administrative purposes: for example, schools use databases and word processors to keep records of students, teachers and materials.

2. Race organizers and journalists rely on computers to provide them with the current position of riders and teams in both the particular stages of the race and in the overall competition. Workstations in the race buses provide the timing system and give up-to-the-minute timing information to TV stations. In the press-room several PCs give real-time information on the state of the race. Computer databases are also used in the drug-detecting tests for competitors.

3. Computers store information about the amount of money held by each client and enable staff to access large databases and to carry out financial transaction at high speed. They also control the automatic cash dispensers which, by the use of a personal coded card, dispense money to clients.

4. Airline pilots use computers to help them control the plane. For example, monitors display data about fuel consumption and weather conditions. In airport control towers, computers are used to manage radar systems and regulate air traffic. On the ground, airlines are connected to travel agencies by computer. Travel agencies use computers to find out about the availability of flights, prices, times, stopovers and many other details.

b) Match these captions with the pictures.

Using an automatic cash dispenser                                                                     ___

In education, computers can make all the difference                                         ___

Organizing the Tour de France demands the use of computer technology        ___

Controlling air traffic                                                                                          ___

4. Study the information and express your ideas on the topic.

Computer Effects on Human Health

Due to our life style and work we used to spend most of the time at a computer. It is one of the most thrilling events of our life. Actually, what's awful in this interest of a person? But the medical specialists do not let us to relax even now. So, first of all, even the most modern and well-controlled monitors are not the ideal ones. So, be careful of your sight and spend only 45 minutes at a computer. If you are not allowed to make a 15-minutes break, close your eyes, make simple eye exercises and then continue your work.

The place is to be very comfortable or you risk having such health problems, as pain in the back or eyesight troubles. Their treatment is not a pleasant event, mostly tiresome.

Even the loss of the information can cause stress. So, if you do not want to drink tincture of valerian, save the information as often as you can or copy it to another information holder. Keep your health and remember that wealth is nothing without health.

  1.  Think about other possible effects the computer may cause to your health and the ways to prevent them.
  2.  Express your idea on ‘computer addiction among users’.
  3.  Think about ‘manipulation via computer’ (control over people / violent computer games / computer cheating, etc.)

BLOCK III

1. Read the text and do the following tasks.

  1.  Write a list of as many uses of the computer / computer applications, as you can think of.
  2.  Read the text below and underline any applications that are not in your list.

Computer – a Miraculous Device

Computers and microchips have become part of our everyday lives: we visit shops and offices which have been designed with the help of computers, we read magazines which have been produced on computer, we pay bills prepared by computers. Just picking up a telephone and dialing a number involves the use of a sophisticated computer system, as does making a flight reservation or bank transaction.

We encounter daily many computers that spring to life the instant they’re switched on (e.g. calculators, the car’s electronic ignition, the timer in the microwave, or the programmer inside the TV set), all of which use chip technology.

What makes your computer such a miraculous device? Each time you turn it on, it is a tabula rasa that, with appropriate hardware and software, is capable of doing anything you ask. It is a calculating machine that speeds up financial calculations. It is an electronic filing cabinet which manages large collections of data such as customer’s lists, accounts, or inventories. It is a magical typewriter that allows you to type and print any kind of document – letters, memos or legal documents. It is a personal communicator that enables you to interact with other computers and with people around the world. If you like gadgets and electronic entertainment, you can even use your PC to relax with computer games.

2. Study the article and answer the questions.

  1.  What is the main idea of the article? Find the appropriate sentence from the text to express it in short.
  2.  Do you agree with the author’s point of view? Why?
  3.  A friend; a helper; a substitutor; a must-be; a life – what name would you choose for your PC? How long can you live without using the machine?

Do Computers Rule Our Lives?

Whether we like computers or not they invade our homes, work, and school. Setting aside the internet for a second, computers decide when we can access easy information like an address book, homework assignments, and even a calculator.

How many times have you used the excuse ‘My computer ate my homework’ and really meant it? Well, I have used it more than once.

The first thing that comes to my mind when preparing a presentation for class or work is to do it on PowerPoint, my favourite computer program. I love this program because it looks really fancy when I am done and it is not hard to use. For the five minutes of the presentation I feel like I have accomplished something requiring computer intelligence even though in everyday life I have a hard time checking e-mail.

There are many games to get addicted to and many programs that are disguised as games that make computers seem like a fun pastime. This is all a ploy. People make these programs so that they hook even the most anti-computer person into computers and then convince him that he ‘needs’ to keep adding new ‘toys’ to his computer. I do want to stress that computers are an important part of our advancing culture, but the obsession and dependency is nothing more than a marketing scheme.

A lot of media and just general people put a lot of emphasis on the use of computers. Jobs look for computer literacy as a requirement and some bill paying services suggest online payment as a good alternative to good old fashioned snail- mail. It is easier for companies to teach a computer literate person their trade than it is to teach a person skilled in their trade how to use a computer. This all leads to the same conclusion: A person is more efficient and more useful if they have computer skills over any other skill.

I hate computers, but you would never know it because I spend more than seventy-five percent of my time at home in front of the computer. I have the phone right next to me, my CD player, and all the books and resources I need so I never have to get up. I have spent so much time in front of the computer in the past year that when I am bored I just sit at the computer because I feel that I have to be there.

I used to think that Bill Gates and other technology geniuses were trapped in a quick money industry that would vanish within a decade or so. Well, I am now convinced that they are part of a high conspiracy (called advertising) that has convinced us (the American people) that we ‘need’ computers. Not only do we ‘need’ computers, but we ‘need’ to keep making them better by spending more money to promote a technology that causes glazed over eyes, pale complexions, and sore fingers.

The internet is a completely different story. Being a senior graduating in December, I spend a great deal of time on search engines trying to find a job and setting up contacts within my industry. There is a lot of great information on the internet that is great for research for school as well as non-school education. The problem lies in the fact that anyone can make a web page and solicit their ideas as facts. This becomes a problem especially when writing papers and being able to have solid sources to back up a thesis.

On the other hand, if you have a web page that promotes a certain topic or educates people in a positive way you need to be prepared for comments or even attacks from the significant number of ‘bad apples’ that use the internet. There is not a lot of ways to control who goes on your site and who doesn't without charging, so the dilemma remains; How can I address my page to a variety of people without suffering the consequences of denial and abuse? There is no way, just deal with it and don't take things too personally.

When I think of buying a computer I want a machine that allows me to type my papers and research the internet. That's it! No monkeys jumping through hoops when I log on. No computer lady saying ‘Good Morning Jennifer’, no passwords, NOTHING! Now most of what I think of computers is probably out of pure ignorance, but I am very comfortable with my ignorant life.

So in the end we cannot escape computers, but we can second guess ourselves when choosing to buy one, use one, or suggest the use. When you are faced with the decision to add a new program to your home computer, resist. Let computers simply be one detail to your life that makes things just a little bit easier. Just remember: When your computer blows up, it shouldn't mean that your life has blown up.

3. In small groups, choose one of the areas in the diagram below and discuss what computers can do in this area.

Formula 1 (cars)

Factories and industrial processes

Entertainment

Hospitals and medical research

Useful words

Formula 1: racing car, car body, design, mechanical parts, electronic components, engine speed.

Entertainment: game, music, animated image, multimedia, encyclopedia.

Factories: machinery, robot, production line, computer-aided manufacturing software.

Hospitals: patients, medical personnel, database program, records, scanner, diagnose, disease, robot, surgery.

Useful constructions

Computers are used to …; A PC can also be used for …; Computers can help … make … control … store … keep … provide … give … perform … measure … test … provide access to …

4. Mini-project.

  1.  Plan your own cybercafé! Imagine you want to open an Internet café in your town. In pairs, look at the HELP box and make a project about a café.

HELP Box

Consider the following:

Make decisions about:

  1.  the money you need to set up and run your cybercafé;
  2.  whether you want to have second-hand books, classic literature or magazines about computers and the Internet;
  1.  the type of Internet connection: via a modem (carrying data at 56 kbps), an ISDN line (at 128 kbps), a T-1 line (at 1,544 kbps) or a high-speed T-3 connection (at 44,736 kbps);
  1.  the kind of visitors you would like to have;
  2.  the type of furniture;
  1.  hardware equipment (Macs and PCs, printer, fax, etc.);
  1.  the location (find a place accessible to people who are likely to use a cybercafé);
  1.  software (web browser, e-mail, online chatting, games on CD-ROMs, etc.);
  1.  the services you want to offer (food, drinks, coffees, etc.);
  1.  how much you will charge customers for your services;
  1.  the things that can help you create a relaxing atmosphere (music, decoration, lighting, private areas, chess and card games, etc.)
  1.  introductory and advanced classes for users
  1.  Choose the name and a slogan for your cybercafé.

BLOCK IV 

Topics for discussion and essays.

  1.  Have you used CD-ROM? If so, what programs did you use and why?
  2.  Do you think ‘The Internet’ will have an important influence on our daily lives? Do you think it will be important in helping people from different countries to learn English?
  3.  We are becoming increasingly dependent on computers. They are used in business, hospitals, crime detection and even to fly planes. What things will they be used for in future? Is this dependence on computers a good thing or should we be more suspicious of their benefits?
  4.  What are advantages and limitations of laptop?
  5.  What are the most important differences between hand-held computers (e.g. palmtops, PDAs, etc.) and traditional computers?
  6.  Should students be allowed to use laptops in class?
  7.  Do you agree with this statement that hand-held PCs combine the functions of traditional PCs, cellular phone and pocket organizers?


LESSON 9

Youth Problems (Generation Gap, Drug Addiction, Depression, Crime, Youth Movements)

He is lifeless who is faultless.

A friend in need is a friend indeed.

If youth but know, and old age only could.

Youth is a disease from which we all recover.

The more man knows the greater power he has.

Growing old is mandatory; growing up is optional.

The years teach much which the days never knew.

We are only young once. That is all society can stand.

INTRODUCTORY TEXT

Notes to the text:

juvenile crime and delinquency – злочини і правопорушення молоді

gravity – гравітація

economic recession – економічний спад

marginal sectorграничний сектор, тут: околиця

offenders кривдники 

destitutionпотреба

criminal justice systemсистема кримінального правосуддя

to combat(ed) – боротися 

self-esteemвідчуття власної гідності

to eradicate(d) contemporary forms of racism – знищувати сучасні форми расизму

regardless of – незважаючи на

intervention – втручання

Juvenile Crime

Juvenile crime and delinquency are serious problems all over the world. Their intensity and gravity depend mostly on the social, economic and cultural conditions in each country. There is evidence, however, of an apparent world-wide increase in juvenile criminality combined with economic recession, especially in marginal sectors of urban centres. In many cases, youth offenders are ‘street children’ who have been exposed to violence in their immediate social environment, either as observers or as victims. Their basic education, when they have it, is poor; their primary socialization from the family is too often inadequate; and their socio-economic environment is shaped by poverty and destitution. Rather than relying solely on the criminal justice system, approaches to the prevention of violence and crime should thus include measures to support equality and justice, to combat poverty and to reduce hopelessness among young people.

Governments should give priority to issues and problems of juvenile delinquency and youth criminality, with particular attention to preventive policies and programmes. Rural areas should be provided with adequate socioeconomic opportunities and administrative services which could discourage young people from migrating to urban areas. Youth from poor urban settings should have access to specific educational, employment and leisure programmes, particularly during long school holidays. Young people who drop out of school or come from broken families should benefit from specific social programmes that help them build self-esteem and confidence conducive to responsible adulthood.

Youth organizations should also consider organizing information campaigns and educational and training programmes in order to sensitize youth to the personally and socially detrimental effects of violence in the family, community and society, to teach them how to communicate without violence and to promote training so that they can protect themselves and others against violence. Governments should also develop programmes to promote tolerance and better understanding among youth, with a view to eradicating contemporary forms of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance and thereby prevent violence.

Regardless of the many changes that have taken place in the composition and structure of families globally, the family, as the primary institution of socialization of youth, continues to play an important role in the prevention of juvenile delinquency and underage crime. The most effective prevention efforts focus on the families of troubled youth, including those young people with serious behavioural problems.

In brief, to prevent violent behaviour and address delinquency, communities have to adopt strategies that combine such actions as prevention and intervention, as well as suppression.

  1.  Decide whether the following statements about the text are true or false.
  2.  Juvenile crime is affected by economic recession
    a
    ) true   b) false
  3.  Migration might be another cause of juvenile criminality
    a
    ) true   b) false
  4.  Family is not an important factor when dealing with juvenile criminality
    a
    ) true   b) false
  5.  Suppression is not an option when dealing with juvenile criminality
    a
    ) true   b) false

  1.  Complete the sentences.
  2.  (Молоді кривдники) are ‘street children’ who have been exposed to violence in their immediate social environment, either as observers or as victims.
  3.  Governments should give priority to issues and problems of (правопорушень молоді та юного криміналу).
  4.  (Молодь із бідних міських поселень) should have access to specific educational, employment and leisure programmes.
  5.  Governments should also develop programmes (щоб підтримувати толерантність) and better understanding among youth.
  6.  The most effective prevention efforts focus on the families of troubled youth, including (молодь із серйозними проблемами поведінки).

TOPICAL VOCABULARY

1. General

1. Загальна лексика

adolescence, youth / juvenile

юність, молодь / юний

to appreciate(d) / to commit(ted) / to encourage(d) / to support(ed)

цінувати / здійснювати / заохочувати / підтримувати

youth involvement / engagement

втягування (залучення) молоді/ зобов’язання

youth organizations / youth leadership

молодіжні організації / лідерство молоді

challenge / influence

випробування, виклик / вплив

community / membership

спілка, товариство, група людей / членство

disabled people

непрацездатні люди

friendly ties / well-being

дружні зв’язки / добробут

criminal situation / juvenile violence / crime / delinquency / delinquent / generation gap / drug addiction

кримінальна ситуація / малолітнє насильство / злочин / правопорушення / правопорушник / проблема батьків і дітей / наркоманія

to prosper(ed) / to respect(ed) / to grow up

процвітати / поважати, шанувати / виростати, рости

self-consciousness

самосвідомість

social environment / security

соціальне оточення / страхування

street / abandoned children

діти вулиці / покинуті діти

survey / volunteer

опитування громадської думки / доброволець, волонтер

to take (took; taken) measures

уживати заходів

teenager / teens

підліток / підлітки

under the guidance

під керівництвом

working experience / unemployment rate / vocation

рівень безробіття / досвід праці, роботи / покликання, професія

2. Criminals

2. Злочинці

robber / burglar

грабіжник / злодій-зломлювач

smuggler / pick-pocket

контрабандист / кишеньковий злодій

convict / extorter

каторжник (засуджений) / вимагач

killer (murderer) / rapist

убивця / насильник

3. Crime actions

3. Злочинні дії

crime / offence

злочин

hooliganism

хуліганство

burglary / theft / robbery / mugging 

крадіжка зі зломом / крадіжка / пограбування / пограбування на вулиці

embezzlement

привласнення (майна) / розкрадання (коштів)

kidnapping

викрадення людей

bribery / bribe / to bribe(d)

хабарництво / хабар / давати хабар

breach of order / peace / promise to marry

порушення порядку / миру / обіцянки одружитися

swindle / smuggle (in / out)

шахрайство / контрабанда (в / із країни)

espionage (spying)

шпигунство

murder / manslaughter

убивство / ненавмисне вбивство

4. Crime and Law Expressions

4. Вислови до теми Злочин та закон

to commit(ted) a crime / an offence

вчинити злочин

crime scene investigation (CSI)

місце злочину

to accuse(d) smb of a crime / to charge(d) smb with (murder)

звинувачувати когось у злочині (убивстві)

to arrest(ed) on a charge of

затримати за звинуваченням у

to plead (pleaded; pled) guilty / not guilty

визнати винним / невинним

to defend(ed) / to prosecute(d) smb in court

захищати когось / переслідувати судовим порядком (виступати обвинувачем)

to pass(ed) verdict on an accused person

винести вирок винному

to sentence(d) smb to a punishment

засудити когось до покарання

to acquit(ted) an accused person of a charge

виправдати звинувачуваного

to fine(d) smb a sum of money

штрафувати на певну суму

to send (sent; sent) smb to prison

ув’язнити когось

to release(d) smb from prison / jail (Am.)

звільнити когось (із в’язниці)

to release smb on bail

випустити на поруки

to be tried for smth

бути засудженим за щось

to lodge(d) an appeal

подати апеляцію

5. Law-Court Participants, Verdicts 

5. Учасники судочинства та вироки

judge / jury  

суддя / присяжні

counsel (advocate) / prosecutor / defendant 

адвокат / прокурор (обвинувач) / захисник

accused / prisoner

підсудний (обвинувачений, відповідач) / в’язень

accomplice / suspect

співучасник / підозрюваний

victim / witness (eye-witness)

жертва / свідок

trial (proceeding) / case / proof

судовий процес (суд) / судова справа / доказ

interrogation / verdict (sentence, judgment)

допит / вирок

evidence (testimony) / indirect / material / conflicting / hearsay

свідчення / непрямі (побічні) / речові / суперечливі / свідчення, засновані на плітках

punishment / fine / probation / imprisonment / capital punishment / life sentence / deprivation of civil rights / exile

покарання / штраф / умовний термін / ув’язнення / смертна кара / довічне ув’язнення / позбавлення прав / вигнання  

handcuffs / to handcuff(ed)

наручники, ручні кайдани / одягати наручники

6. Crime Prevention

6. Запобігання злочинності

to fight (fought; fought) crimes

боротися зі злочинністю

to carry(ied) guns

носити зброю

to protect(ed) oneself / property

захистити себе / майно

not to walk alone late at night on one’s own

не ходити самому пізно вночі

to lock(ed) doors / windows

замикати двері / вікна

not to wear expensive jewellery  

не носити коштовностей

to leave (left; left) lights at home when going out

залишати світло вдома, виходячи надвір

to fit(ted) a burglar alarm

поставити сигналізацію

to carry a mace spray / gas cylinder

носити балончик / газовий балончик

to put (put; put) money and valuables into a safe

класти гроші / коштовності (цінні речі) у сейф  

to keep (kept; kept) a gun in house for self-defence

тримати вдома зброю для самозахисту

VOCABULARY PRACTICE

BLOCK I

  1.  Complete the table giving crime derivatives and their definitions.

Crime

Criminal

Verb

Definition

terrorism

blackmail

drug-trafficking

forgery

assault

to assault  

pickpocketing

mugging

  1.  Find the opposite.

Perceptions of youth and adulthood

Youth

Adult

1. not adult / adolescent

a) conformist

2. becoming

b) independent

3. pre-social self that will emerge

   under the right conditions

c) arrived

4. powerless and vulnerable

d) autonomous

5. less responsible

e) identity is fixed

6. dependent

f) adult / grown up

7. ignorant

g) responsible

8. risky behaviour

h) powerful and strong

9. rebellious

i) knowledgeable

10. reliant

j) considered behaviour

  1.  Match the story with correct verbs.

break, hear, come, leave, go

Teenage Party Ends in Tears

When Jack and Kelly Harman……….. (1) away on holiday, they………….. (2) their teenage daughter alone in the house. Zoe, aged 16, wanted to stay at home. Her parents said she could have some friends to stay. However, Zoe decided to have a party. Things started to go wrong. Forty uninvited guests arrived. They …………… (3) furniture, smashed windows, and stole jewellery. When Mr and Mrs Harman ……………. (4) the news, they………………. (5) home immediately.

  1.  Translate the following sentences into English.

1. У будь-якій країні є багато безробітної молоді. Причина цього – брак досвіду роботи і знань. 2. Деякі політичні партії в Україні мають свої молодіжні організації. 3. Багато молоді об’єднується на професійній основі або за інтересами, створюючи власні гуртки та організації. 4. Більшість підлітків починає вживати алкоголь із 15 років, що призводить до проблем зі здоров’ям та до наркоманії. 5. Молодіжна організація бой-скаутів була заснована в Україні на принципах американської та британської організацій такого ж типу. 6. Деякі підлітки проводять свій вільний час на вулиці, що і призводить до паління, уживання алкоголю та криміналу. 7. Більшість підлітків засмучується й перебуває в стані депресії, якщо вони не можуть вирішити свої проблеми. 8. Як відомо, перше кохання має нещасливий кінець, що є причиною емоційних проблем серед молоді.

BLOCK II

1. Read the following dialogue.

The Generation Gap: Myth or Reality?

Interviewer: Good afternoon! I want to ask you several questions about the generation gap: is it a myth or reality?

Psychologist: Good afternoon, I suppose the generation gap is reality.

Interviewer: Why do you think so?

Psychologist: Because we have the difficult child, the child who is unhappy. He is at war with the world and his parents.

Interviewer: What are the usual arguments against giving more freedom to the child?

Psychologist: The usual argument against freedom for children is that life is hard, and parents must train the children so that they will fit into life later on. Parents must therefore discipline them.

Interviewer: Why is it wrong to pressure a child into obedience?

Psychologist: Fear is a terrible thing in child’s life. Only hate can flourish in the atmosphere of fear.

Interviewer: How should the new generation be brought up?

Psychologist: It seems to me it’s clear that we should bring up the next generation with the greater respect for law and for other people’s rights.

2. What is your opinion of the following statements? Agree or disagree.

 1. Young people should only leave home after they are married.

  1.   Young people should never leave home without their parent’s permission.
  2.   Young people who live at home should pay rent to their parents.
  3.   Young people should only stay at home when they can’t find anywhere to live.
  4.   Young people who leave home are selfish.
  5.   The state should help young people to find a home of their own.
  6.   Young people should allow elderly parents to live with them.

3.  A major problem for many teenagers is who they can ask for advice when they need it: parents, teachers, the youth leader or a friend. Sometimes, if it is a very personal problem, teenagers write to a magazine. Read the following letter and give your advice.

I’m 15. My parents got divorced five years ago. My father drank a lot and made life miserable. Although he made good money, we were always broke. After they had got divorced, I had to stay with my father, although my mother had custody. She had no money and she wouldn’t pay child support. When Mum met another man, I was invited to live with them. Now she is thinking of leaving him. She has told me I’ll have to go back to my father. I will not put myself in that position. What should I do? (Tom, 15)

4. Read the text and do the activities that follow.

Coping With Stress

Although stress can sometimes be a good thing because it gives you the motivation to do your best, it can have a harmful effect on you mentally and physically. If it continues for too long, it can cause sleeplessness, anxiety, mood swings, depression and illness. Here are 10 ways to combat excess stress. 

1  ______________________________________________   

By doing this you will feel in control and decide which things are more urgent and important. Feeling prepared can get rid of a lot of stress. Much stress is caused by doing things when there isn't enough time to do them, e.g. revising everything you have learned the night before a test.

2 ______________________________________________ Instead of worrying about doing something or avoiding it because you are scared of doing it (in case you fail) – just do it! The sooner you take action, the more time you will have if anything goes wrong.

3     ______________________________________________  

Keeping your body healthy reduces stress. Cut down on too much caffeine and sweet things. Make sure you get enough sleep and vitamin C.

4    _____________________________________________ Deep breathing works because getting more oxygen into your body relaxes you. You can either take up yoga or simply try breathing in deeply through your nose then exhaling through your mouth, and then repeat it ten times.

5     _____________________________________________ Doing something you really enjoy means you get a chance to take a break and 'recharge your batteries'. People who don't do this feel depressed and then their problems seem bigger and they can no longer put them into perspective.

6     ______________________________________________ If you think negatively, stress can take over but if you keep reminding yourself that you can cope and that you know what you are doing, stress often goes away.

7  ______________________________________________ You can't change them so why worry? Work on the things you can do something about.

8  ____________________________________________ Find out about new things: two clichés that people often quote are 'variety is the spice of life' and 'a change is as good as a rest'. The good news is that they are both true. Realizing that the world holds a lot more possibilities than the things you generally focus on can make you forget your problems.

9  _______________________________________________ Telling people about your problems can often help. 'This way you will feel less isolated. You should also tell people such as teachers or boyfriends / girlfriends or parents how stressed you feel about certain things. Once they realize how you feel they might be able to help, e.g. proving to parents that you are adult and mature rather than shouting it at them during an argument often helps.

10   ________________________________________________ Find somewhere where you have space to think, rest and generally chill out. You should also use this space to write down some possible solutions to the things that are stressing you. Then write down possible ways you can do those things. Attacking the problem is better than waiting for it to just go away.

a) Add the headings. Put these headings with the correct pieces of advice into gaps.

1.  Stop worrying about things you can’t change.

2.  Look after yourself.

3.  Don’t procrastinate the people who are close to you.

4.  Breathe!

5.  Stay positive.

6.  Remember to have fun.

7.  Organize and prioritize.

8.  Try new things.

9.  Take charge and be pro-active.

10. Communicate.

b) Read the sentences about stress. Change the words. Each phrasal verb is in the wrong place. Rearrange them into the correct places.

  1.  It’s tempting to (1) calm down when the task you need to do seems enormous, but you must (2) take on these negative feelings. Tell yourself that you can cope.
  2.  If you’re panicking, take a few deep breaths and (3) bottle up.
  3.  Don’t (4) turn down too much at once. (5) Get over your work into achievable units.
  4.  Don’t (6) blow over your feelings. Talk about your anxieties with the people who are close to you.
  5.  Everyone needs a break, so don’t (7) give up invitations to socialize.
  6.  Write down possible solutions to your problems. You’ll feel better if you’re doing something positive to deal with stress, rather than waiting for the situation to (8) break up.

BLOCK III

1. Read the text and express your ideas on the offered questions.

  1.  What are the teens’ problems?
  2.  What problems do young people face today?
  3.  What do young people worry about?
  4.  Who can help?
  5.  How to help?
  6.  What are teens’ life ambitions?
  7.  Why do young people start smoking / drinking / taking drugs?
  8.  Do you always understand your parents? Do they understand you? What are the reasons for misunderstanding?
  9.  Do you think that friction between young people and their parents is inevitable? Why?
  10.  What are the reasons for conflict and friction?

The age between 14 & 17 is considered to be one of the best  periods in people’s life. Grown-ups remind it with excitement and tenderness. But most teens wouldn’t agree with this opinion if they were asked. They are sure and that is quite true that they are overwhelmed with different problems.

These problems are quite serious and they can’t be considered trifles. Teenagers have psychological problems which can be explained by their psychological instability. This is the reason of their strange and sometimes aggressive behaviour. Their aggression can be aimed at their friends, teachers, parents and people around them. If these problems aren’t solved and regulated by experienced specialists, psychologists, teachers it can lead to far more serious problems.

Drinking and taking drugs have become the most actual problems of the modern society. As for drinking, teenagers don’t realize the harm it does to their health, they just don’t want it to the privilege of grown-ups but unlike grown-ups they are notable to drink responsibly. Most teenagers are having their first full drink of alcohol by the age of 15, up to eight years earlier than their mothers, putting them at greater risk of dependence, mental health problems and drug addiction. Statistics had also shown that girls were starting to drink alcohol as early as boys because they were increasingly exposed to alcohol advertising and were more independent than their parents and grandparents. Teenagers are also maturing earlier, have access to a wider range of alcohol products, more disposable income and less parental supervision. They really believe that certain drinks will make them look like they are accepted. So, we can say that the low level of self-appraisal is the main reason of drinking and drug problem.

Teenagers are greatly influenced by social problems such as unemployment, disfunctional families & the stress of getting into new college. They don’t know how to cope with the problems which do not depend on them. They are badly prepared for their solution mentally, spiritually & even physically. If they fail, they can be driven to despair and won’t find the way out if not helped by their families, school and some other representatives of society.

In fact, teenagers have got a lot of work. They are busy with their studies, household chores; some of them have a paid job. But there is no time for fun and they want to be entertained at least sometimes. This excessive work leads to an inner conflict which is usually expressed in the form of an open, direct protest against the world of grown-ups. The next step is the conflict with parents which is very difficult to solve. On the other hand, most teens don’t know how to organise their free time for raising their cultural level, enriching their knowledge and improving their physical forms.

2. Study the information about youth subcultures and tell…

  1.  If you belong to any of youth movements mentioned in the text.
  2.  Which of the mentioned youth movements are developed in your country?
  3.  Do you think these movements are joined by weak teens only?
  4.  What’s the role of these organizations in society?
  5.  Do you believe some of these movements can cause global conflicts?

A youth subculture is a youth-based subculture with distinct styles, behaviors, and interests. Youth subcultures offer participants an identity outside of that ascribed by social institutions such as family, work, home and school. 

The study of subcultures often consists of the study of the symbolism attached to clothing, music, other visible affections by members of the subculture and also the ways in which these same symbols are interpreted by members of the dominant culture. Youth subcultures are often defined or distinguishable by elements such as fashion, beliefs, slang, dialects, behaviors or interests.

Some of youth movements

The goth subculture has associated tastes in music, aesthetics, and fashion, but not all individuals who share those tastes are members of the goth subculture. Styles of dress within the subculture range from deathrock, punk, androgynous, Victorian, some Renaissance and Medieval style attire, or combinations of the above, most often with black attire, makeup and hair. By the late 1970s, there were a few post-punk bands labeled ‘gothic’. However, it was not until the early 1980s that gothic rock became its own subgenre within post-punk, and that followers of these bands started to come together as a distinctly recognizable movement. Goths, in terms of their membership in the subculture, are usually not supportive of violence, but rather tolerant. Their ideology is formed in part by recognition, identification, and grief over societal and personal evils that the mainstream culture wishes to ignore or forget. These are the main themes in goth music.

Hip Hop (Hip-Hop) is an artistic sub-culture that originated in the 1970s in the inner city African American, Afro-Caribbean and Latino American community of New York City. Since first emerging in the South Bronx, Hip-hop culture has spread around the world. When hip-hop music first began to emerge, it was based around disc jockeys who created rhythmic beats by looping breaks on two turntables, which is now more commonly referred to as sampling. This was later accompanied by ‘rap’.

The hippie subculture was originally a youth movement that arose in the United States during the mid-1960s, swiftly spreading to other countries around the world. The etymology of the term 'hippie' is from hipster, and was initially used to describe beatniks who had moved into New York City's Greenwich Village and San Francisco's Haight-Ashbury district, such as Jimi Hendrix. The early ‘hippies’ ideologies included the countercultural values of the Beat Generation. Some created their own social groups and communities, listened to psychedelic rock, embraced the sexual revolution, and used drugs such as marijuana and LSD to explore alternative states of consciousness.

Mod (from modernist) is a subculture that originated in London, England in the late 1950s and peaked in the early to mid 1960s. Significant elements of the mod subculture include: fashion (often tailor-made suits); pop music, including African American soul, Jamaican ska, and British beat music and R&B; and Italian motor scooters. From the mid to late 1960s onwards, the mass media often used the term mod in a wider sense to describe anything that was believed to be popular, fashionable or modern.

Metalhead is a popular term for a devoted fan of heavy metal music. In continental Europe metal culture appeals to a more diverse audience, often spanning into the 30s and 40s and more frequently with a middle-class background and a higher cultural profile. Metalheads affirm their membership in the subculture or scene by attending metal concerts, buying albums, and most recently, by contributing to metal websites and by growing their hair.

The New Age (also referred to as the New Age movement, New Age spirituality, and Cosmic Humanism) is a decentralized Western social and spiritual movement that seeks ‘Universal Truth’ and the attainment of the highest individual human potential. It includes aspects of Occultism, astrology, esotericism, metaphysics, alternative medicine, music, collectivism, sustainability, and nature. New Age practices and philosophies sometimes draw inspiration from major world religions: Buddhism, Chinese folk religion, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism. It incorporates aspects of the Earth, Moon, and outer space.

The punk subculture emerged in the USA, the United Kingdom, and Australia in the mid-1970s. Exactly which region originated punk has long been a major controversy within the movement. The earliest form of punk rock, named protopunk, started as a garage rock revival. Common punk viewpoints include anti-authoritarianism, non-conformity, direct action and not selling out. Other notable trends in punk politics include nihilism, anarchism, socialism, anti-militarism, anti-capitalism, anti-racism, anti-sexism, anti-nationalism, anti-homophobia, environmentalism, vegetarianism and animal rights. However, some individuals within the punk subculture hold right-wing views (such as those associated with the Conservative Punk website), neo-Nazi views (Nazi punk), or are apolitical (e.g. horror punk).

Straight Edge is a subculture of hardcore punk, a direct reaction to the sexual revolution, hedonism, and excess associated with punk rock. Straight edge is a philosophy of staying clean and sober: meaning refraining from using alcohol, tobacco, and any other recreational drugs. The term was coined by the 1980s hardcore punk band Minor Threat in the song ‘Straight Edge’. The letter X is the most known symbol of Straight Edge, and is worn as a marking on the back of both hands, though it can be displayed on other body parts as well. Some followers of Straight Edge have also incorporated the symbol into clothing and pins.

Rave, rave dance or rave party is a term first used in the 1980s to describe Acid House Parties (often all-night events) with fast-paced electronic music and light shows. At these parties people dance music played by DJs and occasionally live performers. The genres of electronic dance music played include house, trance, techno and jungle (often collectively referred to as ‘rave music’).

Rockers, leather boys or ton-up boys are a biker subculture that originated in the UK during the 1950s. It was mainly centered around British cafe racer motorcycles and rock and roll music. British mods and skinheads commonly called rockers greasers or grease as an insult. Since then, the terms greaser and rocker have become fairly interchangeable in the UK but are used differently in North America.

A skinhead is a member of a subculture that originated among working class youths in the United Kingdom in the 1960s, and then spread to other parts of the world. Named for their close-cropped or shaven heads, the first skinheads were greatly influenced by West Indian (specifically Jamaican) rude boys and British mods, in terms of fashion, music and lifestyle. Originally, the skinhead subculture was primarily based on those elements, not politics or race. In the late 1960s, some skinheads in the United Kingdom had

engaged in violence against South Asian immigrants (an act known as Paki bashing in common slang). By the late 1970s, the mass media, and subsequently the general public viewed the skinhead subculture as one that promotes racism and neo-Nazism. The white power and neo-Nazi skinhead subculture eventually spread to North America, Europe and other areas of the world. The mainstream media started using the term skinhead in reports of racist violence (regardless of whether the perpetrator was actually a skinhead); this has played a large role in public perceptions about the subculture.

3. Write a paragraph to fit this newspaper headline. Give some details about the crime and the court case using topical vocabulary.

BLOCK IV 

Topics for discussion and essays.

  1.  My opinion about correct up-bringing of children.
  2.  The parent-child problems and the ways to solve them.
  3.  Sometimes people say that little children bring small problems, but elder children bring much bigger problems. Do you agree with this? What do you think it depends upon?
  4.  What can a teenager do to improve the situation in his / her family?
  5.  Should teenagers work? Why or why not?
  6.  Do you think that wearing uniforms to school is a good idea?
  7.  Do you think teenagers today should show more respect for adults? (teachers, parents etc.)
  8.  How do you feel about swearing? Does it matter if teenagers sometimes use bad language?
  9.  Is teenage suicide a problem?
  10.  What is the difference between the youth of 19th century and the youth of the 21st century?
  11.  Do you think teenagers today have it ‘too easy’?


LESSON 10

Shops and Shopping (Internet Shopping)

My tastes are simple. I only like the best.

I need a richer husband or cheaper tastes.

Never fall in love with a watch you haven’t tried on.

It’s stupid to try to get something for nothing, or run up huge bills you can never pay.

‘I cried because I had no shoes, until I met a man who had no feet’.

Never buy something on sale that you wouldn’t pay full price for.

Fashion is the science of appearances, and it inspires one with the desire to seem rather than to be.

INTRODUCTORY TEXT

Notes to the text:

incredible – неймовірний

to be rebuilt – бути відновленим, реконструйованим

manufacturer – виготівник, фабрикант

consumption – споживання

chic shop – модний, шикарний магазин

boutique – невеликий магазин жіночого одягу

to sell (sold; sold) – продавати

doughnut – пончик, смажений пиріжок

The Best Shopping Street in the World

No, it isn’t Oxford Street, the Champs-Elysees, or even Fifth Avenue. A new survey shows that the most popular street in the world is… Nowy Swiat. Where is it? In Warsaw, Poland.   

A recent survey has shown that the busiest shopping street in the world is not in London, New York, or Paris, but in Warsaw. It’s called Nowy Świat (pronounced /ə/), which means New World. An incredible 14,000 Poles walk down this main street every hour. 

It is a lovely place to shop. The pavements are very wide. There are statues, palaces, attractive town houses, exclusive cafes, and high-class restaurants. The buildings aren’t too tall. They look old, but in fact the whole city was rebuilt after World War II. 

There aren’t any billboards or neon lights. There isn’t any loud music, and there aren’t many tourists. People think that Polish shops have nothing to sell, so nobody comes shopping here. The world doesn’t know about this paradise for shoppers – yet. 

It is now possible to buy almost everything in Warsaw. There are a lot of shops from the West, but the interesting thing is that Polish manufacturers are now producing high quality goods. They are good because they are not mass produced for world consumption. 

Nowy Świat has a lot of small shops, specialized shops, and chic shops. It hasn’t got the huge department stores that sell the same things everywhere. 

If you want an exquisite handmade suit, Nowy Świat is the place to go. It isn’t cheap. You will pay up to £1,000. For beautiful French baby clothes, go to Petit Bateau. You will pay £50 for a pair of blue jeans for a baby. A dress for a baby girl is about £90. At Désa, a famous antique shop, a desk costs £5,000, and a 19th century Russian icon is £200.

Not everything is expensive. At the shop Pantera you can buy leather goods – handbags, purses, coats, and belts. Cepelia specializes in folk art. There are also book shops and record shops. And there are a lot of small boutiques that sell men’s and women’s clothes that aren’t too expensive. 

If you’re tired, stop at Café Blikle. This is a fashionable place to meet. You’ll find a lively atmosphere, and a lot of well-known Poles. The frozen yoghurt and ice-creams are excellent, and its famous doughnuts are delicious. It is possible to travel the world and find the same things for sale in every country. But Warsaw is different because its shops are unique – and they’re in Nowy Świat.

1. Comprehension questions.

  1.  How do we know that Nowy Swiat is the most popular shopping street?
  2.  Why is it such a nice place to go shopping?
  3.  What can you see in the photos that is described in the text?
  4.  Why don’t many foreign people go to Nowy Swiat?
  5.  Why are the things produced by Polish manufacturers so good?
  6.  What can you buy here? What can’t you buy?
  7.  What is expensive? What isn’t expensive?
  8.  What is good about Café Blikle?
  9.  What is special about the shops in Nowy Swiat?

2. Find in the text English equivalents to the following.

Ресторани найвищого класу; рай для покупців; товари високої якості; усесвітнє споживання; модний магазин; вишуканий костюм ручної роботи; антикварний магазин; шкіряні товари – паски та гаманці; заморожений йогурт; модний; магазин, що спеціалізується на товарах народного мистецтва.

TOPICAL VOCABULARY

1. General

1. Загальна лексика

shop (Am. store) / shopping area / shopping mall

магазин / торговий центр / критий торговий центр, ринок

department store

універсальний магазин

mail-order firm

фірма “товари поштою

stall (kiosk) / counter / cash-desk

кіоск / прилавок / каса

salesman (shop assistant) / saleswoman

продавець / дівчина-продавець

customer (shopper) / consumer / consumer goods / products of mass consumption

покупець / споживач / споживчі товари / товари масового споживання

shop-window / to do window shopping

вітрина / розглядати вітрини

shopping queue (line) / to stand in a line (to queue)

черга / стояти в черзі

to do one’s shopping / to go shopping

ходити за покупками / по магазинах

to buy (bought; bought) / to purchase(d) / to shop(ped) for

купувати

impulse buying

незапланована покупка

bargain / to buy for a song

вигідна покупка / дешево, вигідно купити

to sell (sold; sold) / to pay (paid; paid)

продавати / платити

to sell / buy loose (by weight) / by the head

продавати / купувати на вагу / поштучно

retailing / wholesaling  

продаж / купівля вроздріб / оптом

to deliver(ed) (goods)

доставляти (товари)

to be (was, were; been) in (full) stock / to be out of stock

бути в продажу / не мати в продажу

to run out of smth (to run short of smth)

закінчитися (про запас товарів, продуктів)

cheap / expensive, dear

дешевий / дорогий

to cost (cost; cost)

коштувати

to afford(ed) / I can’t afford it

дозволити собі щось купити / Я не можу собі цього дозволити (=це для мене дорого)

price, at a price

ціна, за ціною

discount, at a discount / mark-down

знижка, за знижкою / уцінка

sale (bargain sale, fire sale) / one day sale / half price sale / seasonal sale / annual sale / clearance (closeout) sale / jumble sale / warehouse sale / white sale  

розпродаж за зниженими цінами / одноденний розпродаж / знижка в півціни / сезонний розпродаж / щорічний розпродаж / повний розпродаж / благодійний розпродаж речей, що були у використанні / розпродаж зі складу / розпродаж постільної білизни   

wire basket / shopping trolley (Am. shopping cart)

кошик для покупок / візок для покупок

to attend(ed), to serve(d)

обслуговувати

fitting room / to try(ied) smth on

примірочна / приміряти щось

to take (took; taken) size …collar

носити … розмір сорочки

to wear (wore; worn) shoes size …

носити … розмір взуття

to fit(ted) / to suit(ed), to become (became; become) / to match(ed)

сидіти (про одяг) / личити, підходити (комусь) / підходити (під щось)

fashion, vogue / to come into fashion / to be in

мода / входити в моду / бути модним

all the vogue

крик моди

up-to-date / stylish, trendy

сучасний / модний

How much is it? / What does it cost? / What’s the price of …? / What price is this?

Скільки це коштує?

2. Shops / Departments / Goods

2. Магазини / Відділи / Товари

Аntique shop

valuable old articles

bric-a-brac

антикварний магазин

цінні старовинні речі

антикваріат

Art shop

painting / water color / engraving / etching / sculpture  

магазин Мистецтво

картини (масло) / акварель / гравюра (естамп – відбиток на дереві) / гравюра (офорт – відбиток на металі) / скульптура

Chemists (druggists, drugstore) (see topical vocabulary on ‘Health and Diseases’)

аптека

Bookseller’s (bookshop)

книжковий магазин

Dress shop (Women’s outfitters)

магазин жіночого одягу

Florist’s (flower shop)

plant / pot plant / wreath / bouquet / seed

магазин квітів

рослина / кімнатна рослина / вінок / букет / насіння

Furniture shop (see topical vocabulary on ‘dwelling and its Types’)

магазин меблів

Haberdasher’s (haberdashery)

thread reel / tape / ribbon / needle / knitting-needle / pin / safety-pin / button / gloves / mittens / muffler (scarf)

галантерейний магазин

котушка ниток / тасьма (торочка) / стрічка / голка (для шиття) / спиця в’язальна / шпилька / англійська шпилька / ґудзик / рукавички (перчатки) / рукавиці / шарф

Ironmonger’s (hardware shop)

spade / nail / hammer / screw / screwdriver / gardening tools / watering-can / bucket

магазин металевих виробів

лопата / цвях / молоток / гвинт / викрутка / садово-городнє приладдя / поливальниця / відро

Jeweler’s (jewellery)

ring / engagement ring / wedding ring / ear-rings / necklace (beads) / brooch / pendant / bracelet / silverware / pearls

ювелірний магазин

каблучка / каблучка на заручини / обручка / сережки / намисто / брошка / кулон / браслет / посуд та столові вироби зі срібла / перли

Men’s outfitter

магазин чоловічого одягу

Record shop

магазин продукції звукозапису

Shoe shop (footwear)

магазин взуття

instep / high in the instep / insock

підйом (ноги, взуття) / високий у підйомі / устілка

toe / sole

носок черевика (будь-якого взуття) / підошва

heel

підбор / п’ята (шкарпетки, панчохи) / закаблук

click ones heels

цокати підборами

down at heels

зі стертими підборами / бідно одягнений / жалюгідний

low heels / high-heeled shoes / flat-heeled shoes

взуття на низькому підборі / на високому / взуття на маленькому підборі

stiletto heels 

взуття на шпильці

flats (pumps)

туфлі лодочки, без підбора

thick / thin-soled-shoes 

взуття на товстій / тонкій підошві

patent shoes

лаковане взуття

canvas shoes 

парусинові туфлі

laced shoes / wellingtons (Am. rubbers)

взуття на шнурках / гумові чоботи

trainers / sandals / slippers 

кеди / босоніжки / капці (домашні, шльопанці)

shoe horn / shoe polish

ріжок для взуття / крем для чищення взуття

Sports shop (sports outfitter’s)

sportswear / sport equipment

магазин спортивних товарів

спортивний одяг / інвентар

Stationer’s (Am: stationery)

note paper / notebook (diary) / laptop / paper clip / drawing pin / ruler / eraser (rubber) / pen / refill / pencil / marker / highlighter / chalk / plasticine

магазин канцелярських товарів

папір для нотаток / щоденник / комп’ютер (ноутбук) / скріпка / кнопка / лінійка / гумка / ручка / змінний стрижень для ручки / олівець / маркер (чорний) / маркер кольоровий (для виділення написаного) / крейда / пластилін

China shop

china (porcelain) / glass wear / pottery (ceramics) / crockery wear

магазин Фарфор, фаянс, скло

фарфор (порцеляна) / вироби зі скла / кераміка / глиняні (фаянсові) вироби

Newsagent’s

newspaper / magazine / poster / paperback / hard cover / greeting card / picture postcard / envelope / stamp

магазин періодичних видань

газета / журнал / плакат / м’яка книжкова обкладинка / тверда палітурка / вітальна листівка / кольорова листівка / конверт / марка

Toy shop

магазин іграшок

Textiles / Draper’s

відділ (магазин) тканин

toweling (Br) / terrycloth (Am) 

махрова тканина

embroidery / lace 

вишивка / мереживо

denim / silk (natural, artificial) / linen / nylon / velvet / cotton velvet / satin

денім (груба бавовняна тканина) / шовк / льон / нейлон / бархат / вельвет / атлас

herringbone 

малюнок, тканина в ялинку

leather / suede / leatherette (dermateen)

шкіра / замша / штучна шкіра

tweed / mohair / woolen / cotton

твід / мохер (вовна ангорської кози) / вовна / бавовна

speckled / zigzag

строкатий (яскравий) / зигзагоподібний

background / plain / flowered / striped / pin-striped / chequered / polka dot

фон / однотонний / у квіточку / смугастий / у тонку смужечку / у клітинку / у горошок

Knitted goods (wear)

cardigan / sweater / jumper / pull-over

~трикотажні вироби

вовняний джемпер (довгий із кишенями) / светр / джемпер / пуловер (светр із високою горловиною)

Hosiery

socks / stockings / tights (panty-hose) / knee-high stockings / knee-length socks

~панчішно-шкарпеткові вироби

шкарпетки / панчохи / колготки / гольфи (жіночі) / гольфи (чоловічі)

Linen

sheet / pillow-case / bed-cover / table cloth / napkin  

~постільна і столова білизна

простирадло / наволочка / покривало / скатертина на стіл / серветка

Underwear

lingerie / bra (brasserie) / panty briefs / bikini briefs / vest

~нижня (спідня) білизна

нижня білизна / бюстгальтер / труси / труси-бікіні / майка

Men’s underclothes

T-shirt / briefs (trunks) / long johns

~чоловіча білизна

футболка з коротким рукавом / труси / кальсони

Perfumery (Cosmetics)

a bottle of perfume / cream (hand, body, face, day, night, for dry skin, for sensitive skin, for oil skin, for all types of skin, anti-age cream) / soap / shower gel / lipstick / lip gloss / varnish / powder (compact, loose) / toner / eye-shade / mascara / make-up

~парфумерія

флакончик парфумів / крем (для рук, тіла, обличчя, денний, нічний, для сухої шкіри, для чутливої шкіри, для жирної шкіри, для всіх типів шкіри, крем від зморшок) / мило / гель для душу / губна помада / блиск для губ / лак для нігтів / пудра (компактна, розсипчаста) / тональний крем / тіні для повік / туш для вій / макіяж  

Household goods (see also topical vocabulary on “Dwelling and its Types’)

tableware (dinnerware) / kitchen utensils / iron / broom / mop / electric appliances / bulb

~господарчі товари

столовий посуд та приладдя / кухонний посуд / праска / мітла / швабра / електроприлади / лампочка

Ready-made clothes (Ready-to-wear, Off-the-peg)

~готовий одяг

blouse / skirt / wrap-over skirt / dress 

блузка / спідниця / спідниця з запàхом / сукня  

shirt / dressing gown / waistcoat / trousers (pants)

сорочка / халат / жилет / брюки

jeans / faded jeans / flared jeans

джинси / потерті джинси / джинси кльош

jumpsuit / dungarees 

комбінезон / робочий комбінезон

suit / tailored suit / lapel

костюм / костюм, пошитий на замовлення / лацкан (воріт на пальто, піджаку)

dinner jacket / tail coat

смокінг / фрак

coat / duffle coat / down-fill coat / raincoat (mackintosh) / wind breaker

пальто / коротке пальто (півпальто) / довге пальто / плащ / легка куртка з каптуром

fur / fur-coat / fur-jacket / feather jacket / sheep-skin

xутро / шуба / кожушок / пуховик / дублянка

3. Some food shops

5. Деякі продуктові магазини

baker’s (bakery)

булочна

butcher’s

мясний

confectioner’s (confectionery)

кондитерський

dairy

молочний

grocer’s / greengrocer’s

бакалія / овочевий

fishmonger’s

рибний

fruiterer’s

фруктовий

sweet-shop

солодощі

off-license shop (wine and spirit merchant’s)

винний

tobacconist’s

тютюновий

4. Quantities and package

6. Кількість та пакування

bunch of flowers / grapes / parsley / keys

букет квітів / гілка винограду / пучок петрушки / зв’язка ключів

bar of chocolate / soap

плитка шоколаду / брусок мила

сake / tablet (Am. bar) of (soap)

шматок (мила)

joint of (beef)

шматок (яловичини)

loaf of (bread)

буханець хліба

lump of (sugar)

шматочок цукру

slice of (bread, lemon)

шматок (хліба), кільце / часточка (лимона)

dozen of (eggs) / half a dozen

дюжина (яєць, 12 шт.) / півдюжини (6 шт.)

bottle of (water)

пляшка

сarton / packet of (cigarettes / milk)

пачка / пакет (цигарок / молока)

roll of (paper)

рулон (паперу)

tube of (toothpaste)

тюбик (зубної пасти)

jar of (cream)

банка (вершків)

сan / tin of (sardine, peaches)

консервна банка (сардин, персиків)

5. Idiomatic expressions

5. Ідіоматичні вислови

to pay the devil (hell)

дуже дорого заплатити / поплатитися за щось

to pay smb in his own coin

відплатити тим самим

the devil to pay

лихо, неприємності, прикрість, халепа

to buy a pig in a poke

купити кота в мішку

a bargain is a bargain

домовленість – більше ніж гроші

no bargain

бозна-що (про непривабливу людину)

I don’t buy it (coll.)

не вірю (поясненням)

I’ll buy it

здаюсь, не знаю

to sell one’s saddle

жити у злиднях

to sell smb short

зрадити когось, підводити

to sell one’s rival short

недооцінювати супротивника

Achillesheel

ахіллесова п’ята (вразливе місце)

VOCABULARY PRACTICE

BLOCK I

  1.  Match a famous shopping street with a town, a store, and a product.

Model: Oxford Street – London – Marks and Spencer – underwear and jumpers

Street

Town

Store

Product

Oxford Street

Milan

Guerlain

underwear and jumpers

Champs-Elysees

New York

Marks and Spencer

leather goods

Fifth Avenue

London

Gucci

jewellery

Via Montenapoleone

Paris

Tiffany’s

perfume

  1.  Look at the picture and guess what these people are saying.

3. Match up the shop (departments) with the appropriate goods. Give answers in the box.

1. Knitted wear

a. drawing pin, paper clip, blotting paper

2. Haberdashery

b. paperback, post stamp, greeting card

3. China and glassware

c. vacuum cleaner, bulb, dish-washer

4. Stationery

d. living-room suite, cabinet

5. Perfumery

e. pendant, silverware, candlestick

6. Record department

f. cups, plates, vases, teapots

7. Electrical equipment

g. muffler, jersey, mittens

8. Newsagent’s

h. bric-a-brac, silver bell

9. Furniture shop

i. records

10. Hardware goods

j. scissors, tape, ribbons

11. Jeweler’s

k. scent, eye-shade, hand cream

12. Antique shop

l. knife, screws, watering can

4. Say the same in one word or a phrase.

  1.  A shop where you can buy fashionable clothes.
  2.  A place with many shops, either outside or indoors.
  3.  A person who works in a shop.
  4.  The place where you can try on clothes in a shop.
  5.  The place where you pay for things in a shop.
  6.  To look round the shops without planning to buy something.
  7.  The shop where you buy meat.
  8.  The shop where you buy medicines, baby products, shampoo, etc.

5. Fill in the blank with the corresponding words. 

price (2), cheaper, purchase, regular, discount (2), compare, advertise, shop, expensive, sale(s) (4), bargain (2), impulse, bargain(s) (2).

A word of caution about ... stores and... . Some ... stores are not actually any ... than other stores in the area. In others, the merchandise may not be only less ..., but shoddy and not worth the ... charged. Some stores perpetually advertise …, even though they never have sold the merchandise at the ‘regular’ ... . A store may ... something at a low price in the hope that if you come into the store, you will not only … that item but other items at ... prices as well. To avoid this kind of trap, ... prices at different stores to be sure you are actually getting a ... . Do not buy something you do not need or want if you are shopping where some items are on ... . Avoid ... buying. It does not mean that you can not find real ... at ... stores or at ...; it means that you must ... carefully at all times.

6. Translate the following sentences into English.

1. Дорогою додому купи: кілограм цукру, вишневе варення, дві пляшки мінеральної води і масло. 2. Асортимент продуктів у цьому супермаркеті дуже великий. 3. У нашому гастрономі завжди в продажу є свіже м’ясо. 4. Щоб запобігти придбанню зайвих речей, я завжди складаю список необхід