Неличные формы глагола. Причастие. Причастные обороты. Герундий. Герундиальные обороты

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Педагогика и дидактика

Being introduced on the railways, the automatic train control will facilitate both the work of the driver and the dispatcher. Comprising all spheres of railway operation telecommunication greatly contributes to increased reliability of railway service.



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Урок 3

Основной текст: Planning Track Surfacing on Shortline Railroads

Грамматика: Неличные формы глагола. Причастие. Причастные обороты. Герундий. Герундиальные обороты.

Таблица 3.1 - Формы причастий

Indefinite I




being given

Participle II




having given

having been given


  1.   значения глаголов, причастия от которых употребляются в функции вводного члена предложения:

consider - рассматривать

speak – говорить

pass – переходить

return – возвращаться

turn – обращаться

  1.   значения следующих словосочетаний с причастиями в функции вводного члена:

as emphasized above… - как подчёркивалось выше

as already mentioned… - как уже упоминалось

as pointed out previously… - как указывалось ранее

as stated earlier… - как установлено ранее…

roughly speaking… - грубо говоря

strictly speaking… - вообще говоря

broadly considering… - строго говоря

put another way… - иначе говоря, другими словами…

putting in another way... - иначе говоря, другими словами…

Таблица 3.2 - Формы герундия





being given


having given

having been given


  1.   следующие сочетания слов, после которых употребляется герундий:

(I) cannot help – (я) не могу не

it is worth                 стоит

it is worth while

it is no good           не стоит, бесполезно, нет смысла

it is no use

  1.   значения следующих предлогов, после которых характерно употребление герундия

on account of – из-за

apart from – помимо, кроме

aside from – помимо, кроме

in addition to – кроме, вдобавок

besides – кроме

because of – из-за, вследствие, по причине

despite – несмотря на

due to – благодаря, вследствие

except (except for) – кроме, за исключением

instead of – вместо

in spite of – несмотря на

owing to      благодаря

thanks to     

through – из-за, благодаря

with the object to     с целью

with the view to    

save – кроме

  1.   следующие существительные, после которых употребителен герундий в функции определения:

ability – способность

advantage – преимущество

chance – возможность

merit – достоинство

necessity – необходимость

possibility – возможность

probability – вероятность

reason – причина, основание

way – способ

Подготовительные упражнения

I Переведите предложения с причастными оборотами.

  1.  Being introduced on the railways, the automatic train control will facilitate both the work of the driver and the dispatcher.
  2.  Comprising all spheres of railway operation telecommunication greatly contributes to increased reliability of railway service.
  3.  Being divided into divisions, the railway handles the traffic more efficiently.
  4.  Having been warned of the train collusion the dispatcher immediately sent a special train to the scene of the accident.
  5.  Having encounted the difficulties in operating the industrial locomotive the engineer applied radio control.
  6.  Telecommunication being increasingly introduced on the railways allows both the goods and the passenger trains to run according the schedule.
  7.  Having been devised, the control devices simplified the train operation.
  8.  Out-of-face surfacing being widely used on shortlines, the overall re-ballasting operations have been greatly facilitated.
  9.  The information from the maintenance supervisor being tabulated at a central location, the contractors will be asked to bid on the work.
  10.  With the details on safety reporting and other items worked out the spot surfacing operation takes place.
  11.  The manager is aware of the information having been received from the maintenance supervisor.

II Укажите, по каким формальным показателям можно определить герундий в данных предложениях; переведите предложения на русский язык.

  1.  The idea of placing a surfacing and lining crew on a segment of track with instructions “call me when you’re done” only exacerbates the problem.
  2.  Making out-of-face surfacing is often associated with tie, rail or overall re-ballasting operations.
  3.  The high tractive effort of electric locomotives leads to their being widely employed on mountainous routes.
  4.  After having done spot surfacing the original condition is returned to the track.
  5.  On being applied for raising, tamping and lining the track special machines greatly contribute to the reduction of maintenance costs.
  6.  Planning track surfacing on shortline railroads gives the opportunity to the property managers and owners to know the prevailing prices for this type of work.
  7.  Often, after the remaining work is pruned, it is thought of its being completed and of the resource being balanced with the requirements.

III Переведите предложения с герундиальными оборотами, обращая внимание на место оборота в предложении и форму герундия.

  1.  On some railways the high voltage alternating current can’t be applied for traction purposes without its being transformed into the direct current.
  2.  Saving time in locating and eliminating any trouble is far from being the only advantage of the automatically operated power plants.
  3.  The traffic was stopped because of the power supply system having been damaged.
  4.  On being generated, the electric energy is transmitted over long distances by high voltage transmission lines.
  5.  Less personnel is required in case of substations being operated by remote control.
  6.  On locating any trouble the operator should eliminate it as soon as possible.
  7.  It is impossible to increase speeds on railways without giving proper attention to safety.
  8.  In spite of having some disadvantages of owning and operating expensive and complicated surfacing and lining equipment shortlines are using constructors to surface and line track.
  9.  Preparing specifications with professional guidance is a component of the planning and budgeting system.
  10.  When electric traction was first introduced not many people thought of its being used on railways.

IV Words and expressions to be remembered:

Derailment (n.), exacerbate (v.), to be well under way (v.), to make adjustments, to monitor the project, flexibility (n.), shortage (n.), approach (n.), include (v.), obtain (v.), determine (v.), estimate (v.), guidance (n.), assign (v.), scheduling (n.), tabulate (v.), to bid on the work, prune (v.).


Speed restrictions, non-peak periods, footage, irregular surface, out-of-face surfacing, track surfacing, spot surfacing, crew expense, track-foot price, budget target, track-maintenance, machinery, hours-of-service tie ups, maintenance managing, raising, tamping, lining.

V Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на форму причастий и место их в предложении.

  1.  The locomotives houling trains on mountainous railways usually operate on electric energy.
  2.  The car being designed is intended for carrying coal.
  3.  Travelling on the Gliding Railway people surprised by its smoothness.
  4.  Having demonstrated his locomotive the inventor answered a large number of questions.
  5.  The computer made the plan of the station’s work, having processed the data on the freight trains.
  6.  Processing the data the computer does not make errors.
  7.  Having applied the radio and the telephone for sorting trains the railways improved the turnover of railway cars.
  8.  Having been tested the electrified line was opened for public service.
  9.  Being unloaded some of the equipment was damaged.
  10.  Having been heated the rails were carefully examined.
  11.  Each of the terminals and coastal sites has its own base station, the French terminal requiring two because of its size.

VI Вспомните, какие русские слова имеют те же корни, что и следующие английские слова. Используйте их для понимания текста:

Regional, service, resource, maximum, tendency, segment, instruction, strategy, manager, mechanism, contract, projects, period, chronic, capital, machine, operation, expertise, distance, original, budget, system, address, location, idea, geographical, discuss, process, information, central, mile, standard, person, realize , program, defect, balance, basis.

VII Вспомните значения следующих английских слов:

Delay, usage, fuel, significant, ability, amount, safety, value, compare, requirements, expensive, frequently, develop, common, perform, require, price, prepare, area, in order to, support, amount, request, point, decision, quantity, provide, level, allow.

VIII Простите английский текст и сравните его с данным переводом. Работа в парах: переведите текст с русского на английский.

Planning Track Surfacing on Shortline Railroads

1. Shortline and regional railroads are often faced with serious challenges to service because of irregular surface and line. Speed restrictions placed on the track because of irregular surface and line delay trains, causing increased crew expense, car hire and fuel usage, as well as unacceptable federal hours-of-service tie-ups. Irregular cross level and line also are causes of a significant number of derailments.

2. What many shortlines need is the ability to balance surfacing with other resource needs and to find a method for getting the maximum amount of improved service and safety for their surfacing dollar. The tendency of some maintenance supervisors to place a surfacing and lining crew on a segment of track with instructions to «call me when you’re done» only exacerbates the problem. To get good value for the surfacing dollar, a strategy must be in place that allows shortline managers to compare surfacing needs with other resource requirements, provides a mechanism for closely monitoring the work and allows comparison of the work done to the work planned.

3. In many cases, shortlines are regionals have much more flexibility with their labor contracts than do Class I railroads. They often have the flexibility to use outside contractors to perform maintenance and repair projects, and are often able to give contractors extended periods of track time. Many lines also are able to use train and engine, mechanical or other employees to aid in work during non-peak periods.

4. Further stacking the odds in favor of contracted surfacing, are the disadvantages of owning and operating expensive and complicated surfacing and lining equipment. Shortline owners frequently have a chronic shortage of capital and do not like to commit funds to track-maintenance machinery. Not only are these machines expensive to own, their maintenance and operation require a level of technical expertise that is difficult to develop and keep on a smaller railroad. As a result, more and more shortlines are using contractors to surface and line track. While this approach is fairly common when performing out-of-face surfacing, it has not been the normal practice when doing spot surfacing.

5. Out-of-face surfacing – raising, tamping and lining track for long point-to-point distances – is often associated with tie, rail or overall re-ballasting operations. Spot surfacing is usually used to remove surface and line defects and to return track to its original condition. The following planning and budgeting system addresses the use of contractors in a spot-surfacing operation. A surfacing «flow-chart» gives a conceptual overview of how this simple planning and budgeting system works. It requires the railroad to:

- Obtain a rough estimate, by location, of the number of feet to be included in the surfacing/lining program.

- Obtain a «ball park» estimate from contractors based on track-foot price.

- Determine the amount of work that is feasible to accomplish with the available resources.

- Give maintenance supervisors dollar targets so that they may develop a detailed list of «spots».

- Prepare specifications with professional guidance.

- Prepare the bid project and select the winner.                      

- Work out the details on safely, reporting and other items, and assign responsibilities.

- Continuously monitor the project and provide evaluation to the suppliers and supervisors involved.

6. In idea of the magnitude of the entire project must be obtained. Property managers and owners must know the prevailing prices for this type of work, and what the price in their area is likely to be. In order to get a "ball park" estimate from suppliers, contractors must have a general idea of the geographical work location and work conditions, such as track-occupancy time, the support to be provided by the shortline and other logistic and scheduling details that will be encountered as the work is being performed. Often, the best way to obtain this information is by on-track inspection with the local maintenance supervisors. This allows maintenance managers to get the track supervisors' input and provides an opportunity to explain the project and discuss how it will work. A simple form can be used to obtain the information needed to begin the process. The information should include:

1) The start and end mile poles.

2) The number of track feet required.

3) The amount of ballast required.

7. The information from the maintenance supervisor can then be tabulated at a central location and «standard prices», or estimates, can be obtained from contractors who will be asked to bid on the work. This allows the manager to explain to the contractor the general type of work and the overall quantity required. Once the estimate has been obtained for surfacing on a track-foot basis, the overall project can be estimated based or actors costs and the maintenance supervisor’s requests.

8. Supervisors are then allotted a dollar amount for surfacing and are asked to go back to the field to reconcile the dollar amount with the footage and locations to be worked. It is at this point that one of major benefits of the system is obtained. When forced to "prune" to a budget target the person who has the best knowledge the overall track condition makes the decision as to what will and will not be tamped.

9. The normal course of events is that the project is well under way before it is realized that there is not enough time or money to complete the critical spots remaining on the list. It is a variation of the 50/75 theme-50% of the distance has been covered and 75% of the money spent-which leaves some tough decisions about what is to be taken out of the program. Often, after the remaining work is pruned, some areas that could have serious defects in track geometry remain untouched. But by making adjustments before spending precious dollars on marginal work, the resource is balanced the requirements.

Планирование выправки пути на железных

дорогах небольшой


  1.  Железные дороги небольшой протяжённости и региональные часто сталкиваются с серьёзными эксплуатационными проблемами вследствие плохих геометрических характеристик пути в плане и профиле. Ограничения скорости, вводимые вследствие этих причин, и задержки поездов вызывают увеличение расходов на содержание железнодорожных поездных бригад, арендной платы за вагоны и расхода топлива, а также неприемлемое увеличение установленной федеральным законодательством продолжительности непрерывной работы. Нарушение геометрических характеристик пути в плане и профиле являются также причиной значительного числа крушений.
  2.  Многим железным дорогам небольшой протяжённости необходимо иметь возможность согласовывать выправку пути по уровню с другими потребностями в ресурсах и находить способ получения максимальной отдачи в виде улучшения обслуживания и безопасности от средств, затраченных на эти работы. Стремление некоторых руководителей служб текущего содержания пути направлять бригаду по выправке и рихтовке на определённый участок с указанием позвонить после завершения работы, только обостряет проблему. Для обеспечения высокой отдачи от средств, затрачиваемых на выправку, следует проводить определённую стратегию, которая позволила бы администрации железных дорог небольшой протяжённости сопоставить потребности в выправке с потребностями в других ресурсах, обеспечила бы механизм тщательного контроля работы и позволила сравнивать планы с фактически выполненными работами.
  3.  Во многих случаях железные дороги небольшой протяжённости и региональные могут заключать гораздо более гибкие по сравнению с железными дорогами первого класса контракты на использование рабочей силы. Это зачастую позволяет им использовать сторонних подрядчиков для текущего содержания и ремонта пути, предоставлять им большие по времени окна. У многих таких дорог есть возможность использовать в периоды неинтенсивного движения поездов персонал поездных и локомотивных бригад, сотрудников вагонной и других служб для оказания помощи при путевых работах.
  4.  Дополнительными аргументами в пользу выполнения подъёмочного ремонта пути по контрактам являются убытки, связанные с закупкой и эксплуатацией дорогостоящего оборудования для выправки и рихтовки пути. Владельцы железных дорог небольшой протяжённости часто испытывают хроническую нехватку денежных средств и не склонны вкладывать их в оборудование для текущего содержания пути. Владение такими машинами обходится дорого, и для их технического обслуживания и эксплуатации необходим определённый уровень технических знаний и опыта, который трудно приобретать и поддерживать на железных дорогах небольшой протяжённости. В результате всё большее число таких железных дорог прибегают к услугам подрядчиков. Такой подход обычен для сплошной выправки пути, а для коротких отрезков пути распространён мало.
  5.  Сплошная выправка пути – подъёмка, подбивка и рихтовка – на протяжённых участках увязывается с операциями по замене шпал, рельсов и полной замене балласта. Местная выправка обычно используется для устранения дефектов пути в плане и профиле и приведения пути в первоначальное состояние. Рассматриваемая ниже схема планирования и финансирования рассчитана на использование подрядчиков для выполнения работ по точечной выправке пути. «Технологическая схема» выправки даёт концептуальное общее представление о том, каким образом работает эта простая система планирования и финансирования. Для этого железной дороге необходимо:
  •  знать местоположение и длину участков, которые должны быть включены в программу выправки/ рихтовки пути;
  •  получить от подрядчиков приблизительную смету на основе стоимости ремонта 1 м. пути;
  •  определить объём работы, который может быть выполнен при наличных ресурсах;
  •  поставить перед руководителями работ по текущему содержанию работ ориентиры в денежном выражении, чтобы они могли разработать подробный перечень мест, где будет проводиться ремонт;
  •  подготовить технические условия с соответствующими указаниями;
  •  подготовить проект конкурса на выполнение работ и выбрать исполнителей;
  •  разработать детали, касающиеся безопасности отчётности и других вопросов, и распределить ответственность;
  •  постоянно контролировать ход выполнения работ и предоставлять оценки причастным поставщикам и руководителям.
  1.  Сначала необходимо получить представление о масштабах всего проекта. Управляющие собственностью и её владельцы должны знать преобладающие цены на этот вид работ и вероятную цену в их районе. Для получения округлённой оценки от поставщиков, подрядчикам необходимо иметь общее представление о месте и условиях работы, таких как время занятия пути, помощи со стороны железной дороги и других деталях, касающихся материально-технического обеспечения и графика работ, которые встретятся по мере их выполнения. Часто наилучшим способом получения этой информации является проверка, проводимая непосредственно при участии местных руководителей работ по текущему содержанию. Для получения основной информации можно использовать бланк простой формы, в котором указываются:
  2.  начальный и конечный километровые столбы;
  3.  протяжённость пути, требующего ремонта;
  4.  потребный объём балласта.
  5.  Информация от руководителей работ по текущему содержанию пути может быть представлена в виде таблиц, составленных в службе пути. От подрядчиков, принимающих участие в конкурсе на выполнение этой работы, можно получить «стандартные цены» или сметы. Это позволяет менеджеру объяснить подрядчику характер работы и указать её объём. После получения сметы подрядчика и запросов руководителей работ по текущему содержанию можно провести общую оценку проекта.
  6.  Затем распределяются денежные средства между руководителями работ, и им предлагается вернуться на места, чтобы увязать эти денежные средства с объёмами работ. Именно на этом этапе проявляется одно из важнейших достоинств этой системы. Ввиду необходимости сокращать расходы в соответствии с предусмотренными ассигнованиями, руководитель, обладающий наиболее достоверной информацией, принимает решение о том, где проводить работы.
  7.  Довольно часто работы по определённому проекту довольно широко разворачиваются, а затем оказывается, что времени или денег недостаточно для их завершения в наиболее неблагоприятных местах пути. Часто после сокращения объёма оставшейся работы некоторые участки с серьёзными дефектами геометрических характеристик пути остаются неотремонтирован-ными. Корректировка дорасходования денег на минимальный объём работ обеспечивает соответствие ресурсов потребностям.

Послетекстовые упражнения

I Выберите правильные варианты перевода слов и словосочетаний

Выправка пути:

1) out-of-face surfacing

2) track surfacing

3) spot surfacing

Общая оценка проекта:     

1) maintenance managing

2) the estimation of the overall project

3) prevailing prices

Неблагополучные места пути:

1) repair of track

2) critical spots of track

 3) irregular surface

Расходы на содержание поездных бригад:

1) labour contracts

2) maintenance supervisor

3) crew expense 

Время занятия пути:

1) non-peak periods

2) track occupancy time

3) extended periods of track time

Оборудование для текущего содержания пути:

1) track- maintenance machinery

2) lining equipment

3) available resources

Стоимость ремонта 1 м. пути:

1) budget target

2) track-foot price

3) to get good value for the surfacing dollar

Причины крушений:  

1) serious challenge to service

2) hours-of-service tie-ups

3) causes of derailments

Расход топлива:

1) fuel supply

2) the estimation of fuel usage

3) fuel usage

Операция по полной замене балласта:

1) spot surfacing operation

2) lining-track operation

3)overall re-ballasting operation

II Выберите нужное по форме слово.

  1.  Many shortlines need (improved, improving, to improve) service and safety.
  2.  They are able to perform (to maintain, maintaining, maintenance) and repair projects.
  3.  Cash-strapped shortlines can face train delays (cause, caused, causing) by poor surface and line.
  4.  A surfacing flow chart can help them (to make, made, make) the most of their surfacing dollar.
  5.  The railroad is required (worked out, working out, to work out) the details on safety, reporting and other items.
  6.  The best way (obtaining, obtained, to obtain) the information is by on-track inspection with the local maintenance supervisors.
  7.  The amount of work that is feasible to accocuplish (to determine, is determined, determines) with the available resources.

III Переведите следующие словосочетания на русский язык.

Irregular surface and line, crew expense, fuel usage, hours-of-service tie-ups, causes of derailments, track surfacing, maintenance supervisor, to get good value for the surfacing dollar, labour contracts, maintenance and repair of track, non-peak periods, lining equipment, to commit funds, track-maintenance machinery, out-of-face surfacing, spot-surfacing, track-foot price, track occupancy time, to estimate the overall project, budget target, critical spots of track.

IV Переведите следующие словосочетания на английский язык.

Расход топлива, продолжительность непрерывной работы, для обеспечения высокой отдачи от средств, затрачиваемых на выправку, содержание и ремонт пути, оборудование для выправки и рихтовки пути, сплошная выправка пути, стоимость ремонта 1 м. пути, провести общую оценку проекта, неблагополучные места пути, плохие геометрические характеристики пути в плане и профиле, выправка пути, периоды неинтенсивного движения, выправка коротких участков пути, расходы на содержание железнодорожных поездных бригад, причины крушений, руководитель служб, контракты на использование рабочей силы, вкладывать денежные средства, оборудование для текущего содержания пути, время занятия пути, предусмотренные ассигнования.

V Ответьте на вопросы по тексту.

  1.  What are the causes of serious challenges to service and derailments on regional railroads?
  2.  What provides a mechanism for closely monitoring the track surfacing work?
  3.  What is the most suitable time to aid in tamping work?
  4.  Is it difficult to develop and keep complicated surfacing and lining equipment on shortline railroads?
  5.  What does out-of-face surfacing include?
  6.  What are the requirements to the railroad in the field of planning and budgeting system?
  7.  Why must the information from the maintenance supervisor about the magnitude of the entire project be obtained?
  8.  What points should the information from the maintenance supervisor include?
  9.  What is one of the major benefits of the system?
  10.   How does it happen that some areas having serious defects in track geometry remain untouched after the remaining work is pruned?

VI Переведите текст на русский язык. Составьте аннотацию к тексту на английском языке.

Concrete-tie activity

In the majority of severe-curve environments, however, concrete has become the crosstie material of choice. This remains true in spite of the rail-seat abrasion problem that has occurred on a number of user railroads.

While there is still debate as to the cause of rail-seat abrasion, the problem is associated with an abrasive slurry made up of dust, silt, rail-grinding debris, locomotive sand, lubricating oils and water that works its way under the tie pads. Some of the components of the slurry are thought to be 10 times harder than the cement paste on the concrete tie. Researchers suspect that the slurry is moved beneath the pad as it is exercised by wheel loads passing over it.

An ad-hoc committee of railroaders, suppliers and researchers has been assembled to study the problem, and a number of repair methods are being tested on individual railroads and at the TTC (RT&S, July, p. 24). Research at the TTC is headed in two primary directions: Finding ways to prevent the problem from occurring and repairing the ties on which abrasion has already occurred. But as of yet, no definitive solution has been found.

«At FAST, all we can really say at this time is that by keeping the ties wet, we were able to get the abrasion started», says Rich Reiff, manager of the HAL project at the TTC.

One test designed to prevent abrasion was to glue the pads to the ties. This procedure appears to have failed in the sense that the glue no longer is holding the pad to the tie, he says. Some 50 to 60 other types of «fixes» on 300 ties are currently being evaluated.

In addition to the work being done at the TTC, the industry continues to look at various approaches to the rail-seat abrasion problem. Part of the solution may come from the protection of the concrete by a much higher quality pad, part of the solution may come from different, improved materials to enhance the quality of the concrete.

«It's going to be very difficult to improve hardness by a factor of 10-the amount necessary to overcome the abrasion effect of silica sand», says John White, president of CXT Inc.

The best multiplier the Bureau of Reclamation has been able to achieve is between three and four, adds Derek Firth, CXT vice president and general manager. «They don't believe anybody can find a multiplier of 10».

Harking back to a problem that the concrete tie industry has, for the most part, overcome, White says: «This industry still must be very careful about the choice of aggregates and cement used in concrete ties». Even if a company has been making concrete materials and never had any problems with them, the picture changes when a highly-stressed tie is put into a wet environment under cycling loads. Sometimes concrete that works well under normal situations does not work as a tie.

Manufacturers still have to watch very closely the quality of the aggregates and the alkalinity of the cement. Some people may say we're being over-cautious, but there have been occasions where there have been chemical reactions.

VII Прочтите текст, сравните с русским вариантом. Напишите аннотацию к тексту на английском языке.

Continuosly welded track with compensation rails for railway bridges

In rail tracks on long bridges, spanning over 100 m, the temperature stresses are equalized currently by using special devices – compensators.

It has been proved however that in most cases compensators are not required, provided three or four pairs of compensation rails, 12.5 m long, are included in the continuously welded track spanning the bridge. In this case temperature displacement of the rails is taken up by adjusting the gaps in rail joints within 1 to 22 mm. Further, in the spring-summer period one of the 12.5 m long compensation rails is substituted by a shortened rail, 12.46 or 12.42 m long; in the autumn-winter period the rails are switched back. To ensure the durability of the bridge beams split bolt connections are used for fixing down these compensation rails.

The use of seasonal compensation rails in a continuously welded track makes it possible to give up completely the costly compensators. The advantages are a considerable cut in the track laying and maintenance expenses in large bridges, decrease of metal consumption and of labour rates, higher traffic safety, lower dynamic loads, lower noise level.

Бесстыковой путь с уравнительными рельсами на железнодорожных мостах

Для компенсации температурных деформаций рельсового пути, уложенного на больших мостах с пролетами более 100 м, в настоящее время применяются специальные устройства – уравнительные приборы.

Однако исследования показали, что в большинстве случаев можно отказаться от применения уравнительных приборов, заменив их тремя или четырьмя парами уравнительных рельсов длиной 12,5 м с укладкой на остальном протяжении моста бесстыкового пути. При этом компенсация температурных перемещений рельсового пути достигается изменением величины раскрытия зазоров в стыках уравнительных рельсов в пределах от 1 до 22 мм. Кроме того, в весенне-летний период один из уравнительных рельсов длиной 12,5 м заменяют на укороченный длиной 12,46 или 12,42 м, а в осенне-зимний период – наоборот. Эти сезонные уравнительные рельсы для обеспечения должной сохранности мостовых брусьев прикрепляют к ним с помощью раздельных болтовых скреплений.

Использование сезонных уравнительных рельсов и бесстыкового пути позволяет полностью отказаться от дефицитных уравнительных приборов, что значительно снижает затраты на укладку и содержание пути на больших мостах, понижает металоемкость и трудоемкость, повышает безопасность движения поездов, уменьшает динамическое воздействие поездной нагрузки, понижает уровень шума.

VIII Прочтите английский текст и сравните его с русским переводом.

Extending Wheel and Rail Life

1. The extension of the service lives of key railway components, such as rail and wheels, has been the focus of research efforts for a great many years. Through the advent of improved maintenance techniques, such as lubrication, profile grinding and the use of premium steels, component lives have been significantly extended. In some cases, rail life has reportedly doubled within the past 10 years. Throughout this period, the maintenance techniques and practices developed on the Western Australian heavy-haul ore railways have been among the most prominent techniques used to achieve extensions in components' lives.

2. Control of rail (and wheel) fatigue defects represents still another important aspect of extending their respective service lives, particularly under the high-axle-load conditions reported by the Australians. An earlier Australian paper reported a significant decrease in the development of transverse defects in both tangent and curved track as a function of several factors:

— Phasing out the original wheel profile.

— Relieving the rail's gauge corner through grinding.

— Introduction of modified narrow-flange wheels and asymmetrical rail profiles in curves.

— Replacement of the worst performing rails.

— Exhaustion of potential nucleation sites for the defects. (3)

This effect was also reported in the most recent Australian presentation which showed a dramatic reduction in rail defects (in both absolute numbers and in the number of defects per MGT), and the apparent relationship between this reduction in defects and the development of an aggressive rail-grinding and profile-maintenance program.

3. It must be noted, however, that the operating conditions on the Western Australian mining roads are significantly different from those in North America. The Australian roads have no severe curvature and only limited graces, so it is unreasonable to expect that these numbers can be duplicated under North American conditions. But given the similarity in axle loads, car types, track components and maintenance equipment, it appears that extensions of rail and wheel lives may be possible on North American railroads as they move toward a similar, total-system approach that addresses track and equipment problems inter-actively, rather than independently.

Given the high cost of track and equipment maintenance, extensions in component lives, and their corresponding reduction in overall maintenance costs, is of great importance to freight railroads in today’s environment.

Увеличение сроков службы рельсов и колёс

1. В последние годы разработаны эффективные меры продления срока службы рельсов и колёс. К ним относятся смазка, шлифовка и использование легированных сталей. В ряде случаев срок службы рельсов за последние годы удвоился. В наибольшей степени этого удалось добиться на грузонапряжённых рудовозных линиях Западной Австралии. Это достигнуто благодаря тщательному контролю за состоянием поверхностей контакта колёс и рельсов.

2. Контроль за очертанием профиля колеса в процессе эксплуатации наряду со шлифовкой рельсов дал в последнее время наибольший эффект на дорогах Австралии.

Другим важным фактором продления срока службы рельсов и колёс является снижение интенсивности развития дефектов контактно-усталостного происхождения. Особенно это важно для грузонапряжённых линий, где обращается подвижной состав с высокими осевыми нагрузками. На железных дорогах Австралии снижение интенсивности развития поперечных трещин в головне рельсов в прямых и кривых участках пути достигнуто благодаря проведению следующих мероприятий:

- восстановление первоначального профиля колеса;

- применение колёс с уменьшенной толщиной гребня и рельсов с ассиметричным профилем головни в кривых;

- замена изношенных рельсов;

- удаление потенциальных центров зарождения дефектов.

Значительное снижение числа дефектов контактно-усталостного происхождения также достигнуто благодаря интенсивной шлифовке рельсов и контролю за очертанием профиля колеса.

3. Условия эксплуатации железных дорог в Австралии существенно отличаются от условий Северной Америки. На линиях в Австралии отсутствуют кривые малого радиуса и крутые уклоны продольного профиля. Поэтому нельзя в полной мере переносить на американские дороги результаты, полученные в Австралии. Однако, на железных дорогах Америки также можно добиться увеличения срока службы рельсов и колёс, учитывая аналогичные осевые нагрузки, тип подвижного состава, конструкцию и технологию содержания пути.

При высокой стоимости содержания пути и подвижного состава продление срока их службы и соответствующее снижение эксплуатационных расходов имеет важное значение для линий с преимущественно грузовым движением.

Послетекстовые упражнения

I К следующим английским словосочетаниям подберите русские эквиваленты.

  1.  maintenance costs                1 повреждения рельсов
  2.  significant decrease              2 эксплуатационные расходы
    1.  axle load                               3 использование легированных


  1.  rail defects                           4 попытки исследования
  2.  the use of premium steels     5 осевая нагрузка
  3.  railway operation                  6 составные части пути
  4.  research efforts                     7 срок службы рельсов
  5.  the service life of rails         8 железнодорожное движение
  6.  track components                 9 значительное уменьшение

II Переведите следующие словосочетания на русский язык:

The extension of service lives of railway components, research efforts, profile grinding, railway operation, maintenance techniques, wheel-profile concept, the use of premium steels, significant decrease, axle-loads, rail defects, high cost of track, track and equipment maintenance, limited grader, gauge corner.

III Переведите следующие словосочетания на английский язык:

Эксплуатационные расходы, увеличение срока службы, повреждения рельсов, профиль колеса, использование легированных сталей, срок службы рельсов, осевая нагрузка, содержание пути, шлифовка, руководящий уклон, значительное уменьшение, железнодорожное движение, высокая стоимость пути, технология содержания пути, кривой участок пути, рабочая грань рельса.

IV Соедините слова из двух колонок, образуя словосочетания; переведите их.

1.  maintenance                          1.  grinding

2.  research                                 2.  decrease

3.  railway                                  3.  track

4.  wheel                                    4.  railroad

5.  curved                                   5.  techniques

6.  track                                      6.  efforts

7.  rail                                         7.  operation

8.  significant                             8.  profile

9.  limited                                   9.  components

10. axle                                      10. equipment

11. freight                                  11.  grades

12. profile                                  12.  load

V В соответствии с содержанием текста дополните незаконченные предложения одним из данных вариантов.

1. Through  the  advent  of  improved  maintenance techniques, such  as  lubrication,  profile  grinding  and  the  use of  premium  steels …

a) component lives have been significantly decreased

b) component lives have been significantly extended

2. An earlier Australian paper reported a significant decrease in the development of transverse defects in both …

a) limited grades and curved track

b) tangent and curved track

3. The  operating  conditions  on  the  Western  Australian  mining  roads are …

a) significantly different from those in North America

b) entirely the same as those in North America

Дополнительные тексты для тренировки и закрепления терминологии и лексики. Прочтите, переведите и перескажите тексты.

Text 1

Video Technology Improves

Clearance – Car Measurements.

In order to safely route dimensional shipments clearance information must be correct and up-to-date. After evaluating the shortcomings of each existing system the CSX Transportation clearance engineers decided to build a new clearance vehicle based on the photographic system. It consisted of a Chevrolet Suburban hi-rail vehicle with a 35-millimeter camera mounted on top of it. An intense beam of light emitted in a circular pattern and extending approximately 18 feet horizontally from the camera enabled the vehicle to measure clearances after dark. As the vehicle traveled down the track, the operator would stop when the light beam illuminated the adjacent structures and take a photograph. Because the camera was located a fixed distance from the light beam, the diagram scale was constant. The film was developed and placed on a view graph machine. The structure was then drawn on a piece of mylar and a clearance diagram was produced. Although the system worked, it was not efficient enough to warrant replacement.

After studying the available technology, it was decided to build an automated video system that would enable clearance engineers to link video with computer-assisted drafting technology. Construction of the CMV-1 began with the installation of an inverter, high-output alternator and two large diesel batteries. This was essentially the power supply which would change 12 volts DC to 120 volts AC.

The video components, consisting of a video monitor, a ¾ inch tape player, a camera-control unit and a console control unit are housed in cabinets.

In order to obtain the desired field of view, the camera and a special wide-angle lens had to be located approximately 21 feet from the image. This meant that the camera had to be supported above and behind the roof of the hi-rail vehicle. So, a special crane-like device that can lift the 25-pound camera and hold it securely in place was designed and mounted on top of the vehicle. The CMV-1 is able to measure clearances after dark, in foul weather and requires only one operator.

Among the advantages of the video are that clearance engineers can evaluate each cross section of a particular structure relative to its proximity to the track. Whether the track is on the curve, spiral or tangent affects the clearance profile of the structure. Engineers can also determine exactly what needs to be done to a particular structure to improve line clearance.

Another advantage of the video system is the ability to perform structure inspections. If desired, the structure being video taped can be illuminated by several high output exterior lights on the vehicle and inspected for the defects from the office by «blowing up» portions of the video tape.

This system is up-to-date and accurate enough to calculate distances for the safe passage of trains on adjacent tracks.

Text 2

Grade Crossings

When field supervisors determine that the use of geotextiles is warranted. They make certain that they’re installed deep enough in areas that may be undercut. Generally, that requires 12 inches of ballast and six inches of compacted subballast material be placed on top of the cloth. The material, which extends 10 feet beyond either end of the crossing, is laid on a sloped crown to facilitate drainage. Six inches of perforated pipe are aiso installed on each side of the crow.

Also standard when rebuilding a crossing is to use 78-foot rail lengths. Rail on branch lines is upgraded to 112-or 115-pound rail; mainlines get 132- or 136- pound rail. All rail joints within 10 feet of a crossing are welded.

In addition to the general BN guidelines, maintenance personnel on the Western Division have assembled a manual of grade-crossing renewal practices. The many items dealt with include:

- Fabric: lay soil fabrics after the grade has been leveled with a slope toward the corners; cover the fabric with enough subbalast to protect it.

- Anchors: The crossing should have a solid pattern; use enough anchors to standardize the pattern away from the crossing.

- Ballast: fill to the proper lift, tamp tie centers and fill tie cribs.

- Ties: Use enough (No. 5 hardwood, minimum) ties to extend 10 to 15 ties beyond each end of the crossing.

- Prates: Use the largest size available for the weight of the rail and type of crossing.

- Rail: Use the largest size that is appropriate; use enough rail so that there are no joints within 20 to 30 feet of the crossing.

Grade crossings are often replaced at the discretion of the roadmaster, and the surflaces are not necessarily replaced in-kind. Existing asphalt crossings, for example, may be replaced with panelized full-depth timber. BN has standard plans for a number of crossing types- anywhere from the standard minimum 16-foot timber crossing, for farm or private crossings, to a variety of rubber surfaces, from wood-shimmed to full-depth, to concrete crossings for wood and concrete ties.

When selecting a replacement type, field supervisors are free to choose the appropriate surface for the prevailing conditions, within reason.

Although no longer in BN’s standard plan, there are some locations, such as industrial tracks with light highway and train traffic, where asphalt with a flange and header rail may be the most appropriate surface. In most cases, through, only about 10 % of the asphalt crossings come back as asphalt when renewed.

Most of the shimmed four-inch timber crossings that are reinstalled as full-depth timber. Although four-inch plank crossings are no longer in its standard plan, BN does not prevent field supervisors from ordering them. «If they really think they have to have something other that the standard plan, they can order it,» he says. At present, the bulk of BN’s crossings are full-depth timber, which, he says, may be the best type for light highway and heavy rail traffic conditions.

In spite of their attention to the difficulty and the expense of maintaining grade crossings, engineers are quick to admit that railroads do a poor job of collecting data on the condition of grade crossings, and they don’t really know what to expect of the available materials. To remedy this, AREA Committee 9, Highway-Rail Crossings, has begun working with the American Society for Testing Materials come up with crossing-material performance specifications. Lab tests will include wear cycles, impacts, of various chemicals, such as salt and soda ash, and various surfaces’ load capacities. While these tests won’t tell engineers exactly what will happen in the field, they will give them some parameters to work within.

Text 3

Series 300 Paves the Way

Known as Super-Hikari, the 16 – car Series 300 train was developed and entered revenue operation on Central Japan railway with the speed of 270 km/h.

Each Series 300 train is made up of five three- car sets and an independent driving trailer.

Four 300 km. asynchronous traction motors are used on each of the 10 powered vehicles, giving a total continuous rating for the train of 12000 km.

Car width and Series 100 sets, but the new trains are 350 mm lower, the smaller cross-section giving less wind resistance. The train also has flush-fitting doors and shielded under floor equipment to reduce drag.

Use of aluminum alloy body shells and asynchronous three-phase traction motors has cut the weight of the Series 300 by 25 per cent. A substantial saving has come from a new seat form 28 to 12 kg.

Smaller wheels are used to suit the lower body profile. Three specially –developed low-noise pantographs are fitted to each 16-cra train, each mounted in a shielded turret. As a further saving, the production- build train sets are normally run with only two pantographs raised at any time.

Whilst the primary aim of the Series 300 design has been faster speed, the passengers have not been neglected. Each train set carries 1123 second and 200 first class passengers.

Every other vehicle includes special seats for handicapped people and babies.

There is no buffet or restaurant vehicle, but the second class cars No 7 and 11 are provided with a shop selling drinks and light refreshments to take away.

A small server area is designed to allow airline style at-seat service to first class passengers.

Список сокращений, часто встречающихся в научно-технической литературе Англии и США


a. h.

a. m.

at. wt.

Br. P.

b. s.



c. c.

c. c. w.


c. f. m.



d. c.



e. g.

E. M. F.





f. p. m.




hf. h.

Hi-FI, hi-fi

h. p.

i. e.

I. E. C.




  1.  h.




m. p. h.



o. d.



p. m.

p. s.


R. f.

r. p. m.



sp. Gr.


Sq. ft.

T. W.


vol., v.





Atomic weight

British Patent

Both sides



Cubic centimeter



Cubic feet per minute



Direct current



Exempli gratid (лат)

Electromotive force

Et cetera (лат)




Feet per minute

Factor of safety

Greenwich Apparent Time



High fidelity

Horse power

Id est (лат)

International Electrotechnical









Miles per hour



Outer diameter



Post meridiem (лат)

Per second

Pounds per square inch

Radio frequency

Revolutions per minute


Signal to noise

Specific gravity


Square foot

Total weight




Краткое изложение


До полуночи

Атомный вес

Британский патент

1 обе стороны, двухсторонний;

2 смотри на обороте

Стоградусная температурная шкала (Цельсия)

1 емкость

2 емкостное сопротивление

Кубический сантиметр

Против часовой стрелки


Кубических фунтов в минуту

По часовой стрелке


Постоянный ток

1 Степень  2 Градус

Чертеж, рисунок


Электродвижущая сила

И так далее

Температурная шкала Рентгена


Рисунок, четреж

Фунтов в минуту

Коэффициент безопасности

Запас прочности

Истинное время по Гринвичскому меридиану


Средней твердости

Высокая точность

Лошадиная сила

То есть

Международная Электротехническая Комиссия




Левый, левосторонний, с левым ходом




Миль в час



Внешний диаметр

Унция (28, 35 г)


(во столько-то) часов пополудни

В секунду

Фунтов на квадратный дюйм

Высокая частота

Оборотов в минуту


Отношение «сигнал-шум»

Удельный вес


Квадратный фунт

Общий вес


Том, т



Предисловие ……………………………………………………. 3

Урок 1 …………………………………………………………… 4

Урок 2 …………………………………………………………… 25

Урок 3 …………………………………………………………… 50

Дополнительные тексты для тренировки и закрепления

терминологии и лексики………………………………………. 70

Список сокращений, часто встречающихся в научно-

технической литературе Англии и США …………………… 74



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80735. Parts of speech classification, gram-l classes of words 27.62 KB
  There are three main criteria according to which we classify the words into a different gram. classes. They are meaning, form function. not the individual lexical meaning of each word but the meaning common to all the words of a given class which constitutes its essence; form, it’s the morphological characteristics of a type of word...
80736. Text linguistic 28.24 KB
  One-direction sequences can be used in dialogue, when a utterance is not a rejoinder, but a continuation the stimulating utterance addressed the same third party or to both speakers themselves, e. g. St. Erth, all money goes fellows who don’t know a horse from a haystack.- Canynge. And care less want men racing to whom a horse in something.
80738. Morphology: General Principles. Structure of English words 27.02 KB
  Lexicology- is a brunch of linguistics which study the meaning and use of words. In English as in many other languages the word is the smallest unit able to form a sentence by itself. Most words consist of meaningful parts called morphemes, accordingly all Eng. Words fall into two large classes...
80739. The Etimology of English words 26.49 KB
  Etimology study the origin of words and word equivalents. Acc. to the origin all present-day Eng. Words can be divided into two groups: native words, which have been part of the Eng. Vocabulary since the old Eng. period; borrowed words (loan words) which were taken from another lang-ge at a certain stage of Eng. history.
80741. Title as the coding unit of text 27.42 KB
  Lets begin with the units used in titles. Usually these are nouns in the niminative position in singular or plural, combined with position or without it (Mother, Devils, War and Peace) But there may be verbs used in the imperative mood (Live with Lightning), in the firm of the infinitive (to let)...
80742. Syntax and its object. The problem of sentence definition 28.07 KB
  The problem of the definition of S. remains unsolved. There exist 400 different definitions of a S. which fall into 4 main types: psychological, logical, phonetical, structural. The following definition of a S.5 that the S. is a minimal unit of communication is adopted by almost every grammarian.
80743. Paradigmatic structure of the sentence 28.45 KB
  Paradigmatic finds its expression in a system of apposition s making the corresponding meaningful (functional) categories syntactic oppositions are realized by correlated sentence patterns, the relations between which can be described as “transformations”, i.e. transitions to another partern of certain notional parts...