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Let`s Enjoy Together

Другое

Педагогика и дидактика

Я пропоную Вашій увазі підбір текстів з комплексом завдань для навчання і вдосконалення навичок читання. Виконання подібних завдань буде корисним для розвитку певних вмінь, формування мовної та мовленнєвої компетенції, що є необхідними для того рівня, який визначає Державний стандарт базової освіти та Програма з іноземних мов середньої загальноосвітньої школи.

Украинкский

2014-03-21

194.5 KB

5 чел.

                                                                                                                 Алла Димінська

Let`s Enjoy Together

Готуємось до тестування

                                                         з англійської. Читання.

                                                                       

Від  автора

В умовах, коли в Україні вводиться новий формат іспитів з іноземної мови, майбутньому абітурієнту дуже важко зорієнтуватися, які саме вимоги при вступі до ВНЗ. Нині не існує єдиних принципів створення тестових завдань та критерій їх оцінювання. Кожен ВНЗ має свої вимоги щодо проведення вступних іспитів з іноземної мови і запроваджує тестову систему контролю.

Отже, нам необхідно навчитися виконувати різноманітні тестові завдання швидко і якісно.

Я пропоную Вашій увазі підбір текстів з комплексом завдань для навчання і вдосконалення навичок читання. Виконання подібних завдань буде корисним для розвитку певних вмінь, формування мовної та мовленнєвої компетенції, що є необхідними для того рівня, який визначає Державний стандарт базової освіти та Програма з іноземних мов середньої загальноосвітньої школи.

Завдання допоможуть учням оцінити рівень своїх знань та удосконалити їх, а також оволодіти навичками виконання тестів.

У посібнику вміщено уривки з художніх творів англійських та американ-ських авторів. А також різноманітні тексти із сучасних періодичних видань.

Завдання до текстів:

I.Зрозуміти їх зміст і з поданих варіантів відповідей вибрати правильні.

II.Прочитати твердження до текстів і погодитися з ними чи заперечити.

Може бути використана і будь-яка творча фантазія вчителя іноземної мови.

Основна мета посібника:

1.за допомогою художніх творів та звичайних текстів збільшити лексичний запас та сприяти розвитку навичок розмовної англійської мови;

2.розвинути у учнів( студентів )навички читання і розуміння текстів англійською мовою та перекладу їх з англійської мови на українську;

3.навчитися виконувати різноманітні тестові завдання.

Сподіваюся, цей посібник стане у пригоді усім вчителям та викладачам англійської мови, учням, студентам і всім тим, хто прагне самовдоскона-

лення у вивченні англійської мови.

Працюйте наполегливо і регулярно і ви швидко відчуєте результати своєї праці. Бажаю успіхів!

Text 1

  Bingo, The Story Of  My Dog

  ( by Ernest Seton – Thompson )

 During the winter I caught many wolves, but I thought I could catch still more. So I went out to Kennedy’s Plain again to set new traps. But I was not careful enough while I was setting them. I was firmly caught across the hand by a trap which I myself had set earlier. I had covered

it so well with sand that I did not see it. My friends had told me many times that I had to be care-

ful with those traps because I myself might fall into one of them ,but I never believed that it could ever happen.

I was not much frightened at what happened and tried to find the trap-wrench, which I had thrown somewhere about. As I lay with my face down, I could not see the key, and all my efforts to get it were in vain. While I was trying to find the key with my right foot, I quite forgot about the other, and the next moment trap No. 3 closed tightly on my left foot.

At first I did not think of the terrible situation I had got into, and continued to struggle. But I soon found that all my efforts to get free from the two traps were without success. And there I lay, quite alone and helpless.

What  would become of me now? There was not much danger of freezing because the cold weather was over, but Kennedy’s Plain was almost never visited by anyone at that time of year. No one knew where I had gone, so no one could come to my help. And the wolves were a serious danger. One couldn’t fight them in situation like this.

As I lay there, the red sun went down. I began thinking about my warm room, comfort-

table supper-table and my friends who were sitting at it. I dream that I was back with them again.

My little horse still stood as I had left him, not far from where I lay. I called him and he

looked at me. “What’s the matter? Why aren’t we going home?” I could read in his eyes . I knew the animal would never go home alone without  me. It would be much better if he did, because this would help my friends to understand what had happened to me. But I knew that my little horse would not go, but would wait for me hour after hour while I was getting more and more cold, hungry and weak.

Night came on. My horse had walked nearer to me and stood with his head down. He felt that somewhere not far from us wolves were gathering. And there I lay quite helpless. The horse saw the wolves first. Thought his terrified snort drove them back, they came nearer next time and sat around me.

I shouted , shook my free hand at them , yet the wolves came nearer and nearer as I grew weaker and weaker.

But suddenly they jumped back. One of the wolves fell on the snow dead. I thought I was dreaming. I couldn’t believe my eyes. Bingo! Bingo! It was my dog Bingo who had killed that terrible wolf. He, clever dog, felt that I was in danger, and had come from the camp to save me. Later my friends told me that Bingo had looked for me everywhere, but could not find me. Then suddenly he had run out of the house and all their efforts to stop him had been in vain.

“ Bingo, old boy, bring me the trap-wrench, quick!” Away he went and came back with my rifle, for he knew only that I wanted something.

“ No, Bingo, -- the trap-wrench!” This time he came back with my sash, but at last he brought the wrench.

I worked hard with my free hand and a few minutes later I was free. Bingo brought the horse up. It had got frightened when the wolves had come nearer, and had run away. Now  we were ready to start for home.

Bingo was running in front of me. “You are a strange dog, Bingo,” I thought to myself.

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“Though your heart is with me, you pass me sometimes without even a look at me, and you leave me so often. You live the wolfish life that you love so much”.

Once I was away for some days and when I came home, I found Bingo dead in the snow near the door – the door which he knew to sell. Perhaps he had got poisoned and had come to me for  help. My dog to the last in his heart of  hearts – now it was my help he looked for, and looked  for  in vain. He saved my life, but I was not in time to save his.

Multiply  Choice  Questions :

1.During the winter the man caught…

a) elks

b) wild boars

c) wolves

d) foxes

2. Kennedy`s Plain…

a) was a very popular place for hunting

b) was not far from the village

c) was almost never visited by anyone at that time of the year

d) was an alluring place for children

3.What was the man doing in the Kennedy`s Plain?

a) Hanging out bird-houses.

b) Setting new traps.

c) Making the wooden house.

d) Setting feeding-racks.

4.What happened to the man?

a) He was buried by an avalanche.

b) He fell into the fox`s hole.

c) He fell into one of his traps.

d) He broke his leg.

5. All his efforts to get free from the traps were…

a) hopeless

b) without success

c) promising

d) successful

6. Everybody…

a) knew where the man had gone

b) was not interested where the man had gone

c) was eager to know where the man had gone

d) knew nothing where the man had gone

7. The man was thinking about…

a) his plans for future

b) a warm room, the supper-table and his friends

c) his children

d) his new job

8. Who came to save the man?

a) His friends.

b) Hunters.

c) His dog.

d) A rescue team.

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9. How did Bingo help the man to get out of the trap?    

a) He brought the sash.

b) He brought the rifle.

c) He called people for help.

d) He brought the wrench.

10. One day when the man came home he found…

a) that his horse had run away

b) his dog dead in the snow near the door

c) his friends waiting for him

d) nobody in the house

Make  It  True / False :

1.The man went to the mountains in winter.

2.The man was very careful while he was setting new traps.

3.Suddenly the man fell into some of his traps.

4.He easily got free from traps.

5.Kennedy`s Plain was often visited by people at that time of  the year.

6.The wolves were a serious danger.

7.The horse went home alone without the man.

8.The dog felt that his master was in danger.

9.Bingo was a strange dog.

10.When the dog got poisoned the man saved his life.

Text 2

   Art  For  Heart’s  Sake

   ( by Rube Goldberg )

Mr. Smith was sitting in his drawing-room reading the newspaper. There was a knock at the door and his servant Koppel come in.

“ Will you take your orange juice, sir? “ the servant said gently to his master. “ No,” answered Mr. Smith.

“ But it is good for you, sir.”

“ No.”

“ It’s the doctors orders.”

“ No.”

Koppel heard the front door bell and was glad to leave the room. He found the doctor in the hall downstairs.

“ I can’t do anything with the old man,” he said to the doctor. “ He doesn’t want to take his juice. He does not want me to read to him. He hates the radio. He does not like anything.”

 Doctor Jones received the information with his usual professional calm. He had thought a lot about his patient since his last visit. This was not ordinary case.

The old gentleman was in rather good shape for a man of seventy-six. But something had to be done with him. He had to be kept from buying things. The fact is that the old man suffered greatly from his purchases.

He had had his last heart attack after his disastrous purchase of a railroad in one of the Western States. Another attack was the result of the bankruptcy of some grocery shops , which

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he had bought at a very high price. All of his purchases of recent years had to be liquidated at a great sacrifice both to his health and his pocket-book. The doctor had considered all this when he entered his patient’s room that day. He approached Mr. Smith smiling. “ Well, how’s the young man today?        

“ Umph,” came from the figure in the arm-chair.

“ I hear you don’t obey orders,”  went on the doctor.

“ Who can give me orders at my time of  life?”

The doctor drew up a chair and sat down close to the old man. “ I’ve got a proposition for you,” he said quietly.

The old man looked suspiciously over his spectacles. “ What is it? More medicine , more automobile rides, more nonsense to keep me away from business?”

“ How would you like to study art?”

“ Nonsense.”

“ I don’t mean seriously, just for fun.”

“Nonsense.”

“ All right, “ the doctor stood up. “ I just suggested it, that’s all.”

“ Where did you get this crazy idea?”

“ Well, it’s only a suggestion.”

“ But,  Jones, how can I start , that is, if I am foolish enough to do it?”

“ I’ve thought of that too. I can get a student from one of the art schools. He will come here once a week and give you lessons. If  you don’t like it after a little while , you can throw him out.”

Doctor Jones went to his friend , the head of an Art Institute, and explained the situation. The head found a suitable person. There was a young man of eighteen named Frank Swain, who

was a promising student. He needed the money badly. He was working as an elevator-boy at night to pay for his studies at the Institute.

The young man was introduced to the doctor. You may imagine how delighted he was when he heard the doctor’s offer. Five dollars a lesson! Fine!

The next afternoon Frank was shown into Mr. Smith’s study. The old man looked at him appraisingly.

“ Sir, I am not an artist yet,” said the young man.

The old man murmured something.

Swain arranged some paper and pencils on the table.” Let’s try and draw that vase over there,” he suggested. “ Umph.” The old man took a pencil and made a scrawl. He made another scrawl and connected the two with a couple of  lines. Then he looked at the result with satisfac-

tion.

Frank was patient. He needed the five dollars.

“ If you want to draw you’ll have to look at what you are drawing, sir. Will you look at the vase again?” Frank said gently.

The old man obeyed. Then he said :” The vase is really quite pretty. I never noticed it before.”

At that moment the servant came in bringing a glass of juice for his master.

“ Oh , it’s orange juice again,” said Mr. Smith. Frank left.

Multiply  Choice  Questions :

1.Mr.Smith was…

a) a close-fisted man

b) a boor

c) a kind-hearted man

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d) a stubborn man

2.The old man suffered from…

a) cancer

b) buying up

c) heart disease

d) leukaemia

3.Mr.Smith was..

a) a man of middle age

b) a retired man

c)an elderly man

d) at his forty

4.His last heart attack happened…

a) when he couldn`t buy some grocery shops

b) after buying useless things

c) when his wife died

d) after hopeless purchase of a railroad

5.Mr.Smith…

a) ignored doctor`s orders

b) followed doctor`s advice

c) refused orders

d) obeyed orders without hesitation

6.The doctor suggested…

a) more automobile rides

b) to go in for sport

c) to study art

d) to travel around the world

7.A suitable person was…

a) a prominent artist

b) the head of an Art Institute

c) Doctor Jones

d) a young man of eighteen

8.When Frank heard the doctor`s offer he was…

a) frustrated

b) delighted

c) confused

d) astonished

9.Frank needed money, that`s why he was…

a) submissive

b) flattering

c) careful

d) indulgent

10. Mr.Smith…

a) was satisfied with his work

b) tore the picture

c) gave Frank the sack

d) rewarded his tutor

Make  It  True / False :

1.Mr.Smith was a businessman.

                                                                  -5-

2.Mr.Smith was seriously ill.

3.It was an ordinary case.

4.Mr.Smith looked quite well to his age.

5.His passion was old cars.

6.His business was flourishing.

7.Mr.Smith had to be kept from buying things.

8.Doctor Jones prescribed him more medicine.

9.Mr.Smith`s love to animals cured him.

10.Mr Smith became a prominent artist.

Text 3   The  Dog  And  Myself

   ( by Walter A. Dyer )

 It was in 1901. I was coming home from the Philippines. It so happened that I was late for my boat and had to travel on an old ship.

I knew it was not going to be a comfortable journey, but I had no time to wait for another boat.

When we left the port, I saw that dog for the first time. What a big dog he was! I must say I got frightened. His name was Gulliver, and he was  the Captain’s favourite dog. I was frightened so much that I wanted to leave the ship. But it was already too late because we were in the open sea. I was sorry I had no gun with me, but soon I got one from a sailor and always had it with me, even when I went to bed.

On the third day something happened on the ship and it caught fire. The men got the boats down and jumped in quickly. I wanted to join them, but was late again. Suddenly I remembered that there was a life-raft on the ship. I had no time to lose. I ran up to the raft and pushed it overboard. Then I jumped down and landed on my side. That is all I remember.

When I came to myself, I looked around me. The sea was calm. I could see no life-boards around. Perhaps I was the only one who was saved.

Then I saw something that frightened me very much. The big head of Gulliver was coming towards me through the water. I was again in danger. I was glad to have my gun with me and I quickly drew it. But it was wet, and I couldn’t use it.

Soon Gulliver’s head touched the raft. He struggled for a long time before he could get onto it. I wanted to push him back into the water, but I simply couldn’t make myself do a thing like that. The dog shook himself, went to the other end of the raft and lay down.

I couldn’t sleep that night. I never liked dogs; I didn’t understand them. I felt I must watch him. Night came on, but I could see that his eyes were open. Gulliver was watching, too.

I spent a night I’ll never forget. I fell asleep towards morning, and when I woke up, the sun was already high in the sky. As I was having my breakfast, I could see that the eyes of the dog were looking at the bread I was eating. “ He must be hungry,” I thought. “ I had better give him some”. And I threw him a piece of bread. At first he would not touch it. He only lay there and watched me.

“ It’s all right, eat it,” I told him.

He ate all the bread and looked up at me. I threw him another piece. “ That’s all for today,” I said.

I was surprised to see how well he understood.

When it grew dark, I began to talk to Gulliver. I talked about everything- my life, the

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people back home, and all that-  and Gulliver listened. I know more about dogs now, and the best way to make friends with a dog is to talk to him. At last Gulliver raised himself heavily and came up to me. I looked at him with horror. What was he going to do? Well, he did nothing, but lay down at my feet , and I allowed him to stay there…

On the fifth day when we had nothing to eat and nothing to drink, I saw a ship miles away from us. “ Look!” I cried to Gulliver. “ They are coming!” Gulliver came up to me, and for the first time I put my hand on him. He looked into my eyes. A feeling of friendship and understanding came over me. I put my hands suddenly around Gulliver’s neck. I loved that dog.

A few minutes later I understood that the ship was passing us. “ Speak!” I cried to Gulliver, “ Speak!”

He understood. A terrible roar came from the dog. They saw us, and soon we found ourselves on a big ship. When I woke up after a heavy sleep, there sat Gulliver by my bed, and when I turned to look at him, he put his big head on my arm.

Multiply  Choice  Questions :

1.The man was coming…

a) to America by helicopter

b) from the Philippines by old vessel

c) to the Philippines by boat

d) from England by old ship

2.The journey was…

a) awful

b) inconvenient

c) incredible

d) awkward

3.On the board of the ship he saw…

a) a dog-catcher

b) a huge dog

c) a bloodhound

d) a beagle

4.The man couldn`t leave the ship because…

a) it was put to sea

b) he was immediately arrested

c) a terrible storm started

d) a strong gale broke the ship

5.On the third day…

a) the ship cut into ice-bergs

b) it was captured by sea-pirates

c) the ship sank

d) the vessel caught fire

6.When the man came to himself…

a) he noticed he was wounded

b) he could see some life-boats around

c) he was the only person who survived

d) he found a dog next to him

7.The man was scared because…

a) he could see nothing

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b) Gulliver was approaching the raft

c) the dog attacked him

d) the raft was in fire

8.The man…

a) the man adored dogs

b) detested dogs

c) bred dogs

d) didn`t use to like dogs

9.The man…

a) indulged in confidences with the dog

b) shot the dog

c) pushed the dog back into the water

d) disregarded the dog

10.When on the fifth day the man saw a ship miles away from them…

a) he shot the gun

b) he began to wave

c) made a fire

d) the dog roared

Make  It  True / False :

1.It happened in the 18-th century.

2.The man was late for his ship.

3.Gulliver was the Captain`s favourite monkey.

4.There was a fire on the ship.

5.Everybody jumped into the water.

6.The man was the only one who survived.

7.The man helped the dog to get onto the raft.

8.They became friends at once.

9.On the third day the man saw a ship miles away from them.

10.The man waved his hat.

Text 4

    Harry

   ( by William Saroyan )

 

 This boy was a winner. Everything he touched turned to money, and at the age of fourteen he had over six hundred dollars in the bank, money he had made by himself. He was born to sell things. At eight or nine he was ringing door bells and showing house-wives beautiful coloured pictures of Jesus Christ and other holy people – fifteen cents each, four for a half dollar. “ Lady”, he was saying at that early age, “ this is Jesus. Look. Isn’t it a pretty picture? And only fifteen cents.”.

He had all the houses in the district full of these pictures, and many of the houses still have them , so you can see he persuaded very well, after all.

After a while he went around getting subscriptions for “ True Stories Magazine”. He would stand on a front porch and open a copy of the magazine, showing pictures. “ Here is a lady”, he would say, “ who married a man thirty years older than her, and then fell in love with the man‘s sixteen-year-old son. Lady, what would you have done in such a trouble? Read what

this lady did. All true stories, fifteen of them every month. Romance, mystery, passion, violent

         -8-

lust, everything from A to Z. Also editorials on dreams. They explain what your dreams mean, if you are going on a voyage, if money is coming to you, who you are going marry, all true meanings, scientific. Also beauty secrets, how to look young all the time.”

In less than two months he had over sixty married women reading the magazine. Maybe he was not responsible, but after a while a lot of unusual things began to happen. One or two wives had secret love affairs with other men, and a half dozen women began to buy eye-lash beautifiers, bath salts cold creams and things of that sorts. The whole neighbourhood  was becoming slightly immoral. All the ladies began to rouge their lips and powder their faces and wear silk stockings and tight sweaters.

When he was a little older, Harry began to buy used cards. He used to buy them a half dozen at a time in order to get then cheap, fifteen or twenty dollars each. He would have them slightly repaired, he would paint them red or blue or some other bright colour , and he would sell them to high school boys for three or four times as much as he had paid for them. He filled the town with red and blue and green used automobiles, and the whole countryside was full of them, high school boys taking their girls to the country at night and on Sunday afternoons, and anybody knows what that means.

Harry himself was too busy to walk with girls. All he wanted was to keep on making money. By the time he was seventeen he had earned a small fortune, and he looked to be one of the best-dressed young men in town. He got his suits wholesale because he would not think of letting anyone make a profit on him. It was his business to make profits. If a suit was marked twenty-seven fifty, Harry would offer the merchant twelve dollars.

Multiply  Choice  Questions :

1.Harry was…

a) a fortune-hunter

b) a crook

c) a failure

d) a son of the white hen

2.Harry was born…

a) to raise the economy of his country

b) to have a clearance sale

c) to make money

d) to behave in a queer way

3.His main gift was…

a) to prevail on

b) to keep the ball rolling

c) to make people laugh

d) to be in the centre of attention

4.In less than two months…

a) he made capital investments

b) he ran into debt

c) he persuaded lots of women to read the journal

d) he saved up a great sum of money

5.When Harry was a little older…

a) he devoted himself to policy

b) he became a prosperous businessman

c) he put on airs

d) he was crazy on buying used automobiles

6.He filled the town with…

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a) needless goods

b) grand shops

c) used cars

d) posters of famous people

7.Harry was too busy…

a) to support his parents

b) to make an appointment for girls

c) to run out his own business

d) to waste the time

8.All Harry wanted was…

a) to be an irreplaceable person

b) to keep on making money

c) to amaze people

d) to destroy corruption

9.It was his business…

a) to make enemies

b) to become rich

c) to make people suffer

d) to make profits

10.Everything he touched…

a) crashed down

b) was a great hit

c) turned to money

d) brought harm

Make  It  True / False :

1.Harry was a spiv.

2.At the age of fifteen he had over four hundred dollars in a bank.

3.He persuaded women to buy editorials on dreams.

4.After a while a lot of unusual things began to happen.

5.Harry started to get interest in how to look young all the time.

6.Being a little older Harry began to buy old houses.

7.He wasn`t responsible for things which happened.

8.Harry filled the town with different goods.

9.He had a lot of friends among women.

10.Harry couldn`t allow to make a profit on him.

Text 5

   Three  Young  Men,

  Death  And  A  Bag  Of  Gold

   ( by Geoffrey Chaucer )

Three young men were sitting in an inn. They were drinking wine and making merry. Suddenly they heard a noise outside. They looked out of the window and saw some people carrying a coffin.

“ Who is dead?” they asked. The innkeeper told them the name of the dead man. It was

the name of their friend also a young man. The young men could not believe their ears. But the

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innkeeper said : “ Yes, it is true. Your friend is dead. Death takes young and old. There is a village not far from here. Every day Death kills somebody in that village. Nearly all the people there are dead. Death lives in that village, I think.”

The young men were drinking wine, so they did not understand clearly what the innkeeper said. They thought that Death really lived not far from that place, and they were very angry with Death for killing their friend. They said: “ Let’s go and kill Death! Let’s do it before night comes.”

“ Be careful,” said the innkeeper , “ if you meat Death, he will kill you, too”

“ We are not afraid,” answered the young men. “ We shall go and look for death. And we shall be brothers, and we shall defend each other. And when we find Death, we shall kill him”.

With these words they left the inn and went along the road. Soon they met a very old man. They asked him where they cold find Death. “ Oh, yes, “ replied the old man, “ it’s not difficult to find Death. Do you see that wood? Go there and you will find him under an old oak.”

The young men thanked him and went into the wood. Soon they saw a very old oak. When they came up to the oak, they saw a bag full of gold money under it. They were so glad that they forgot all about Death. They thought only about the gold. They decided to divide it into three parts.

“ Wait,” said one of them. “ We cannot carry all this gold money in the daytime. We shall meet people on the way, and they will ask us questions. We must stay here till night. At night we can take the gold home and divide it.”

“ You are right,” said another. “ We must stay here till night, only it’s a long time to wait, and soon we shall be hungry. Let one of us go to town and buy some wine and something to eat.”

So the youngest of them went to town and other two remained under the oak with the gold money.

When the two of them were sitting under the oak, one of them said, “ Look here, I don’t want to divide this gold into three parts, do you? Can’t we divide it into two parts, between you and me?”

“ Why not?” said the other. “ But how can we do it?”

“ Oh, it is very simple, you fool! When he comes back, we shall kill him, that’s all, and all the gold will be ours!”

The two men liked the plan very much and they began to wait for their friend.

And what their friend thinking about at that time? About the gold, of course. “ I wish, “ he was saying to himself, “ I could have all the money!” He thought and thought, and at last he decided to poison his friends. He knew a man in the town who sold poison to kill rats. He went to that man and bought some poison from him. Then he went and bought some bread and wine, and left the town. He stopped at a place where nobody could see him, put the poison into two bottles of wine, and hurried to the oak to join his friends. He wanted very much to have all the money for himself.

When he reached the oak , the other two were waiting for him with their knives ready, and they killed him at once. They were very glad: the gold was all theirs. They opened the bottles and drank all the wine. Soon they were dead, too.

Multiply  Choice  Questions :

1.Three young men were entertaining with drink in…

a) a restaurant

b) a caf?

c) a hotel

d) a snack-bar

2.The three men learnt about the death of their friend…

                                                                -11-

a) from the newspaper

b) from the porter

c) from news

d) from the innkeeper

3.They decided…

a) to take revenge

b) to kill Death

c) to meet with Death

d) honourably to discharge their duty

4.On the way to the village they met…

a) a soothsayer

b) an old dame

c) an old chap

d) a foreigner

5.Under an old oak the young men found…

a) a heap of diamonds

b) a large quantity of silver

c) a bag full of  jewels

d) a huge sum of money

6.All the three men wanted was…

a) to share the treasure among them

b) to hide the treasure in the wood

c) to sell the treasure

d) to take the treasure away

7.So, the youngest of them…

a) went to town to ask for help

b) went to bring some food and drinks

c) went to the nearest settlement

d) went to the inn

8.The young man wished…

a) one third of the treasure

b) a large quantity of precious metal

c) half the money

d) he could have the whole treasure

9.The young man put poison into…

a) one bottle

b) no bottle

c) two bottles

d) three bottles

10.As soon as the youngest man was dead the other two began…

a) to argue

b) to drink wine

c) to share money

d) to discuss their plan

Make  It  True / False :

1.While three young men were sitting in an inn they heard an explosion.

2.The innkeeper told them the name of their dead friend.

3.The young men were afraid of Death.

                                                                  -12-

4.The wicked men found a great heap of silver under the tree.

5.They decided to share money equally.

6. When the youngest man had gone, the other two began to share the treasure.

7.The youngest man wanted to have one fourth of money.

8.The young man put poison in food.

9.When the youngest man returned they began to quarrel.

10.All three men were dead.

Text 6

   Lost In The Post

   ( by Austin Philips )

 A few months after Arthur Ainslie had lost his job he came home and found that his wife was giving tea to a round-faced man. They appeared to be having a good time.

“ Good Lord, it’s Dicky Soames!” cried Arthur.

Dicky Soames was his wife’s cousin who was known to be in love with Adela once. But Adela married Arthur and Dicky Soames went to Melbourne to join his –and Adela’s-  uncle. Arthur and Adela were quite happy, but Arthur still continued hating Dicky though there was no reason for it.

Twice in the past year the Ainslies had got letters from Dicky. And each time, though Arthur knew that the letters were to be handed to Adela, he tore them to pieces and threw them into the fire without reading them. He didn’t want Adela to be disturbed by Dicky’s letters, so he explained it to himself at the time.

Arthur and Dicky shook hands.

“ I hope you have had a nice chat,” Arthur said.

Dicky laughed , “ Well, it was I who’ve been talking all the time. You see, I am here because I have some business to discuss with your wife.”

Adela looked at her husband. “ Uncle Tom is dead,” she explained, “ and Dicky has come into money.” Then she turned to her cousin, “ Tell Arthur the rest.”

Dicky for some reason or other seemed to be uncomfortable. He cleared his throat several times before he said, “ Uncle Tom left Adela 5,000.”

“ But that is marvelous!” Arthur said. “ You don’t know what that means to us. How kind of Uncle Tom to have thought of us.”

Arthur was too delighted to notice that Dicky looked still more uncomfortable but now he noticed it at last. “ Why, what’s the matter?” he asked.

“ Well, you see, “ Dicky said, “ when Uncle Tom got paralyzed he began to get funny. He was very angry with Adela that she had never answered the two letters I wrote to her for him. You know how particular old people are about such things. He said he expected his letters to be answered and changed his will, leaving Adela’s part to hospitals. Shortly before his death I spoke to him again saying that the will needed to be rewritten, but he said he was too weak to be troubled with such matters, and he did not want the will to be changed.”

Dicky stopped and gave Arthur a look that made him feel quite weak. “  It’s strange about those two letters. I’ve often wondered what happened to them.”

Arthur’s face was as white as paper. Adela faced Dicky, “They were sure to have been lost in the post,” and she took her husband’s ice-cold hand.

At that moment Arthur realized that she knew everything.

                                                             -13-

Multiply  Choice  Questions :

1.The main character of the passage Arthur was…

a) a prosperous businessman

b) a happy worker

c) a victim of unemployment

d) successful in life

2.Arthur and Adela were…

a) affectionate

b) unhappy

c) disappointed

d) interesting

3.Arthur hated Dicky because…

a) Dicky was an unpleasant person

b) Dicky was Adela`s cousin

c) Arthur had lost his job

d) Arthur was jelous

4.Arthur didn`t give the letters to his wife because…

a) he didn`t want Adela to be disturbed

b) he didn`t want to remind her about Dicky

c) he didn`t want to know anything about him

d) he wanted to forget him

5.Dicky came to their place…

a) to visit them

b) to see Adela

c) on business

d) occasionally

6.Dicky brought…

a) some news

b) a very pleasant news

c) a very unpleasant news

d) five thousand dollars

7.Having heard the news Arthur at first was…

a) very happy

b) astonished

c) disappointed

d) offended

8.Uncle Tom had left Adela five thousand dollars and then changed his mind because…

a) he didn`t like Adela

b) Adela didn`t like Uncle Tom

c) Adela needed no money

d) she hadn`t written him

9.Dicky tried to convince Uncle Tom to change his will once more but he didn`t agree because…

a) he was very weak to change something

b) he was angry with Adela

c) he was angry with Arthur

d) he had no time

10.Arthur`s face was as white as paper, because…

                                                              

                                                            -14-

a) he realized that Adela knew everything

b) he was angry with Uncle Tom

c) he was angry with Dicky

d) he was angry with Adela

Make  It  True / False :

1.Arthur was on the seventh heaven because he had got a well paid job.

2.A distant relative came to them one day.

3.The reason of his arrival was a wedding ceremony.

4.The news wasn`t very welcome.

5.Adela came into a big fortune.

6.Uncle Tom left Adela 15.000.

7.Arthur looked uncomfortable.

8.Arthur admitted his guilt.

9.Letters had been lost in the post.

10.Adela understood everything.

 

Text 7

   The  Citadel

 (  by  Archibald  Joseph  Cronin )

 When the train got in it was nearly midnight. Andrew started along the deserted platform, his eyes shining, his heart singing wildly, madly. He had done it! He had done it!

The professor’s words still rang in his ears : “ Doctor Manson, you are the first candidate in this examination hall who has ever told me something original, something true , something which I didn’t know. I congratulate you.”

His thoughts were suddenly cut short : a man came running heavily behind him. Instinctively Andrew stopped. As the man drew nearer he recognized him : Frank Davis.

“ I was coming for you, Doctor. Coming to your house.”The wind tore the rest of his words away. “ What’s wrong?” shouted Andrew. “ There’s been a fall-down at the mine,” David shouted into Manson’s ear. “ A lad got almost buried there. They don’t seem to be able to get him out. You must go to him, Doctor.” Andrew took a few steps, then a sudden thought made him stop short. “ I’ve got to have my bag!” he said to Davis. “ You go to my house and fetch it. I’ll go to the mine”.

He was there in four minutes. He found the manager and three men waiting for him. At the sight of  him the manager’s anxious expression lifted a little. “ Glad to see you, Doctor. Nobody killed, thank God, but one lad’s almost buried. We can’t move him an inch. And the roof may fall in any moment.”

As they entered the cage another figure came running across the yard. It was Davis, with the bag. The cage rocketed to the bottom. They all got out and moving one after another crawled along the low-roofed passage for almost half a mile until they reached the dead end where a man lay lost in the mass of fallen rock around him. Andrew crawled up to the man. He knew him. It was Sam Bevan. Bevan was quite conscious. Weakly, he tried to smile to Manson. By the light of the lantern Andrew ran his hands over the man’s body. The whole of Bevan’s body was free except his left arm, which was pressed under the huge weight of rock. Andrew saw at once that the only way to free Bevan was to amputate the arm. And Bevan read the decision the moment it was made. “ Go on, then, Doctor,” he muttered. “ Only get me out of here quick”.

 

                                                                 -15-

“ Don’t worry , Sam, “ Andrew said. “ I’m going to send you to sleep now. When you wake up you’ll be in bed”.

Stretched flat in the mud under the two-foot roof he slipped off  his coat, folded it, and slipped it under Bevan’s head. He rolled up his sleeves and asked for his bag.

The manager handed forward the bag and as he did so he whispered in Andrew’s ear: “For God’s sake, hurry, Doctor. We’ll have this roof down on us before we know where we are.” Andrew opened the bag. Immediately he smelt chloroform. Almost before he felt the sharp edge of broken glass, he knew what had happened. Davis , in his hurry to reach the mine, had dropped

the bag. Andrew was seized with horror. He had no time to send up to the surface. And he had no more chloroform. For perhaps thirty seconds he remained motionless. Then , bending over Bevan, he said : “ Shut your eyes , Sam!”

 As Andrew began to amputate the arm, Bevan groaned between his shut teeth. He groaned again. Then he lost consciousness. A cold perspiration broke on Andrew’s forehead. He could not see what he was doing. He felt he could not breathe here, in this rat hole, lying in the mud. No chloroform, no nurses to help. He was not a surgeon. He would never get through. The roof would crash upon them all. Behind him the hurried breathing of the manager… A drop of water falling upon his neck… The voice of the professor sounded in his ears: “ The opportunity for scientific practice …” Oh, God! Would he ever get through?

At last . He was almost crying. Standing on his knees he said: “Take him out.” Bevan remained unconscious. Andrew wiped his forehead with his hand. Finished.

“ Go steady with the stretcher. Wrap these blankets round him”. The slow procession, bent double, began to make its way along the passage. They had scarcely gone sixty yards when “ crash!” – came the sound of the fall. The manager did not turn round. He only said to Andrew quietly: “ That’s the rest of the roof ”.

Multiply  Choice  Questions :

1.The train got in…

a) early in the day

b) at the witching time of night

c) in the day-time

d) at sunset

2.Andrew Manson was…

a) a talentless pill shooter

b) a well-thought-of person

c) a highly qualified physician

d) an average medico

3.A tragedy happened…

a) at the groove

b) at the construction

c) at the abandoned mine

d) at the outlying suburbs

4.Andrew…

a) hesitated to go to the mine

b) rushed to discharge his duty

c) denied assistance

d) went to the mine with reluctance

5.When they came to the mine they found…

a) wounded workers

                                                                  -16-

b) a dying lad

c) only ruins

d) a lad who was almost buried

6.Bevan`s left arm was…

a) sent a bullet through

b) broken

c) pressed under the huge weigh of rock

d) heavily scratched

7.The only way out to free Bevan was…

a) to call emergency ambulance

b) the blood transfusion

c) the grafting of organ

d) to amputate the arm

8.The Doctor couldn`t send Bevan to sleep because…

a) he had a weak heart

b) the bottle of chloroform was broken

c) of allergy

d) the bottle of chloroform disappeared

9.Bevan…

a) couldn`t stand the pain

b) behaved fearlessly

c) died

d) lost consciousness

10.They had scarcely gone sixty yards when…

a) a rescue team arrived

b) the rock crashed down

c) came the sound of the fall

d) Bevan opened his eyes

Make  It  True / False :

1.The train arrived to New York at midnight.

2.Andrew was glad to hear good news.

3.Andrew clearly understood that everything depended on him.

4.It happened at the petrol station.

5.Sam Bevan was already dead when they came.

6.Sam`s neck was broken.

7.The operation was attached immediately.

8.Bevan`s left arm was amputated.

9.Andrew was an inborn surgeon.

10.Bevan was out of danger.

 

Text 8

   George Brown

   ( by O’Henry)

O’ Henry , a famous American humourist, is the author of many short stories. His short stories are popular all over the world. This is what happened to him one day. He had an acquaintance

                                                               -17-

whose name was Tripp. He was a young man but looked forty. He never shaved, his face was pale and he often asked the writer for a dollar, and then spent it on whisky. Once Tripp met a young girl in New York. She had never been to the city before. She stopped Tripp and asked him where she could find George Brown. She thought that the first man whom she asked could tell her that. She also told Tripp that she was going to marry a farmer, named Dodd. But before that she wanted to see George Brown and to have a talk with him. That’s why she had come to New York. She had no money and didn’t know where to look for George Brown. Tripp, who was kind by nature, could not leave the girl alone. He took her to a hotel and left her there. He told everything to O’Henry and suggested that they should go and see the girl whose name was Ada. Ada and George Brown loved each other dearly. The girl did not want to marry the farmer. She  

wanted to find George. Tripp suggested that the writer pay the bill at the hotel where Ada was staying and buy a railway ticket for Ada to get back home. He said that it would cost the writer three dollars. He asked for another dollar for himself. He wanted whisky. He added that the writer would be able to write a new short story. It would cost him only four dollars. Ada was really beautiful. She told them all the details. She and George were in love when the boy was eight and she was five. When George was nineteen , he left the village and went to New York. He promised to come back for Ada, but she never saw him again. On the day before George left they cut a cent into two pieces till they met again. The two men were very sorry for Ada and advised her to go home. They saw her to the station and then went home. When they were going to the bus-stop , Tripp took his cheap watch out of his pocket and the writer saw half of the cent cut in two. George Brown and Tripp were one and the same man. The writer took out a dollar and put into Tripp’s hand.    

Multiply  Choice  Questions :

1.One day O`Henry…

a) grew rich

b) went pop

c) got acquainted with a young fellow

d) wrote a new novel

2.Tripp was…

a) about thirty

b) forty

c) middle –aged

d) rather young

3.Tripp always was…

a) natty

b) slovenly

c) spick and span

d) new-fangled

4.Tripp often asked the writer…

a) to buy whisky

b) to give help

c) a big sum of money

d) for a buck

5.In New York Tripp met…

a) his old buddy

b) a young lady

c) a green girl

d) his foe

                                                               -18-

6.Ada was looking for…

a) her former friend

b) her leman

c) her ancestors

d) a job

7.Ada was going…

a) to make a match

b) to run own business

c) to divorce

d) to have a baby

8.Tripp…

a) refused to help Ada

b) ignored Ada`s request

c) helped her at once

d) didn`t leave the girl alone

9.On the day George left they…

a) got married

b) got engaged

c) cut a coin into two pieces

d) hid a cent under a tree

10.The writer understood…

a) George Brown and Tripp were brothers

b) George Brown and Tripp were twins

c) George Brown and Tripp were one and the same man

d) George  Brown and Tripp were half brothers

Make  It  True / False :

1.Tripp was forty and had been living in New York since his childhood.

2.It was easy for Ada to find George Brown.

3.Tripp was busy that day and couldn`t help Ada.

4.Ada told all the details about her love story.

5.Ada and George  were in love when the boy was eight and she was seven.

6.On the day George left they exchanged coins.

7.The two men advised Ada to stay in New York for some days.

8.The two men helped Ada to find George Brown.

9.Tripp told O`Henry the whole story.

10.The writer understood everything.

               

Text 9

   A  Dog  And  Three  Dollars

   (  by  Mark  Twain )

 I have always believed that a man must be honest. “ Never ask for money you have not earned,” I always said. Now I shall tell you a story which will show you how honest I have always been all my life.

A few days ago at my friend’s house I met General Miles, he was a nice man and we

-19 -

became great friends very quickly.

“ Did you live in Washington in 1867?” the general asked me.” Yes, I did,” I answered.

“ How could it happen that we did not meet then?” said General Miles.

“ General,” said I. “ We couldn’t meet then. You forget that you were already a great general then, and I was a poor young writer whom nobody knew and whose books nobody read. You don’t remember me, I thought, but we met once in Washington at that time.” I remember it very well. I was poor then and very often I did not have money even for my bread. I had a friend. He was a poor writer too. We lived together. We did everything together: worked, read books, went for walks together. And when we were hungry, were both hungry. Once we were in need of three dollars. I don’t remember why we needed these three dollars so much, but I remember well that we had to have the money by the evening.

For an hour I was walking along the streets of Washington and was very tired. At last I came to a big hotel. “ I shall go in and have a rest,” I thought.

I went into the hall and sat on a sofa. I was sitting there when a beautiful small dog ran into the hall. It was looking for something. The dog was nice and I began to play with it. Suddenly a man came into the hall. He wore a beautiful uniform and at once I knew that he was General Miles. I knew him by his pictures in the newspapers. “ What a beautiful dog!” he said.  “Is it your dog?” I did not have time to answer him when he said : “ Do you want to sell it?” “Three dollars,” I answered at once. He wanted to give me fifty dollars but I needed only three. General Miles paid me three dollars, took the dog and went up to his room.

Ten minutes later an old man came into the hall. He was looking for something. “ Are you looking for a dog?” I asked. “ Oh, yes ! Have you seen it?” said the man. “ Your dog was here a few minutes ago and I saw how it went away with a man,” I said. “ If you want, I shall try to find it for you.”

The man was very happy and asked me to help him. He promised to pay me ten dollars.

“ No, sir, I want three dollars and not a dollar more,” said I. Then I went up to General Miles’ room. The General was playing with his new dog. “ I came here to take the dog back,” said I.

“ But it is my dog, I have bought it. I have paid you three dollars for it,” said the General. “ I shall give you back your three dollars, but I must take the dog back,” I answered. General Miles was angry. “ Give me back my three dollars and take the dog,” he shouted.

When I brought the dog back to its master, he was very happy and paid me three dollars with joy. I was happy too because I had the money, and felt I earned it.

Now you can see why I say that honesty is the best policy and that a man must never take anything that he has not earned.

Multiply  Choice  Questions :

1.Mark Twain has always believed…

a) people should help each other

b) there are a lot of kind people

c) a man must be honest

d) the evil should disappear

2.Mark Twain`s story…

a) is about a pillage

b) shows real love

c) is about corruption

d) is about integrity

3.Some years ago Mark Twain met…

a) his old friend

                                                                 -20-

b) a high-ranking officer

c) a famous writer

d) the British Queen

4.General Miles…

a) recognized Mark Twain at once

b) pretended that he knew Twain

c) couldn`t remember the general at all

d) affected ignorance

5.Once Mark Twain and his friend needed…

a) money to start a business on a shoestring

b) hefty sum of money

c) something to eat

d) hay

6.Mark Twain went…

a) to the bank

b) to the hostel

c) to the supermarket

d)to a large hotel

7.In the hall he saw…

a) a doggy

b) a purebred

c) a white poodle

d) a toy dog

8.Mark Twain sold the dog…

a) for fifty dollars

b) for ten dollars

c) for three dollars

d) free of charge

9.When Mark Twain brought the dog back to its master…

a) he got ten dollars

b) he was taken to the police station

c) he demanded money

d) he was overjoyed

10.Honesty is…

a) the best quality

b) the best policy

c) always respectable

d) not an obstacle

Make  It  True / False :

1.Mark Twain has always believed that a man must be generous.

2.Honesty is the main quality of Mark Twain.

3.General Miles was his old friend.

4.The general didn`t remember Twain.

5.Once Mark Twain and his friend were in need of a well-paid job.

6.Everything happened in Washington.

7.Mark Twain came to a poor hotel.

8.At the hotel Mark Twain made the acquaintance of a very pretty lady.

9.Mark Twain was happy because he earned money.

                                                              -21-

10.Honesty is the best quality of a person.

         

                     

Text 10

   Two  Gentlemen  Of  Verona

                                        ( by Archibald Joseph Cronin )

 We were driving from Switzerland toward the beautiful old Italian city of Verona. Just outside the city two small boys stopped us. They were selling strawberries that looked very nice lying on the green leaves in the boys` baskets.

“ Don’t buy them,” our driver said. “ You will find better strawberries in Verona. Besides, these boys – “. His face showed that he did not like their appearance.

It was true that their clothes were untidy and poor. But as we looked at these two thin children with their untidy hair and serious dark eyes, we wanted to know more about them.

My friend spoke to the boys and found that they were brothers. Nicola was thirteen, Jacopo, the smaller one, was almost twelve. We bought their biggest basket of strawberries and then continued our way to Verona. The next morning, coming out of our hotel, we saw the two boys again. They were near the fountain in the city square, shining the shoes of men who passed by. They were very busy, but they said ‘ hello ‘ to us like old friends.

During the next week we saw Nicola and Jacopo several times a day. If we wanted American cigarettes , or tickets for the opera, or the name of a good restaurant, Nicola and Jacopo were always there to help us. They worked all day under the hot summer sun, shining shoes, selling fruit and newspapers, taking people through Verona. They were always ready to help, always busy.

The next morning, while Nicola was shining my shoes, I said, “ You and Jacopo work very much. You buy no clothes, and you eat very little, I know. Tell me, how do you spend your money?” The boy was silent. He looked at the fountain and the crowded square. “ We have plans, sir, “ he said then, in his independent way.

“ Well, “ I said, “ we’re leaving Verona on Monday. Can I do anything for you before we go?” Nicola began to say ‘ no’, but his brother stopped him. “ Every Sunday we go to a village not far from Verona. We usually go by bus; but tomorrow, sir, perhaps you will take us in your car.” My driver did not work on Sundays, but I answered, “ I’ll drive you there myself.”

Driving out of Verona that Sunday, I thought that we would stop at some poor little house in the village. I was astonished when Jacopo suddenly said, “ Please, stop here, sir,” in front of a nice big house behind a high stone wall.

“ We will not be long here, sir. Not more than an hour. Perhaps you’d like to wait in the small restaurant in the village.” The boys disappeared around the corner of the wall.

I waited a few minutes and then followed the boys. I found an entrance around the corner and knocked at the door. I had to wait for some time. Then a woman came to the door, and I saw that she was a nurse. “ Excuse me, “ I said, “ I just brought two small boys here.”

“ Ah, yes,” she said with a smile. “ Nicola and Jacopo. Please, come in.”

We went through beautiful big rooms, and I could see that they were the rooms of a hospital. At the door of one room the nurse stopped, smiled and asked me to be silent. We looked into the room. The two boys were sitting near the bed of a girl who looked about twenty years old. She was wearing a nice silk jacket, and she was listening attentively while the little boys talked. It was easy to see that they were her brothers, because she looked so much like them. I saw some flowers on the table near the bed, and a dish of fruit and several books . As we walked through the rooms of that nice hospital, the nurse told me the story of my two young friends.

 

                                                                -22-

“ Nicola and Jacopo are alone in the world,” she said, “ except for their sister, Lucia. Their mother died when they were very young. Their father , a famous opera singer, died in the early years of the war. Then bombs were dropped on Verona.” “ After that,” the nurse continued, “ the boys and their sister lived in the streets of Verona because not a wall was standing of their house. When the enemy came, the boys began to carry secret letters across the mountains to the troops who were trying to free Verona. The boys lived in the mountains, coming and going through the night with secret letters in their shoes. You can understand how hard their life was, and they thought all the same about their sister alone in the city, too”

“ When the war ended,” the nurse continued, “ the boys came back to Verona to find their sister. They found her sick, with tuberculosis, because of the hard life during the war.” I started to ask her a question, but she asked and answered it herself.” What did the boys do then? Now you can see the answer. They brought their sister here and asked us to take her into the hospital. She is making excellent progress. She is going to get well. She will even sing again, like her father.

Of course everything is very difficult now. Food is very dear. Medicine is very dear. We must ask the people in our hospital to pay. But every week the two boys come to pay us. I do not

know what their work is, but I know that they do it well.

I thanked the nurse and said good-bye and waited for the boys until they came back to the car. Then I drove with them back to the city. They sat quietly, looking serious and proud, these two gentlemen of Verona.

Multiply  Choice  Questions :

1.Two men were…

a) having holidays in Switzerland

b) driving from Italy to Switzerland

c) travelling around the world

d) driving to Italy

2.On the way to Verona they…

a)got into accident

b) were stopped by swindlers

c) were stopped by two chaps

d) got into thunderstorm

3.Nicola and Jacopo were…

a) cullies

b) blood brothers

c) business rivals

d) junkies

4.The boys were…

a) spongers

b) slackers

c) hack-workers

d) sloggers

5.Two lads could…

a) shine shoes

b) do all sorts of work

c) sell fruit and things

d) repair furniture

6.The boys…

                                                               -23-

a) found pleasure in talking about their life

b) didn`t have time to think about their life

c) told the whole story of their life

d) kept their life in a secret

7.Every Sunday the boys…

a) went to the village not far from Verona

b) visited their kin

c) drove to the village far from Verona

d) saw their parents

8.The boys brought the man…

a) to the castle

b) to the sanatorium

c) to the hospital

d) to the ruins

9.The boys came here every Sunday…

a) to meet their relatives

b) to bring medicine

c) to solve a problem

d) to visit their sick sister

10.When the boys mounted into the car they looked…

a) sulky and disconcerted

b) fussy and wicked

c) steady and silent

d) proud-spirited and grave

Make  It  True / False :

1.It happened in the beautiful old Spanish city of Verona.

2.Two lads were selling mushrooms outside the city.

3.The boys were brothers.

4.Nicolo was twelve and Jacopo was almost thirteen.

5.The boys did many things and looked very busy.

6.The boys worked hard to buy a new house.

7.Every Sunday they went to the cinema.

8.Every Sunday they went to the village to visit their mother.

9.Their sister was seriously ill.

10.Every week the boys came to take their sister home.  

    Stories

Text 1

   The Conjurer

During the summer months, towns all the way along the coast organize festivals to attract and entertain holiday – makers. The local inhabitants benefit both from the festivities and from

                                                   -24-

the influx of tourists which keeps local industry busy. While most festivals are either of music or drama, the Town Council of Oakridge this year decided to offer a touch of mystery to its programme by organizing a Festival of Conjuring and Magic. The festival, spread over a week, took place in the castle park. In the event of rain, it was foreseen to use the municipal theatre. In view of the hot spell during the last two weeks however , all the shows, the last of which was yesterday evening , took place in the open air. The festival, which attracted more than 45,000 people, presented classical numbers of conjuring , pick-pocketing and magic. There were also demonstrations of  hypnosis , one of telepathy, and one of telekinesis, or the art  of  moving objects from a distance without touching them. Each programme was spilt up by intervals during which acrobats and jugglers gave a touch of extra colour to the performance.

Yesterday evening, during a demonstration of pick-pocketing, a strange incident took place. Several of  the audience had been invited up to the stage to take part in the act. The conjurer set about demonstrating his agility as a pick-pocket, removing watches, jewels and wallets…which he subsequently returned to their astonished owners amidst the laughter and applause of the public. He was so deft that none of the victims realized that anything had happened. At the end of the act, he finished up by removing one spectator’s tie and another’s belt without either realizing; the second case nearly provoking an unfortunate sequel by “letting

down” the embarrassed owner.

During the second part of the show however, some of the spectators realized that certain things were missing from their pockets , watches from their wrists , jewelry from their necks…At the end of the show, they went to see the Theatre Manager to complain about these losses and ask for the articles back.

The Manager was surprised and assured the people in question that there had almost certainly been some confusion on the part of the conjurer. He immediately went to the conjurer’s dressing-room and not getting an answer to his knock, went in to find the conjurer…bound and gagged.

The performer had been a crook and a real pick-pocket. The show had offered him a superb chance to show off  his talents in front of everyone.

The police were called immediately though after an initial investigation were able to find out no clues. In addition they do not think that they have much chance either of finding the thief or of recovering the stolen objects. This is partly due to the total lack of clues and partly to the fact that during all the show the conjurer had worn a mask. In this way, he had been able to operate freely and in public, without the least risk of discovery.

Multiply Choice Questions :

1.During the summer months…

a) concerts of famous singers were held

b) new places for entertainment were opened

c) sport competitions were organized

d) a Festival of Conjuring was held

2.The local inhabitants…

a) benefited from festivals

b) hated the festivities

c) had a chance to keep local industry

d) were annoyed by tourists

3.The festival…

a) spread over fortnight

b) lasted more than a week

c) lasted not more than seven days

-25-

d) spread the whole month

4.The show took place…

a) in the central square

b) in the Drama Theatre

c) in a theatre and in a park

d) in the Concert Hall

5.A strange incident took place…

a) during a demonstration of hypnosis

b) during the interval

c) during one of telepathy

d) during a demonstration of pick-pocketing

6.During the show…

a) nobody could see the man pick-pocketing

b) the victims were able to notice everything

c) several of the audience saw the man pick-pocketing

d) the police were able to see the conjurer pick-pocketing

7.The public didn`t demonstrate…

a) astonishment

b) admiration

c) amusement

d) annoyance

8.Who will probably pay for the loss?

a) the theatre insurance company

b) the police

c) the Theatre Manager

d) the owners

9.The conjurer had been able to operate freely because…

a) he had a fancy dress

b) he was a real dodger

c) he had worn a mask

d) he became invisible

10.The main idea of the story is…

a) people are interested in conjuring and magic

b) not all conjurers are honest

c) people admire a pick-pocket`s skills

d) a strange incident happened that evening

Make  It  True / False :

1.Summer festivals are organized to earn a little more money.

2.A Festival of Meals and Food spread over a week.

3.The festival attracts many people.

4.It took place in the municipal theatre.

5.A strange incident happened during the interval.

6.The conjurer was very adroit.

7.Some of the spectators realized everything.

8.The performance was perfect.

9.The Theatre Manager refunded all expenses.

10.The performer was a real crook.

                                                  -26-

Text 2

The  Lady  Or  The  Tiger?

In a very old time there lived a king. He was a man of great imagination and he always turned the things he imagined into facts. One of them was a public arena. When a man was  accused of a crime, his future  was  decided in the king’s arena. The people gathered in the galleries and the king sitting on his throne  gave a signal. A door beneath him opened and accused person came out into the arena. Just opposite him , on the other side there were two doors. The doors were side by side and quite alike. The accused person had to walk directly to these doors and open one of them. If he opened the one , there came out of it a hungry tiger which immediately jumped upon him and tore him to pieces. But if the accused person opened the other , there came out of it a lady , and to this lady he was  immediately married. The criminal did not know out of which door the lady would come and had no idea whether the next moment he would die or marry.

The king had a daughter whom he loved greatly. She was very beautiful. It happened so that she fell in love with a young man who was much below her as to his position. They were happy for many months until one day the king  learned  about their love. The young man was put in prison , and the day  was  appointed for his trial in the king’s arena. Great masses of people gathered  at the galleries of the arena. The king and his servants were in their places. All was

ready. The signal was given. The lover of the princess walked into the arena. He was tall and handsome  and the people liked him and were sorry for him. He looked at the princess. When the princess had learned that her lover had to decide his future in the king’s arena, she thought about it day and night. And as she had a great power  and a strong character she had what no other person could have done : she had learned the secret of the doors. Her lover was looking at her. She raised her hand and made a quick movement towards the right. He turned and with a firm step walked across  the arena. Without hesitation he went to the door on the right and opened it. Did the tiger come out of that door or did the lady? The choice was hard to make , for the princess wanted to save her lover but at the same time she didn’t  want him to marry any other woman. It is for the listener to decide which she chose.

Multiply Choice Questions :

1.The king was a man…

a) of  great sense of humour

b) of truculent disposition

c) of great imagination

d) of gentleness

2.The king always…

a) listened to the people`s opinion

b) turned the things into fact

c) punished culprits

d) kept to a promise

3.When a man was accused of a crime…

a) he was assassinated immediately

b) he was faggoted

c) he was beheaded

d) his future was decided in the king`s arena

4.The accused person had…

a) to repent of his sin

b) to open one of the doors

-27-

c) to promise never to commit a crime again

d) to open two doors at the same time

5.If he opened the one…

a) there came out the beast and killed him

b) there came out a young lady whom he should kill immediately

c) there came out a panther and tore him to pieces

d) there came out an old man whom he should shoot immediately

6.If the accused person opened the door…

a) there appeared a priest and told him what to do

b) there came his ghost and he would have no chance

c) there appeared a nice lady and to her he was immediately married

d) there ran out a young girl and with her he was immediately disappeared

7.It happened so…

a) that the king`s daughter didn`t hide her attitude to the young man

b) that nobody knew about the chosen one of the king`s daughter

c) that the king approved his daughter`s choice

d) that the king`s daughter fell in love with a young man

8.One day the king learned about their love and…

a) the young man was put in prison forever

b) the young man was killed in the king`s arena

c) the young man was banished from the kingdom

9.The princess…

a) couldn`t learn the secret of the doors

b) had got to know the secret of the doors

c) asked her old campaigner to get to know the secret of the doors

d) had learned everything from her father

10.When the lover was looking at the princess…

a) she nodded her heard to the right

b) she pointed to the left door

c) she dropped her eyes

d) she moved towards the right

Make  It  True / False :

1.There lived a king of fertile imagination.

2.The king never carried the things he imagined through.

3.The future of the accused person was decided in the court.

4.The accused person had to admit his guilt.

5.The accused person as a rule starved to death.

6.The king`s daughter fell in love with a young man.

7.The lover of the princess was taken to the king`s prison.

8.The princess couldn`t learn the secret of the doors.

9.It was hard for princess to make the choice.

10.The princess saved her lover.  

 -28-

Text 3

 

   Victory  Over  Death

 

It is impossible to say what death is worse. But, probably worst of all, is to fell quite healthy and, yet, know that you must die.

It happened in September, 1958, in the Yugoslav Atomic Centre. Six scientist were looking over the switched off atomic pile. Suddenly the signal lights flashed red, the instrument indicators started their mad dance: the reactor had gone into action. There were no cries, no blood, no pain: beyond the lab walls work went on as usual , people walked unhurriedly along the corridors. “ It was as if nothing had happened, “ reads a note in the diary of one of the six made at a later date. “ Only after reading the Geiger counter I realized that it was the end”.

The scientists were rushed to Paris by plane. There they were admitted to the hospital of the Pierre Curie Institute in d’Ulm Street. The six men were given a careful check-up to establish the exact amount of radiation they had exposed themselves to. The instruments showed that five of them had received 700 r and hardly had a chance. There was hope for only one of them.

The scientists , however, did not lose courage. In the quite hospital wards they studied French , listened to the radio and played chess. At first there were no outward signs of the disease , yet it was quietly stealing up on them. Nothing seemed to help: neither frequent blood transfusions, nor large doses of antibiotics.

But the doctors would not admit failure. When the patients had only some two or three days to live the Medical Centre called a consilium. In an effort to save the lives of the six scien-tists it was decided to try a bone- marrow transplant. It was certainly a risk, but a risk was worth taking.

Four Frenchmen volunteered to act as donors and give the marrow necessary for injection. Now there was nothing to do but wait.

Several days passed. One of the patients died, but the other five lived. Death was defea-ted. The daring experiment was a success.

The miracle in d’Ulm Street gives hope that medical science will learn to fight leukemia- this terrible and still incurable disease.

Multiply Choice Questions :

1.When the reactor went into action…

a) there were cries, blood and pain

b) signal lights and instrument indicators responded to an overdose of radiation

c) there was a signal of warning

d) people were running hurriedly along the corridors

2.On reading the Geiger counter the scientists understood that…

a) nothing had happened

b) they were not ready for it

c) they were exposed to an overdose of radiation

d) they wouldn`t live any longer

3.It was necessary to act without delay because…

a) the delay would cause death

b) it was the end of the day

c) they were unwell

d) they had to start an experiment

4.The thorough medical examination of them showed…

a) there was no hope

-29-

b) there was no danger

c) there was hope for five of them

d) only one had a chance

5.The scientists took the doctor`s verdict…

a) naturally

b) with anger

c) with panic

d) with low spirits

6.Their spare time they spent…

a) sleeping

b) not wasting it

c) working

d) walking

7.Keeping the patients under constant attention the doctors were observing…

a) nothing

b) no changes

c) a turn for the better

d) a turn for the worse

8.In an effort to save the scientists` lives a decision was finally taken…

a) to try blood transfusions

b) to enlarge doses of antibiotics

c) to try a bone-marrow transplant

d) to give up

9.The doctors wanted to try a bone-marrow transplant…

a) but they had no hope for better

b) but the scientists refused to be treated

c) but there were no volunteers

d) and there were four volunteers

10.The effect of the treatment was the following…

a) no positive results

b) five scientists were saved and the doctors obtained a hope to fight leukemia

c) one scientist was saved and five died

d) it was a success

Make  It  True / False :

1.Death is worse.

2.It happened in Poland.

3.After the accident six scientists were taken to France by train.

4.The six men were checked-up very thoroughly.

5.All of the scientists hardly had a chance.

6.They lost courage.

7.There were a lot of outward signs of the disease.

8.To try a bone-marrow transplant was a risk.

9.None of the surgeons agreed to perform these dangerous operations.

10.Death was defeated

 -30-

Text 4

   The Strange Doctor

A man and his wife were motoring along a strange country road in New England to keep a dinner engagement. They were late, so the husband was driving at top speed. In spite of this he noticed a large house in bad repair with a sign announcing that a doctor lived there.

Half a mile further on, he met with an accident. His car was broken. The driver was unhurt, but his wife was seriously injured. The husband was desperate. Desperately, he remembered the doctor’s sign half a mile away. Taking his unconscious wife in his arms, he walked back to this house and rang the bell. The bell was answered by a tall, grey-haired man who said he was a doctor. There was no one else in the house .The room looked as if it hadn’t been tided for a long time. The woman was carried into a dusty, disordered consulting room and laid on the operating table. The doctor examined her with evident skill and declared that her skull was fractured and she was to be operated on immediately. The husband had no choice. He was told to wait outside.

Pacing the porch, occasionally looking from the darkness into the lighted room, the husband heard steps and was shocked at the sight of three men. Two of them were armed and the third was carrying a rope. They were advancing slowly towards the door.

“For God’s sake, wait!’’ the husband begged.”My wife’s skull has been opened; any delay must mean her certain death.”

Whispering, one of the men asked:”What do you take us for?”

“Thieves.”

“No”, the man answered. “We are attendants from a neighbouring insane asylum. The man operating on your wife is mad. He escaped only two hours ago.”

The husband did not let the three men interrupt the operation. He knew that she could be saved only by an immediate operation and there was a chance that a mad doctor could operate from force of habit. The three men agreed to wait until the operation was over.

When the operation was completed, they sprang upon the mad-man, who fighting and screaming, was taken away. The head- keeper promised to bring back doctors and nurses, which he did. The wife was taken to New York, where she was placed in a hospital, under the care of prominent physician. Carefully examining her fractured skull, this doctor said:”Your wife will get well and be perfectly normal again, but I can’t understand it! Only one operation I know could have saved her, and only one man ever performed that operation successfully. That doesn’t explain anything, because that particular man went mad years ago and was placed in an asylum somewhere in New England.”

Multiply Choice Questions :

1.One day the couple was driving…

a) along the road in America

b) to visit their relatives

c) to welcome their dinner guests

d) to dinner betrothal

2.They…

a) were the first couple to come

b) were over-due

c) arrived in time

d) didn`t arrive to the party at all

3.On their way…

a) they noticed an old people`s home

b) they passed by a large cottage

-31-

c) they saw a huge bad-repaired dwelling-house

d) they met the strange doctor

4.Half a mile further on…

a) their car came to the opposite direction

b) they got into a mishap

c) their car was crashed by a tipper

d) their car knocked a pedestrian

5.As a result…

a) the police was called

b) the driver was seriously hurt

c) nobody suffered

d) his wife was badly injured

6.The man took his wife…

a) to the nearest hospital

b) to the best surgeon

c) to the house he had noticed on the way

d) to the rehabilitation centre

7.The door was opened…

a) by a grizzly man

b) by a tall grey-haired woman

c) by a strange person

d) by a short pot-bellied man

8.There was no time left and…

a) the driver agreed to assist the doctor

b) the woman was operated immediately

c) they called an ambulance

d) the woman was taken to the surgical wing

9.By a lucky chance…

a) the man didn`t lose his presence of mind

b) the woman didn`t bleed profusely

c) the man found a leading light in medicine

d) the woman was saved

10.Only one man…

a) determined to operate on a woman

b) could pay for that operation

c) gave the necessary information

d) could perform that operation successfully

Make  It  True / False :

1.A man and his wife were travelling to work early in the morning.

2.On their way they met with an accident.

3.The man took his unconscious wife to the nearest hospital.

4.A young lady opened the door and said she was a doctor.

5.The woman needed an operation.

6.The doctor refused to make an operation.

7.The thieves came to the doctor`s house.

8.The operation was stopped immediately.

9.The famous physician said that the woman would die soon.

10. Only one man ever performed that operation brilliantly.

-32-

Text 5

           WHY   DID   THE  LITTLE  DOG  DIE  ?

This happened in England shortly after World War II. Mrs.Reed intended to give a party. She wanted to invite her friends for dinner and a game of bridge. It was easy enough to ask people to come, but far more difficult to provide a meal for them, for food rationing had not yet been abolished in Great Britain at that time.

She was thinking about it when her maid-servant announced that there was a man at the back door offering to sell mushrooms.

The lady accompanied by the little terrier, came down to the kitchen and found there a rather disreputable-looking stranger with a basket over his arm. The lady knew nothing about mush-

rooms and she asked the man if they were not poisonous. The man reassured her that they were good. The lady paid the money at once, ordering her servant to empty the basket and return it to its owner. While the servant was emptying the basket she dropped a mushroom, and the terrier immediately gobbled it.

Seeing that, the stranger said that the dog knew what was good. Pocketing the money, he laughed a malicious laugh and left the kitchen.

The guests arrived at the appointed hour and were served a dish of mushrooms, which they liked very much. While the usual clattering of forks and knives was in progress, the hostess noticed that the servant’s eyes were red with tears. Calling her asi de, Mrs. Reed asked her what was the cause of her tears. The girl said that she did not want to upset the lady, but she was crying because the dog had died.

The terrible truth flashed through the lady’s brain. She saw her duty clearly and addressing the guests she said that the mushrooms she had offered them were poisonous. She added that if they wished to save their lives they should act quickly.

There was a general outburst of emotions. Some of the gentlemen swore, some of the ladies cried. Then one man suggested going to the nearest hospital to have the contents of their stomachs pumped out. All rushed for their dear lives. The staff of the hospital were surprised to see a group of patients in evening dress. Naturally no one thought of playing cards after that occurrence.

On arriving home, the lady asked where the terrier’s body was.

“Oh,” said the servant, still sobbing, “ the gardener has buried it, for it was so badly smashed, and we didn’t even have time enough to put down the number of the car that so cruelly ran over the poor little pet.”

Multiply Choice Questions :

1.It happened…

a) in England after the civil war

b) in America soon after World War II

c) in Great Britain in the 20-th century

d) in England before World War II

2.Mrs.Reed was about…

a) to arrange a concert

b) to share her recipes with her friends

c) to organize an excursion

d) to give an evening-party

3.It wasn`t simple…

-33-

a) to give a party

b) to provide food

c) to ask people to come

d) to run with the hare and hunt with the hounds

4.While Mrs.Reed was planning a party meal…

a) a man came offering to buy a dog

b) a mushroomer came asking for something to eat

c) a man came offering to sell fungi

d) an old man came proposing to buy milk

5.The lady…

a) knew everything about mushrooms

b) hated mushrooms

c) gained an understanding of mushrooms

d) was ignorant of mushrooms

6.Mrs.Reed…

a) was reassured to buy mushrooms

b) understood that mushrooms were poisonous

c) bought mushrooms with certainty

d) refused to buy mushrooms

7.While the servant was emptying the basket…

a) all mushrooms were strewn

b) a mushroom was dropped

c) she found a snake in it

d) she dropped it

8.The mistress`s terrier…

a) began to bark

b) sniffed the mushroom

c) attacked the stranger

d) gobbled the mushroom at once

9.When Mrs.Reed was told about her dog`s death…

a) she called the police

b) all guests left her house

c) the terrible truth came through her brain

d) she began to cry

10.After a general outburst of emotions…

a) some guests began to panic

b) the doctor was called

c) all guests scattered

d) everybody rushed for their dear lives

Make  It  True / False :

1.It was easy for Mrs.Reed to receive guests at that time.

2.There was a woman at the back door offering to sell furniture.

3.The lady knew everything about mushrooms.

4.While the servant was emptying the basket she dropped a mushroom.

5.The terrier didn`t  eat  mushrooms.

6.The servant`s eyes were red with tears because the dog vanished.

7.The lady was afraid to say her guests that mushrooms were poisonous.

8.All guests rushed home.

                                                   -34-

9.The staff of the hospital were surprised to see a group of patients.

10.The dog was killed by the hunter.

                                             Keys

Bingo,The Story Of  My Dog

1-c, 2-c, 3-b, 4-c, 5-b, 6-d, 7-b, 8-c, 9-d, 10- b.

1-F, 2-F, 3-T, 4-F, 5-F, 6-T, 7-F, 8-T, 9-T, 10-F.

Art For Heart`s Sake

1-d, 2-b, 3-c, 4-d, 5-a, 6-c, 7-d, 8-b, 9-d, 10-a.

1-T, 2-F, 3-F, 4-T, 5-F, 6-F, 7-T, 8-F, 9-F, 10-F.

The Dog And Myself

1-b, 2-d, 3-b, 4-a, 5-d, 6-c, 7-b, 8-d, 9-a, 10-d.

1-F, 2-F, 3-F, 4-T, 5-F, 6-T, 7-F, 8-F, 9-F, 10-F.

Harry

1-d, 2-b, 3-a, 4-c, 5-d, 6-c, 7-b, 8-b, 9-d, 10-c.

1-F, 2-F, 3-F, 4-T, 5-F, 6-F, 7-T, 8-F, 9-F,10-T.

Three Young Men, Death And A Bag Of Gold

1-c, 2-d, 3-b, 4-c, 5-d, 6-a, 7-b, 8-d, 9-c,10-b.

1-F, 2-T, 3-F, 4-F, 5-F, 6-F, 7-F, 8-F, 9-F, 10-T.

Lost In The Post

1-c, 2-a, 3-d, 4-b, 5-c, 6-a, 7-a, 8-d, 9-b, 10-a.

1-F, 2-F, 3-F, 4-T, 5-F, 6-F, 7-T, 8-F,9-F,10-T.

The Citadel

1-b, 2-c, 3-a, 4-b, 5-d, 6-c, 7-d, 8-b, 9-d, 10-c.

1-F, 2-F, 3-T, 4-F, 5-F, 6-F, 7-F, 8-T, 9-F, 10-T.

George Brown

1-c, 2-a, 3-b, 4-d, 5-c, 6-b, 7-a, 8-d, 9-c, 10-c.

1-F, 2-F, 3-F, 4-T, 5-F, 6-F, 7-F, 8-F, 9-F,10-T.

A Dog And Three Dollars

1-c, 2-d, 3-b, 4-c, 5-d, 6-d, 7-a, 8-c, 9-d, 10-b.

1-F, 2-F, 3-F, 4-T, 5-F, 6-T, 7-F, 8-F, 9-T, 10-F.

 -35-

Two Gentlemen Of Verona

1-d, 2-c, 3-b, 4-d, 5-b, 6-d, 7-a, 8-c, 9-d, 10-d.

1-F, 2-F, 3-T, 4-F, 5-T, 6-F, 7-F, 8-F, 9-T, 10-F.

The Conjurer

1-d, 2-c, 3-b, 4-c, 5-d, 6-a, 7-d, 8-a, 9-c, 10-d.

1-F, 2-F, 3-T, 4-F, 5-F, 6-F, 7-T, 8-F, 9-F, 10-T.

 

The Lady Or The Tiger

1-c, 2-b, 3-d, 4-b, 5-a, 6-c, 7-d, 8-c, 9-b, 10-d

1-T, 2-F, 3-F, 3-F, 4-F, 5-F, 6-T, 7-F, 8-F, 9-T, 10-F.

Victory Over Death

1-b, 2-c, 3-a, 4-d, 5-a, 6-b, 7-d, 8-c, 9-d, 10-b.

1-F, 2-F, 3-F, 4-T, 5-F, 6-F, 7-F, 8-T, 9-F, 10-T.

The Strange Doctor

1-d, 2-b, 3-c, 4-b, 5-d, 6-c, 7-a, 8-b, 9-d, 10-d.

1-F, 2-T, 3-F, 4-F, 5-T, 6-F, 7-F, 8-F, 9-F, 10-T.

Why Did The Little Dog Die ?

1-c, 2-d, 3-b, 4-c, 5-d, 6-a, 7-b, 8-d, 9-c, 10-d.

1-F, 2-F, 3-F, 4-T, 5-F, 6-F, 7-F, 8-F, 9-T, 10-F.

  

-36-


 

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  Вторая является основой планирования и прогнозирования в странах с рыночной экономикой. Методология прогнозирования и планирования развития экономики определяет основные принципы подходы и методы проведения прогнозных и плановых расчетов раскрывает и характеризует логику формирования прогнозов планов и их осуществления. Принципы это основополагающие правила прогнозирования и планирования т.
34402. Система показателей планов-прогнозов 30.5 KB
  Нормативы показатели в относительном выражении. Лимиты ресурсные показатели представляющие предельно допустимую величину затрат ресурса для достижения установленных конечных результатов. Основными блоками показателей прогнозирования и планирования экономических и социальных процессов являются: показатели производства трудовых ресурсов основных и оборотных фондов капитальных вложений природных ресурсов научнотехнического прогресса финансов и денежного обращения социального развития и уровня жизни населения внешнеэкономических...
34403. Система прогнозов и планов. Методологические основы их сопряжения 32 KB
  Для формирования стратегии и тактики развития экономики разрабатывается система прогнозов включающая прогнозы временного аспекта и по уровням управления а также частные и комплексные прогнозы экономического и социального развития страны и регионов. По масштабу прогнозирования выделяют: макроэкономические прогнозы межотраслевые и межрегиональные прогнозы развития народнохозяйственных комплексов отраслевые и региональные прогнозы прогнозы звеньев экономики: предприятий объединений отдельных производств и продуктов. Во временном аспекте...
34404. Объекты макроэкономического ПиП 26.5 KB
  Система прогнозных расчетов включает прогнозы макроэкономических показателей: валового национального продукта прогнозы показателей эффективности характеризующих качество экономического роста материалоемкости фондоотдачи производительности труда прогнозы структуры экономики. На макроуровне необходимо также осуществлять прогнозные расчеты экономического потенциала занятости спроса на продукцию разрабатывать прогнозы инвестиций экспорта и импорта платежного баланса цен валютного курса инфляции прогнозы государственных операций при...
34405. Прогнозирование и планирование на микроуровне. Методология разработки бизнес-планов 50 KB
  В связи с этим повышается роль прогнозов требуются расширение системы и совершенствование методов прогнозирования с целью повышения точности прогнозных расчетов и реальности проекта. Прогнозирование будущего развития предприятия самый значительный и сложный этап подготовки бизнесплана поскольку на основе результатов прогнозных расчетов определяются рамки проекта и требуемые ресурсы. Причем при реализации проекта в случае отклонения реальных данных от заложенных в проекте или изменения условий можно быстро уточнить расчеты вводя новую...
34406. Система методов ПиП 26 KB
  интуитивные Применяются если 1 объект прогнозия не поддается матем. описанию 2невозможно учесть все факторы объект очень сложный или очень простой 3 в экстремальной ситуации когда требуется быстрое решение 4 отсутствует статистичая выборка К интуитивным методам относятся: мды экспертных оценок используются для получения прогнозных оценок относительно развития производства НТП эффективности использования ресурсов мд исторических аналогий и прогнозия по образцуна основе развития изучаемого процесса в...
34407. Методы экспертных оценок, их сущность. Индивидуальные и коллективные экспертные оценки, их разновидности и характеристика 26 KB
  1метод интервью беседа прогнозиста с экспертом по схеме вопрос – ответ относительно перспектив развития прогнозируемого объекта 2 аналитический мд самостоятельная работа эксперта над анализом развития прогнозируемого объекта. Прогнозный сценарий определяет стратегию развития объекта. Коллективные экспертные оценки предполагают согласованность мнений экспертов по направлениям развития объекта: 1 м. Используется ряд приемов предполагающих систематизированное рассмотрение характеристик объекта.
34408. Методы экстраполяции и их характеристика 28 KB
  Методы экстраполяции относятся к формализованным методам. Методы экстраполяции являются наиболее распространенными и проработанными. Применяются следующие методы: м.
34409. Методы моделирования 32.5 KB
  Моделирование предполагает конструирование модели на основе предварительного изучения объекта или процесса выделения его существенных характеристик или признаков. Прогнозие с использованием моделей включает разработку модели ее экспериментальный анализ сопоставление результатов прогнозных расчетов на основе модели с фактическими данными состояния объекта или процесса корректировку и уточнение модели. Различают: а по уровню управления эконми и соцми процессами: макроэккие...