60454

Writing Esseys

Научная статья

Педагогика и дидактика

I think that writing can be a challenge for most of the students. I don’t find it is an easy process. Even though I myself enjoy writing as it is a way to make connections with the world outside.

Английский

2014-05-18

81.5 KB

0 чел.

Writing Esseys

I think that writing can be a challenge for most of the students. I don’t find it is an easy process. Even though I myself enjoy writing as it is a way to make connections with the world outside. Writing is also a way to connect with our inner world – our world of thoughts, feelings, and dreams. Writing is thinking on paper. Writing is creating. It is a powerful thought in the world of language.

 Writing is a complex task and requires everything from getting spelling to a combination of thoughts hard work and intuition for how to begin, organize, please readers and so on.

 Our goals in practicing writing should be to teach students:

  •  To be critical
  •  To become more creative
  •  To be able to organize information
  •  To become confident about grammar and syntax
  •  To link sentences smoothly
  •  How to write effective introductions and conclusions
  •  To distinguish among many forms of writing essays, stories, letters, etc.

 

 There are two main directions teachers should work at

Developing their students critical thinking skills, as critical thinking is the basis for creative thinking and writing.

 Another important point in learning to write is how to do this. We learn to write by writing. The more often our students write, the more successful they become.

 There are different ways how to be perfect and successful in writing. We achieve excellent results in it writing different kinds of essays, letters, narratives, articles and reports.

 When you write a composition, you need to understand the type of writing required. Formal or informal style.

 The writing style you should use depends on the type of composition you are writing. There fore, you should not use the same style of writing for every composition. The tow main types of writing style are formal and informal. However not all style of writing fall under these categories.

 There is semiformal style when you appeal to somebody whom you do not know very well.

Formal style is characterized by:

  1.  Formal expressions, advanced vocabulary, longer sentences

E.g. Taking everything into consideration, facilities offered…

  1.  Formal linking words

Nevertheless, consequently, However, In addition, etc.

  1.  No use of short forms

I would be grateful if

  1.  Impersonal tone

Use of the passive, no description of feelings

  1.  Factual presentation of the information

Constructed in the late of 1800s…

Informal style is characterized by:

  1.  Everyday expressions, vocabulary,

E.g. I thought I’d drop you a line… Thanks a million…

  1.  Frequent use of short forms: I’ll be back soon… I won’t be able to come to your party
  2.  Informal phrasal verbs  Nelly takes after her father. She’s…
  3.  Simple linking words and phrases.  But, so, and, because etc.
  4.  Shorter sentences.  I’d love to come. Thanks a lot for the invitation
  5.  Personal tone.  We’ve got great news
  6.  Descriptive tone. It was bitterly cold winter evening.

Semi-Formal style is characterized by:

1)The use of less colloquial language  E.g. Thank you very much for your letter. (Instead of: Thanks a million for your letter.)

2)Less frequent use of short forms, phrasal verbs and idioms E. G. I am writing to request information about… (Instead of: I thought I’d drop you a line to ask about…)

3)A polite, respectful tone  E. G.  I was wondering if you had… (Instead of: Do you have…)

Another point you should pay attention to: your ideas must be organized into paragraphs. The layout of three parts: an introduction, a main body and a conclusion

  1.  The introduction is a short paragraph which gives the reader a general idea of the subject of the composition. It should attract the reader’s attention.
  2.  Main body

The main body usually consists of two, tree or more paragraphs and its purpose is to develop points related to the subject of the composition. The number of paragraphs and the way you divide them depends on the topics of the composition. Whenever you discuss a new topic, you should begin a new paragraph.

  1.  Conclusion.

The conclusion is a short final paragraph in which you should summarize the main idea of the subject, make general comments, express your feelings, etc.

    Another important role in writing play linking words and phrases.

  Linking words and phrases make your writing more interesting and easier to understand. Some linking words and phrases (e.g. In addition, however, on the other hand, etc.) show how ideas are related either between two sentences or two paragraphs.

 Linking words and phrases can be used to:

  •  Show time: when, before, as soon as while, etc.
  •  List points or show sequence: firstly, to start with, finally, etc.
  •  Add more points: moreover, in addition, and also, furthermore, etc.
  •  Show cause or effect:  because, since as a result, so, consequenly, etc.
  •  Give examples: for example, for instance, especially, such as, etc.
  •  Show contrast: however, although, despite, on the other hand, etc.
  •  Introduce a conclusion: to sum up, to conclude, finally, all in all.

  There are a variety of writing techniques you can use to make your composition more interesting and attractive to the reader.

 To begin or end your essay you can:

  •  Adress the reader directly.  You can imagine what life would be without water.
  •  Use direct speech to give somebody’s exact words, a quotation from a famous person, a proverb or a saying (a well-known phrase) After all, “Where there is a will, there is a way”
  •  Use a rhetorical question (a question that does not expect a reply)   What would modern society be like without television?
  •  Start a narrative by setting the scene (By using the senses to describe the weather, almosphere, surroundings and suspense. It was a cold autumn’s night. The wind was blowing hard as Jack was walking down the dark empty road.
  •  Use a variety of adjectives, adverbs and verbs to make your composition more attractive to the reader.  “Hold on” Jane screamed to Dan as she desperately tried to help him get out of the freezing water.

            You should always edit your piece of writing before handing it in. In order to do this, you should make sure:

  •  You have used complete sentences and that the words are in the correct order  (subject, verb, object, ect.)
  •  You have used the correct grammar  (past tenses for narratives)
  •  You do not repeat the same words, phrases, expressions, ect.)
  •  There are no spelling errors.
  •  You have used the correct punctuation  (commas, full stops, question marks, ect.)
  •  You have intented the paragraphs (have begun the first line of each paragraph further in from the margin)

I would like to start speaking with essays.

 Almost all academic essays follow this or that basic techniques. Knowing how these patterns work will help the students to plan and to organize their thoughts.

 Systematizing essays into different types will help students to understand what they need to write.

 For and against essays in which you discuss the advantages and disadvantages of a specific topic are one of the most popular.

 You may find this type of writing in articles, newspapers, magazines, etc.

And now I would like to pay your attention to the screen and I would like to share my opinion how do we work with for/against essay


Argumentative essay (for/against a statement)

Write an essay of 200-250 words for or against the following statement:

 Shopping centres have improved the way we shop.

The way we shop

Shopping centres have changed the way we shop – but is this really an improvement?

One positive aspect of shopping centres is convenience: we can find everything from groceries to electronics, from cosmetics to clothes, under the same roof.

Furthermore, shopping centres offer entertainment facilities, like cinemas or bowling alleys, with an enormous range of things to buy and to do.

In addition to this, they are places where you can meet people and socialise in cafes and restaurants. They have become the focus of social life for many teenagers.

However, smaller local shops which used to offer a friendlier, more personal service are closing down because they cannot keep up with the competition.

The same thing is happening to local cinemas, and sometimes even bars and restaurants. In fact, we are losing places that were once important in our lives.

Another disadvantage of shopping centres is that they offer bland, uniform products all over the world – local character is disappearing. In order to supply a large number of custom- made products.

To summarise, on the one hand, they offer a more comfortable shopping experience, but on the other hand, they make us all the same: customers in a commercialised world where the most important things are things you can buy.

In my view, shopping centres are useful, but we should not allow them to change the world we live in.

More useful phrases:

Furthermore,…           

In addition to this,…

A further (negative/positive) aspect of this…

For one thing,…

For example,…

For instance,…

Such as…

On the one hand,…

In contrast,…

However,…

In fact,…

Actually,…

On the other hand,…

As far as I’m concerned,…

In my view / opinion,…

My view / opinion is that…

To sum up,…

To summarise,…

In conclusion,…


   Preparing essay writing we do a great number of exercises.

1)Using expressions from the essay write about pros and cons of   “The way we shop”

Main body

Paragraph

For

Arguments

1. convenience

Justifications / Examples

We can’t find everything from groceries to electronics

Against

Arguments

1. Smaller local shops are closing down

Justifications / examples

They cannot keep up with competition        

I like the students to have their own ideas, so I prefer doing exercises of such kind:

  1.  Look at these two opinions:

A   It’s important to keep post offices open.

B   The Internet is more useful than post offices.

Now read the nine statements below and decide if you think they support opinion A or opinion B.

a)1 – Email is very popular these days.

2 – Post offices are important in the community.

3 – Many people don’t have computers.

4 – If you buy goods from websites, somebody has to deliver them.

5 – Emailing saves paper and petrol – it’s good for the environment

6 – Internet communication is cheap or free and it arrives immediately

7 – There are more postal services than the Internet can provide.

8 – You can have access to the Internet at any time and any place.

9 – Post offices belong to the past, not the present.

b)Think about the two opinions and the list of statements in exercise a). Decide if you agree more with A or B. Try to think of ways of arguing against the points you don’t agree with. Write three more statements, using your own ideas.

c)Look again at the statements you agree with in exercise a), and at your own counter-arguments in exercise b). What is the most logical order for these arguments? Which point should be made first, then second, and so on? Number the statements 1, 2, etc.

d)Two words are missing from each sentence. Write in the correct words.

  1.  This is not ___ easy question to decide; the issue is complicated and many factors have to ____ considered.
  2.  ____is true that computers can achieve many things, but ___ all these things are good.
  3.  Communication is very important these days, and we have various ways ____ communicate with ___ other.
  4.  We are living in a time ___ great change, so it is hard to know what____ going to happen.


Writing Letters

Writing letters make popular nowadays, young people send e-mail letters each other and have e-mail friends.

Writing letters is a widely spread kind of communication. Writing letters is pleasing and effective.

There are various types of letters, such as:

  •  Informal letters (giving news, asking for/ giving advice/information, thanking/ congratulating / inviting someone, ect.)
  •  Letters of application
  •  Letters of complain
  •  Letters to the editor
  •  Letters of apology
  •  Letters of invitation
  •  Transactional letters, ect.

Reasons Writing a Letter

The type of letters you should write depends on the reason for writing (to give your news, to invite somebody to a party, to apply for a job, to make a complain, etc) Depending on the rubric you may be asked to write a letter for more than one reason (to give your news and ask for advice) The most common reasons for writing a letter are:

  •  Giving / asking about news
  •  Giving / asking for advice
  •  Giving / asking for information
  •  Apologizing for something
  •  Thanking someone
  •  Congratulating someone
  •  Inviting someone
  •  Accepting / refusing an invitation
  •  Making suggestions

A good letter should consists of:

  1.  an appropriate greeting (Dear Sam)
  2.  an introduction, in which you write your opening remarks (hi! How are you?) and  reason for writing (I’m writing to apologize for…, We are sorry to hear that…,)
  3.  a main body, in which subject in development (you write about the specific topics of the letters in detail) Begin a new paragraph for each main point
  4.  a conclusion, in which you write your closing remarks and sum up the topic or express your wish for something to be done (Looking forward to seeing you…! Please, write soon. Take care! That’s all for now. Etc)
  5.  an appropriate ending (Yours faithfull / sincerely + your full name)

The writing style you should use (formal, informal or semi – formal), depends on who you are writing to. More specifically:

  1.  When you are writing to someone you know well (your friend, a close relative,) you should use informal style.

The characteristics of informal style in letters are:

  •  Address and date (your address and date (your address in the top, right-hand corner, followed by the date)
  •  Greeting
  •  Informal language and style (idioms, colloquial language, abbreviated forms) I’ve been trying to write to you for ages
  •  Ending (Yours / Love / Best wishes)
  1.  When you are writing to someone you do not know or to someone who is in authority you should use formal style

The characteristics of formal style in letters are:

  •  Address and date (your address as well as recipient’s the date)
  •  Greeting (Dear Sir / Madam)
  •  Frequent use of the passives
  •  Formal language (complex sentences, non-colloquial language)
  •  Ending (Yours sincerely / faithfull + your full name)
  1.  When you are writing to someone you do not know very well, or someone you want to be polite and respectful to you should use semi-formal style

Notes:

  1.  When you begin with Dear Mr/ Mrs/ Ms Brown, you should end with Yours sincerely + your full name.
  2.  When you begin with Dear Sir / Madam, you should end with Yours faithfull + your full name
  3.  Informal (friendly) letters begin with Dear + first name and end with Love / Yours /Best wishes + first name
  4.  Semi – formal letters can begin with Dear Mr/ Mrs + surname and end Best wishes/ Yours + first name/ full name

Formal Letters – Letters of Complaint

  In a formal letter making a complaint, you may use a mild tone, for complaints about minor problems or a strong tone, for complaints about more serious matters, especially when you are extremely upset or insulting.

 Letters of complaint are normally written in a formal style.

  •  Start a new paragraph for each different aspect of the topic
  •  You should state the reason for the complaint in the first paragraph.
  •  Any complaints you make should be supported with a justification
  •  Complaints and justifications can be linked together as follows: I still have not received the goods I ordered in spite of/despite the fact that I sent you a cheque three weeks ago. Although / Even though I have only used the automatic tin opener once, it no longer works. I have written to you twice but you have not taken any action…I have already written to you twice. Nevertheless/However, you have not taken any action

  Useful Language for Letters of Application

  •  In the opening remarks, you should state your complaint, including details of what has happened and where/when the incident took place. I am writing in connection with…/ to complain about/on account of/because of/ on the subject if… the terrible behaviour/attitude/rudeness of…/ I am writing to draw your attention to… Which…(Strong) I was appalled at/I want to express my strong dissatisfaction with/ I feel must protest/complain about…/ I wish to bring to your attention a problem which arose due to your staff/ inefficiency…/ I am writing to express my dissatisfaction/ unhappiness with the product/treatment I received from…on…
  •  In the main body paragraphs, you present each of the specific points you are complaining about. You start a new paragraph for5 each point and justify these points by giving exampless/reasons         ( Although you advertise top quality, I felt that the product I purchased was well below the standart I expected)
  •  In the closing remarks, you should explain what you expect to happen (to be given a refund/replacement/apology) I hope / assume you will replace… I feel believe that I am entitled to a replacement/ refund… I trust the situation will improve hope we can sort this matter out amicably / I hope that this matter can be resolved/ dealt with promptly. (Strong) I insist on/ I demand a full refund/ an immediate replacement. Or I shall be forced to take legal action/ the matter further action
  •  When you want to introduce another complaint in a letter, you can begin the sentence with one of the following linking words or phrases: what is more, in addition, furthermore, moreover.

Exercise 1: Read the letter and state the topic of each paragraph. Is it a mild or strong letter of complaint? Then fill in the table below with the complaints and justification.

  •  


Exercise 2: Read the rubric and underline the key words, then answer the questions.

You recently went for a meal at Planet Hollywood’s fast food restaurant, which is part of an international chain. Unfortunately, the service was very slow and the food was badly cooked, so you complained to the supervisor. However, he was very rude to you and insisted on your paying for the mail. You have decided to write a letter of complaint to the company’s head office. Write your letter, explaining the reasons for your complaint and saying what you expect the company to do.

  1.  What is the reason for your writing?
  2.  Do you know the person you are writing to?
  3.  Would you use mild or strong language? Why?
  4.  How would you begin and end your letter?
  5.  How many main body paragraphs should you write? What should the topic of each one be?
  6.  Read the advertisement and the complaints in the speech bubbles. Then, use the complaints and suitable linking words/phrases to explain the reasons why you are complaining.
  7.  What would you expect the company to do? (refund, dismiss the supervisor, improve service, check on quality of food) In which paragraph would you write your demands?

Write your letter of complaint (120-180 words), using your answers to help you. You can use previous letters as for writing it.

Exercise 3: Read the following letter of complaint and number the paragraphs in the right order. Then, find the topic of each paragraph. Is it a mild or strong complaint? Justify your answer. Add a salutation and a name.

  •  Furthermore, when I ordered the items over the phone, I was told that if I was not satisfied, I could return the clothes and receive a refund.
  •  I am writing to express my strong dissatisfaction with the quality of the clothes I ordered from your catalogue last month
  •  I insist that you refund my money at once. I trust the matter will receive your immediate attention
  •  When I received the merchandise, the trousers were not linen, as advertised in the catalogue, but were made of an inferior fabric. This is unacceptable. Moreover, the blouse had a small hole under the collar.
  •  Although I have already sent back the items with a letter requesting that my money be returned, I have not yet received a reply from you.

Exercise 4: Write the following letters in the appropriate style using 120- 180 words.

  1.  You stayed at a holiday resort recommended by your travel agent. However, you did not not enjoy your stay due to a number of difficulties. Write a letter describing them and asking for actions to be taken.
  2.  You have recently bought a tape-recorder but it does not work properly. Write a letter of complaint to the manager of the shop where you bought it.
  3.   Write a letter to Eagle Airways complaining about the bad food and service you received during one of their flights.

 

Exercise 5: Formal letters? Couple of question?

  1.  When writing a formal letter to the Hackney Learning trust, What do you end with? Your Faithfully?
  2.  When writing a letter to the Hackney Learning trust, do you put “Dear”?
  3.  Please tell me what i should write in the first paragraph to a complaint letter. (i mean should i write why i am writing this letter)
  4.  How could i start the first sentence or sentences?
  5.  What should the main bit be to write in the second paragraph?
  6.  What about the third?
  7.  And last?
  8.  What are the things i must include in a formal letter??

Exercise 6: Which phrase or type of language would you find in formal letter? Which phrase or type of language would you find in an informal letter? Put the letter F next to those phrases or language types that are used in formal letters and I next to those used in informal letters.

  •  

  •  I am sorry to inform you that…
  •  Phrasal verbs
  •  I’m very grateful for…
  •  Why don’t we…
  •  I will not be able to attend the…
  •  Idioms and slang
  •  Contracted verb forms like we’ve
  •  Give my regards to…
  •  I look forward to hearing from you…
  •  Let me know as soon as…
  •  I’m really sorry I…
  •  We had a little bit of luck…
  •  I use my pencil sharper for…
  •  Polite phrases
  •  Fewer passive verb forms
  •  Dear Ms Smithers
  •  Best wishes
  •  Yours faithfully

  •  Short sentences

Look at the phrases 1-11 and match them with a purpose A-K

  1.  That reminds me…                                            1) to finish the letter
  2.  Why don’t we…                                                2) to apologize
  3.  I’d better get going…                                        3) to thank the person for writing
  4.  Thanks for your letter…                                    4) to begin the letter
  5.  Please let me know…                                        5) to change the subject
  6.  I’m really sorry…                                              6) to ask a favor
  7.  Love                                                                   7) before signing the letter
  8.  Could you do something for me?                       8) to suggest or reply
  9.  Write soon…                                                      9) to ask for a reply  
  10.  Did you know that…                                         10) to ask for a response
  11.  I’m happy to hear that…                                   11) to share some information

Choose one of the three subjects and write a letter to a friend or family member

  1.  Write a letter to a friend you haven’t seen or spoken to in a long time. Tell him / her about what have been doing and ask them how they are and what they have been up to recently.
  2.  Write a letter to a cousin and invite them to your wedding. Give them some details about your future husband / wife.
  3.  Write a letter to a friend you know has been having some problems. Ask him / her how she / he is doing and if you can help.


Literature

  •  Exam Excellence (Preparation for secondary school exams)

Oxford University Press

  •  How to Teach for Exams

Longman

  •  Basic Guide to writing

Olena Karpenko, Svitlana Kurysh

  •  English language and culture weekly


 

А также другие работы, которые могут Вас заинтересовать

74197. History of programming languages and tools 242.5 KB
  History of progrmming lnguges nd tools. PreHistory The first progrmming lnguges predte the modern computer. Figure 1 Punch crd Like mny firsts in history the first modern progrmming lnguge is hrd to identify. To some people the nswer depends on how much power nd humnredbility is required before the sttus of ldquo;progrmming lngugerdquo; is grnted.
74198. Evolution of programming languages and tools 56.5 KB
  The earliest practical form of programming was probably done by Jaquard (1804, France). He designed a loom that performed predefined tasks through feeding punched cards into a reading contraption.
74199. Programming paradigms 45 KB
  Progrmming prdigms. The word progrmming prdigm is used in severl different lthough relted menings in computer science. Progrmming prdigm – pttern tht serves s school of thoughts for progrmming of computers. Progrmming technique – relted to n lgorithmic ide for solving prticulr clss of problems.
74200. Imperative programming languages and tools 78 KB
  Impertive progrmming lnguges nd tools. Progrmming lnguges bsed on the impertive prdigm hve the following chrcteristics: 1 The bsic unit of bstrction is the PROCEDURE whose bsic structure is sequence of sttements tht re executed in succession bstrcting the wy tht the progrm counter is incremented so s to proceed through series of mchine instructions residing in sequentil hrdwre memory cells. Typiclly given vrible my ssume mny different vlues of the course of the execution of progrm just s hrdwre memory cell my contin mny different vlues.1...
74201. Imperative programming languages and tools 56.5 KB
  LGOL gretly influenced mny other lnguges – its mjor contribution is being the root of the tree tht gve rise to mny other progrmming lnguges including BCPL B Pscl PL I Simul C C nd Jv. Niklus Wirth bsed his own LGOL W on LGOL 60 before developing Pscl. This led to the doption of smller nd more compct lnguges such s Pscl...
74202. Functional programming languages and tools 55 KB
  Functional programming languages (FPL) were originally developed specifically to handle symbolic computation and list-processing applications. In FPLs the programmer is concerned only with functionality, not with memory-related variable storage and assignment sequences.
74203. Сылақ және майлау жұмыстарына арналған машиналар 717.44 KB
  Сылақ станциялары мен агрегаттары және қол ысқылауыштарының атқаратын қызметі негізгі параметрлері және қолданылу облысы. Жылжымалы сылау агрегаттары. Еден асты негіздерін дайындауға және шатыр мен гидроизоляциялауға арналған машиналар құрылымы мен жұмысы Жоспар: Сылақ станциялары мен агрегаттары және қол ысқылауыштарының атқаратын қызметі.
74204. Жер жұмыстарына арналған машиналар туралы жалпы мағлұматтар 147.63 KB
  Жұмысшы органдары мен топырақпен өзара әсерлесуі. Топырақтардың физикамеханикалық сипаттамасы Жоспар: Жер жұмыстарына арналған машиналар туралы жалпы мағлұматтар. Жұмысшы органдары мен топырақпен өзара әсерлесуі. Топырақтардың физикамеханикалық сипаттамасы.
74205. Жер қазу-тасымалдау машиналары. Қызметі, қолданылу облысы. Негізгі техника-экономикалық көрсеткіштері 659.49 KB
  Жер қазутасымалдау машиналары ЖҚТМ деп топырақты массивтен тарту күші арқылы ажыратып оны түсіру орнына өз жүрісімен жеткізетін құрылыс машиналарын атайды. Негізгі атқаратын жұмысшы операциялары: топырақты қабаттап өңдеу оны тасымалдау құрылыс объектісі негізіне төсеу немесе төгу топырақ беттерін жоспарлау. Негізгі қызметі: топырақты жер бетімен сүргіш органы арқылы азғана арақашықтыққа 150м жылжыту арқылы қабаттап өңдеу. Мына жағдайларда қолданылады: құрылыс алаңын дайындау барысында топырақтың беткі құнарлы қабатын алу;...