Видатний поет Англії - Вільям Шекспір
Педагогика и дидактика
William was the eldest son and third child in the family. Very little is known about his life, especially about his early years. For several years he went to school in Stratford. He studied there for six years and besides reading and writing he was taught Latin and Greek.
Літературно музична композиція
“Видатний поет Англії - Вільям Шекспір.”
Звучить старовинна англійська пісня “Green Sleeves”
Pupil 1: Welcome to our party devoted to W.Shakespeare.
Pupil 2: What needs my Shakespeare for his honourd bones,
The labour of an age in piled stones,
Or that his hallowd reliques should be hid
Under a Stary pointed Pyramid?
Dear son of memory, great heir of Fame
What needs you such weak witness of your name?
Though in our wonder and astonishment
Has built thyself a live-long monument
And so sepulchered in such pomp dost lie
That king for such a tomb would wish to die.
Pupil 1: W.Shakespeare was born in the family of John Shakespeare and Mary Arden in a well-built house of stone which was two stories high with small windows, cut in the roof. The house is still standing.
It is a museum. William was the eldest son and third child in the family. Very little is known about his life, especially about his early years. For several years he went to school in Stratford. He studied there for six years and besides reading and writing he was taught Latin and Greek. He left school because his father fell into debts and William had to help him in the trade. It is known that his father was a man of some importance in Stratford. He was one of the town officers and a dealer in products of the farm.
Pupil 3: When William was little more than eighteen he married Anne Hathaway, the daughter of a respectable family. It is said that his marriage was not a happy one. Anne was eight years older than her husband. They had a daughter Susanna and twins Hamnet and Judith. Without friends and money William became known as a writer only in 1593. In all he was the author of over thirty plays, two poems and 154 sonnets.
Pupil 4: Although Shakespeare made London his home, he probably often visited Stratford, where his family continued to live. Shakespeare bought the largest house in his native town in 1597, paid his fathers debts, but he didnt spend much time in Stratford. In 1611, at the height of his fame, he returned to Stratdord. He died at the age of 52 and was buried in a fine old Parish Church at Stratford.
Pupil 5: It was Shakespears own request to bury him in Stratford. His body was buried in Stratford, not in Westminster Abbey where there are tombs of many famous English writers and poets.
*** Звучить мелодія “NOTHING ELSE MATTER”***
Pupil 4: Good name in man and woman, dear my lord,
Is the immediate jewel of their soul.
Who steals my purse steals trash, this is nothing.
This is mine, this is his and has been slaves to thousand.
But he that filches from me my good name
Robs me of that which not enriches him
And makes me poor indeed.
Pupil 6: Love is not love
Which alters when it alteration finds.
Oh, no! It is an ever-fixed mark
That looks on tempests and is never shaken.
It is the star to every wondering bark
Whose worths unknown.
Loves not Times fool, though rosy lips and cheeks,
Love alters not with his brief hours and weeks,
If this be error and upon me proved,
I never write, nor man ever loved.
Pupil 7: Some glory in their birth, some in their skill,
Some in their wealth, some in their body forth,
Some in their clothes, though fond of novelty
And every humour has his adjunct pleasure,
Your love is better than high birth to me,
Richer than wealth, prouder than garments cost
And having thee, of all mens pride I boast
All these away, and me most wretched make.
Pupil 1: Tired with all these, for restful death I cry,
As to behold desert a beggar born
And needy nothing trimmd in jollity,
And purest faith unhappily forsworn
And simple truth miscalled simplicity
And captive good attending captain ill
And folly (doctor like) controlling skill,
Tired with all these from these would I be gone
Save that, to die, I leave love alone.
Pupil 2: As you know, Shakespeare was born on April 23, 1564, and died also on April 23, 1616. Three centuries have passed, filled with great events; generation of men have come and gone, but Shakespeare still lives on as a superb playwright and poet. How Shakespeare spent the years till 1592 is a mystery he may have been a country school-master or a provincial actor. By 1592 he was established in London. Shakespeare seems to have the theatre as an actor. His first works appeared in the nineties of the 16th century. He wrote for the company of actors, under the name of the Kings Men who played at the Theatre. Then the new Globe Theatre was built where Shakespeares plays were staged.
Pupil 3: Among the most famous of his plays are the tragedies of Romeo and Juliet, Julius Caesar, Hamlet, Othello, King Lear, and Macbeth, the comedies of Midsummer Nights Dream, The Merchant of Venice, and the historical plays Richard III and Henry V. Many well-known expressions come from Shakespeare, and his work is famous for its sensitive view of human nature and for the richness of its language. Shakespeare also wrote some very good poetry, especially the Sonnets.
Pupil 5: Now about his works. In 1590 he wrote tragedies Titus Andronicus, and in 1595-Romeo and Juliet.
The Montagues and the Capulets are two powerful families from Verona who are enemies. Romeo, a Montague, hides his face behind a mask and goes to a party at the Capulets house because he thinks he is in love with Rosaline, a Capulet. There he meets Juliet, also a Capulet, and they fall in love.
Later that night Romeo goes to see Juliet, and in the most famous scene in the play, hears her say “Romeo, Romeo, wherefore art thou, (where are you) Romeo?” as she stands on her balcony and they tell each other that they love each other. They know that their parents would forbid them to see each other, and so with the help of Friar Laurence they get married in secret the next day. Romeo and his friend Mercutio meet Tybalt, a Capulet. They insult each other and this leads to a
fight. Tybalt kills Mercutio, and Romeo kills Tybalt. The Prince of Verona orders Romeo to leave Verona as punishment.
Juliets father orders her to marry a count called Paris. Friar Laurence advises her to agree to the wedding, and on the night before the wedding to drink which will make her appear to be dead for 42 hours. Then Romeo will come and take her away from Verona. Friar Laurence writes to Romeo to explain the plan but Romeo does not get friar Laurences letter, and hears that Juliet is dead. He buys poison and comes back to die by her side. Pans sees Romeo trying to get into Capulet vault (a room where people from the same family are buried). They fight and Romeo kills Pans. Romeo drinks the poison and die, so Juliet wakes up, sees that Romeo is dead, and kills herself.
Pupil 6: Although the Veronese speak about the story of unhappy lovers as a historical fact fixing the date of the tragedy as 1303, similar stories have been traced back as far as in the second-century Greek literature. In Italian literature the story was retold in the fifteenth century and for the first time the names of Romeo and Juliet were mentioned. Then the story appeared in France was translated into English verse. Shakespeare closely followed this version. The play was first performed in 1595.
Pupil 7: And one more tragedy. Hamlet, the Prince of Denmark is extremely shocked and sad after his fathers death, because his mother Gertrude has married his fathers brother Claudius. Hamlet sees his fathers ghost which tells him that Claudius killed him by pouring poison into his ear, and asks Hamlet to kill Claudius as punishment. Instead of killing Claudius immediately Hamlet delays
And pretends to be mad, but it extremely upset and angry at himself for not acting. In his most famous speech which begins “To be or not to be”, Hamlet thinks of killing himself. He speaks cruelly to Ophelia, the woman he loves, and tells her that he does not love her.
Hamlet organizes the performance of a play which shows a man murder his brother. Claudius watches the play, and the way that he reacts proves to hamlet that he is guilty.
Hamlet kills Ophelias father Polonius by mistake, thinking he is Claudius. Hamlet is to be sent to England with two old friends, but when he discovers that Claudius has arranged for him to be killed, he escapes and returned to Denmark.
Ophelia goes mad and drowns. Her brother Laertes and Claudius arrange a fencing match between Laertes and Hamlet, and plan to put poison on Laertes sword.
Hamlet and Laertes fight with swords. Hamlet wins the first part of the fight, and so Claudius offers him poisoned wine. Gertrude drinks the wine instead. Laertes tells Hamlet that Claudius has poisoned the sword and wine. Gertrude dies. Hamlet hits Claudius with the poisoned sword and makes him drink the wine. Hamlet and Laertes forgive each other, and then they both die.
Pupil 8: The history of the tragedy of hamlet is probably taken from an English prose version, of a tale written in Latin by a twelfth century Danish historian. The story was popular among earlier dramatists. We may also think that Shakespeare used the Spanish variant of the tragedy judging by the structure and style of the play. The date of the first performance of the play Hamlet is generally fixed as 1601.
Pupil 9: In 1602 he wrote Troilus and Cressida, and in 1604 Othello.
Othello is a black man and a general (an officer of very high rank) in the Venetian army. His evil servant Iago wants to be a lieutenant (an officer of fairy low rank), and is extremely angry when Othello gives the job to Cassio instead. Iago knows that Othello does not trust his wife, Desdemona, and tries to destroy Othello by making him believe that Desdemona is having a relationship with another man.
Iago persuades Rodengo to start a fight with Cassio, who then loses his job. Then Iago becomes friends with Cassio, and suggests that he should ask Desdemona to persuade Othello to give him his job back. Iago then tells Othello that Desdemona is having a relationship with Cassio. Iago persuades his wife, Emilia, to steal Desdemonas handkerchief, and puts it with Cassios possessions. Othello sees the handkerchief and believes that Desdemona has been having relationship with Cassio. Iago persuades Rodengo to murder Cassio, but he fails and Cassio is only wounded. Iago then kills Roderigo. Othello kills Desdemona in their bed, by putting a pillow over her face.
Emilia comes in and sees Desdemonas body. Iago comes in, and Emilia tells Othello the truth about Desdemonas handkerchief. Iago kills Emilia and then escapes. As Emilia dies, she tells Othello that Desdemona was innocent. Iago is caught and tortured as punishment. Othello realizes what he has done, and kills himself with a knife.
Pupil 10: The original story of Othello is found in an Italian novel. The novel may have been of Oriental origin, as it somewhat resembles the tale of TheThree Apples in The Thousand and One Night. Shakespeare in the main,followed the Italian version, but reconstructed the catastrophe. He originated the names of all the characters, except that of Desdemona. He changed the character of Iago; and elevated Othello from the savage Moor to a noble and loving man. Othello was probably written and performed in 1604.
Pupil 11: In 1606 Shakespeare wrote such tragedies as King Lear and Macbeth. In 1607 Anthony and Cleopatra, and Timon of Athens, in 1608 one more tragedy Coriolanus.
And now about his comedies. So, in 1590 it was The Comedy of Errors, in 1592 The Taming of the Shrew, in 1593 The Two Gentlemen of Verona, in 1595 he wrote Loves Labours Lost, and in 1596 A Midsummer Nights Dream.
Pupil 9: In 1597 W. Shakespeare wrote one more comedy The Merry Wives of Windsor. In 1598-1613 some more. He wrote many histories. Among them are King Henry VI, King Richard III, King John and other.
Pupil 10: The dates given abouve are when the plays were probably written, but we cannot be sure because very little is known about Shakespeares life. Some people also think that Shakespeare did not write all of these plays.
Teacher: We have some guests from the past. I mean Shakespeare and people from his time. They would like to say something.
(A window at the foreground of the stage to the right, a table, a chair. Lady enters the room. Shakespeare follows her.)
Lady: Oh, William, you are such a bore! You know not a single court rumour; you have no idea of the latest French trends in the stocking suspenders design! Fie! I keep asking myself, why do I still let you into my house?
Shakespeare: I have ventured to come today because I have a present for you, my dear.
Lady: A present? You are a poor theatre director what can you give me?
Shakespeare: This is my love and your beauty that people will be singing of through hundreds of years. My present will make you immortal!
Lady: Immortal? What is it?
Shakespeare: A sonnet (gives the script to Lady).
Lady (breaking the seal, unfolding the paper): Oh, dear! Thats ridiculous! A piece of paper, nothing more. Pah! Do you happen to know Mr.Paddy? He has presented Mrs.Paddy with an emerald necklace!!! Gold and precious stones thats what I would call immortal.
Shakespeare: Gold and precious stones can satisfy our vanity, but they deprave our souls, they can cause jealousy and make us haughty to friends. The joy and pleasure that gold and diamonds give perish as soon as their owner dies or even long before that. While poems are imperishable. Imagine a diligent pupil bent over the lines in your honour, bringing your beauty to life…
Lady: Thats impossible! Well, let me read your sonnet first.
My mstress eyes are nothing like the sun;
Coral is far more red than her lipsred…
Oh, God! What impudence! What a lout!
(Throws the paper out of the window and, offended, wither chin up, walks away. Shakespeare in sorrow leaves the room too.)
Teacher ( picks the paper and reads the sonnet): What a masterpiece: sincere and geniusly harmonious! Shakespeare! People in England, Ukraine or China will read your works to study their souls, reflected in them like in the mirror.
And now. How do you know Shakespeares plays or were you attentive at the beginning of our party.
When was Shakespeare born?
Where was Shakespeare born?
How did Shakespeare die?
Where is Shakespeare buried?
When did Shakespeare get married?
Did Shakespeare have a happy childhood?
When were the 'lost years' in Shakespeare's life?
Which play did Shakespeare write first?
When did Shakespeare retire from the theatre?
In 1603, what did Shakespeare's theatre company become known as?
Teacher: Good job and at the end we have a quiz based on Romeo and Juliet.
2. Why is Romeo exiled?
(A) For killing Tybalt
(B) For marrying Juliet against her fathers will
(C) For killing Mercutio
(D) For publicly admitting his atheism
3. Who performs Romeo and Juliets marriage?
(A) Friar John
(B) Friar Lawrence
(C) Father Vincentio
4. What does the Nurse advise Juliet to do after Romeo is exiled?
(A) Follow her husband to Mantua
(B) Wait for Romeo in Verona
(C) Act as if Romeo is dead and marry Paris
(D) Commit suicide
5. Where do Romeo and Juliet meet?
(A) At Capulets feast
(B) At Friar Lawrences cell
(C) At Montagues feast
(D) At the pier from which Malvolio is departing for Spain
7. Who kills Mercutio?
8. To what does Romeo first compare Juliet during the balcony scene?
(A) The moon
(B) The stars
(C) A summers day
(D) The morning sun
9. Who discovers Juliet after she takes Friar Lawrences potion?
(A) Lady Capulet
(D) The Nurse
10. To which powerful figure is Paris related?
(C) Prince Escalus
(D) King Vardamo
11. How and where does Romeo commit suicide?
(A) With a dagger in the orchard
(B) With a rope in the public square
(C) With a sword in Juliets bedchamber
(D) With poison in Juliets tomb
12. On what day do Romeo and Juliet meet?
13. With whom is Romeo madly in love for the first two scenes of the play?
14. In what decade was Romeo and Juliet written?
15. In what year did Shakespeare die?
Teacher: Lets watch and listen Romeo and Juliet.
(Capulets orchard. Enter Romeo. Juliet appears above at the window.)
Romeo: See, how she leans her cheek upon her hand!
Oh, if I were a glove upon that hand,
That I might touch that cheek!
Juliet: Ah, me.
Romeo: Oh, speak again, bright angel.
Juliet: Oh, Romeo, Romeo. Wherefore art thou Romeo?
Deny thy father and refuse thy name;
Or, if thou wilt not, be but sworn my love,
And Ill no longer be a Capulet.
Romeo, doff thy name,
And for that name which is no part of thee
Take all myself.
Romeo: I take thee at thy word:
Call me but love, and Ill be new baptized;
Henceforth I never will be Romeo.
Juliet: How camest thou hither, tell me, and wherefore?
The orchard walls are high and hard to climb.
Romeo: With loves light wings did I oer-perch- these walls;
For stony limits cannot hold love out.
Juliet: I would not for the world they saw thee here.
By whose direction foundst thou out this place?
Romeo: By love, who first did prompt me to inquire.
Lady, by yonder blessed moon I swear
That tips with silver all these fruit-tree tops-
Juliet: Oh, swear not by the moon
Romeo: What shall I swear by?
Juliet: Do not swear at all;
Or, if thou wilt, swear by thy gracious self,
Which is the god of my idolatry,
And Ill believe thee.
Juliet: If my hearts dear love-
Juliet: Well, do not swear
Sweet, good night!
Good night, good night!
As sweet repose and rest
Come to thy heart as that within my breast!
Three words, dear Romeo,
And good night indeed.
If that thy bent of love be honourable,
Thy purpose marriage, send me word tomorrow,
By one that Ill procure to come to thee,
Where and what time thou wilt perform the rite;
And all my fortunes at thy foot Ill lay
And follow thee my lord throughout the world.
Juliet: I come, anon. But if thou meanst not well,
I do beseech thee
Juliet: By and by, I come:-
To cease thy suit, and leave me to my grief:
Tomorrow will I send.
Romeo: So thrive my soul-
Juliet: A thousand times good night!
Teacher: Yes, really their love was glorious, their luck was not!
And now I want to discuss one thing. Revenge makes people feel happier. Is it so?
(Students discuss the statement according to the rules of debates)
Діти діляться на 3 команди: affirmative, negative and judges. Possible answeres:
1st speaker of the affirmative team:
Dear opponents and judges! Today we are going to discuss the statement: Revenge makes people feel happier. And my team absolutely agrees with it. The criterion of our game is: The feeling of satisfaction and punishment of offenders. Our first argument is: Offenders should be punished by all means. If you were hurt and could not cope with it, it would be better to take revenge. Otherwise you would feel unsatisfied and depressed. The feeling of satisfaction makes us happy especially when you know that your offenders have been punished.
1st speaker of the negative team:
We dont agree with you. Imagine the situation when someone close to you was injured in the car accident. The driver was drunk and you are really angree with him. You have decided to take revenge. When you take it you wont be happy because your friend wont recover his health. I dont think that you would be happy.
Teacher: Our party is over. And try to be more patient towards others and lets learn to forgive because only those will be forgiven who know how to forgive themselves.
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