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TARAS SHEVCHENKO – THE GREATEST POET OF UKRAINE

Конспект урока

Педагогика и дидактика

Teacher: This year we are celebrating the anniversary of Taras Shevchenko`s birthday. 199 years ago Taras Shevchenko was born. He is the greatest Ukrainian poet and artist. Each Ukrainian knows him from the childhood. He is also well known under the name Kobzar after his most famous collection of poems entitled «Kobzar».

Английский

2014-04-04

123.5 KB

5 чел.

TARAS SHEVCHENKO –

THE GREATEST POET OF UKRAINE


Мета
 виховного заходу:

  •  розширити знання учнів про життя та творчість великого українського поета Т. Г. Шевченка;
  •  ознайомити учнів з деталями його автобіографії та літературної спадщини;
  •  розвивати творчу уяву, мислення, пізнавальний інтерес учнів.

Форма проведення: позакласна виховна робота (класна година).

Методи проведення: лекція, бесіда, розповідь.

Засоби проведення: технічні засоби (комп’ютер, проектор), відеоматеріали та комп’ютерна презентація.

The motto “Learn a plenty of foreign, but don’t forget your own” (T. Shevchenko)

Procedure

Introduction

Teacher: This year we are celebrating the anniversary of  Taras Shevchenko`s birthday. 199 years ago Taras Shevchenko was born.  He is the greatest Ukrainian poet and artist. Each Ukrainian knows him from the childhood. He is also well known under the name Kobzar after his most famous collection of poems entitled «Kobzar». His literary heritage is regarded to be the foundation of modern Ukrainian literature.

And now I would like to attract your attention to watch and to listen to the presentation about the life and literary career of Taras Hryhorovych Shevchenko.

  1.  Childhood years:

Pupil:

Taras Shevchenko, the son of serfs, was born

The place of his birth was the village of Moryntsi

One of six children, at his birth he was little more than another possession of his lord and master.

In 1816 the Shevchenko family moved to the village of Kirilivka

where Taras spent his childhood years

Shevchenko's parents, Hryhori and Kateryna, worked the fields of Baron Engelhardt. As was usual in those times his father also worked on occasion as a chumak

His mother Kateryna, while working the fields during the growing season, spent the winters at home, as did most peasant women, spinning and weaving for the master

At home, the life of the family was a happy one in terms of the human relations, but a hard one in terms of material possessions and human want. Often, there was a shortage of food, particularly after the hard winter months.

Another influence on the young boy was his paternal grandfather, Ivan, who often related stories to the young boy

These stories probably are the basis for much of the poet's later works, such as Haydamaky.

The greatest influence on the boy, however, was simply the hard fact of peasant life.

It was not long after this that the boy was sent to study with a deacon to learn to read and write. He was one of twelve village boys studying, out of some one hundred of that age.

When Taras was nine, his mother died

When Taras was eleven, his father died.

Shevchenko later summed up his childhood and his feelings in the following words: 

Pupil: I don't describe that little cottage

Beside the pond, beyond the village,

A paradise right here on earth.

That's where my mother gave me birth,

And singing, as her child she nursed,

She passed her pain to me. T'was there,

In that wee house, that heaven fair,

That I saw hell... There people slave

from morn till night... There to her grave

My gentle mother, young in years,

Was sent by want and toil and cares.

There father, weeping with his brood

(And we were tiny, tattered tots),

Could not withstand his evil lot

And died at work in servitude.

Pupil: Then Taras came to the attention of Paul Engelhardt. Taras had finally found a deacon who had agreed to teach him to be an artist, but had to obtain the written permission of his master. Paul Engelhardt, not about to lose a servant, refused the permission and Taras was assigned to be his kozachok, or houseboy, performing various menial chores. He began to draw.

In 1829, at the age of fifteen, Taras travelled in his master's entourage. first to Kiev, and then to Vilnius in Lithuania

ancestral homeland. It was in Vilnius that Taras ceased to be a boy and began entering his adult life.

Finally, aware of his servant's behaviour, Paul Engelhardt relented and agreed to allow Taras to study with a professional artist, Jan Rustem, at Vilnius University. It was here that Shevchenko's boyhood ends

A new world opened up in front of Taras, but despite his elation at the time, it was but an opening into a world of further hardship and distress.

Pupil: a poem When I was 1.

My thirteenth birthday soon would come.

I herded lambkins on the lea.

Was it the magic of the sun,

Or what was it affected me?

I felt with joy all overcome

As though in heaven...

The time for lunch had long passed by,

And still among the weeds I lay

And prayed to God... I know not why

It was so pleasant then to pray

For me, an orphan peasant boy,

Or why such bliss so filled me there?

The sky seemed bright, the village fair,

The very lambs seemed to rejoice!

The sun's rays warmed but did not sear!

But not for long

the sun stayed kind,

Not long in bliss I prayed...

It turned into a ball of fire

And set the world ablaze.

As though just wakened up, I gaze:

The hamlet's drab and poor,

And God's blue heavens - even they

Are glorious no more.

I look upon the lambs I tend -

Those lambs are not my own!

I eye the hut wherein I dwell -

I do not have a home!

God gave me nothing, naught at all!...

I bowed my head and wept,

Such bitter tears... And then a lass

Who had been sorting hemp

Not far from there, down by the path,

Heard my lament and came

Across the field to comfort me;

She spoke a soothing phrase

And gently kissed my tear-wet face...

It was as though the sun had smiled,

As though all things on earth were mine,

My own... The orchards, fields and groves!...

And, laughing merrily the while,

The master's lambs to drink we drove.

How nauseating!... Yet, when I

Recall those days, my heart is sore

That there my brief life's span the Lord

Did not grant me to live and die.

There, plowing, I'd have passed away,

With ignorance my life-long lot,

I'd not an outcast be today,

I'd not be cursing Man and God!...

  1.  Saint Petersburg Period.

Pupil: Taras Shevchenko arrived in St. Petersburg from Vilnius, along with the rest of the servants of Paul Englehardt, in February of 1831. He was on the eve of his seventeenth birthday.

His master, still realising that the youth would not make a good house servant and wanting a "court painter", apprenticed young Taras in 1832 to the master painter V. Shyrayev

Although he was still officially a serf, his apprenticeship nonetheless allowed him a certain degree of personal freedom in the city. In his spare moments, normally in the evenings, he would wander the city making sketches, often in the Summer Gardens during the northern "white nights".

It was because of this habit that Shevchenko met a fellow Ukrainian and artist, Ivan Soshenko, in July of 1835. A friendship was formed and Soshenko took Shevchenko under his wing, teaching him some of the basics of painting and introducing the talented youth to some of the most enlightened and cultured elements of St. Petersburg society, including the Russian artist Karl Bryulov, the poet Zhukovsky (who had been a tutor to the Tsar's family), Ukrainian writer Hrebinka.

Moving in this circle of the Russian intelligentsia, Shevchenko won the hearts of this enlightened segment of society, which quickly recognized the young man's talents and realized that they could only be properly developed if he were a free man.

This latter point, as well as the obvious despise which he felt for the Tsarist system and his ridicule of its aristocracy, has led some critics to view Shevchenko as a "nationalist", as anti-Russian. There is no doubt that Shevchenko's poetry, as it develops, does increasingly call on the Ukrainian people to overthrow their rulers. What should be noted, however, is that Shevchenko's heroes include the Czech Jan Hus (The Heretic) and the oppressed peoples of the Caucasus (in the poem of the same name), and that he attacks not only Russian masters (The Dream), but Ukrainian masters as well, (To the Dead, the Living and the Yet Unborn). For Shevchenko, the enemy is always the oppressor, regardless of ethnicity, a view reinforced by his 1843 visit to Ukraine. During this visit, already as an adult, Shevchenko came face to face with the cruel realities of the economic, social and national oppression of the Tsarist regime in the Russian Empire.

Accordingly, the artist Karl Bryulov; whose works were much in demand, painted a portrait of the poet Zhukovsky which was raffled off, raising the 2500 roubles necessary for Shevchenko to receive his certificate of freedom on April 22, 1838.

With his freedom attained, in 1838 Shevchenko became an external student at the Academy of Arts, studying under Karl Bryulov. In January of 1839, he was accepted as a resident student of the Association for the Encouragement of Artists and at the annual examinations at the Academy was awarded a silver medal for a landscape. The following year, he again won a silver medal for his first oil painting The Beggar Boy Giving Bread to a Dog.

However, it is for his written work that Shevchenko is best remembered. According to his own memoirs, he first began to write verse during his visits to the Summer Gardens in 1837. However, he had become so immersed in this that, by 1840, his first collection of poetry appeared - the Kobzar, containing but eight verses, with a forward in verse form, the now famous Dumy moyi.

The appearance of the Kobzar, aside from being a turning point in Shevchenko's life, was also a milestone for Ukrainian language and culture, often denigratingly referred to as "Little Russian"

This latter point, as well as the obvious despise which he felt for the Tsarist system and his ridicule of its aristocracy, has led some critics to view Shevchenko as a "nationalist", as anti-Russian. There is no doubt that Shevchenko's poetry, as it develops, does increasingly call on the Ukrainian people to overthrow their rulers. What should be noted, however, is that Shevchenko's heroes include the Czech Jan Hus (The Heretic) and the oppressed peoples of the Caucasus (in the poem of the same name), and that he attacks not only Russian masters (The Dream), but Ukrainian masters as well, (To the Dead, the Living and the Yet Unborn). For Shevchenko, the enemy is always the oppressor, regardless of ethnicity, a view reinforced by his 1843 visit to Ukraine. During this visit, already as an adult, Shevchenko came face to face with the cruel realities of the economic, social and national oppression of the Tsarist regime in the Russian Empire.

Following his visit to Ukraine, Shevchenko returned to St. Petersburg to finish his studies and to continue writing and publishing poetry, as well as to produce a series of etchings entitled Pictorial Ukraine. He graduated from the Academy of Arts in 1845 and almost immediately returned to Ukraine.

In Kiev, Shevchenko first made contact with the Kyrylo-Metody Society and quickly became one of the leaders of its radical faction.

In 1847, the members of the Kyrylo-Metody Society were betrayed by a police informer and Shevchenko was arrested on April 5 and transported to St. Petersburg for disposition by the Tsarist authorities

Shevchenko refused to repent for his actions

In his defense, Shevchenko denounced Tsarist repression in Ukraine and throughout the Empire.

Shevchenko received a sentence of exile as a rank and file soldier to Orenburg in the East, with prohibition to write and to paint".

    a) The review of the pictures on the projector.

    b) a poem It doesn`t touch me».

Pupil: It does not touch me, not a whit

                                                     If I live in Ukraine or no,

If men recall me, or forget,

Lost as I am, in foreign snow, -

Touches me not the slightest whit.

Captive, to manhood I have grown

In strangers’ homes, and by my own

Unmourned, a weeping captive still,

I’ll die, all that is mine, I will

Bear off; let not a trace remain

In our glorious Ukraine.

Our own land – yet a strangers’ rather.

And speaking with his son, no father

Will recall, nor bit him: Pray,

Pray, son! Of old, for our Ukraine,

They tortured all his life away.

It does not touch me, not a whit,

Whether that son will pray or no…

But it does touch me deep if knave,

Evil rogues lull our Ukraine

Asleep, and only in the flames

Let her, all plundered, wake again…

That touches me with deepest pain.

  1.  Arrest and Exile.

Pupil: In 1845 Shevchenko graduated from The Academy of Art and left for Ukraine. He began work for Kiev Archeographic Commission and visited many towns and villages of his homeland. The poet attend meeting of the secret fraternity, where he read his flaming poems, calling for uprising. In March of 1847 its members were arrested. Shevchenko was sentenced to exile in the Orenburg Field Battalion with the prohibition to write and draw. Shevchenko spent ten years in exile. But secretly continued to write poetry. He composed many songs in the folk-song tradition and some sad song. During the same period he wrote several autobiographical poems, which carried him back to his childhood and the years of youth. And then the search was made and his books and letters were confiscated. But the poet give up? He kept writing. Shevchenko wrote a number of stories in the Russian language? Because he had a terrible desire to write and because he wanted to practice writing. When Shevchenko was finally released in 1857 the poet seemed to have born anew. “It seems to me that I’m exactly the same as I was ten years ago” – he wrote in his Journal.

   a) a poem Dream»

Pupil: We fly… I look – the dawn arrives,

The sky’s edge bursts ablaze;

In shady glades the nightingales

Sing out the new sun’s praise.

The breezes softly, lightly wake

The steppe lands from their dreams;

In the lash valleys, by the lakes

The willows shimmer green.

The orchards, heavy laden, bow;

The poplars stand at ease

Like sentinels when all is well,

And gossip with the fields.

And all about, the whole land gleams

With nature’s warmest hues,

Bedecked with blossoms, dressed in green.

And bathed in drops of dew

And greets the morning sun…

There’s no beginning to all this,

Of ending, too there’s none!

There’s no one who could either gild

Or blotch this beauty-land…

And all of this…

My aching heart,

My soul, why are you sad?

My poor, my desolated soul,

Why do you vainly weep?

Whom is it you pity? Alas, can’t you see?

And cannot you hear how the multitudes cry?

  b) a poem «the Mighty Dnieper Roads and Bellows”.

Pupil The mighty Dnieper roars and bellows,

The wind in anger howls and raves,

Down to the ground it bends the willows

And mountain-high lifts up the waves.

The pale-faced moon picked out this moment

To peek out from behind the cloud,

Like a canoe upon the ocean

It first tips up, and then dips down.

The cocks have not proclaimed the morning,

There’s not a sound as yet of man,

The owls in glades call out their warnings,

And ash-trees creak and creak again.

c) a poem ”Beside the cottage”

Pupil: Beside the cottage cherry-trees are swinging

Above the cherries may-bugs winging

Ploughmen with their plough are homeward heading

And lassies as they pass and singing

While mothers wait with suppers ready

Beside the cottage all the family’s eating

Above the evening star the sunset’s greeting

The evening meal the daughter serves around

When mother chides, from where she’s seated,

Her voice by signing nightingales is drowned.

Beside the cottage mother’s lullabying

Till little ones is golden slumbers’re lying

She herself beside them falls asleep

All is quiet only the girls are vying

With nightingales and can’t their quiet keep.

 4. Final Years.


T. Shevchenko
Self-Portrait in Fur Hat.
Etching. 1860

Pupil: On August 2, 1857, Taras Shevchenko sailed from Novopetrovsk Fortress on a fishing boat and after three days on the Caspian Sea arrived at Astrakhan. From there he took a steamboat up the Volga to Nizhny Novgorod. On board the ship he procured the lastest illegal revolutionary literature, and also became engrossed in the works of his contemporary, the great satirist Saltykov-Shchedrin, whom he considered a worthy successor to the great Gogol. When Shevchenko arrived in Nizhny Novgorod, he was informed that entrance to the capital was forbidden him. In consequence, he was compelled to live about six months in Nizhny.

Shevchenko's release returned the pen to the poet. He began by rereading, correcting and rewriting his earlier works. Simultaniously he begun to work on a new poem, The Neophytes.

In March 1858, Shevchenko finally received permission to enter the capital of the Russian Tsar. On his way to St. Petersburg he stopped over in Moscow to visit Shchepkin and other Moscow friends.

A wave of new impressions overwhelmed the poet. He realized that an intense struggle was beginning to gain momentum.

So he hastened to St. Petersburg, although the freedom that awaited him there was but a phantom, since he would be under constant police surveillance.

Taras Shevchenko arrived in St. Petersburg in the spring of 1858. He was enthusiastically welcomed by the foremost Russian intellectuals

Shevchenko became closely associated with Chernyshevsky, Dobrolyubov

Shevchenko's revolutionary outlook became profound and was steeled during his exile, and became fully defined and crystallized after his release.

Exhausted by the ordeals he underwent during exile, in prisons and in Ukraine, in the midst of that nature which he loved so much and described so beautifully. But a severe illness brought him down. On the morning of March 10th 1861, Shevchenko died.

 

a poem Testament».

Pupil When I am dead, then bury me

In my beloved Ukraine,

My tomb upon a grave mound high

Amid the splendid plain.

So that the fields, the boundless steppes,

The Dnieper’s plunging shore

My eyes could see, my ears could hear

The mighty river roar.

When from Ukraine the Dnieper bears

Into the deep blue sea

The blood of foes…then will I leave

These hills and fertile fields –

I’ll leave them all and fly away

To the abode of God,аnd then I’ll pray…

But till that dayI nothing know of God.

Oh bury me, then rise ye up

And break your heave chains,

And water with the tyrants’ blood

The freedom you have gained.

And in the great new family,

The family of free,

With a softy spoken, kindly words

Remember also me.

       

Let’s summarize the information we have just heard. Do you often read his poems, especially  “ Kobzar»?  What is your favourite poem?

 Quiz!

  1.  When and where was Taras Shevchenko born? (March  9, 1814 village of Moryntsi)
  2.  When was his first book published?(1840 Kobzar)
  3.  When was poem “Haidamaki” published? (1841)
  4.  When did Shevchenko receive his certificate of freedom (April 22, 1838)
  5.  How old was Taras Shevchenko when he was exiled? (33 )
  6.  Where is the poet’s grave? (on a Dniper bank in Kaniv)
  7.  How many self-portraits did Shevchenko paint? (About 50 self-portraits)
  8.  When did he paint his first self-portrait? (in 1840 in oil)

Thank you for attention. Have a nice day!


 

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