Equivalence within the framework of Dynamic translation model


Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

The actual work of translation brings together everything the translator has learned about the target audience. Having faced many difficulties in preparing for me translation, the translator is will face still more obstacles before the work is done.



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Types of translation theory 9

Definition of equivalence in translation 16

2.1 Jakobson and the different concept of equivalence 16

2.2 Formal correspondence and dynamic equivalence 18

2.3 Types of Equivalents 20

2.4 Equivalence within the framework of Dynamic translation model 22

The usage of different levels of translation in literature texts 28

Aspects of Translating Process 30

Practical Examples 34

Conclusion 40

Bibliography 42


Translation is essentially the task of communicating across cultures. The translator has the job of taking a message formed in one culture and producing a message that is understandable to members of other culture. Ideally, the translated message should impart the same understanding as the original message, but such results are not always possible. Some factors affecting the "reception" of the translation include the knowledge of the translator, the knowledge of the receiver(s), and the distance between the two cultures in terms of common experiences.

The actual work of translation brings together everything the translator has learned about the target audience. Having faced many difficulties in preparing for me translation, the translator is will face still more obstacles before the work is done. Pitfalls include technical flaws in the translation, insufficient knowledge of the language, and failure to consider the presuppositions of the audience. As with other stages of the process, the finished work can refined by testing and revision.

Translators work with, both speech and the written word. In the former case, the results are needed within seconds for communication to proceed; in the latter case, the results may take hours or even years. While translation of the written word has the luxury of more time, the task is accordingly more difficult man the translation of speech. A conversation, say, between the leaders of two countries will tend to touch on a limited number of subjects, with individual utterances being of generally short duration. A written work, on the other hand, may deal with a great variety of subjects, and the structure of the language may be much more complex. A reader has the opportunity to think more about what has been written, and thus has the opportunity for exploring multiple levels of meaning.

My project course paper consists of Introduction, Four main Chapters Demonstration, Conclusion and Bibliography.

I have chosen this theme because I think that it is very requisite, helpful and interesting. The aim of my project course paper is to show that we can translate texts at different levels, which are complicated and difficult. Also I want to show that translator is dealing with two different cultures at the same time. As we are future interpreters these different levels will be very useful. With the help of these levels we may translate all kinds of texts without any difficulties and problems.

In Chapter I you will meet different types of translation theory.

In  Chapter II you will become acquainted with the definition and types of equivalence.

In Chapter III I tried to show how we can translate sentences at different levels of translation in newspaper texts.

In Chapter IV you will come across with information of Aspects of Translating Process. Translating processes must include mental processes.

In Demonstration of translation levels I tried to translate sentences at various levels and also to show that it is possible to translate from one language into another through different levels of translation.

Methods of my project course paper are:




I have come to certain conclusions in Chapter conclusion.

Translation is a very ancient kind of human activity. As soon as groups of people with different languages were born in human history, bilinguals appeared and they helped to communicate between collectives of different languages. With the development of the written language, written translators join oral ones. They translated different texts of official, religious and business character. Translation had the main social function at first. It made possible inter-linguistic : communication of people. The spreading of the written translation opened to people the wide access to cultural achievements of other nations; it made possible interaction and inter-enrichment of literature and culture. The knowledge of foreign languages let read original books, but not everybody can earn at least one foreign language.

Translation is the transformation of the message of the source language to the message of the translating language. The exact translation is possible because of a great number of language differences in the grammar and the number of words, besides, the distinction of the cultures can influence the way of translating and its results. Translation is the art of revelation. It makes the unknown be known. The translator has the fever and craft to recognize, recreate and reveal the works of the artists. Translation is an art between languages.

Some translators tried to define the row of demands of which the good translators should be. The French humanist E. Dolet considered that a translator should keep the following five basic principles of translation:

1.To understand the content of the translating text and the intention of the

author perfectly;

2.To know the language he translates from and the language he translates

on perfectly;

З.То   avoid   the   tendency   to   translate   word-for-word,   because   it

misrepresents the original content and spoils the beauty of its form;

4.To use the translation of speech forms in general use;

5.To reproduce the general impression in corresponding key, produced by

the original, by choosing and placing words correctly.

In 1790 the Englishman A. Tayler formed the following request to the translation in his book "The principles of the translation":

1.The translation should transfer the ideas of the original completely;

2.The style add way of the exposition should be the same as m the original;

З.Тhe translation should be read with the same easiness as the original works.

The translation is the multifaceted phenomenon and some aspects of it can be the subjects of the research of different sciences. In the frames of the science of translation     psychological,     literature critical, ethnographical and other points

of translation as well as the history of translation in one or other countries are being studied. According to the subject of research we use the knowledge of the psychology of translation, the theory of art and literary translation, ethnographical science of translation, historical science of translation and so on. The main place in the modern translation belongs to linguistic translation, which studies the translation as linguistic phenomenon. The different kinds of translation complement each other and strive to detailed description of the activity of the translation.

The theory of translation puts forward the following tasks:

1 .To open and describe the common linguistic basis of translation, that is to

show which peculiarities of linguistic systems and regularities of the

language operation are the basis of translating process, make this process

possible and determine its character and borders;

2.To determine the translation, as the subject of the linguistic research, to

show its difference from the other kind of linguistic mediation;

З.То work out the basis of classification of kinds of the translating activity;

4.To open the essence of the translating equivalence as the basis of the

communicative identity of the original texts and the translation;

5.To work out the common principles and the peculiarities of construction

of  the   peculiar   and   special   translation   theories   for   the   different

combinations of languages;

6.To work out the common principles of the scientific description of the

translation process as actions of a translator of transforming the original

text to the translating text;

7.To open the influence on the translating process of pragmatic and social

linguistic factors;

8.To determine the idea "the translating norm" and to work out the


It is common knowledge that in order to provide an adequate translation, he translator must be  able to  sense nuances in the semantics of both the sourсе-language and target-language texts.

Translation experts have recognized three approaches to translation:

-   translation at the level of word (word- for -word translation)

translation at the level of sentence, and

conceptual translation

In the first approach, for each word in the Source Language an equivalent word is selected in the Target Language. This type of translation, is effective, especially in translating phrases and proper names such as United Nations, Ministry of Education, Deep Structure, and so on. However, it is problematic at the level of sentence due to the differences in the syntax of source and target languages. Translated texts as a product of this approach are not usually lucid or        communicative, and readers will get through the text slowly and uneasily. When translating at the sentence level, the problem of word-for-word translation and, therefore, lack of lucidity will be remedied by observing the grammatical rules and word order in the Target Language while preserving the meaning of individual words. So, sentences such as "I like to dance" - "Мен билеуді жақсы көремін", "I think he is clever" - "Менің ойымша ол жақсы "and "We were all tired" - "Біз бәріміз де шаршадық" can easily be translated into a target language according to the grammatical rules of that language. Translation at the sentence level may thus be considered the same as the translation at the word level except that the grammatical rules and word order in the Target Language are observed. Text produced following this approach will communicate better compared to word-for-word translation.

In conceptual translation, the unit of translation is neither the word nor is it the sentence; rather it is the concept. The best example is the translation of idioms .and proverbs such as the following.

"He gave me a nasty look", "Ол маған жаман көзімен қарады","No living man all things can", "Ешкім барлық іске шебер бола алмайды", "Enough is as good as a feast ","Жақсылықтан жақсылық іздемейді", "Не kicked the bucket", "Ол шелекті итерді".

Such idioms and proverbs cannot be translated word-for-word; rather they should be translated into equivalent concepts in the Target Language to convey the same meaning and produce the same effect on the readers.

In addition to word-for-word, sentence-to-sentence, and conceptual translations, other scholars have suggested other approaches and methods oi translation. Newmark, for example, has suggested communicative and semantic approaches to translation. By definition, communicative translation attempts to produce on its readers an effect as close as possible to that obtained on the readers of the source language. Semantic translation, on the other hand, attempts to render, as closely as the semantic and syntactic structures of the Target Language allows, the exact contextual meaning of the original. Semantic translation is accurate, but may not communicate well; whereas communicative translation communicates well, but may not be very precise.

Types of translation theory

While translating we should know the types and levels of our translation.

There are different types of translation:

Idiomatic translation

        Idiomatic translation is where the meaning of the original is translated into which most accurately and naturally preserve the meaning of the original forms. Idiomatic refers to being in the common language of average speakers, the natural phrasings and idioms of the language. The terms idiomatic translation, dynamic translation, and free translation are essentially equivalent, and the non-technical term thought-for-thought translation probably is, as well. The term functional equivalence is a subcategory of idiomatic translation. A newer term meaning-based translation, is also a synonym for idiomatic translation. For example, "The        weather        was        horrible        on        Saturday. It was raining cats and dogs all day." –Сенбі күні ауа райы жаман болды. Өйткені жаңбыр шелектеп құйды. " Would you like to go ice-skating? No,it’s not my cup of tea."- Мұз айдынына сырғанауға барасың ба? Жоқ, мен оны ұнатпаймын.


An idiom is an expression which is unique to a language and cannot be understood simply from the meaning of its individual words. In other words, the actual meaning of an idiom is not the total of the meaning of its individual parts. An idiom is a figure of speech. English has many idioms, such as:

сlean up your act – мінезіңді жақсарту

get your act together –ұйымшыл болу

go ape  – жынданып кету

up in arms –ашулы,ызалы

be glad to see the back of – адамның кетуіне мәз болу

Following are some English idioms with the common verbs "give," "take," "have," "make," "catch", and "got." Probably most of these could not be translated literally to any other language. Notice that the idioms are acceptable with some object nouns but not others. Nouns which are not acceptable with these verbs are marked with the asterisk (*), In some cases we abbreviate a total idiom to save space, for instance, "give a hand" would normally be used as "Give me a hand!" -Маған көмектесші" or "Let's give him a hand" - "Оған қолымызды шапалақтайық" (which happens to two different meanings in English, one meaning to help him - көмектесу and the other to applaud him by clapping your hands - шапалақтау).

Formal equivalence translation (FE)

Same as Form-equivalent translation. This refers to a translation approach which attempts to retain the language forms of the original as much as possible in the translation, regardless of whether or not they are the most natural way to express the original meaning. Sometimes when original forms are retained, the original meaning is not preserved. Usually, when this happens the translator is not aware of it. Field testing is required to help the translator discover when original meaning has not been preserved in the translation. When people speak of some versions of the Bible being literal, they are referring to ones which haye been translated with a formal equivalence translation approach.

Formal   equivalence  translation   is   essentially   the   same   as   word-for-word translation. Word-for-word translation is a lay term, while formal equivalence translation is a technical term.

Although formal equivalence translations have weaknesses in terms of readability, overall preservation of original meaning, and impact, they are useful for helping one understand HOW meaning was expressed in the original text. They can  help us see the beauty of original idioms, rhetorical patterns, such as Hebrew poetic parallelism, and how individual authors used certain vocabulary terms uniquely. It is not so easy to appreciate these factors from reading idiomatic translations, because these factors are related to form and idiomatic translations are willing to lose original form to maximize preservation and understandability of original meaning. For example, It is never too late to learn. Үйренуге ешқашан кеш емес. It is good fishing in troubled water. Лайланған суда балық  аулау жақсы.

Form-equivalent translation

Same as the more commonly used label, formal equivalence translation. Form-equivalent translation is described in the preface to the God's Word translation: The oldest theory of translation is form-equivalent translation (often inaccurately called literal translation. In this type of translation, the translator chooses one of a limited number of meanings assigned to each Hebrew, Aramaic, or Greek word. The translator fills in the words that belong in the sentence but follows the word arrangement and grammar that is characteristic of the original language. Such a translation is often viewed as accurate. However, it can result in awkward, misleading, incomprehensible, or even amusing sentences. For instance, 'From his shoulders upward Tom was taller than any of the people.' Том өзінің биік иығы мен ұзын мойынының арқасында басқа адамдарға

қарағанда биік болып тұрды. In English this implies that Tom had a misshapen head and neck. (Яғни, ағылшын тілінде бұл Томның иығы мен мойынының дұрыс қалыптаспағандығын көрсетеді) Translations using this theory have made the Bible more difficult to read and understand in English than it was in the original languages.

Free translation

A free translation is one which preserves the meaning of the original but uses natural forms of the target language, including normal word order and syntax, so that the translation can be naturally understood. Free translation is a kind of

idiomatic translation. For example, "I have enjoyed reading the English list of idioms but all good things must come to an end". Мен ағылшын тілінің идиомаларын оқуды унаттым, бірақ өкінішке орай мен аяқтап қойдым.

Front translation

A specially designed tool to assist a native translator. It is prepared by an advisor for a specific translation project for the mother tongue translators under his supervision. The advisor creates a front translation with the goal of making the meaning explicit and as easy as possible for the mother tongue translator, whose ability in English is limited, to use. The advisor studies a passage of the Bible, then writes up an accurate front translation based on this exegesis. The front translation contains all the meaning of the original, including implicit information which may need to be made explicit in the translation. The front translation has a structure that takes into consideration the unique vocabulary and grammatical patterns such as word order, phrase and clause structure, and idioms of the receptor language. For example, "I'm glad уou want to prepare the report by yourself. Just be sure that you don’t bite off more than you can chew" Мен сенің рефератты өзің дайындайтындығыңа ризамын. Бірақ сен өзіңе лайықты emin, қиын тақырыпты алма.


In terms of language study, function refers to the purpose for which a language form or phenomenon exists. More broadly, function refers to the purpose for which any utterance is made. An utterance can be any length of speech that communicates some meaning. Function refers not only to individual words and how they relate to each other, but also to how words are used. For instance, in some languages it is possible to repeat something for some effect. A translator needs to know what that effect is, that is, what is the function of repetition in the language under study. It is the function itself which must be translated, not necessarily the way (form) that function is encoded in a language. For example, some languages do not permit repetition, as did New Testament Greek with its frequent occurrences of what is translated as "Verily, verily," in English (for example, John 3,3; 3.11; 5,19). But if we know what the function of repetition in the source language is, we can look for an equivalent structure (or process) in the target language which has the same function. This approach is referred to as functional equivalence translation.

The translator should constantly ask, "What is the function of this particular language phenomenon in the language from which I am translating?" He then matches the same functions between languages, regardless of what forms are used to carry out those functions, Forms communicate meaning through various functions required of language, If functions are not the same, then meanings will not be the same. And the purpose of translation is to transfer meaning.

Language must perform a wide range of functions. Some of the most important functions that we call upon our speech to perform are:

To question - cұpay;

To command - бұйыру;

To deny - бас тарту;

To emphasize - көңіл бөлу;

To indicate logical .relationships, such as causality - сылтау сияқты логикалык, қатынасты көрсету;

То indicate continuity of participants – қатысушылардың  жалғасын көрсету;

То indicate continuity of actions - ic-әрекеттің жалғасын көрсету;

То contrast - карсыластыру

Linguists who regard discovery of language function as a primary task of linguistics are called functionalists. Their approach to language study is called functional linguistics and functionalism.

Functional equivalence

Functional equivalence translation is a subcategory of what many call idiomatic translation.

The translators of the God's Word (GW) English version describe this philosophy of translating (which they call function-equivalent translation) as follows:

A newer theory of translation is function-equivalent translation (often inaccurately called paraphrasing). In this type of translation, the translator tries to make the English function the same way the original language functioned for the original readers.

The preface continues with statements that I am not sure I can agree with, but they do reflect opinions about this translation philosophy which are held by an important percentage of those who evaluate Bible versions:

     However, in trying to make the translation easy to read, the translator can omit concepts from the original text that don't seem to have corresponding modern English equivalents. Such a translation can produce a readable text, but that text can convey the wrong meaning or not enough meaning. Furthermore, function-equivalent translations attempt to make some books readable on levels at which they were not intended. For instance, Song of Songs was not written for children. Өлеңдер балаларға арналып жазылған жоқ. Paul's letter to the John is very sophisticated. Паулдың Джонға арнаған хаты өте тиянақты. I couldn't answer your letter because I was snowed under with work. Менің жұмысым көп болғандықтан мен хатқа жауап бере алмадым.

This preface does not identify which versions its authors regard as function-equivalent translation, but by process of elimination with the two other philosophies described in the preface, form-equivalent     translation and closest  natural equivalent translation (used in GW), we can guess that the GW translators are referring to versions such as LB, TEV, CEV, and NCV. We also do not know which translation approach the GW translators would regard as underlying more literal translations such as NIV, ISV, NET, and NLT, which are not precisely form-equivalent translations, yet they do not seem to fit into the function-equivalent category, as described in the GW preface. The GW translators contrast their approach, closest natural equivalent translation, with function-equivalent translation, but we do not know if they view GW as the only closest natural equivalent translation. It seems clear that not all who critique Bible versions use the same terms to describe translation philosophies, nor do they use all the terms in exactly the same way. The editor of this glossary is more comfortable with the terms formal equivalence and idiomatic translation, approaches to translation which appear on opposing ends of an idiomaticity scale. Some English translations cluster near either end of this scale while others are best described as being somewhere in between. Creating new terms such as closest natural equivalent translation may be helpful, but those who use them should describe them well enough so that it can be better understood how they relate to terms already in use such as idiomatic, dynamic, and meaning-based translation. For example, He is someone who means business. Ол мінезі салмақты адамдардың 6ipi. Fernando has everything he needs. He's a real fat cat. Фернандода керекті нәрселердің бәpi де бар. Ол расында да бақытты адамдардың, бірі.

Definition of equivalence in translation

Vinay and Darbelnet view equivalence-oriented translation as a procedure which 'replicates the same situation as in the original, whilst using completely different wording’. They also suggest that, if this procedure is applied during the translation process, it can maintain the stylistic impact of the SL text in the TL text. According to them, equivalence is therefore the ideal method when the translator has to deal with proverbs, idioms, nominal or adjectival phrases and the onomatopoeia of animal sounds.

With regard to equivalent expressions between language pairs, Vinay and Darbelnet claim that they are acceptable as long as they are listed in a bilingual dictionary as 'full equivalents'. However, later they note that glossaries and collections of idiomatic expressions 'can never be exhaustive'. They conclude by saying that 'the need for creating equivalences arises from the situation, and it is in the situation of the SL text that translators have to look for a solution'. Indeed, they argue that even if the semantic equivalent of an expression in the SL text is quoted in a dictionary or a glossary, it is not enough, and it does not guarantee a successful translation.

2.1 Jakobson and the different concept of equivalence

Roman Jakobson's study of equivalence gave new impetus to the theoretical analysis of translation since he introduced the notion of 'equivalence in difference'. On the basis of his semiotic approach to language and his aphorism "there is no signatum without signum', he suggests three kinds of translation:

• Intralingual (within one language, i.e. rewording or paraphrase)

• Interlingual (between two languages)

Intersemiotic (between sign systems)

Jakobson claims that, in the case of interlingual translation, the translator makes use of synonyms in order to get the ST message across. This means that in interlingual translations there is no full equivalence between code units. According to his theory, 'translation involves two equivalent messages in two different codes', Jakobson goes on to say that from a grammatical point of view languages may differ from one another to a greater or lesser degree, but this does not mean that a translation cannot be possible, in other words, that the translator may face the problem of not finding a translation equivalent. He acknowledges that 'whenever there is deficiency, terminology may be qualified and amplified by loanwords or loan-translations, neologisms or semantic shifts, and finally, by circumlocutions'. Jakobson provides a number of examples and explains that in such cases where there is no a literal equivalent for a particular ST word or sentence, then it is up to the translator to choose the most suitable way to render it in the TT.

     There seems to be some similarity between Vinay and Darbelnet's theory of • translation procedures and Jakobson's theory of translation. Both theories stress the fact that, whenever a linguistic approach is no longer suitable to carry out a translation, the translator can rely on other procedures such as loan-translations, neologisms and the like. Both theories recognize the limitations of a linguistic theory and argue that a translation can never be impossible since there are several methods that the translator can choose. The role of the translator as the person who decides how to carry out the translation is emphasized in both theories.

Both Vinay and Darbelnet as well as Jakobson conceive the translation task as something which can always be carried out from one language to another, regardless of the cultural or grammatical differences between ST and TT.

It can be concluded that Jakobson's theory is essentially based on his semiotic approach to translation according to which the translator has to recode the ST message first and then s/he has to transmit it into an equivalent message for TC.

2.2 Formal correspondence and dynamic equivalence

Nida argued that there are two different types of equivalence, namely formal equivalence—which in the second edition by Nida and Taber is referred to as formal correspondence—and dynamic equivalence. Formal correspondence 'focuses attention on the message itself, in both form and content', unlike dynamic equivalence which is based upon 'the principle of equivalent effect'. In the second edition or their work, the two theorists provide a more detailed explanation of each type of equivalence.

Formal correspondence consists of a TL item which represents the closest equivalent of a SL word or phrase. Nida and Taber make it clear that there are not always formal equivalents between language pairs. They therefore suggest that these formal equivalents should be used wherever possible if the translation aims at achieving formal rather than dynamic equivalence. The use of formal equivalents might at times have serious implications in the TT since the translation will not be easily understood by the target audience. Nida and Taber themselves assert that  Typically, formal correspondence distorts the grammatical and stylistic patterns of the receptor language, and hence distorts the message, so as to cause the receptor to misunderstand or to labor unduly hard'.

Dynamic equivalence is defined as a translation principle according to which a translator seeks to translate the meaning of the original in such a way that the TL wording will trigger the same impact on the TC audience as the original wording did upon the ST audience. They argue that 'Frequently, the form of the iriginal text is changed; but as long as the change follows the rules of back transformation in the source language, of contextual consistency in the transfer, and of transformation in the receptor language, the message is preserved and the ransiation is faithful'.

One can easily see that Nida is in favour of the application of dynamic eqivalence,   as   a  more   effective   translation  procedure.   This   is  perfectly understandable if we take into account the context of the situation in which Nida was dealing with the translation phenomenon, that is to say, his translation of the Bible, Thus, the product of the translation process, that is the text in the TL, must have the same impact on the different readers it was addressing. Only in Nida and Taber’s edition is it clearly stated that 'dynamic equivalence in translation is far more than mere correct communication of information'.

Despite using a linguistic approach to translation, Nida is much more interested in the message of the text or, in other words, in its semantic quality. He therefore strives to make sure that this message remains clear in the target text

2.3 Types of Equivalents

There are two types of translation equivalents:

1 .Contextual Equivalents;

2.Phraseological Equivalents

1.The structural similarity of Source Text and Target Text implies that relationships are equivalence established between correlated units in the two texts, that is English and Kazakh. Since language units are used in the accepted meanings, many Source Text units have their regular equivalents in Target Text units. For example, Source Text we use Austria-Австрия. Regular equivalents are connected with geographical names, proper names (Smith-Смит) and the names of magazines, hotels. Depending on the type of language unit regular equivalents can be classified as lexical, phraseological or grammatical.

Coordinated words into languages make correspond to each other in one or several components of their semantic structure. Though they are not fully identical in their semantic.

For example, ambitious-aim, wish, desire; selfish, egoistic, dishonest. The ambition of a girl was to be a teacher. Қыздың жалғыз арманы мұғалім болу. The ambitious politicians are very selfish and may deprave their surroundings. Мәнсапқор саясаткерлер өздерін ғана ойлап,қоршаған ортасына әсерін тигізуі мүмкін.

In conclusion lexical equivalents in Target Text cannot be regular if the contexts are not clear. The linguistic context is made up by the other Source Text unit in Target Text. While the situational contexts include temporal, special and other circumstances which the translator must interpret.

2.In this case the Kazakh equivalents can be found in the following way.

While going to the mountains he always wraps his food up with foil. Үнемі тауға шығар алдында тамағын фольгамен орайды.

When we do something wrong we are trying not to foil our parents. Бір нәрселерді жасаған кезде біз ата-аналарымызды ренжітпеуге тырысамыз.

Our ancestors had different foils in order to protect our land. Ama-бабаларымыздьң жерімізді қорғайтын турлі қылыштары болды.

It is obvious that one word foil has several meanings in Target Text due to


foil - фольга, foil -ренжіту, foil -қылыш.

If somebody wants to choose direct meaning of attitude as in dictionary he may fail to translate it correctly. Because the phraseological equivalent doesn't mean the same.

The choice of grammatical units in Target Text largely depends on the semantics and combination of lexical elements.

For example, People speak a lot about the election. Адамдар сайлау туралы көп айтып жатыр. A lot of people speak about the election. Көптеген адамдар сайлау туралы айтып жатыр.

The choice of grammatical equivalents is very important in translation especially when no permanent grammatical equivalents exist. As a result the meaning of the context may be changed.

Semantic dissimilarity in Source Text and Target Text sentence structure also results in having several equivalents in Target Text.

For example, The Greens suggest their program to save the water resource in the world. Табиғатты қорғаушылар әлемдегі су ресурсын корғау үшін бағдарлама ұсынды.

But semantic relationships between the number of groups or words are wider in Target Text than in Source Text and of course prepositions may play a certain role in translation, conveying different meanings of adverbial modifier of cause, purpose, place, etc. A word or preposition within the sentence may change the meaning of Source Text completely. Sometimes small number of Source Text units may not have their equivalences in Target Text. In this case we call them equivalent - lacking words (they have no straight meaning in TT).

The absence of regular equivalents doesn't imply that the meaning of Source Text cannot be rendered into Target Text. But the translator must be very careful and accurate in explaining or interpreting. We have seen that words with regular equivalents are not infrequently translated with the help of contextual substitutes.

2.4 Equivalence within the framework of Dynamic translation model

In our proposal of a Dynamic Translation Model, we attempt to show that translation should always be understood within the framework of a communicative process. A simplified graphic representation of our model would be:


                        Socio-psychological characterization & competences


SENDER                                      TRANSLATOR                                   RECEIVER

Text typology                                                                      Text typology

SL TEXT                                     SL TEXT                         TL TEXT             TLTEXT

Textualization in L1             Detextualization         Textualization in L2

Text levels                                                                                 Text-levels

(Stylistic )syntactic                                                         (Stylistic)syntactic

-Cohesion mechanisms                                        -Cohesion variety

(Stylistic) lexical                                                   (Stylistic) lexical

-Linguistic variety                                                 -Linguistic variety

Semantic                                                                Semantic

-Coherence mechanisms                                       -Coherence mechanisms

Pragmatic                                                               Pragmatic

-Speech acts                                                            -Speech acts

Semiotic                                                                  Semiotic

-Verbal/ Non-verbal signs                                     -Verbal/ Non-verbal signs

Three main basic components are distinguished in our DTM: 1) participants,    2) conditions and determinants, and 3) text The participants in the translation process are: client (whose participation is facultative), sender (who utters a text in L1), translator (who is in charge of producing a target language text from a source language text the sender wrote in LI), receiver (audience/addressee of SL-text in L2). The conditions and determinants of the translation process are those factors which are present in any communicative event: participant’ competences (linguistic, communicative, textual, cognitive, and with regard to the translator, translation competence), participants socio-psychological characterization (gender, age, role, status; motivation, interest, memory, etc.), and context (historic, economic, social, cultural). The text corresponds to the linguistic realization of the communicative purpose of the sender in L1. It is structured in the following interwoven levels: (stylistic) syntactic (cohesion mechanisms such as references, connectors, substitutions, etc), (stylistic) lexical (linguistic variety: sociolect, dialect, jargon, etc), semantic (coherence mechanisms: time sequence, topic sequence, argument; presupposition, inference; denotation, connotation),  pragmatic (speech acts: performative, constative; direct/indirect; sender's intention (illocution) and intended effect (perlocution), and semiotic (combination of verbal and non-verbal signs in SL-Text: diagrams, tables, charts, etc.).

Let's see briefly how the model works. The potential initiator of the translation process is a client. If there is no client, the translator himself can start the process of translating a SL-text into a TL. The SL-text's sender and author wishes to fulfill some communicative purpose in his speech community. The translator should be aware of the communicative value of SL-text and its closest equivalent in L2. According to the different conditions and determinants, the sender fulfills some specific role when he produces the source language text. He can be a father, a club's member, a scientist, etc. Let's assume he decides to write a scientific text. In this case his most relevant social characterization is the role he plays as a scientist. There will be a potential community of receivers who belong to the same scientific field, to whom the text is basically addressed. They would be the first addressees of the text, that is, the text has been articulated in such a way that it is these readers who can work out more profitably the conveyed content of the message.

The translator in charge of translating this text should possess the linguistic and communicative, and textual competences for the initial reading of the text. Afterwards, as the text deals with a specialized topic, the translator activates his cognitive competence in order to update and contrast his previous knowledge with the knowledge that is being presented in the text. Thus he can fully understand the text's meaning. Now he activates his translation competence that will allow him. to carry out a reading we have called 'surgical', which consists in reading the text once again in order to determine the way it has been constructed in relation to the stylistic, syntactic and lexical characteristics, as well as the semantic, pragmatic and semiotic peculiarities, which may prove potentially problematic for the translation process. At this point a first draft of the translation is prepared taking into account the peculiarities and communicative potentiality of the target language, that is, equivalences are being established. Subsequent translation drafts are reviewed in order to verify that all translation problems encountered (equivalence problems) have been adequately accounted for. Furthermore, here translation is seen as a problem-solving activity, Then it should be pointed out that the translator carries out a dynamic task in search of equivalences, which takes him from the source language text to the target language text, and back to the SL-text, in a movement that can be traced by using our DTM.

Therefore, the main task the translator faces in his work is the establishment of equivalences in a continuous and dynamic problem-solving process, Instead of the five frames of equivalence -to a certain extent disarticulated - devised by Koller, we propose that equivalence is the relationship that holds between a SL-text and a TL-text and is activated (textualized) in the translation process as a communicative event in the five text-levels we identified in DTM: (stylistic) syntactic, (stylistic) lexical, semantic, pragmatic, and semiotic, based on the SL-text verbalization and taking into account the conditions and determinants of the process, that is, participants' socio-psychological characterization and competences, and context. It is clear that equivalence is carried out at the different text-levels. We would speak then of equivalence at the stylistic-lexical, stylistic-syntactic, semantic, pragmatic, and semiotic text-levels. It is important to bear in mind that one cannot know beforehand which text-levels will be activated as problematic in the translation process, however one can say that equivalence-problem activation will take place at one or more of the described text-types of the DTM.

At this point two aspects should be clarified.   First, the fact that equivalences are established at text-levels does not mean that they are isolated in and restricted to each of those levels. The text is to be understood as a complex, interwoven network of linguistic relations, and, for instance, the use of a lexical entry in a text does not simply affect the lexical level but may have semantic or pragmatic implications (denotations, connotations, special effects on receivers, etc.). Second, linguistic choices at the different text-levels are the product of a communicative event in which a SL-sender and a potential TL-receiver are involved; therefore conditions and determinants (participants' competences and socio-psychological characterization, and context) have necessarily been taken into account for fulfilling a communicative purpose. Thus they are somehow 'visible' in the different language choices present in the SL-text. The translator is also embedded in this communicative process and when he translates, i.e. establishes equivalences, he does so by taking into account again not only the linguistic material of the SL- text, itself but also the conditions and determinants of the SL-text production and those of the TL-text reception. Our working hypothesis for analyzing (describing, classifying, explaining) translation equivalence is that it is a text-bound relation which is linguistically realized in texts and whose only tangible, empirically apprehensible form is the SL and TL texts. Therefore our point of departure and arrival is always a text. Obviously conditions and determinants of the translation communicative process should be taken into account as a resource to resort to when necessary but not as a perennial limbo of speculation which drives one away from the source language text or highlights excessively the role played by the translator.

Translation equivalence as envisaged in our DTM could have immediate impact on the work of the professional translator by helping him solve (=define, describe, analyze, explain) translation problems, on teaching translation as an inter-subjective activity where clear parameters can be established as to what may count as a translation, and on the field of translation criticism as it would allow to avoid simplistic, impressionistic (=biased) critiques of translations. In this respect we have already used our equivalence-related DTM for analyzing the translation of a literary text. This is a translation case, as are literary texts in general, where supposedly no textual equivalences could be actually established and, therefore, analyzed. Our initial premise is that no sound translation critique can be carried out if the whole text is not analyzed. The final judgment as to the translation quality as a whole should be made in terms of weaknesses and strengths of the analyzed translated text. By using a metaphor one would say that the translation product is like a wave: it has peaks and troughs. The ideal case would be a straight line, but it is ideal precisely because there are no absolute equivalences, that is, 1:1 inter-textual (SL-text and TL-text) equivalences. However, one should be able to determine when a peak or a trough has just gone off boundaries, i.e. when the translation equivalence is off the limits of the linguistically possible and textually realizable equivalence range.

The usage of different levels of translation in literature texts

Nowadays the usage of different levels of translation in literature texts is very important. There are five levels in translation. It means that we can translate at different levels.

I. Semantic similarity of Target Text with Source Text. This type of level is the most difficult type which exists in the theory of translation and translators are not always keen of using this type. So I think that we should try to avoid this type of level.

For example, I’m very .glad that he gave me a hand at the exam. Ол маған емтиханда көмектескені үшін мен.куаныштымын.

II. This type of level is similar to the first one. But there is less parallelism of lexical and structural units. Most of words in Source Text.do not have direct correspondences in Target Text.

For example, He answered the telephone when his mother called. Шешесі телефон шалған кезде ол телефон тұтқасын көтерді.

The second type of level has closer similarity of Source Text and Target Text. This type of level can be explained in terms of situational theory. This group of translation level implies retention of two types of information contain in the original purport of communication and the situation.

III. The third group of level is larger group and may be explained from the following example.

Turkey saw a cold winter last year. Туркияда өткен жылы қыс өте суық болды.

In this case the identity of verb is different except the rest of the sentence. So Source Text is clear for the translator if he changes the method of description.

The third type of level contains the purport of communication, the identification of situation and method of description.

IV.The forth type is the easiest type of level and the simpliest

type for the translator. But not all Source Text may contain this type of level. In such type of level the syntactic structures can be regarded as original text through

direct or back word translations. This level can have complete similarity of purport of communication, identification of situation, method of description and invariant meaning of syntactic structure.

For example, I don't see that уоu should go further to study, because you have enough knowledge, Менің ойымша сенің білімің жеткілікті болғандықтан саған ары қарай оқу қажет емес.

V. The fifth is the type of spoken language where all parts of sentences have maximum similarity of Source Text and Target Text.

For example, The flat was given for rent for 2 months. Yй екі айға жалға берілді. All students go to the university in order to get knowledge. Барлық студенттер университетке білім алу үшін барады.

Aspects of Translating Process

Translating Process is very difficult and one of the major tasks in translation theory. Here we deal with the dynamic aspect of translation trying to understand how the translator performs the transfer operation from Source Text into Target Text. Psychologically the translating process must include mental processes:




The translator understands the content of Source Text. That is reduces the information it contains to his own mental program.

Then he develops this program into translation. The problem is that these mental processes are not directly observable and we do not know much of what that program is and how the reduction and development operations are performed. That's why the translating process has to be described in some indirect way. The translating theory achieves this aim by number of translation models;

1. A model is a conventional representation of the translating process describing mental operations by which the Source Text is translated irrespective of whether these operations are performed by the translator. Translation models can be oriented towards the situation in Source Text contents or towards the meaningful components of Source Text.

For example, limit-noun, шекара-зат eciм, to limit-verb, шектеу-emicтік, limitless-adjective, шекарасыз-сын есім. The existing models of translating process are based on the same assumptions which we considered in discussing    the    problem    of   equivalence    namely:    situational;    semantic transformational. In other words it is presumed that the translator actually makes a mental travel from their original to some interlingual level of equivalence and then further to the text of translation.

In the situational model this intermediate level is extra linguistic. It is described reality, the facts of life that are represented by the verbal description. The translating process consists, if the translator gets beyond the original text (ST) to the actual situation. This is the first step of the process that's the break-through to the situation. The second step is to describe this situation in Target Text. Thus, the translating process goes from one language through extra linguistic situation to another language. The translator first understands what Source Text is about and then says "the same things" in Target Text.

For example, These days most doctors and scientists agree that our physical health is closely related to our psychological well-being, Қазіргі уақытта дәрігерлер мен ғалымдар біздің физикалық дене шынықтыруымыз психологиялық қатынаспен тығыз байланысты екендігіне сенеді.

A different approach was used by E.Nida who  suggested that the translating process may be described as a series of transformations:

1. The stage of analysis, that is the translator transforms the original structures into the nuclear structures or he transforms within Source Text.

2. The stage of translation proper, he replaces Source Text nuclear structures with the equivalent structure in Target Text.

3. The stage of synthesis, e.g. he develops Source Text into the terminal structures in the text information.

A similar approach as Nida gave can be used to describe the translation of semantic units. It means that the existence of "deep" semantic categories are common to Source Text and Text Text.

In describing the translating process we can explain the obtained variants as the result of the translator applying one or all these models of action. This doesn't mean that a translation is actually made through the stages suggested by these models. There are not, however, just abstract schemes. In training we as translators should use these models as practical tools.

For example, He is a poor sleeper the   translator sees that the attributive of group can not be translated into Kazakh as "кедей".

All these translation problems can be solved with the help of contextual substitutes.

For example, "I hate that dress, I would not be caught dead wearing anything else." Мен ол көйлекті ұнатпаймын. Сол сияқты көйлектерді ешқашан да кимеспін."

2. A direct translation is hardly possible in rare cases, we may use direct translation.

For example, John took Mary by hand, Джон Мэридің қолынан ұстады.

3. Involves transformations in grammar:

a) Negation in Source Text is positiveness in Target Text.

For example. We cannot help laughing when we hear funny stories. Біз қызықты әңгімелерді естіген кезде күлкіміз келеді.

b) Inversion-change of word-order.

For example, Could you give the answer when you get this letter?' Бұл. хатты алған кезде маған жауабын айта аласыз ба ?

c) The changing of Active voice into Passive or vice versa.

For example, He was invited to the meeting. Оны жиналысқа шақырды. Invitation cards must be sent tomorrow. Шақыру билеттері ертең жіберілуі керек. We must send invitation cards tomorrow. Біз шақыру билеттерін ертең  жіберуіміз керек.

4.Delimination and conjunction of sentences.

For example, Mr. Manson slung his bag up and climbed into a battered gig behind a tall, angular black horse. Мистер Мэнсон ауыр жүгін арбаның қасына жақындатып қойып, содан әлсіз қара аттың үстіне лезде мінді.

5.The integration procedure - the opposite translation process to the IV one. Sometimes this procedure is grammatically incomplete. Because the translator makes mistakes in keeping the content.

For example, It is impossible to do the work in two days. Nor it is necessary. Егер бұл жұмыс қажет болмаса, оны екі күнде жасау мүмкін емес. There were a lot of homeless children in Kzyl-Zhar. The police caught them in two days. Қызылжарда қаңғыбас балалар өте көп. Оларды полиция қызметкерлеі екі күнде тұтқындады. Such establishments with trade unions who gave way to crimes were all sent to the court to be investigated. Осындай қылмыстарға жол берген кәсіпорындар мен мекемелердің ісі сотқа берілді.

Practical Examples

1. "Her life in London, with its excitements, its triumphs and its pains, began to seem very far away." (W. Somerset)

Оның кобалжу сезімдерге, жетістіктерге, қайғы-қасіретке толы Лондондағы өмірі өзіне жат көріне бастады.

2.What drives you to lose your temper on the telephone?

Телефонмен сөйлескен кезде сіздің шыдамыңыз не себептен таусылады?

3. "Every Christmas Julia gave    her    mother   and    her    aunt expensive   presents, but they   never used them."(W. Somerset)

Әр рождествода Жулия өз анасы мен тәтесіне қымбат сыйлықтар жасаған, бірақ олар оны қолданбаған.

4. Canada had seemed to be getting a good deal.

Канаданың жұмыстары жақсарайын деп жатқан сияқты.

5. "He was extraordinarily nice at luncheon." (W. Somerset)

Ол таңғы ас кезінде бір түрлі әдемі болды.

6. In the last thirty years, Philip Condit says, not much has changed.

Филип Кондит соңғы 30 жылдарды бәрінің бір қалыпта екендігі туралы айтты.

7. "Now she was nearly dead with fatigue." (W. Somerset)

Енді оның қатты шаршағаны біліне бастады.

8. "She sat on, in the darkness, grimly thinking how she would do it." (W. Somerset)

 Ол караңгыда отырып істейтін ісіне катты кобалжыды.

9. "The moment he had gone she turned out the lights and went to the window." (W. Somerset)

Оның кете салысымен ол жарықа қарай бұрылып, терезе жаққа жөнелді.

10. "She waited for his answer with sickening dread."  (W.Somerset)

Ол оның жауабын бір түрлі қорқынышпен күтіп тұрды.

11."She looked at herself in the glass as she slipped out of her beautiful gown." (W. Somerset)

Ол өз бейнесіне қарап көрсе, әдемі көйлегінен шығып бара жатқан сиякты болды.

12. "But he was not quite happy for all that, he was puzzled by her tone, which was so friendly." (W.Somerset)

Бұл нәрсенің бәріне oл риза болған жоқ, oл  жылы лебізбен сөйлесе де, дауыс ырғағы таң калдырды.

13. Police officers think they have just as strong a case for Keeping the status quo.

Полиция офицерлерінің ойлауы бойынша қиын жағдай бұл бар тәртіпті сақтау.

14. Some fashion designers achieve success by jumping on the bandwagon of latest look.

Кейбір сән дизайнерлері соңғы көріністі табысты жеңіске жеткізу барысында армандарына жетті.

15. People are much more likely to express anger over the phone, rather than in writing or face-to-face.

Халықтың көбісі ашу-ызасын жазбаша немесе бетпе-бет айтуға қарағандаб олар телефонмен айтуды ұнатады.

16. The abusive passenger is becoming a world-wide problem.

Ұрысқақ жолаушы бүкіл әлемге тараған мәселе болады.

17. "In the whole atoll not two stones remained one upon another."

(J. London)

Толық рифтің өзінде де екі mac бірінің үсшінде бірі жаптайды.

18. When he saw her his hart melted away" (L. Carrol)

Оны көргенде жүрегі әлсіреп кетті.

19. The night has swallowed him up"(0. Wild)

Қара түннің жамылғысы оның бейнесін жасырды.

20. "I know his sister who is one hundred years old."(Dickens)

Мен оның қарт әпкесін білемін.

21. "I have thousand things to do. "(O.Wilde)

Менің істер ісім көп.

22. "It  troubled   him   not  a little..." (J-London)

Бұл оны аз кобалжытқан жоқ.

23. "He found that this was no easy task."(Byron)

Ол   бұл   жерде   оңай   іс жоқ екенін түсінді.

24. "Do not use big words they mean very so little."(0. Wild)

Ұрысып ештеңе таппайсың.

25. "I was a good solid house built to with stand time and  exposure." (A.Christie)      

Бұл жақсы, мықты соғылған үй-заман мен ауа райының қандай да болса апаттарына төтеп бере алады

26. "Keеp the child out of the sun."(A. Christie)

Баланы күннің астында ұстамаңдар.

27.uMy precious wife," said1, "we  must  be  serious  sometimes."(Dickens)

Менің қымбаттым, әрдайьм күліп, қалжыңдай беруге болмайды ғой, -дедім мен.

28. "My aunt and I, when we were left alone, talked far into the right, how the emigrants never wrote home otherwise that cheerfully and hopefully."(Ibid)

Біз тәтеміз екеуміз жалғыз қалғанда, түннің ортасына дейін конысаударгандардың әрдайым сенімге толы хаттар жазғаны жайлы әнгімелесінтінбіз.

29. "There's something still alive in that place, something with eyes, or a seeing mind, if you take me and the longer we stay in one spot, the sooner it will get on to us.

Білмеймін көзбен бе немесе басқаша ма бұл жерде көріп трган   тағы   біреу   бар,   сіз   мені түсініп тұрған шығарсыз. Oл бізге жеткенше дегйін кету керек.

30."She's as strong as a horse and she's in the best of health."

(W. Somerset)

Oл    өте   мықты    және денсаупығы жаксы әйел.

31."They were very comfortable together." (W. Somerset)

Oл   екеуі   бірге   болғанда өздерін өте жақсы сезінеді.

32. "Julia gave a very poor performance at the matinee on Wednesday." (W. Somerset)

Жулия      сәрсенбі      күні күндізгі спектакльде нашар ойнады.

33. "She wondered why she had  resisted  him  so  long."(W.Somerset)

Oл оған көп уақыт бойы қарсыльқ көрсетіп жүргеніне тан қалды.


I Level 10%

II Level 10%

III Level 25%

IV Level 35%

V Level 20%

Due to that diagram you can see the result of my project course paper. As there are five levels of translation the most useful are the III, IV and the V. As we are future interpreters we should try to avoid the I and the II levels. Because translators are not keen of using these types.

In my project course paper I have attempted to show that equivalence is a constitutive translation relation that holds between a SL-text and' a TL-text. Thus it helps to distinguish translation proper from other secondary target language linguistic products. Due to- the text complexity, we have proposed to analyze the text into different text-levels. In the translation process the translator has necessarily to take into account what we have called the conditions- and determinants of the translation communicative event. Translation quality should tend to be homogeneous, i.e. with smooth peaks and troughs in the development of the translation wave, thereby keeping the TL-text within the equivalence range.

I have come to the following conclusions:

As we are future interpreters we should be very careful and attentive while applying to various levels;

Different levels of translation will help us- to translate all kinds of texts;

The most frequently used levels of equivalence are III, IV and V.

I'm very glad that I have chosen this theme. Because this theme is closely connected with my future job and I hope that it will influence to my future career. As I am studying at this linguistic college in order to be a good interpreter I will try to do my best. I am sure that my project course paper will be necessary and useful not only for me but for the freshmen.


1. M.V. Griscgenko: “Basic Translation” Moscow(2000)

2. T.A. Gouskova : Translation from English into Russian: “Mastering the            techniques” Moscow (1986)

3. T.I. Gouskova:  “Difficulties of translation” Moscow (2000)

4. T.A.Kazakov:   “Translation techniques” Saint-Peterburg (2001)

5. V.N.Komissarov:  “Theory of translation” Moscow (2001)

6. A.M.Miram :    “Basic translation” Moscow (2000)


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