Педагогика и дидактика
I think that writing can be a challenge for most of the students. I don’t find it is an easy process. Even though I myself enjoy writing as it is a way to make connections with the world outside.
I think that writing can be a challenge for most of the students. I dont find it is an easy process. Even though I myself enjoy writing as it is a way to make connections with the world outside. Writing is also a way to connect with our inner world our world of thoughts, feelings, and dreams. Writing is thinking on paper. Writing is creating. It is a powerful thought in the world of language.
Writing is a complex task and requires everything from getting spelling to a combination of thoughts hard work and intuition for how to begin, organize, please readers and so on.
Our goals in practicing writing should be to teach students:
There are two main directions teachers should work at
Developing their students critical thinking skills, as critical thinking is the basis for creative thinking and writing.
Another important point in learning to write is how to do this. We learn to write by writing. The more often our students write, the more successful they become.
There are different ways how to be perfect and successful in writing. We achieve excellent results in it writing different kinds of essays, letters, narratives, articles and reports.
When you write a composition, you need to understand the type of writing required. Formal or informal style.
The writing style you should use depends on the type of composition you are writing. There fore, you should not use the same style of writing for every composition. The tow main types of writing style are formal and informal. However not all style of writing fall under these categories.
There is semiformal style when you appeal to somebody whom you do not know very well.
Formal style is characterized by:
E.g. Taking everything into consideration, facilities offered…
Nevertheless, consequently, However, In addition, etc.
Use of the passive, no description of feelings
Constructed in the late of 1800s…
Informal style is characterized by:
E.g. I thought Id drop you a line… Thanks a million…
Semi-Formal style is characterized by:
1)The use of less colloquial language E.g. Thank you very much for your letter. (Instead of: Thanks a million for your letter.)
2)Less frequent use of short forms, phrasal verbs and idioms E. G. I am writing to request information about… (Instead of: I thought Id drop you a line to ask about…)
3)A polite, respectful tone E. G. I was wondering if you had… (Instead of: Do you have…)
Another point you should pay attention to: your ideas must be organized into paragraphs. The layout of three parts: an introduction, a main body and a conclusion
The main body usually consists of two, tree or more paragraphs and its purpose is to develop points related to the subject of the composition. The number of paragraphs and the way you divide them depends on the topics of the composition. Whenever you discuss a new topic, you should begin a new paragraph.
The conclusion is a short final paragraph in which you should summarize the main idea of the subject, make general comments, express your feelings, etc.
Another important role in writing play linking words and phrases.
Linking words and phrases make your writing more interesting and easier to understand. Some linking words and phrases (e.g. In addition, however, on the other hand, etc.) show how ideas are related either between two sentences or two paragraphs.
Linking words and phrases can be used to:
There are a variety of writing techniques you can use to make your composition more interesting and attractive to the reader.
To begin or end your essay you can:
You should always edit your piece of writing before handing it in. In order to do this, you should make sure:
I would like to start speaking with essays.
Almost all academic essays follow this or that basic techniques. Knowing how these patterns work will help the students to plan and to organize their thoughts.
Systematizing essays into different types will help students to understand what they need to write.
For and against essays in which you discuss the advantages and disadvantages of a specific topic are one of the most popular.
You may find this type of writing in articles, newspapers, magazines, etc.
And now I would like to pay your attention to the screen and I would like to share my opinion how do we work with for/against essay
Argumentative essay (for/against a statement)
Write an essay of 200-250 words for or against the following statement:
Shopping centres have improved the way we shop.
The way we shop
Shopping centres have changed the way we shop but is this really an improvement?
One positive aspect of shopping centres is convenience: we can find everything from groceries to electronics, from cosmetics to clothes, under the same roof.
Furthermore, shopping centres offer entertainment facilities, like cinemas or bowling alleys, with an enormous range of things to buy and to do.
In addition to this, they are places where you can meet people and socialise in cafes and restaurants. They have become the focus of social life for many teenagers.
However, smaller local shops which used to offer a friendlier, more personal service are closing down because they cannot keep up with the competition.
The same thing is happening to local cinemas, and sometimes even bars and restaurants. In fact, we are losing places that were once important in our lives.
Another disadvantage of shopping centres is that they offer bland, uniform products all over the world local character is disappearing. In order to supply a large number of custom- made products.
To summarise, on the one hand, they offer a more comfortable shopping experience, but on the other hand, they make us all the same: customers in a commercialised world where the most important things are things you can buy.
In my view, shopping centres are useful, but we should not allow them to change the world we live in.
More useful phrases:
In addition to this,…
A further (negative/positive) aspect of this…
For one thing,…
On the one hand,…
On the other hand,…
As far as Im concerned,…
In my view / opinion,…
My view / opinion is that…
To sum up,…
Preparing essay writing we do a great number of exercises.
1)Using expressions from the essay write about pros and cons of “The way we shop”
Justifications / Examples
We cant find everything from groceries to electronics
1. Smaller local shops are closing down
Justifications / examples
They cannot keep up with competition
I like the students to have their own ideas, so I prefer doing exercises of such kind:
A Its important to keep post offices open.
B The Internet is more useful than post offices.
Now read the nine statements below and decide if you think they support opinion A or opinion B.
a)1 Email is very popular these days.
2 Post offices are important in the community.
3 Many people dont have computers.
4 If you buy goods from websites, somebody has to deliver them.
5 Emailing saves paper and petrol its good for the environment
6 Internet communication is cheap or free and it arrives immediately
7 There are more postal services than the Internet can provide.
8 You can have access to the Internet at any time and any place.
9 Post offices belong to the past, not the present.
b)Think about the two opinions and the list of statements in exercise a). Decide if you agree more with A or B. Try to think of ways of arguing against the points you dont agree with. Write three more statements, using your own ideas.
c)Look again at the statements you agree with in exercise a), and at your own counter-arguments in exercise b). What is the most logical order for these arguments? Which point should be made first, then second, and so on? Number the statements 1, 2, etc.
d)Two words are missing from each sentence. Write in the correct words.
Writing letters make popular nowadays, young people send e-mail letters each other and have e-mail friends.
Writing letters is a widely spread kind of communication. Writing letters is pleasing and effective.
There are various types of letters, such as:
Reasons Writing a Letter
The type of letters you should write depends on the reason for writing (to give your news, to invite somebody to a party, to apply for a job, to make a complain, etc) Depending on the rubric you may be asked to write a letter for more than one reason (to give your news and ask for advice) The most common reasons for writing a letter are:
A good letter should consists of:
The writing style you should use (formal, informal or semi formal), depends on who you are writing to. More specifically:
The characteristics of informal style in letters are:
The characteristics of formal style in letters are:
Formal Letters Letters of Complaint
In a formal letter making a complaint, you may use a mild tone, for complaints about minor problems or a strong tone, for complaints about more serious matters, especially when you are extremely upset or insulting.
Letters of complaint are normally written in a formal style.
Useful Language for Letters of Application
Exercise 1: Read the letter and state the topic of each paragraph. Is it a mild or strong letter of complaint? Then fill in the table below with the complaints and justification.
Exercise 2: Read the rubric and underline the key words, then answer the questions.
You recently went for a meal at Planet Hollywoods fast food restaurant, which is part of an international chain. Unfortunately, the service was very slow and the food was badly cooked, so you complained to the supervisor. However, he was very rude to you and insisted on your paying for the mail. You have decided to write a letter of complaint to the companys head office. Write your letter, explaining the reasons for your complaint and saying what you expect the company to do.
Write your letter of complaint (120-180 words), using your answers to help you. You can use previous letters as for writing it.
Exercise 3: Read the following letter of complaint and number the paragraphs in the right order. Then, find the topic of each paragraph. Is it a mild or strong complaint? Justify your answer. Add a salutation and a name.
Exercise 4: Write the following letters in the appropriate style using 120- 180 words.
Exercise 5: Formal letters? Couple of question?
Exercise 6: Which phrase or type of language would you find in formal letter? Which phrase or type of language would you find in an informal letter? Put the letter F next to those phrases or language types that are used in formal letters and I next to those used in informal letters.
Look at the phrases 1-11 and match them with a purpose A-K
Choose one of the three subjects and write a letter to a friend or family member
Oxford University Press
Olena Karpenko, Svitlana Kurysh