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Педагогика и дидактика

It was a warm, sunny day in the spring. A large brown hen had brought her chicks outdoors. She was scratching in the dirt in the barnyard. The chicks were imitating her.

Английский

2014-05-16

7.06 MB

1 чел.

DO ANIMALS COMMUNICATE?

It was a warm, sunny day in the spring. A large brown hen had brought her chicks outdoors. She was scratching in the dirt in the barnyard. The chicks were imitating her. Suddenly, the hen made a clucking noise. When the chicks heard her, they ran to her.

It was a cool fall day. A young male bear was looking for a good place to live. He saw a cave and he went to look at it. But when he got near the cave, he saw a tree with deep scratches on it. The scratches were high above his head. The bear decided to look for another cave.

Several female deer were grazing in field with their fawns. One of the deer raised her head and looked toward the road. A large dog and a man with a gun were walking into the field. None of the other deer had seen the man and the dog. But when the deer that had seen them put her tail up, all of the deer and their fawns ran into the forest.

What happened? Why did the little chicks run to their mother? Why did the bear decide to move on? Why did all the deer run into the forest? When the hen made the clucking noise, she was telling her chicks that she had found food for them.

When the bear saw the scratches high on the tree, he knew that they had been made by a bear that was much bigger than he. He knew that he was in another bear's territory.

When the one deer showed the other deer the white hair that grew under her tail, she was warning them of danger. Although they hadn't seen the hunter and the dog, they recognised the signal.

We read that communication is giving or exchanging news or information. Although these animals couldn't read or write or speak a human \ language, they were communicating. Scientists have found that almost I every species of animal has a communication system, j Animals exchange information about food, about territory, about daniger and safety. They express fear, hunger, anger, pleasure, and recognition. Animal messages are not always expressed in sounds. The scratches on | the tree were made by a large bear that was saying, «l'm a very large bear, and this is my territory!»Some animals mark their territory in different ways.

Rabbits have scent glands; under their chins. When they rub these glands on stones and twigs, the smell that remains tells other animals that the territory is occupied by a rabbit.

Another animal that defends itself or its territory with a smell is a 1 skunk. It gives a warning signal by stamping its feet. Then it turns around, lifts its tail, and sprays a terrible-smelling substance.

Some animals communicate by touching. Lions, tigers, and other members of the cat family show friendliness by rubbing their heads or necks together.

Colour is sometimes very important in animal communication. Somekinds of fish change colour when they are angry or frightened. A peacock displaysthe beautifully coloured feathers in his tail when he wants to attract a female.

The next time you are walking in a forest or a field, look and listen for animal signals. But if you see scratches in a tree high above your head,find another place to walk!

Do Animals Communicate?

Exercises:

Words and word combinations to remember:

  •  to scratch in the dirt, to imitate smb., to make a clucking noise, a cave, to graze in the field, to warn smb. of danger, to be in smb's territory, a communication system, to express recognition, animal messages, to mark the territory in different ways, to be occupied by smb., to give a warning signal, to show friendliness.

Make up short situations or a story using the following words:

  •  to imitate smb., to warn smb. of danger, to be in smb's territory, to express fear, to be occupied by smb., to give a warning signal, to show friendliness.

Find the antonyms to the given words from the text:

  •  cold day in the winter, small, an old bear, a bad place to live, low, to move on, the white hair, animal language, unimportant, awfully coloured feathers, this time, below your head.

Which of the animals mentioned below was:

  •  was looking for a good place to live, large brown, was grazing in field with their fawns, young male. Was scratching in the dirt in the barnyards.

MAN AND ANIMAL

It's true that the British are a nation of animal lovers but they are not the first people to be interested in cats, dogs and other creatures. A book by a French journalist called Jean-Jacques Barloy has the title Man and Animal. It tells a long history of the relationship that human beings have with animals. It shows that men can often be very cruel, but that sometimes men treat animals better than they treat other people.

In ancient Egypt, people believed that the cat was a god. When a cat died, its owners snowed their sadness by the strange habit of shaving their eyebrows off! More recently, in the last century in fact, the famous English writer Charles Dickens had a cat that was very fond of him. The cat didn't like to see Dickens working too hard. At night, when the cat wanted to say, «Stop writing!» to his master, he often put out the candle-with his paw!

Today, the dog is one of our favourite animals. But even 9000 years ago, the Greeks and Persians had dogs as pets. However, when animals become pets, says Jean-Jacques Barloy, the result, after a number of generations, is a smaller animal with a smaller brain. Rabbits, for example, which live as pets in a garden in a wooden box are much less intelligent than their wild cousins. Of course, man doesn't always keep animals for pleasure. Many animals have to work for their masters, like the teams of husky dogs, which still work in Antarctica. In Roman times, the Emperor Heliogabalus had a team of tigers to work for him. He used them instead of horses to pull his chariot (the open carriage the Romans used in battle).

Mr Barloy's book shows that animals can be more intelligent than we think they are. He tells us about a farm in Namibia, Africa, which has 80 goats. Instead of a goatherd there is a female baboon. She takes her goats to the hills every day and brings them back at night. She always knows exactly which goats are hers, which is more than many humans could do!

Man and Animal

Exercises

Words and word combinations to remember:

  •  Animal lovers, to treat animals better, to be a good, to show smb's sadness, to shave smb's eyebrows off, a number of generations, to be much less intelligent than smb., to keep animals for pleasure, to pull a chariot, to use in battle, a female baboon, to take smb. to the hills, to bring back at night, to know exactly.

Replace the underlined parts of the sentences by equivalents from the list above:

  •  It show that the men can often be very cruel, but that sometimes men take care of animals and they don't do the same with other people.
  •  In ancient Egypt, people believed that the cat was a divine creature.
  •  When a cat died, its owners presented their bitterness by the strange habit of shaving their hair off!
  •  However, when animals become pets, says Jean - Jacques Barloy, the result, after a big quantity of lives, is a smaller animal with a smaller brain.
  •  Of course, man doesn't always have animals for fun.

Fill in the blanks with the following words: creature, cat, nation, animal, famous, master, human, favorite, goat.

1. It's true that the British are a... of animal lovers but they are not the first people to be interested in cats, dogs and other...

2. More recently, in the last century in fact, the... English writer Charles Dickens had a... that was very fond of him.

3. Today, the dog is one of our... animals.

4. Many... have to work for their..., like the teams of husky dogs, which still work in Antarctica.

5. She always knows exactly which... are hers, which is more than many... could do.

Write as many questions as possible to these answers.

It tells a long history of the relationship that human beings have with animals.

At night, when the cat wanted to say, "Stop writing!" to his master, he often put out the candle with his paw!

But even 9000 years ago, the Greeks and Persian had dogs and pets.

In Roma times, the Emperor Heliogabalus had a team of tigers to work for him.

Mr. Barloy's book shows that animals can be more intelligent than we think they are

WHAT ANIMAL HELPED TO SETTLE NORTH AMERICA?

Many animals in North America were very important as food and clothing for native Indians and also for the early settlers. But probably most important was the part played by the American beaver in the settling of remote regions of North America. The significance of this animal in the history of North America has often been recognised. One historian remarked that the beaver was one of the most important facts in American history.

When the first settlers first came to America, there were plenty of beavers in New England and eastern Canada where they were trapped by the Indians. The settlers established trade with the natives and soon beavers became scarce in the more civilised places. The trading posts dealing with furs later became flourishing cities. In Canada beaver skins became the basis of value. A person could sell one beaver skin for a pound of tobacco, four skins for a blanket, and twelve for a rifle.

Although the fur of the beaver was the most important part of the animal, other parts of the body were also used. The flesh was eaten by many people and the tail was considered a special delicacy. A substance known as castoreum was used in medicine.

The beaver was the central figure on the first Canadian postage stamp.

The beaver was at one time widely distributed in Europe and in some parts of Asia, but it is now rather rare and those who still live there don't build dams. Some biologists say this may be because men mercilessly hunted them. However in our country, as well as in some remote regions of Norway and Sweden, beavers are protected and dam building exists.

What Animal Helped to Settle North America?

Exercises:

Words and word combinations to remember:

  •  Early settles; the significance; to be recognized; to be one of the most important facts in history; to be trapped by smb.; to establish trade; to become scarce; to become the basis of value; to be considered a special delicacy; a substance; to be the central figure; to be widely distributed; to build dams; mercilessly; to be protected.

Insert the words from the list above:

1. Many animals in North America were very important for native Indians and also for the... 2.The... of his animal in the history of North America has often... 3. The settlers... with the natives and soon beavers... in the more civilised places. 4. In Canada beaver skins.... 5. The flesh was eaten by many people and the tail was... 6. A... known as castoreum was used in medicine. 7. The beaver was... on the first Canadian postage stamp. 8. The beaver was at one time... in Europe and in some parts of Asia. 9. Some biologists say this may be because men...hunted them. 10. However in our country beavers... and... building exists.

Complete the sentences:

  1.  One historian remarked that...
  2.  When the first settlers first came to America...
  3.  Although the fur of the beaver was the most important part of the animal,...
  4.  The beaver was at one time widely distributed in Europe and in come parts of Asia...
  5.  However in our country, as well as in some remote regions of Norway and Sweden...
  6.  Supply the Past Indefinite, the Present Indefinite. Make them negative and interrogative.

But probably most important (to be) the part played by the American beaver in the settling of remote regions of North America.

The trading post dealing with furs later (to become) flourishing cities.

A person (can sell) one beaver skin for a pound of tobacco, four skins for a blanket, and twelve for a rifle.

The beaver (to be) at one time widely distributed in Europe and in some parts of Asia, but it (to be) now rather rare and whose who still (to live) there (not to build) dams.

Some biologists (to say) this may (to be) because men mercilessly (to hunt) them.

Crosswords:

1

3

4

2

5

6

7

Down:

1.Animal, that sees only above its eye level.

2. Animal, which can live for 300 years and is cold-blooded.

3. Animal, that can live for many years without food.

4. It tastes with its skin.

5. It has blue blood.

Across:

5. Animal, that lives the longest life. It sometimes lived between 300 and 400 years.

6. The largest animal which ever lived. It sometimes weighs 300,000 pounds.

7. Animal, which never sleeps.

Find 22 wild animals:

(You can choose any direction)

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Find 16 domestic animals:

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Do you know?

  1.  What animal lives the longest life?

а) tortoise;

b) crocodile;

c) elephant.

  1.  What animal (fish) has its teeth in its stomach and its stomach in its head?

a) dolphin;

b) crayfish;

c) shark.

  1.  What animal has only seven vertebrae in its long neck, while a small squirrel has fourteen?

a) whale;

b) giraffe;

c) snake.

  1.  What animal is the largest in the world?

a) elephant;

b) whale;

c) camel.

  1.  What animal washes its food in the nearest water?

a) cat;

b) wolf;

c) raccoon.

  1.  What animal can live without food longer than a camel

a) hamster;

b) seal;

c) tortoise.

  1.  What animal was first domesticated in South America many years ago before Columbus reached the New World?

a) horse;

b) turkey;

c) chicken.

  1.  What animals lay the largest eggs?

a) sharks and ostriches;

b) snakes and cuckoos;

c) whales and tigers.

9. What animal (bird) can look directly into the 

a) peacock;

b) eagle;

c) sparrow.

10. What animal doesn't sleep all the winter?

a) hare;

b) bear;

c) squirrel.


 

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