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RECIPROCAL TEACHING

Научная статья

Педагогика и дидактика

Reciprocal teaching is a reading strategy in which students take turns teaching small sections of the text. It is usually done in small groups. All students initially read a section of the text. One student begins by summarizing a section of the text and questioning the others about the meaning of the section. Any difficult parts are identified and discussed and then predictions are made about the next section to be read.

Английский

2014-03-12

44.5 KB

0 чел.

METHODOLOGY

RECIPROCAL TEACHING

Olga Bobko

A teacher of English, School89

Donetsk

Reciprocal teaching is a reading strategy in which students take turns teaching small sections of the text. It is usually done in small groups. All students initially read a section of the text. One student begins by summarizing a section of the text and questioning the others about the meaning of the section. Any difficult parts are identified and discussed and then predictions are made about the next section to be read. The students take turns summarizing and questioning until all sections of the text have been read, summarized, and discussed.

STEP BY STEP

The steps in implementing reciprocal teaching are:

  1.  Identify a section of text that has some difficult vocabulary or concepts. Plan a lesson where you model the steps in reciprocal teaching
  2.  Explain to the students that they will work in small groups helping each other make sense of the information they will be reading. Form a small group of students to work with you in demonstrating the approach. Start by giving everyone in the small group a paragraph of text that contains some difficult vocabulary or concepts and ask them to read it silently.
  3.  After the group has finished reading silently, briefly summarize the content of the material and pose questions to students in the group. Model and identify literal questions (simple recall), inferential questions (finding unstated meaning), and critical questions (calling for higher-level thinking).

Type of Questions

Examples

Literal ( Knowledge)

identification and

recall

Who…? What…? When…? Where…? How…?

Comprehension

Selection of facts and ideas

Tell in your own words.

What is the main idea…?

Application

Use of facts, rules

How is _______ an example of __________  ?

Why is ___________ important?

Analysis

Separating the

whole into parts

What are the main elements of _____________  ?

How does _______ compare or contrast to _______  ?

Synthesis

Combination of ideas

into a new whole

How could you design a ______  ?

What might happen if you combined ____ and ____  ?

evaluation

Developing opinions,

judgment, decisions

Do you agree with _____  ?

How would you decide to __________  ?

  1.  Identify any difficulties in understanding the text that you or any members of the group experience and relate the identification and exploration of those difficulties as “comprehension monitoring”. Ask the group to suggest ways in which they overcame the difficulties as they were reading. As they suggest possibilities, remind the group that they are using cooperative learning  strategies  when  they  share  solutions  in  a  groups  like this.

  1.  Make a prediction about what you think will happen in the next section of   text, identify the strategy as “predicting” and relate it to making inferences. Give the group the next paragraph to read silently and encourage a student to be the next reciprocal teacher.

  1.  Post a chart that reviews the steps to be taken. Divide the class into groups and encourage them to take turns teaching the materials to one another. It is an example of a reciprocal teaching chart.

Step

What to Do

Strategy Learning

Group formation

From a group of students to read cooperatively. Choose the sequence of reciprocal teachers (students)

Cooperation

Read

Each member of the group reads the first section of the text to him/herself

Silent reading

Summarize

The first student summarizes the section just read.

Summarizing

Question

The first student questions other members of the group moving from low-level to high-level questions.

Literal

Inferential

Critical

Questioning

Identify

The first student identifies any area of the text that presented difficulty to any member of the group.

Comprehension

monitoring

Problem solving

The group discusses possible solutions or strategies that could be used.

Cooperation

Prediction

The first student makes a prediction about what is likely to happen in the next section of the text.

Predicting

inferring

Read

The group reads the next section silently.

Silent reading

CONCLUSION

Reciprocal teaching supports student learning in several different ways. It  encourages students to self-monitor for understanding. It requires the use of key vocabulary in explaining concepts. It encourages collaboration and group support in making sure that each member of the group fully understands the lesson.


 

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