71671

ПОСОБИЕ ПО ПРАКТИЧЕСКОЙ ФОНЕТИКЕ

Книга

Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

Артикуляция (Articulation) – уклад органов речи при произнесении того или иного звука. Палатализация (Palatalization) – смягчение согласного под влиянием следующего за ним гласного переднего ряда. Палатализация создаётся поднятием средней части языка во время произнесения...

Русский

2014-11-10

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3 чел.

ЛИПЕЦКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ПЕДАГОГИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ

ПОСОБИЕ ПО ПРАКТИЧЕСКОЙ ФОНЕТИКЕ

ДЛЯ 1 КУРСА АНГЛИЙСКОГО ОТДЕЛЕНИЯ

ФАКУЛЬТЕТА ИНОСТРАННЫХ ЯЗЫКОВ

ЛИПЕЦК 2005

CONTENTS

Section 1:  Introductory Course …………………………..……...…………………  4

Lesson 1……………………………...………………………………………………..7                                     

Lesson 2……………………………..……………………………………………….11

Lesson 3…………………………….………………………………………………..19

Phonetic Rules…………………….…………………………………………………25

Intonation Exercises……………...………………………………………………….28

Section 2: Sound Revision………..…………………………………………………32

Section 3: Basic Course…………...………………………………...………………46

Principles of Classification of Consonants…..………………………………………46

Principles of Classification of Vowels………………………………………………50

Reduction ……………………………………………………………………………53

Linking……………………………………….………………………………………61

Assimilation………………………………….………………………………………66

Section 4: Phonetic  Word Structure …...……..…………………………………….69  

Syllable Formation. Syllable Division…….…………………………………………69

Word Stress……………………………….………………………………………….72

Rhythm in Words………………………….…………………………………………80

Section 5: Intonation………………...………………………………………………85

Section 6: Texts for Reading Practice…...…………………………………………..93

SECTION 1:   Основные понятия

1. Артикуляция (Articulation)уклад органов речи при произнесении того или    иного звука.

2. Палатализация (Palatalization) – смягчение согласного под влиянием следующего за ним гласного переднего ряда. Палатализация создаётся поднятием   средней части языка во время произнесения согласного, поэтому для избежания палатализации необходимо следить за тем, чтобы средняя часть языка была опущена.

3. Аспирация (Aspiration) – придыхание, слышимое в конце произнесения сильных глухих  [p],[t],[k]. Аспирация наиболее сильная перед ударным долгим гласным или дифтонгом, слабее перед кратким ударным гласным, наиболее слабая перед безударным гласным и в конечной позиции. Аспирация теряется после звука [s].

4. Позиционная долгота гласного (Positional Length of Vowels) – изменение количественных характеристик гласного звука в зависимости от позиции в слове. В конечной позиции звук произносится наиболее долго, перед звонким согласным короче, пред глухим наиболее коротко. Позиционная долгота соблюдается при произнесении всех ударных гласных.

5. Твёрдый приступ (Glottal Stop) задержка начала колебания голосовых связок. Следует избегать твёрдый приступ при артикуляции начального гласного или в сочетании двух гласных: easy, go out.

6. Словесное ударение (Word Stress) – выделение в слове одного или нескольких слогов среди других. Ударные слоги акустически более сильные.

7. Носовой взрыв (Nasal Plosion) – взрывной согласный с последующим носовым сонантом [n], [m] произносится слитно, при этом взрыв смычного происходит в процессе произнесения сонанта, и струя воздуха проходит через носовую полость. Носовой взрыв происходит как в словах, так и на стыках слов: happen, help me.

8. Латеральный взрыв (Lateral Plosion) – взрывной согласный с последующим сонантом [l]   произносится слитно, взрыв смычного происходит в процессе произнесения сонанта, и струя воздуха проходит вдоль боковых сторон языка. Латеральный взрыв происходит как в словах, так и на стыках слов: cattle, read louder.


9. Потеря взрыва
(Loss of Plosion) – в сочетании смычного согласного с другим смычным или аффрикатой первый смычный произносится без взрыва, если место их артикуляции совпадает: that child, big cup. Если места их артикуляции различны, взрыв первого согласного неполный: object, good girl.

10. Редукция (Reduction) – ослабление гласных в безударных служебных словах и местоимениях. Различают количественную (quantitative) редукцию, когда сокращается долгота звука, и качественную (qualitative) редукцию, когда меняется качество звука.

11. Ассимиляция (Assimilation) – качественное уподобление смежных согласных звуков. Ассимиляция может затронуть место образования преграды, активный орган речи, работу голосовых связок, позицию губ, мягкого нёба, способ образования взрыва.

12. Интонация (Intonation) – сложная взаимосвязь мелодики, силы, темпа, тембра и ритма произнесения высказывания.

13. Синтагма (Sense-group) – относительно законченный по смыслу отрезок предложения, характеризующийся определённой интонационной структурой.

14. Мелодика речи (Speech Melody) – изменение в высоте основного тона (понижение или повышение голоса на каждом ударном слоге синтагмы).

15. Фразовое ударение (Sentence Stress) – выделение в предложении одних слов среди других. Как правило, знаменательные слова ударны, служебные – безударны.

16. Логическое ударение (Logical Stress) разновидность фразового ударения, выделяющая логический центр высказывания и подчёркивающая элемент противопоставления. Логическое ударение может падать на любое слово в предложении.

17. Эмфатическое ударение (Emphatic Stress) разновидность фразового ударения, придающая большую выразительность и эмоциональность ударным словам.

18. Эмфатика (Emphasis) – выразительность и эмоциональная окраска высказывания.

19. Темп (Tempo) – относительная скорость высказывания, которая определяется чередованием моментов говорения и пауз и их продолжительностью.

20. Тембр (Voice Quality) – качество звучания, передающее эмоциональное состояние говорящего.

21. Ритм (Rhythm) – чередование ударных и безударных слогов в равные промежутки времени.

22. Ядерный тон (Nuclear/Terminal Tone) – понижение или повышение голоса на последнем ударном слоге в синтагме. Слог, несущий это изменение, является ядром (Nucleus) синтагмы, её смысловым центром.

23. Низкий нисходящий тон (Low Fall) -  один из основных ядерных тонов, выражающих законченность мысли, категоричность, эмоционально нейтрален.

24. Низкий восходящий тон (Low Rise) – один из основных ядерных тонов, выражающих незавершённость мысли, связь между синтагмами, заинтересованность говорящего.

25. Шкала (Scale/Head) – последовательность ударных и безударных слогов, характеризующаяся сменой высоты тона и наличием ядерного тона на последнем ударном слоге. Основной тип шкалы – нисходящая ступенчатая шкала.  

  

26. Для каждого из четырёх базовых типов вопросов характерна своя интонационная модель.

Общие вопросы (General/Yes-No Questions) произносятся с повышением тона на последнем ударном слоге.

Специальные вопросы (Wh -Questions) произносятся с понижением тона на последнем ударном слоге.

Разделительные вопросы (Disjunctive/Tag Questions) состоят из двух смысловых групп, первая из которых произносится с понижением, вторая с повышением тона.

Альтернативные вопросы (Alternative Questions) также состоят из двух смысловых групп, первая из которых произносится с повышением, а вторая с понижением тона.

LESSON 1:   [t], [d], [p], [b], [k], [g], [s], [z], [f], [v], [v], [n],

                      [i], [e], [ә]

Характеристика звуков:

1. [t], [d] – переднеязычные апикально-альвеолярные смычные взрывные согласные. При их произнесении кончик языка касается альвеол, образуя полную преграду, средняя и задняя части языка опущены. Струя воздуха со взрывом размыкает эту преграду. Английский глухой согласный [t] сильнее русского [т] и произносится с аспирацией: [th].

    Английский звонкий согласный [d] значительно слабее глухого [t]. В отличие от русского согласного [д] английский [d] в конце слов оглушается лишь частично.

    При произнесении русских согласных [т], [д] передняя часть языка касается верхних зубов, кончик языка несколько опущен (дорсально-зубная артикуляция).

2. [p], [b] – губно-губные смычные взрывные согласные. При произнесении этих звуков губы, смыкаясь, oбразуют полную преграду. В отличие от русского согласного [п] английский [p] произносится с аспирацией: [ph]. Для английского согласного [p] характерна сильная артикуляция, особенно в конце слов. Английский согласный [b] в конце слов частично оглушается.

3. [k], [g] – заднеязычные велярные смычные взрывные согласные. При произнесении [k], [g],    так же как и при произнесении русских [к[, [г] задняя спинка языка касается мягкого нёба, образуя полную преграду. Английский глухой согласный [k] энергичнее соответствующего русского звука и произносится с аспирацией: [kh].

    Английский звонкий согласный [g] значительно слабее глухого [k]. В отличие от русского  [г] английский [g] в конце слов не оглушается полностью.

4.  [s], [z] – переднеязычные апикально-альвеолярные щелевые фрикативные согласные. При произнесении этих согласных узкая щель образуется между кончиком языка и альвеолами. Английский глухой согласный [s]  энергичнее русского [с]. Английский звонкий согласный [z] слабее английского глухого [s]. В отличие от русского [з] английский согласный [z]  в конце слов оглушается частично. В отличие от английских согласных   русские [с], [з] характеризуются дорсально-зубной артикуляцией.

5.  [f], [v] – губно-зубные щелевые фрикативные согласные. Артикуляционно эти согласные совпадают с соответствующими русскими согласными [ф], [в]. Глухой английский согласный [f] сильнее соответствующего русского согласного, особенно в конце слов, звонкий согласный [v] слабее [f]  . В конце слов звонкий согласный [v] частично оглушается.

6.  [m] – губно-губной смычный носовой сонант. При произнесении [m] губы, смыкаясь, образуют полную преграду, но мягкое нёбо опущено, и струя воздуха проходит через полость носа. По сравнению с русским [м] следует отметить болеe напряжённую артикуляцию английского согласного [m].

7.  [n] – переднеязычный апикально-альвеолярный смычный носовой сонант. Уклад органов речи тот же, что и для [t], [d], но мягкое нёбо опущено, и воздух проходит через полость носа.

    Русский звук [н] – носовой дорсально-зубной сонант.

8.  [I] – монофтонг переднего отодвинутого назад ряда высокого подъёма широкой разновидности, краткий нелабиализованный. При произнесении [i] язык находится в передней части полости рта, средняя часть языка поднята к твёрдому нёбу, но значительно ниже, чем при соответствующем русском [и], кончик языка находится у нижних зубов, губы растянуты.

    Чтобы избежать ошибки типа закрытого русского звука [и], не следует слишком высоко поднимать язык, необходимо слегка оттянуть его назад и сократить звук.

    При ошибке типа русского центрального [ы] язык следует продвинуть вперёд, растянуть губы и максимально сократить звук.

9.  [e] – монофтонг переднего ряда среднего подъёма узкой разновидности, краткий нелабиализованный. При произнесении гласного [e]  язык находится в передней части полости рта, кончик языка – у основания нижних зубов, средняя часть языка поднята к твёрдому нёбу, губы растянуты. По сравнению с русским гласным [э] английский [e]  более закрытый. При ошибке типа русского [э]  следует меньше раскрывать рот, губы слегка растянуть и продвинуть язык вперёд.

10.  [ә]– нейтральный безударный монофтонг смешанного ряда среднего подъёма, краткий нелабиализованный. При произнесении этого гласного в начале или середине слов несколько приподнят весь язык целиком. Для английского [ә] в этом положении характерна краткость и отсутствие чёткости артикуляции. В конечной позиции английский звук  приближается в своём звучании к русскому безударному [а], однако недопустима замена английского нейтрального гласного русскими [а] или [ы].

Phonetic Exercise 1

did

dig

kid

sin

sit

knit

sick

kiss

city

Kitty

ticket

giddy

it

is

in

sit – Sid

Dick – dig

tick – tig

Phonetic Exercise 2

ten

pen

men

get

pet

net

end

egg

ate

debt – dead

bet – bed

set – said

sit – set

bit – bet

big – beg

did dead

busy – Benny

pity – Betty

Minnie – many

gets

pets

beds

kids

Phonetic Exercise 3

fin

fist

stiff

gift

deaf

definite

indefinite

significant

vent

vend

vest

vex

give

ever

never

invent

bevy

Kevin

seven

given

Additional Exercises

1. Read the exercise, paying attention to the degree of aspiration of the voiceless consonants [p], [t], [k].

tin – knit

kin – Nick

pit - tip

ten – net

Ted – debt

pen - neck

pity

Becky

epic

spit

sticky

skinny

2. Practice reading the sentences, paying attention to the intonation.

Tim  is  sick.

Bess  is  ten.

Eddy  is  busy.

Tim  isn’t  sick

Bess  isn’t  ten.

Eddy  isn’t  busy.

Is Tim  sick?

Is Bess  ten?

Is Eddy  busy?

3. Practise reading the sentences; make them negative and interrogative as in the previous exercise.

Sid is big.

Mick is six.

Kevin is seven.

Vicky is skinny.

Dennis is in bed.

Ken is in.

Nick is in Sidney.

Phyllis is in Venice.

Mr. Nixon is in Denver.

Mrs. Gibson is in Texas.


4. Practise reading the following conversations.

a/   Cindy is  busy.

     Cindy  isn’t  busy.  Kitty is  busy.

b/   Is  Ben  six?

     Ben?  Ben  isn’t  six.  Ben is  seven.

c/    Is  Ed  in?

      Ed ?  Ed  isn’t  in.

      Is  Teddy  in?

      Teddy?  Teddy is  in.

5. Listen to the sentences below, mark the intonation. Practise reading them.

1. Yes.

2. Tim.

3. Victor.

4. It’s Victor.

5. It’s better.

6. It’s a pity.

7. It’s definite.

8. It’s indefinite.

9. Let’s get it.

10. Betty did it.

11. Yes?

12. Tim?

13. Victor?

14.  Is it Victor?

15. Is it better?

16. Is it a gift?

17. Is it definite?

18. Is it expensive?

19. Is it Test Seven?

20. Isn’t it significant?

 LESSON 2:   [l], [h], [r], [j], [w], [ŋ]

                       [i:], [α:], [æ], [A], [ ε:], [u], [u:], [ O ], [ O:]

Характеристика звуков:

1. [ l ] – переднеязычный апикально-альвеолярный боковой сонант. Кончик языка прижат к альвеолам, но боковые края языка опущены, образуя проход для струи воздуха.

    При произнесении русского [л] кончик языка находится у верхних зубов.

    Так называемый тёмный (твёрдый) оттенок [l] звучит в конце слов и перед согласным. Светлый (палатализованный) оттенок [l]  звучит перед гласными и перед согласным [j]. Смягчение достигается поднятием средней спинки языка. Следует иметь в виду, что английский палатализованный согласный [l] твёрже соответствующего русского варианта, а английский тёмный согласный [l] несколько мягче русского [л].

2. [ i: ] – долгий нелабиализованный дифтонгоид переднего ряда высокого подъёма узкой разновидности. При произнесении [i:] язык находится в передней части полости рта, кончик языка касается нижних зубов, средняя часть языка поднята высоко к твёрдому нёбу, губы несколько растянуты. В процессе артикуляции язык от более низкого и отодвинутого назад положения переходит к боле высокой и продвинутой вперёд позиции: [i] > [й].

    При произнесении русского [и] передняя часть языка поднята выше и несколько продвинута вперёд по сравнению с английским гласным. Чтобы избежать ошибки типа русского [и], следует обратить особое внимание на неоднородность артикуляции [i:]. Исходной должна быть позиция языка, как при английском [i], только к концу артикуляции язык занимает положение, сходное с русским [и].

3. [ α: ] – долгий нелабиализованный монофтонг заднего ряда низкого подъёма широкой разновидности. При произнесении гласного [α:]  язык находится в задней части рта, задняя часть языка слегка приподнята, кончик языка оттянут от нижних зубов, губы нейтральны. При ошибке типа русского [а], звука центрального ряда, следует оттянуть язык назад и несколько удлинить гласный. Не следует широко раскрывать рот.

4. [ h ] – глухой щелевой фарингальный согласный. При его произнесении в области зева образуется неполная преграда сближением корня языка и задней стенки зева. Язык в момент произнесения [h] принимает положение для последующего гласного. Звук встречается только перед гласным и на слух представляет собой лишь выдох. При произнесении русского [х] задняя часть языка высоко поднята к мягкому нёбу. При ошибке типа русского [х] следует ослабить согласный до лёгкого выдоха, предшествующего гласному.

5. [ j ] – среднеязычный щелевой срединный сонант. При произнесении этого согласного средняя часть языка поднята к твёрдому нёбу, но не так высоко, как в случае с русским согласным [й]. Края языка прижаты к верхним зубам, образуя проход для струи воздуха вдоль середины языка. Органы речи постепенно переходят в позицию для произнесения последующего гласного. Английский согласный значительно слабее соответствующего русского согласного.

6. [ r ] – переднеязычный заалвеолярный срединный щелевой сонант. При его произнесении кончик языка поднят к заднему скату альвеол. Английский сонант [r] представляет собой однородный звук и акустически сильно отличается от прерывистого раскатистого русского звука [р]. При произнесении русского [р] кончик языка занимает то же положение (заальвеолярное), но он расслаблен и вибрирует. Чтобы избежать ошибки типа русского [р], следует кончик языка держать напряжённым и неподвижным и не касаться им альвеол.

7. [ u: ] – долгий лабиализованный дифтонгоид заднего ряда высокого подъёма узкой разновидности. При произнесении этого гласного язык находится в задней части полости рта. Задняя часть языка значительно приподнята. В процессе произнесения [u:] язык перемещается от продвинутого вперёд и более низкого положения в направлении более задней и закрытой позиции. Губы значительно округлены, причём округление значительно увеличивается к концу произнесения. По сравнению с английским гласным русский гласный [у] является более задним, более закрытым и более лабиализованным. В случае ошибки типа русского [у] следует в первую очередь следить за тем, чтобы губы были округлены, но не вытянуты вперёд.

8. [ u ] – краткий лабиализованный монофтонг заднего продвинутого вперёд ряда высокого подъёма широкой разновидности. При произнесении этого гласного язык находится в задней части полости рта, но не так далеко, как при [u:]. Задняя часть языка поднята меньше, чем при [u:]. Губы слегка округлены. В случае ошибки типа русского гласного [у] следует продвинуть язык вперёд и не вытягивать губы.

9.  [ ŋ ]– заднеязычный смычный носовой сонант. При его произнесении задняя часть я зыка касается мягкого нёба, мягкое нёбо опущено, и воздух проходит через полость носа. В русском языке подобного звука нет. В случае ошибки типа [n]  или [н] шире откройте рот и проследите, чтобы кончик языка не поднимался к верхним зубам или альвеолам, а находился у корней нижних зубов.


10. [ w ] – губно-губной заднеязычный срединный щелевой сонант. При его произнесении губы сильно округляются и выдвигаются вперёд, образуя круглую щель. Задняя часть языка поднята к мягкому нёбу. Затем мгновенно язык и губы переходят в положение для произнесения следующего гласного. Подобного звука в русском языке нет. В случае ошибки типа русского [в] необходимо следить за тем, чтобы нижняя губа не касалась верхних зубов. В случае ошибки типа русского [у] следует ещё больше напрячь и округлить губы.

11.  [ æ ] – полудолгий нелабиализованный монофтонг переднего ряда низкого подъёма широкой разновидности. При произнесении [æ] рот довольно широко открыт, язык находится в передней части полости рта, плоско лежит во рту, средняя его часть несколько приподнята. Кончик языка находится у нижних зубов. Углы губ слегка оттянуты в стороны. Подобного звука в русском языке нет.

    Русский гласный [э] менее открытый, чем английский гласный [æ], a русский гласный [а] открытый, но более задний (центрального ряда) по сравнению с английским гласным [æ]. Чтобы избежать ошибки типа русского [э] следует шире открывать рот, кончик языка остаётся у нижних зубов. В случае ошибки типа русского звука [а] следует прижать кончик языка к нижним зубам и шире открыть рот.

12. [ A ]– монофтонг смешанного ряда среднего подъёма широкой разновидности, краткий нелабиализованный. При произнесении  рот полуоткрыт, губы нейтральны, язык несколько оттянут назад. Задняя часть языка слегка приподнята. В случае ошибки типа русского [a] язык следует несколько отодвинуть назад. Английский звук более краткий.

13.  [  O  ]– краткий лабиализованный монофтонг заднего ряда низкого подъёма широкой разновидности. При произнесении [ O ] язык находится в задней части полости рта, задняя часть языка слегка приподнята, рот широко раскрыт, губы округлены. По сравнению с [α:]  английский гласный [ O ] несколько более задний и закрытый. В отличие от английского [ O ]   русской гласный [о] менее открытый, губы сильнее округлены. В случае ошибки типа русского [о] следует шире раскрыть рот, ниже опустить и отодвинуть язык, округляя губы, не вытягивать их вперёд и несколько сократить звук.

14. [ O :] – долгий лабиализованный монофтонг заднего ряда низкого подъёма узкой разновидности. При произнесении [O: ] язык находится в задней части полости рта. Задняя спинка языка поднята к мягкому нёбу несколько выше, чем для [ O: ]. При ошибке типа русского [о] следует добиваться более открытой артикуляции. По сравнению с [ O ] гласный звук [ O :]  менее открытый и более лабиализованный.

15. [ ε: ] – долгий монофтонг смешанного ряда среднего подъёма узкой разновидности, нелабиализованный. При произнесении [ε:] язык приподнят, спинка языка лежит плоско, кончик языка находится у нижних зубов, зубы чуть обнажены, расстояние между верхними и нижними зубами небольшое. В случае ошибок типа [е],  [э] не следует слишком растягивать губы. В случае ошибки типа [о] следует добиться нейтрального положения губ, не открывать широко рот, продвинуть язык слегка вперёд, добиваясь его плоского уклада.

Phonetic Exercise 1

less – sell

let – tell

lip – pill

lick – kill

lit – till

little

settle

kettle

fiddle

middle

Phonetic Exercise 2

see – seed – seat

fee – feel – feet

lee – league – leak

eve

easy

eat

did – deed

filled – field

live – leave

bit – beat

list – least

slip – sleep

Phonetic Exercise 3

car – calm – cart

far – farm – part

bar – bard – bark

arm

art

ask

a far star

Ask Martin

a dark garden

Phonetic Exercise 4

eel – heel

is – his

arm – harm

art – heart

his head

his heart

ate – yet

S – yes

L – yell

yeast

yield

yard

Phonetic Exercise 5

rid

risk

rest

raspberry

lead – read

glass – grass

flea – free

collect – correct

a risky trick

a merry cricket

Rick’s car isn’t red.

His sister Elinor is a secretary.

Phonetic Exercise 6

lose – loose

mood – moot

soon – soup

good

could

took

pull – pool

full – fool

put – boot

a music student

a stupid rule

a beautiful tune

Phonetic Exercise 7

sing – singing

ring – ringing

cling – clinging

bring – bringing

sink

link

finger

single

sin – sing

kin – king

be –being

see - seeing

Phonetic Exercise 8

will – well

wit – wet

went – west

whimper – whisper

wool

wolf

wood

wound

twenty squirrels

wet and windy

Will you quit whistling?

When will we see the Queen?

Phonetic Exercise 9

add

addict

act

active

did –dead – dad

pin –pen – pan

big- beg – bag

Sid – said – sad

pit – pet – pat

sit – set – sat

miss – mess – mass

six – sex – sax

a black handbag

fantasy land

Miss Bradley is traveling is Canada.

Sam Anderson is visiting Amsterdam.

Phonetic Exercise 10

us

up

uncle

ugly

cub – cup

bud – but

love – luck

tongue - hut

a London bus

a hundred coloured buttons

As snug as a bug in a rug

Every country has its customs.


Phonetic Exercise 11

god – got

nod – not

dog – dock

log – lock

core – cord – caught

saw – sword – sought

four – form – force

tore – tall – talk

Don – dawn

pot – port

fox – forks

want - water

a horrible holiday

What’s wrong?

Paul is a football reporter from York.

Bob, it’s your fault.

Awfully sorry, Maude.

Phonetic Exercise 12

earn

earnest

early

fir- firm- first

bur – bird – burst

sir – serve – serf

call – curl

bored – bird

horde – herd

an early bird

learn forty verbs

her worst work

Additional Exercises

1. Read the exercise, paying attention to the articulation of the long and short vowels.

lead – lid

wheat – wit

seek – sick

feel – fill

neat – knit

eat – it

lark – luck

barn – bun

harm – hum

cart – cut

dark – duck

bard – bud

pool – pull

fool – full

food – foot

lose – look

cool – cook

wound – would

court – cot

port – pot

horse – hostel

board – body

raw – rock

walk – wasp

2. Read the exercise, paying attention to the differences in the articulation of the vowels.

we – were

see – sir

team – term

weak – work

teen – turn

niece – nurse

peel – pearl

car – core

star – store

far – four

mark – more

park – pork

farm – form

lark – law

list – lost

heart – hot

clerk – clock

dark – dock

bark – box

farm – fox

part – pot

son – song

lung – long

cut – cot

nun – not

dull – doll

but – boss

front – from

 

men – man

bed – bad

pen – pan

ten – tan

send – sand

lend – land

then – than

cat – cart

pack – park

back – bark

hat – heart

had – hard

pat – part

lack – lark

3. Read the sentences, paying attention to the intonation.

Kevin is a  dean.

Liz is a  dancer.

Peter is a  builder.

Isn’t  Kevin an  artist?

Isn’t  Martin a  dean?

Isn’t  Liz a  singer?

Isn’t  Emily a  dancer?

Isn’t  Peter a  farmer?

Isn’t  Nick a  builder?

Martin is an  artist.

Martin is an  artist.

Emily is a  singer.

Emily is a  dancer.

Nick is a  farmer.

Nick is a  farmer.

4. Make the sentences below negative and interrogative; then make up dialogues using Exercise 3 as a model. Practise reading them with proper intonation.

Martin is a builder.

Victor is a farmer.

Elton is a businessman.

Peter is a fitter.

Margaret is a dancer.

Emily is an artist.

Helen is a dean.

Willy is a president.

Steve is an architect.

Robert is a worker.

Susan is a model.

Anne is a bookkeeper.

Thomas is a butler.

Polly is a cook.

Sam is a footballer.

Alice is an economist.

Patrick is a boxer.

Ronald is a runner.

5. Listen to the following conversations, mark the intonation. Practise reading the conversations together with the tape.

a/  Is Andrew a boxer or a wrestler?

   Andrew is a footballer.

   Is he? Isn’t he a wrestler?

   Donald is a wrestler.


b/ Matt is an actor.

   Isn’t he a singer?

   He isn’t a singer but he is an excellent actor.

   And who’s a singer?

   Thomas is.

6. Listen to the following sentences. Pay attention to the logically stressed words. Practise reading the sentences.

1.  Kelly  Nixon is  fifty- seven.

    Kelly  Nixon is  fifty-seven.

    Kelly  Nixon is  fifty-seven.

    Kelly  Nixon is  fifty-seven.

2.  Is  Kelly  Nixon  fifty- seven?

    Is  Kelly  Nixon  fifty-seven?

    Is  Kelly  Nixon  fifty-seven?

    Is  Kelly  Nixon  fifty-seven?

7. Mark the intonation in the dialogues below, then listen to the tape and check whether you have done it correctly. Practise reading the dialogues.

a/  Is Mr. Bricks  seventy- six?

   Mr. Bricks is sixty-six.

    Is Mrs. Bricks sixty-six?

   Mrs. Bricks is fifty.

b/  Is Luke a  businessman from  Finland?

    Luke is a businessman from England.

    Is Rick a businessman from England?

    Rick is a farmer from England.

8. Read the following sentences, making different words logically stressed each time.

1/ Get ten eggs ready for breakfast.

2/ Betty is very neat.

3/ Rob didn’t mean to hurt Yvonne.

4/ Carl saw twelve fox cubs in the woods.

5/ Did Sam learn any beautiful tunes last week?

6/ Max never asks stupid questions.

7/ He bought his car in December.

8/ Is it your uncle in the picture?

LESSON 3:   [ θ ], [ ð ], [ S], [ Z ], [ C ], [ G ]

                      [ei ], [ ai ], [  Oi ], [ au ], [ әu ], [ εә ], [ iә ], [ uә ]

Характеристика звуков:

1. [ θ ],  [ ð ] – переднеязычные апикально-межзубные щелевые фрикативные согласные. При произнесении этих звуков язык распластан и не напряжён, кончик языка находится между зубами. Струя воздуха проходит между языком и верхними зубами. Зубы обнажены.

    Звонкий [ ð] значительно слабее глухого [θ] и в конце слов частично оглушается.

    В русском языке подобных звуков нет. В случае ошибки типа [т],  [д] не следует прижимать язык к верхним зубам, необходимо оставлять щель между зубами и языком. Чтобы избежать ошибки типа [с],  [з[, не следует держать язык в зазубном положении. Кончик языка должен находиться между зубами. Во избежание ошибки типа русских [ф], [в] следует опускать нижнюю губу.

2. [ S ], [ Z ]  – переднеязычные альвеолярно-палатальные щелевые согласные. При их произнесении кончик языка находится у альвеол, а средняя часть языка поднимается к твёрдому нёбу. Поднятием средней части языка к твёрдому нёбу объясняется тот оттенок мягкости, которым английские [S], [Z ]  отличаются от твёрдых русских  согласных звуков [ш] и [ж]. Чтобы избежать ошибок типа русских звуков [ш],  [ж] следует поднять среднюю часть языка.  

  

3. [ C  ], [ G ] – переднеязычные альвеолярно-палатальные смычные аффрикаты, т.е. сложные согласные звуки, первый компонент которых – взрывной звук [t] или [d], а второй – фрикативный [∫] или [  ]. При их произнесении кончик языка касается альвеол, одновременно средняя часть языка поднимается к твёрдому нёбу. Постепенно кончик языка отходит от альвеол. Таким образом, эта полная преграда переходит в неполную.

    Английский звук [t   ] по сравнению с русским звуком [ч] звучит твёрже. Английский звук   [d   ] не имеет соответствующего звука в русском языке. Нельзя допускать раздельного произнесения компонентов аффрикаты  как в русских словах джаз, джем.

4. [ ei ] – дифтонг. Ядро дифтонга – краткий гласный переднего ряда среднего подъёма узкой разновидности, нелабиализованный. После произнесения ядра язык делает движение вверх в направлении звука [i], не достигая, однако, его полного образования. Нельзя допускать произношения звука типа русского [й].

5.  [ ai ] – дифтонг. Ядро дифтонга – гласный звук переднего ряда низкого подъёма широкой разновидности, нелабиализованный. При произнесении ядра дифтонга язык находится в передней части полости рта и лежит плоско, кончик языка касается нижних зубов, губы немного растянуты. Как монофтонг этот звук не встречается. После произнесения ядра язык делает движение вверх в направлении звука [i]. В случае ошибки типа [ Λi]  язык следует продвинуть вперёд, с тем чтобы сделать звук более передним; при ошибке типа [ай] второй элемент дифтонга следует произносить как можно слабее и среднюю часть языка не следует поднимать высоко.   

6. [  Oi ]  – дифтонг. Ядро дифтонга -  звук заднего ряда низкого подъёма, лабиализованный. Он представляет собой звук, средний между [ O ] и [ O :] . После произнесения ядра язык движется в направлении гласного [i]. В случае ошибки типа [ой] следует сделать первый элемент дифтонга более открытым и менее лабиализованным, а второй элемент значительно ослабить.

7. [  әu ] – дифтонг. Ядро дифтонга – гласный смешанного ряда среднего подъёма узкой разновидности, лабиализованный. Язык находится не так далеко, как для русского [о]. Ядро дифтонга близко по звучанию к [ ε:] . После произнесения ядра язык делает лёгкое движение вверх и отходит назад.

    В начале произнесения дифтонга губы слегка округлены, затем постепенно губы ещё больше округляются (без вытягивания вперёд). В случае ошибки типа русского [оу] надо следить за тем, чтобы губы не были вытянуты вперёд, язык следует продвинуть вперёд. При ошибке типа русского [эу] следует не растягивать губы (губы округлены) и несколько оттянуть язык назад.

8. [ au ] – дифтонг. Ядро дифтонга – гласный переднего отодвинутого назад ряда низкого подъёма широкой разновидности, нелабиализованный. Он произносится почти так же, как первый элемент дифтонга [ai], а затем язык делает движение назад и вверх в направлении звука [u]. Второй элемент дифтонга должен быть очень слабым. В случае ошибки типа [ау] следует продвинуть язык вперёд, чтобы сделать первый элемент дифтонга более передним и значительно ослабить второй элемент.

9 [ iә  ] дифтонг. Ядро дифтонга – гласный переднего ряда высокого подъёма широкой разновидности, нелабиализованный. После произнесения ядра язык движется к центру, в направлении [ә]. Чтобы избежать ошибки типа [] следует ослабить второй элемент дифтонга.

10. [ εә ]  – дифтонг. Ядро дифтонга – гласный переднего ряда среднего подъёма широкой разновидности, нелабиализованный, второй элемент – нейтральный гласный.

11. [  uә ] – дифтонг. Ядро дифтонга – гласный заднего продвинутого вперёд ряда высокого подъёма широкой разновидности, слегка лабиализованный. После произнесения ядра язык движется к центру, в направлении [ә]. Следует избегать сильного округления и выпячивания губ при произнесении первого элемента. В современном английском языке сильна тенденция к замене дифтонга [uә]  монофтонгом [ O :] .

Phonetic Exercise 1

thick

thin

think

thanks

this

then

than

these

myth – with

tooth – both

teeth – breathe

worth – worthy

something rather funny

three brothers together

This is the author of the novel.

Phonetic Exercise 2

shut

shop

finish

Swedish

mission

session

action

direction

vision

collision

measure

pleasure

Phonetic Exercise 3

check

chuck

chicken

cheese

Jack

just

ginger

jeep

shop – chop

sheep – cheap

shoes – choose

cash – catch

chin – gin

bench – badge

fetch – pledge

merchant – legend

orange juice

rich gentlemen

large cherries

a huge jam jar

Phonetic Exercise 4

eh

age

H

hay – hail – hate

bay – bathe – base

tray – trade - trait

waiting for a train

Play that game again.

He’s eighty-eight today.

Phonetic Exercise 5

I

eyes

ice

sigh – side – sight

lie – lied – light

tie – tide – tight

hay – high

mail – mile

lake – like

Smile ninety – nine times.

I hate saying good-bye.

D’you mind the bright light?

Phonetic Exercise 6

oyer

oil

oyster

toy – coin – voice

boy – boil – boyish

enjoy – enjoys – rejoice

 

all – doll – Doyle

chore – chop – choice

raw – rock – royal

a spoilt boy

Avoid this noisy toy!

Let’s talk to the point.

Phonetic Exercise 7

oh

own

oak

low – load – loaf

so – soul – soap

go – goal – goat

sir – saw – sow

firm – form – foam

hurt – bought - boat

an old joke

Don’t go poking your nose into other people’s business!

Phonetic Exercise 8

our

owl

out

how- hound – house

bow – town – about

allow – loud – doubt

shout – shower

town – tower

count – coward

Don’t shout so loud!

I  found a mouse in our

house.

It’s the highest tower around.

Phonetic Exercise 9

tea – tear

bee – bear

bead – beard

weed – weird

when – where

bed – bare

head – haired

chess – chairs

shoe – sure

pool – poor

cute – cure

pew – pure

his sheer fear of his peers

Beware of the bear!

Make sure the water is quite pure.

 

Additional Exercises

1. Read the exercise paying attention to the differences in the articulation of the monophthongs and diphthongs.

men – mane

pen – pain

wet – wait

sell – sail

pepper – paper

pot – point

spot – spoilt

John – join

toss – toys

olive – oil

tack – take

sat- saint

cat – Kate

fat – fate

plan – plain

hat – height

fat – fight

sad – side

man – mine

dad – died

pin – pine

film – fine

myth – mine

fifth – five

tip – type

not – no

god – go

hot – home

stock – stone

rock – robe

love – low

done – dole

son – snow

London – lonely

front – froze

burn – bone

turn – tone

learn – alone

curly – cozy

work – woke

2. Read the exercise paying attention to the articulation of the voiced and voiceless consonants.

fetch – chest

catch – chat

latch – chart

such – chuckle

gesture

just

job

jaw

join

edge

badge

large

lodge

George

Fetch the bag.

Catch the dog.

Reach the park.

Call John.

Find Julian.

Teach Jane.

3. Practise reading the sentences paying attention to the intonation in different question types.

a/ Is this Nick’s coat?

  Whose coat is this?

   This is Nick’s coat, isn’t it?

   Is this Nick’s or Mark’s coat?

b/ Are those Mary’s gloves?

   Whose gloves are those?

   Those are Mary’s gloves, aren’t they?

   Are those Mary’s gloves or mittens?

c/ Is  that  Arthur’s girlfriend?

   Who is that?

   That is Arthur’s girlfriend, isn’t it?

   Is this girl or is that girl Arthur’s girlfriend?

4. Put different questions to the sentences below. Practise reading them with proper intonation.

This is Maggie’s house.

These are Janet’s children.

That is George’s Volvo.

This is a Chinese vase.

That is Richard’s letter.

This is orange juice.

Those are Michael’s trainers.

That is Mr.  Greggson’s case.

5. Listen to the dialogue. Practise reading them with a partner. Make sure you imitate the intonation on the tape correctly.

:  D’you  know  Polly?

:  Polly?  What  Polly?

:  Polly  Smith, a  model.

:  No.  Is she a  good model?

:  Look.  This is her  port folio. She’s a  perfect model.

:  Oh  yes. These  photos are  perfect in deed.  Let’s  meet her.

:  It’s a  pity  Polly  isn’t in the  city.

:  Isn’t she?

:  Polly is in  Italy. She’ll be  back  next  Thursday.

6. Listen to the dialogue, mark the intonation. Practise reading the dialogue with a partner.

: Have you ever met victor Robertson?

: Victor Robertson? Who’s he?

: He’s an architect from Scotland.

: I’ve never met Victor. Is he a good architect?

: He’s an excellent architect, believe me. Have a look at his blueprints.

: Marvellous! Simply marvellous! Can we meet Victor Robertson?

: It’s a pity victor isn’t in the city. He’s in Finland now.

: When will he be back?

: Pretty soon I guess. In fact, I’ve asked him to come to the conference on Tuesday next week.

: Excellent. So we’ll seeing Victor on Tuesday.

PHONETIC RULES

1. We must watch for the positional length of the vowel […]. It is the longest in the final position, it is shorter before a voiced consonant, it is the shortest before a voiceless consonant.

e.g. [gou] – [goul] – [gout]

2. we must watch for the aspiration of the voiceless consonants [p, t, k ]. They are most strongly aspirated before stressed vowels esp. long monophthongs and diphthongs; they are less aspirated in the final position and before an unstressed vowel; they lose their aspiration after [s].

e.g. [pi:] – [pit] – [nip] – [spit]

3. We must watch for the lateral plosion in the word / in the phrase ______. The plosion of the consonant […] becomes lateral under the influence of the sonorous consonant [l].

e.g. [ ‘setl], [ faind  lu:k]

4. We must watch for the nasal plosion in the word / in the phrase _______. The Plosion of the consonant […] becomes nasal under the influence of the nasal sonorants [n], [m].

e.g. [ ‘kitn], [ lend mi]

5. We must watch for the loss of plosion in the word / in the phrase________. The consonant […] loses its plosion under the influence of the following plosive consonant […].

e.g. [ mi:t  tim]

6. We must watch for assimilation in the word/phrase _______. The alveolar consonant […] becomes dental under the influence of the interdental […]. The consonant […] becomes rounded under the influence of the following sonorant [w]. The sonorant […] becomes partly devoiced under the influence of the voiceless consonant […].

e.g. [ri:d  ðә  buk], [swift]


7. We must watch for reduction in the word ________. This word is used in its weak (reduced) form; its strong form is _______. It’s a case of qualitative/ quantitative/ zero reduction.

The parts of speech that are normally reduced (form-words) are as follows: articles, particles, prepositions, conjunctions, modal and auxiliary verbs, personal, possessive and reflexive pronouns.

The parts of speech that are never reduced (notional words) are as follows: nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, numerals, interrogative pronouns.  

e.g. [hi:] – [hi  ] – [hi] – [h], [ ‘iznt]

8. We must watch for the absence of the glottal stop in the word _______ where the vowel occurs in the initial position.

e.g. [ ‘i:zi]

9. We must watch for the absence of palatalization of the consonant [..] before the front vowel […].

e.g. [pen], [bi ‘li:v]

10. We must watch for the linking [r] in the phrase ________.

e.g. [nevәr ә gein]

Comment on the phonetic phenomena to be observed in the following exercises. Practise reading them.

a.

My  red  pencil

Your  weak  point

Her  short  coat

His  great  trouble

Their  old  clock

Glad to  see you.

I  want to  ask you.

He  hasn’t  got it.

He  doesn’t  teach her.

Let me  see.

I  don’t  know.

We  don’t  like it.

He  doesn’t  learn it.

Not  now

Right  now

Stop  Mary

Late at  night

b.

What  nasty  weather.

What  wonderful  roses.

What  lovely  violets you’ve got.

What  valuable  pearls she has.

How  pretty she is.

How  clever of you.

How  nice of you to  come to  see me.

How  strange this  old  man  is.

c.

dear – dare- doer

tear – tear – tour

mere – mare - moor

a rear corner

a spare minute

a poor animal

bottle

double

simple

riddle

model

idle

button

beaten

rotten

pattern

hidden

forbidden

d.

Oh dear, it’s quite clear.

There are tears in her eyes.

There isn’t much time.

It isn’t quite right.

She hasn’t got a piano.

e.

trial

triumph

quiet

tyrant

admire

desire

a famous scientist

a cruel pirate

a fragrant violet

a cold shower

a clean towel

a front vowel


Intonation Exercises

1. Read each of the phrases below three times: with the falling, rising and falling-rising intonation.

a/ Satisfactory.

b/ Impossible.

c/ Finally.

d/ On Saturday.

e/ Mr. Robinson.

f/ In Moscow.

g/ To New York.

h/ Next Year.

i/ To the North.

j/ All right.

k/ Thank you.

l/ Again.

m/ At night.

n/ Today.

o/ Now.

p/ She is here.

q/ Mind the step.

r/ Enjoy the music.

s/ Don’t be late.

t/ Come to my place, please.

2. Read the questions with the intonation appropriate for each question type.

a/ -   Is his child’s eye-sight as poor as his own?

  •  How can you tell that the Queen is in the palace?
  •  When you don’t understand something, do you ask your teacher to explain it to you or do you do your best to find it out yourself?
  •  Timothy believes in UFOs and ghosts, doesn’t he?

b/ -   Do you know the story about Robin Hood, a hero of English ballads?

  •  How many people come to the museum every day?
  •  Does he really play the guitar or is it only a joke?
  •  They’ve got a rich collection of paintings started by their great-grandfather, haven’t they?

c/ -   Can you tell me the latest news?

  •  How long do you plan to stay in this job?
  •  Do you usually have a light or a heavy breakfast?
  •  Peter and Mary work with Tom’s group in the laboratory as a rule, don’t they?

d/ -   Can you touch your nose with your left hand and pull your left ear with your   

        right hand at the same time?

  •  Why are you so upset about the whole thing?
  •  Do you want to buy a bicycle or a pair of roller-skates as a present for your son?
  •  For all I know there isn’t a nursery I your house, is there?


e/  -  Does it mean that you refuse to take part in the play?

-  How long does it take you to accomplish this kind of work?

-  Does he prefer to stay in a hotel or with his friends?

- Bill lets you drive his car sometimes, doesn’t he?

f/ -    Shall I telephone John and tell him about the incident right now?

  •  Why must you stay at home while everyone else is going out?
  •  Does she stay in town or does she go to the country for her weekends?
  •  It often rains in this part of the country in winter, doesn’t it?

g/ -   Do you invite your friends to your birthday parties every year?

  •  How much time a day do you spend with your children?
  •  Does Mr. Nimble usually travel by train or by plane?
  •  You aren’t afraid to stay in a dark room, are you?

h/ -   Do you do anything to develop your memory?

  •  When do you hope to finish your research on wild flowers?
  •  Is Rio de Janeiro the capital of Brazil or of Argentina?
  •  Peter isn’t as good at physics as he is at literature, is he?

i/  -   Are there any facts that can prove your supposition?

  •  What interests you most of all in Russian history, Mr. Black?
  •  Is your brother the tall boy with black hair or the short one with red hair and freckles?
  •  Madonna isn’t as popular as Britney Spears, is she?

j/  -   Do Japanese children have as much time to play as children in other countries

       do?

  •  Who takes care of your garden while you are away?
  •  Do you prefer to spend the evening in the company of your friends or at home with your television?
  •  You haven’t got any problems or serious disagreements with your parents, have you?

4. Listen to the conversation below. Mark the intonation and be prepared to comment on it. Practise reading the dialogue together with a partner.

“Granny, have I any cousins?”

“Yes, Benny, you have two.”

“Whose children are they? How old are they? Are they boys or girls?”

“Not so many questions at once, please, Benny! Your cousins are: a five-year-old boy, Georgie, and a four-year-old girl, May. They are your Aunt Emily’s children. They are in Canada now with their parents: your Aunt Emily, my daughter, and her husband, Mr. Thomas Brown.”

“In Canada? What’s Canada, Granny? Where is it?”

“Canada is a far away country. It is in the north of America.”

“In the north of America? Where is it? Is it as far as London?”

“Oh, no, Benny! It’s much farther.”

“But, Granny – “

“Come along, my dearest. It’s just the time for your midday milk.”

 


SECTION 2:   SOUND REVISION

Exercise 1

Look at the pictures and listen. Read the sentences  together with the tape. Pay attention to the ‘th’ sound.

Exercise 2

Listen to the dialogues. Practise reading them with a partner. Make sure your [ θ ] and [ ð ] sounds are correct.

Dialogue A

: Edith smith is only thirty.

: Is she? I thought she was thirty-three.

: Edith’s birthday was last Thursday.

: Was it? I thought it was last month.

: The Smiths’ house is worth thirty thousand pounds.

: Is it? I thought it was worth three thousand.

: Mr. Smith is the author of a book about moths.

: Is he? I thought he was a mathematician.

: I’m so thirsty.

: I thought you drank something at the Smiths’.

: No. Edith gave me nothing to drink.

: Shall I buy you a drink?

: Thank you.

Dialogue B

: Sally, have you got anything planned for Thursday?

: For Thursday, Simon?

: For Thursday the 13th. It’s my birthday, you see.

: Simon! Your birthday! Thank heavens you said!

: Yes, I’m going to be thirty-three. I thought I’d throw a party or something to

 celebrate.   

: What a super idea!

: Do you think you’ll be free?

: For Thursday? Yes, I think so.

: Fine, so I’ll see you soon. It starts at six.

: Yes, thanks… oh, and Simon…

: Yes?

: So I’m so slow.

Exercise 3

Look at the pictures and listen. Practise saying the sentences paying attention to the sound [f].

Exercise 4

Listen and then practise saying the following sentences first very slowly, then faster. Pay attention to the correct articulation of the sounds [b] and [v].

a. Vincent brought Brenda a marvelous souvenir vase he’d bought in Venice.

b. Bob Viney, the village baker’s boy, loves betty Vole, the barmaid at “The Bull’.

c. Vera Bathory, the Viennese vampire, bathes every evening in buckets of blood.

d. A visiting burglar broke victor Barton’s marble bust of Voltaire into various bits.

e. Valentine Barlowe, the TV ventriloquist, lives in “Belleview’ – a vast brick villa built in 1812.

Exercise 5

 

Listen to the tape and practise saying the following headlines.

British Van Driver Banned from Costa Brava Bar

Bomb Victim Vivienne Gives Birth to Baby Boy

Brighton Vicar Leaves ‘Boring’ Wife for Blond Barmaid

Brave Bob Saves Baby Vicki from Blazing Bedroom

Violent Bolivian Lover Obsessed by Vow of Revenge

Exercise 6

Listen to the sentences below. Practise saying them paying attention to the sound [w].


Exercise 7

Match the questions and the answers, then listen and check your answers. Practise reading them in pairs.

1. Where was Wendy while they were watching the whales?

2. What was wrong with the weather on Wednesday?

3. Which wine would you like, Winifred?

4. When were they walking in Wales?

5. Why were Wayne and Wanda whispering?

a. While we were in Hawaii.

b. The sweet white  one, Walter.

c. Working in Washington.

d. They didn’t want Will to worry.

e. It was wet and windy.

Exercise 8

Listen to the dialogue. Practise reading it. Watch for the correct articulation of the sounds [w] and [v].

: Did you see Victor on Wednesday, Wendy?

: Yes. We went for a walk in the woods near the railway.

: Wasn’t it cold on Wednesday?

: Yes. It was very cold and wet. We wore warm clothes and walked quickly to keep

 warm.

: It’s lovely and quiet in the woods.

: Yes. Further away from the railway it was very quite, and there were wild squirrels

  everywhere. We counted twenty squirrels.

: How wonderful! Twenty squirrels! And did you take lunch with you?

: Yes. About twelve we had veal sandwiches and sweet white wine, and we watched

 the squirrels. It was a very nice walk.

Exercise 9

Listen to the sentences, practise saying them first slowly and then faster. Pay attention to the [h]s.

a. Helen has cut her own hair again – it’s absolutely horrible!

b. Have you heard about Hannah’s horrific adventure in Hamburg?

c. Henry’s uncle Herbert has had another heart attack in hospital.

d. Old Hugh hasn’t eaten his ham and eggs already, has he?

e. Hazel and Alan have had another unhappy holiday hitchhiking in Austria

   and Hungary.

Exercise 10

Put the jumbled sentences below in the correct order. Listen to the tape and compare your answers. Repeat each sentence with the tape.

a. helped/ I have?

b. hamburgers/ hate/ eating/ I!

c. in/ Abigail/ here/ hovered/ has?

d. Aunt Hannah/ Alan Harbord/ his/ adores.

e. heart attack/ had/ Harriet Elston/ old/ a.

f. Helmut/ Anna/ hurriedly/ about/ asked/ English/ homework/ his.

g. overcoat/ a/ Arthur Harris/ in/ always/ handkerchief/ his/ has.

Exercise 11

Listen to the dialogue. Practise saying it line by line, then read it with a partner.

M: Who’s that with Henry Higgins?

W: It’s his wife, Hazel.

M: Hazel? But his wife’s name’s Helen!

W: Oh no, Helen left him… he’s married to Hazel now.

M: No! How did it happen?

W: Well, you know last Easter, Henry and Helen had a holiday in Honolulu.

M: Yes… What happened?

W: They had a horrible holiday, and when they arrived home, Helen left him!

M: I see.. and who are those horrid little girls?

W: Holly and Hannah, Hazel’s children from her first marriage.

M: But Henry hates children!

W: Mm… how interesting!

Exercise 12

Listen to the dialogue, write it down, then practise reading it, paying attention to the [s] sounds.

Helpful phrases:

Water-skiing

The Six Star Hotel

Exercise 13

Listen to and practise reading the following text, paying attention to the difference in the articulation of the sounds [s] and [ S ].

Sheila is a a receptionist at the International Hotel in Chicago. At the moment she’s studying Spanish.

Exercise 14

Listen to the tape and put down the sentences you hear. Practise saying them as fast as possible.

 

Exercise 15

Listen to the following headlines and practise saying them.

English Shoppers Short of Cash

Swedish Fashion Show Shocks British

Inflation Hits Russian Champagne

Ambitious Scottish Receptionist Shoots Boss

Irish Fishing Ship Sinks in Pacific Ocean

Exercise 16

Listen to the tongue-twisters. Practise saying them very slowly first and then faster. Make sure you pronounce the sounds [s], [z], [ S ], [ Z ], [ C  ], [ G ] correctly.

A.

a. Which of Shirley Hatchard’s children stole a portion of cherry cheesecake from the kitchen shelf?

b. Sheila Charlton’s Czech washing machine chewed up Richard Sheridan’s checked shorts.

 

c. The rich Turkish sugar merchant purchased a shining Porsche for his Chinese       chauffeur to polish.

d. Sasha, the Russian chess champion, chased Sharon, the Scottish chambermaid,

round the kitchen floor, so Sharon showed Sasha the door.

B.

a. In his youth, Jerry Josephs, the New York millionaire, used to play jazz on a huge  

German tuba.

b. Julian Jones is jealous of Eunice’s Jaguar, but Eunice Jones is jealous of Jason’s       

jacuzzi, and Jason Jones is jealous of Julian’s yacht.

c. That fabulous jade unicorn is the most beautiful Japanese statue in any

European museum.

d. Journalist Jane Young stupidly damaged George Joyce’s new yellow jeep on the  

edge of the bridge.

       

    

Exercise 17

Listen to the dialogue, mark the intonation and practise reading it with a partner.

Jim:   Excuse me. Did you use to live in York?

Jack:  Yes.

Jim: Did you use to be a tutor at the University?

Jack: Yes. For a few years.

Jim: do you remember Hugh Young? He was a music student.

Jack: Hugh Young? Did he use to have a huge yellow jeep?

Jim: Yes. And he used to play beautiful tunes on the tuba.

Jack: Yes, I knew Hugh. He used to be a very stupid student. Do you have any news of Hugh?

Jim: Yes. He’s a millionaire now in New York.

Jack: A millionaire? Playing the tuba?

Jim: Oh, no. He produces jam in tubes, and tins of sausages and onion stew, and sells them in

       Europe. I read about Hugh in the Newspaper yesterday.

Jack: Oh! Well, he wasn’t so stupid.

Exercise 18

Listen to the dialogue and prepare its model reading, trying to imitate the intonation.

Jerry: Just outside this village there’s a very dangerous bridge.

John: Yes. Charles told me two jeeps crashed on it in January. What happened?

Jerry: Well George Churchill was the driver of the larger jeep, and he was driving

         very dangerously. He’d been drinking gin.

John: George Churchill? Do I know George Churchill?

Jerry: Yes. That ginger-haired chap. He’s the manager of the travel agency in

         Chester.

John: Oh, yes. I remember George. He’s always telling jokes. Well, was anybody

         injured?

Jerry: Oh, yes. The other jeep went over the edge of the bridge, and two children and

         another  passenger were badly injured.

John: Were both the jeeps damaged?

Jerry: Oh, yes.

John: And what happened to George?

Jerry: George? He’s telling jokes in jail now, I suppose!

Exercise 19

Match up the following mini-dialogues. Listen to the keys and practise reading the sentences, paying attention to the [ ŋ ] sounds in them.

a.

Captain! I think we are sinking.

b.

have you got an English-Hungarian dictionary?

c.

This orange looks strange, Miss.

d.

We’re not inviting that boring old thing for Christmas.

1.

All right, Angela, you can exchange it for another one.

2.

But darling, he’s single, ninety-nine, and his only niece lives in Montreal.

3.

Incredible! They said the Titanic was unsinkable!

4.

Bilingual dictionaries are with the foreign language books on the second floor, sir.

 

Exercise 20.

Put the jumbled sentences below into the correct order. Listen to the tape and check your answers. Practise saying them.

a. skating rink/ Aunt Angela/ at a/ a tango/ Uncle Frank/ Birmingham/ with/ while dancing/ banged/  her ankle

b. at the pretty, young singer/ in a singles’ bar/ winked/ drinking/ the Hong Kong gangster/ singing romantic sings/ a gin sling

c. tongue/ pink/ long/ this/ string/ what’s/ Angus King’s/ that/ on?

d. hanged/ for killing/ a boxing ring/ wrongfully/ a Singapore dancer/ Washington banker/ outside/ was/ a

Exercise 21

Listen to the dialogue, write it down, mark the intonation. Prepare model reading of the dialogue.

Ruth                          librarian

Laura                        waitress

Rita                           electrician

Rosemary                

Roland

Exercise 22

Listen and practise reading the headlines below. Pay attention to the sound [ W ].

BIRMINGHAM GIRL MURDERED

Nurse Kirsty marries in Turkey

Prince Albert’s thirtieth birthday

GERMAN UNIVERSITY BURNS

British workers ‘worst in world’

Exercise 23

Listen to the dialogue. Prepare its model reading.  Work with a partner.

Sir Herbert:          Nurse!

Colonel Burton:   Nurse! I’m thirsty!

Sir Herbert:          Nurse! My head hurts!

Colonel Burton:   NURSE!

Sir Herbert:          Curse these nurses!

Colonel Burton:   Nurse Sherman always wears such dirty shirts.

Sir Herbert:          And such short skirts.

Colonel Burton:   She never arrives at work early.

Sir Herbert:          She and …er…Nurse Turner weren’t at work on Thursday, were

                             they?

Colonel Burton:   No, they weren’t.

Sir Herbert:          Nurse Sherman is the worst nurse in the ward, isn’t she?

Colonel Burton:   No, she isn’t. She’s the worst nurse in the world!

Exercise 24

A. Listen to the following phrases, practise saying them. Pay attention to the short and long [u]  sounds.

    

sugar cubes

blue wool

a full moon

a stupid wolf

a school bully

football boots

fruit juice

good looks

a beautiful woman

a cookery book

new toothpaste

a rude butcher

a huge computer

Peruvian music

B. Listen to some more phrases, put them down and practise reading them.

    Make up sentences of your own, using as many of the phrases as possible.


Exercise 25

Below are some common English sayings and proverbs. Work out their meanings and practise reading the proverbs.

a. No news is good news.

b. I wouldn’t like to be in your shoes.

c. He’s getting too big for his boots.

d. The proof of the pudding id in the eating.

e. It’s too good to be true.

f. He’s got a screw loose.

Exercise 26

Put down all the words you hear on the tape. Concentrate on the sounds [ O: ] and [әu]. Check for the spelling in a good dictionary.

Invent your own tongue twisters using as many words and phrases from the exercise as possible.

Exercise 27

Listen to the mini-dialogues, write them down and practise reading them, paying attention to the differences in articulation of the vowels [ O ], [ O :], [  әu ].

Exercise 28

Listen to and practise saying the sentences. Start by saying them slowly and then faster. Make sure you pronounce the [ æ ] and [ A ] sounds correctly.

a. The young man was wearing fashionable sunglasses, black gloves, and a gangster’s hat.

b. The wasp that’s trapped in the jar of blackcurrant jam is buzzing angrily.

c. Thank you very much for coming to pay back that money you borrowed on Monday, Danny.

d. While cutting up lamb the drunken butcher hacked off his thumb with a hatchet.

e. My husband had a double brandy, my mother wanted apple juice, but I drank champagne.

Exercise 29

Listen to the dialogue, write it down and practise reading it with a partner.

Exercise 30

Listen to and practise reading the following phrases, paying attention to the short and long [i] sounds. Make up similar phrases of your own.

English teachers

Greek islands

Swiss cheese

Irish whiskey

Italian ice-cream

Indian tea

Swedish films

Egyptian spices

 

Exercise 32.

Listen to Jenny talking about her holiday. Are the bold sounds [e] or [ei]? Practise reading the paragraph.

Last year, I went to Spain on holiday with my friend Jane. The hotel was great, but the weather was terrible! It rained every day for ten days!

Exercise 33

 

Listen to the dialogue, mark the intonation. Practise reading the dialogue, paying attention to the correct articulation of the diphthong [ai ].

Myra:    (smiling) Hello, Mike!

Mike:    Hello, Myra. Hello, Violet! You’re looking nice, Violet. (silence)

Mike:    Would you like some ice-cream, Violet?

Violet:   No thanks, Mike. I’m busy typing. Talk to me some other time. I have

             ninety-nine pages to type by Friday.  

Mike:    Never mind. Do you like riding, Violet?

Violet:   Sometimes.

Mike:    Would you like to come riding with me tonight, Violet?

Violet:   Not tonight, Mike. I’m going for a drive with Nigel.

Mike:    What about Friday?

Violet:   I’m going climbing with Miles.

Mike:    Hm! Oh, all right. ‘Bye!

Myra:   Violet, he’s put something behind your typewriter.

Violet:   Is it something nice, Myra?

Myra:    No. It’s a spider.

Exercise 34

Put the following jumbled sentences into the correct order. Listen and compare your answers with the tape. Practise saying the sentences. Make sure your [au] is correct.

a. lying/ this morning/ ₤ 50/ I found/ I town/ on the ground/ I was/ when.

b. ‘s going to/ now/ round/ Laura/ you/ the house/ show.

c. downstairs/ shower room/ in the/ we caught/ mouse/ little/ a/ this morning/ brown.

d. and/ they’ve got/ you/ know/ town/ country/ house/ a/ a/ house.

e. from/ the/ they/ to the/ tower/ ground/ cow/ of the/ the/ lowered/ window.

Exercise 35

A. Listen and then read the phonemic symbols paying attention to the correct articulation of the diphthongs.

a.  [ ә riәl biәd ]

b. [ ә leizi dei ]

c. [ fεә hεә ]

 

d. [ nOizi  bOiz ]

e. [ ә kәuld  nәuz ]

f. [ ә  brait  lait ]

g. [ ә  laud  ∫aut ]

B. Listen to the phrases and fill in the gaps, then listen again and practise saying the phrases.

a. a __________ combing his _______

b. a __________ wearing a _________

c. a __________ making a __________

d. a __________ holding a __________

e. a __________ drinking a _________

f. a __________  saying ____________

g. Mr. ________ asking the _________


SECTION 3:  BASIC COURSE

Principles of Classification of English Consonants

1. The consonant is a sound in the production of which the air stream meets an obstruction in the mouth cavity and a certain degree of noise is heard.

2. English consonants are classified according to:

- the degree of noise

- the manner of articulation

- the place of articulation and the active organ of speech

3. According to the degree of noise English consonants are divided into noise consonants and sonorants. Noise consonants are further classified according to the work of the vocal cords. When the vocal cords are brought together and vibrate, voiced consonants are produced; when the vocal cords are drawn apart, voiceless consonants are heard. Sonorants are always voiced, in their production tone prevails over noise.

4. According to the manner of articulation consonants may be occlusive, constrictive and occlusive-constrictive (affricates).

When an occlusive consonant is produced, the air stream meets a complete obstruction in the mouth cavity.  Occlusive noise consonants are also called plosives as they are produced with a kind of slight explosion when the obstruction is released.

Constrictive consonants are those in the production of which the air stream meets an incomplete obstruction. Constrictive noise consonants are also called fricatives as the air escapes from the mouth with some friction.

Affricates are noise consonants produced with a complete obstruction which is slowly released and becomes incomplete.

5. According to the active organs of speech consonants may be labial, lingual and glottal.

Labial consonants are made by the lips. They are bilabial (produced only by the lips) or labio-dental (produced by the upper teeth biting the lower lip).

Lingual consonants are forelingual, mediolingual and backlingual. Forelingual consonants are articulated with the tip of the tongue (apical articulation). According to the place of obstruction consonants may be alveolar, post-alveolar, palato-alveolar and interdental. Mediolingual consonants are produced with the front and the central part of the tongue raised towards the hard palate. Backlingual consonants are produced with the back part of the tongue raised towards the soft palate (velar articulation). The glottal consonant [h] is articulated in the glottis.

Prepare model reading of each set of sentences concentrating on the headline groups of consonants.

1. Occlusive Noise Consonants.

a. Pretty Polly Perkins has a pair of pretty plaits.

b. I’ll have a proper cup of coffee in a proper coffee cup.

c. Ping-pong is a popular sport and is played in many countries.

d. Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers,

   a peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked.

   If Peter Piper picked a peck a pickled peppers,

   Where’s the peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked?

e. Barbara is a beautiful blonde with bright blue eyes.

f. A trip by train took a tiresome twenty-two hours.

g. Too many teenagers tend to waste their time watching TV.

h. Dennie’s daughter Diana doesn’t dislike darning.

i. If we keep quiet we may be lucky to see the cuckoo.

j. Cut your coat according to your cloth.

k. Curiosity killed the cat.

l. Trifles make perfection, and perfection is no trifle.

2. Constrictive Fricative Consonants.

a.

Fine fellows met at five on the first of February. “Philip,’ said Ferdinand, ‘I fear we must fight.’ Then Philip and Ferdinand fought fairly for fifty-five minutes, after which they fell down in a faint, for the fight had been fearfully furious. When Philip came out of the faint, Ferdinand offered his hand. ‘Fair’s fair,’ said Philip, ‘and I think this affair shows neither of us fears to fight.’

b.

Every evening Victor and Vivian visit eve. Victor and Vivian are rivals. Both vow to love Eve forever. But Eve is very vain. Vivienne is vivacious and full of verve. Eventually, Victor gives up and goes over to Vivienne, leaving eve to Vivian.

c.

Arthur smith, a thick-set, healthy athlete sees three thieves throw a thong round Thea’s throat and threaten to throttle her. He throws one thug to earth with a thud that shakes his teeth. Both the other thieves run off with filthy oaths. Thea thanks Arthur for thrashing the three hugs.

d.

These are three brothers. This is their other brother. These are their mother and father. Their other brother is teething.

e.

Sue and Cecily are sisters. Sue is sixteen in summer. Cecily was seventeen last Sunday. Sue is sowing grass seed. She sees Cecily asleep with a glass of cider and a nice sixpenny ice by her side. Sue slips across, sips the glass of cider and eats the ice. Cecily gets such a surprise when she awakes.

f.

Zoe is visiting the zoo. A lazy zebra called Desmond is dozing at the zoo. He feels flies buzzing round his eyes, ears and nose. He rouses, opens his eyes, rises and goes to Zoe. Zoe is wearing a rose on her blouse. Zoe gives Desmond the buns.

g.

I wish to be shown the latest fashion in short shirts.

Mr. Mash sells fish and shell-fish fresh from the ocean.

She was still shaking from the shock of being crushed in the rush.

h.

I can’t measure the pleasure I have in viewing this treasure at leisure.

The decision was that on that occasion the collision was due to faulty vision.

i.

Humble hairy Herbert has his hand on his heart because he sees how his brother’s horse has hurt his hoof in a hole while hunting.

Henry helps him to hobble home. Henry is very humorous

3. Occlusive-Constrictive Consonants (Affricates).

a.

Charles is a cheerful chicken-farmer. A poacher is watching Charles’ chickens, choosing which to snatch. He chuckles at the chance of a choice-chicken to chew for his lunch. But the chuckle reaches Charles who chases the poacher and catches him.

For lunch Charles chose a cheap chop and some chips, with cheese and cherries afterwards.

They cheered the cheerful chap who chose to venture to match his skill with the champions.

b.

How much wood would a woodchuck chuck if a woodchuck would chuck wood?

c.

The aged judge urges the jury to be just but generous. In June and July we usually enjoy a few jaunts to that region.

He injured his jaw on the jagged edge of the broken jar.

4. Sonorous Consonants.

a. The murmur of the bees in the elms brings back memories of many memorable summers.

b. Since time immemorial he moon has moved men to make poems.

c. That fine bunch of bananas will make a nice snack.

d. The rain in Spain falls mainly o the plain.

e. They ran and rang the bell.

f. the spring brings many charming things.

g. The real reason is really rather curious.

h. Robert Rowly rolled a round roll round.

i. Let Lucy light a candle and we’ll all look for the ball.

j. He lost his life in the struggle for liberty.

k. It was a pleasure to watch the wonderful way in which they worked.

l. ‘What’, ‘why’, ‘when’ and ‘where’ are the words we use quite often when we want to ask questions.

m. Yesterday I heard a curious and beautiful new tune.

n. Don’t argue about duty, or you’ll make me furious.


Principles of Classification of English Vowels.

1.The vowel is a sound in the production of which the air stream does not meet an obstruction and there is no noise component.

2. Vowels are classified according to:

- the stability of articulation

- the tongue position

- the lip position

- the length of the vowel

3. According to the stability of articulation vowels are divided into monophthongs, diphthongs and diphthongoids.

The articulation of monophthongs is almost unchanging throughout their pronunciation.

In the articulation of diphthongs the organs of speech glide from one vowel position to another within one syllable. Each diphthong consists of two elements: the nucleus and the glide. The nucleus is strong and distinct; the glide is weak, its articulation is not fully accomplished. 

Diphthongoids are characterized by some change in the articulation between the starting point and the end but the difference is not so distinct as in diphthongs.

3. According to the tongue position vowels are divided into front, back and central. A front vowel is produced when the tongue is in the front part of the mouth cavity and its front part is raised. The tongue may be slightly retracted, then the vowel is front-retracted. When the tongue is in the back part of the mouth cavity and its back part is raised towards the soft palate, back vowels are produced. The tongue may be slightly advanced, then the vowel is back-advanced. When the central part of the tongue is raised, the vowel is central.

Depending on the height of the raised part of the tongue, vowels are divided into close, open and mid.

A close vowel is produced when the tongue is raised high towards the palate. An open vowel is produced when the tongue is placed low in the mouth cavity. Mid vowels are produced when the position of the tongue is intermediate between the highest and the lowest.

To make the classification of vowels more precise, it is necessary to distinguish broad and narrow variants.

4. According to the lip position vowels are rounded (with the lips rounded) and unrounded (with the lips neutral or spread).

5. English monophthongs may be long or short.  

1. Short Monophthongs.

a. It’s a pity that little kitty lives in a big city.

b. Ted meant to spend the night in a tent.

c. We’ll weather the weather whatever the weather whether you like it or not.

d. East or west, home is best.

e. All is well that ends well.

f. A black cat sat on a mat and ate a fat rat.

g. That’s the man who sat on my hat in the tram.

h. Once there lived a lad who was always very sad,

   For he hadn’t any mother and he hadn’t any dad.

i. If you, Sandy, have two candies,

  Give one candy to Andy, Sandy;

   If you, Andy, have two candies,

   Give one candy to Sandy, Andy.

j. A small pot is soon hot.

k. The cook took a good look at the cookery book.

l. Don’t trouble trouble until trouble troubles you.

m. Are you tough enough for my love?

2. Long Monophthongs.

a. Extremes meet.

b. Greek meets Greek.

c. He speaks Chinese and Japanese with equal ease.

d. It isn’t easy to please Lizzie.

e. Honey is sweet but the bees sting.

f. Still waters run deep.

g. First come, first served.

h. The first word is a verb and the third word is an adverb.

i. Many words hurt more than swords.

j. Old birds aren’t caught with chaff.

k. The teacher thought, and thought, and thought;

  but no one knew the thought he thought.

l. Half heart is no heart.

m. Martha and Martin plant garlic in the garden.

n. He laughs best who laughs last.

o. It’s enough to make a cat laugh.

3. Diphthongs.

a. Plenty is no plague.

b. Haste makes waste.

c. He who makes no mistakes makes nothing.

d. Like to like.

e. Out of sight, out of mind.

f. Ike and Ivy sit side by side quite like mice.

g. What have you found out about it?

h. Oh no, don’t go home alone, nobody knows how lonely the road is.

i. Soams never knows of what he boasts, but Rose never boasts of what she knows.

j. Joyce enjoys annoying Roy.

k. Where there is a will, there is a way.

l. we’re near the end of the year.

m. What can’t be cured, must be endured.

n. Curiosity is incurable.

o. A rolling stone gathers no mos.

p. Autumn leaves tumble down,

   Autumn leaves bumble down,

   Autumn leaves crumble down.

   Shaking and flaking

   Tumble down leaves.

   Down, down, down,

   Red, yellow, brown.


                                                 REDUCTION

Words that bear information (notional parts of speech) are usually stressed in sentences and sense groups. Form words help to link notional words in an utterance and are usually unstressed. In unstressed positions their weak, or reduced, forms are used.

Reduction is a phonetic process of weakening, shortening or disappearance of sounds in unstressed positions.

Reduction affects form words (articles, particles, prepositions, conjunctions, auxiliary and modal verbs, personal, possessive, reflexive, relative pronouns and the word ‘some’ meaning ‘indefinite quantity’. These words have two forms: strong and weak.

There are three degrees of reduction:

  •  Quantitative reduction (shortening of a long vowel)

e.g. he [hi: - hi∙  – hi]

   -    Qualitative reduction (changing of the quality of a vowel)

e.g. can [ kæn – kәn]

   -    Zero reduction (omission of a vowel)

         e.g. I’m [aim]

The following cases should be remembered as the traditional use of strong forms:

a. Prepositions have their strong forms in the sentence final position or when followed by an unstressed personal pronoun at the end of a sense-group or a sentence.

e.g.   What are you  looking at? [ æt ]

      I’m  listening to you. [tu:]

b. Auxiliary and modal verbs are in their strong forms when introducing a question, at the end of a sentence or sense-group and in contracted negative forms. In all those cases the verbs are stressed.

e.g.  Are you  free? [α: ] – I  am. [ æm]

       I can’t come. [k α: nt]

c. The verb ‘to have’ in the meaning of ‘to possess’ is used in its full form whether stressed or unstressed.

e.g.   I have a  brother. [h æ v]

       

d. The verb ‘to do’ is not reduced when used for emphasis.

e.g.  Do tell me about it. [ du: ]

e. The demonstrative pronoun ‘that’ is never reduced while the conjunction ‘that’ is always weak.

e.g. I  know that. [ ðæt]

      I  know that you are  ill. [ ðәt ]

Exercise 36

Jane is talking about her pets. Write the text down and practise reading it, using short forms.

Exercise 37

In the conversation that follows, the words ‘a’ and ‘the’ are not there. Put in the missing articles. Comment on all the weak and strong form words. Practise reading the conversation.

Remember :   ‘a’ and ‘the’ are nearly always weak.

: Do you have children, Shirley?

: Yes, son and daughter.

: Oh that’s nice, what do they do?

: My daughter Jenny’s music teacher, and Michael, my son, is at college – he wants to be pilot!

: Oh, lovely!

: Yes…

: Do they live at home?

: Michael lives with me, but Jenny lives in London – she’s married with two children.

: Oh! So you’re grandmother!

: Yes, she has girl and boy too – Rebecca and Thomas.

: Oh, lovely – how old are they?

: Girl’s seven and boy’s two – do you want to see photo?

: Oh yes… Ah… aren’t they beautiful!

Exercise 38.

Match the parts in A and B to make full sentences. Comment on weak form words.

a. I’m going out

b. They’re waiting

c. My daughter’s studying

d. My brother’s going

   abroad

e. We’re going to the    

   airport

f. She’s getting ready

1. to see the manager.

2. to buy a newspaper.

3. to go out with her boyfriend.

4. to meet some friends.

5. to work.

6. to become a doctor.

Exercise 39

Listen to the dialogue, write it down and practise reading it, paying attention to the weak forms.

Exercise 40

Listen to the descriptions of some special days in Britain. Put them down and practise reading them using weak form prepositions.

Remember:   ‘of’ links with the word before it.

Exercise 41

What weak form words can you hear in the following sentences? Put down the dialogues and practise reading them.

Exercise 42

Listen to the tape and complete the sentences below. Transcribe them and be prepared to comment on the weak form words.

a. ________ bank opens _________.

b. He goes _________ seven ________.

c. This office ________ half  past  two.

d. We get up _________ o’clock.

e. Her plane ______ two fifteen.

f. The programme _________ about _________ thirty.

g. The film _________ at half _________.

h. My train _______ about ________.   

Exercise 43.

Complete the sentences below with suitable prepositions. Listen to the tape and check your answers. Practise reading the sentences.

a. I’d like a pot ___  hot tea  ___ breakfast, please.

b. Let’s meet ___ Waterloo station ___ eight.

c. Give it ___ Julie and say it’s ___ me.

d. We’ll be closed ___ Monday because ___ the strike.

e. Elvis went ___ Las Vegas ___ four months.

Which sentences goes with which stress pattern?

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Exercise 44

Listen to the conversation between James Bond’s boss, M., and his secretary, Miss Moneypenny.  Fill in the missing prepositions and practise reading the conversation with a partner.

Boss:           Hello. Can I speak ___ Miss Moneypenny?

Secretary:   Speaking.

Boss:           Hello, M. here. I’m phoning ___ the Ritz.

                   I’m looking ___ James Bond. We had a lunch

                   appointment ___ twelve. Is he there?

Secretary:   I’m sorry, sir, but he’s gone ___ Budapest.

Boss:           I was afraid ___ that. Where exactly?

Secretary:   He’s staying ___ the Hotel Royal.

Boss:          Why didn’t he listen ___ me? He’s just asking

                   ___ trouble.

Secretary:   He’s only staying there ___ a couple ___  days.

Boss:          All right. Contact him and tell him ___ me he’s

                  a damn fool. Oh, and you can tell him          

                  I’m waiting ___ his call.

Secretary:  Yes, sir.

Exercise 45

Listen to the short dialogues at a party and fill in the missing words. Are they weak or strong? Practise saying the dialogues with a partner.

1. How long are you here ___?

Only ___ another couple ___ days.

                2. My brother’s working ___ Macdonald’s this summer.

                Oh, what’s he working ___?

                 ___ a cook!

3. Where’s the other half ___ that bottle ___ whiskey?

   You left it ___ the bottom ___ the stairs.

        4. Would you like ___ come back ___ my flat ___ a drink?

            I’d love ___!

Exercise 46

A. Answer the questions using short answers. What forms of auxiliary verbs do you use each time?

B. Mark the auxiliary verbs in the following sentences ‘W’ if they are weak and ‘S’ if they are strong. Practise saying the questions and the answers with the tape.

  1.  a. Does she live in the north of England?

b. Was she born in Japan?

c. Can she speak English?

d. Has she got a job?

e. Have they got any children?

f. Do they share the housework?

g. Were they married in Japan?

  1.  a. When was your birthday?

   It was in April.

b. Have you got a good English dictionary?

   Yes, I have.

c. Does your mother work in an office?

   Yes, she does.

d. Where were your parents married?

   I think they were married in London.

e. Has your father got dark hair?

   Yes, he has.

f. Do you get the bus to work?

   Yes, I do.

g. How many languages can you speak?

   I can speak two – English and French.

Exercise 47

Rewrite the following sentences using contractions where possible. Listen and check your answers. Repeat the sentences with the tape.

We use contractions in conversations and in informal writing. Here are some rules for contractions:

1/ There are no contractions in affirmative answers: Is he French? - Yes, he is.

2/ The only contraction with nouns and names is “s” (from ‘is’ or ‘has’): Mary’s arrived.  ( not: The children’ve arrived.)

3/ The only contraction with non-personal pronouns ( e.g. what, who, here, that, etc.) is “s”:  Where’s the ball? ( not: Where’ve you been?)

4/  There are no “’s” contractions with wh-questions ending in the word ‘it’: What is it?

5/ The contracted form of ‘am I not’ is ‘Aren’t I’: Aren’t I going with you?

a. You should not eat fatty foods.

b. The planet will not survive if people are not more careful.

c. She cannot speak German very well.

d. You have not read it, have you?

    Yes, I have.

e. When is your birthday?

f. There is a good film on TV tonight.

g. Jane would like to be an English teacher.

h. Her boyfriend has got a Volkswagen.

i. I am late, am I not?

j. It will be over 500 floors high.

k. What are your names?

l. Luckily the plane did not crash, and the passengers were not hurt.

m. Who is it?

n. I did not use to like vodka.

Exercise 48

Listen to the dialogue and fill in the correct verb forms (affirmative or negative): can, could, was, were. Practise saying the dialogue line by line paying attention to the pronunciation of these verbs.

: My mother’s parents, Thomas and Frida, _____ a strange couple. There ___   married nearly twenty years. They _____ very rich, but they _____ very happy.

: Why?

: Frida _____ English… she _____ speak English very well.

: Where _____ she from?

: Berlin… Germany.

: _____ Thomas speak German?

: Well, he _____ speak many languages, but he _____ speak German.

: That’s strange! And what about your mother? _____ she speak German?

: Well, she _____ understand it very well, but she _____ really speak it.

Exercise 49

Listen to the conversation between three friends. State where they say can or can’t in each case. Put the dialogue down and practise reading it.

Remember: if the stress and sound s are said incorrectly, it is often difficult to hear the difference between can and can’t in connected speech.

Exercise 50

A.

Study the table below. Learn the weak forms of auxiliary verbs and their contractions, then practise saying them in the sentences that follow.

Do you [dʒu] or [dʒә]

They’re [ðeә]

We’re [wiә] or [wә]

You’re [juә] or [jә]

be  [bi]

being [bɪɪŋ]

been [bɪn]

was  [wәz]

wasn’t [ wɒznt]

were [wә]

weren’t [w ɜ:nt]

I’m [aim] or [ æm]

I’ll [ail] or [ æl]

We’ll  [wil]

Have [hәv] or [әv]

Haven’t [hævnt]

They’ve [ðeiv] or [ðev]

We’ve [wiv]

a. Do you really like Beethoven?

b. You weren’t in when I called.

c. They’re leaving this Wednesday.

d. She’s just being difficult.

e. I was worried about you.

f. I’ve been waiting for you to phone.

g. We’re dealing with the problem.

h. I haven’t said  a word to anyone.

i. I’m afraid we were too late.

j. I’ll have finished typing it by lunchtime.

k. They’ve never been happy together.

B.

Listen to the sentences and write the missing words in the gaps. Practise saying the sentences with the tape, paying attention to the weak form verbs.

a. ___________________ here a lot?

b. They ____________________ us.

c. They ___________________ another argument.

d. The car _________________ at the moment.

e. This letter _______________ two months ago.

f. That ____________________ me all day.

g. We _____________________ to help.

h. We _____________________ anything yet.

i. I’m sure we ______________ just then.

j. I _______________________ home by eight o’clock.

k. They ___________________ a lot of problems lately.

l. We _____________________ for you at the entrance.

Exercise 51

Listen to the following sentences, write them down. Which of the auxiliary verbs here are weak and which are strong?

Exercise 52

Listen to the dialogue, practise reading it line by line with the tape first and then on your own. Be prepared to comment on the weak and strong forms of form-words in it.

A: Have you ever been to Ireland, Pete?

B: Yes, loads of times. My parents go over there every year, you see.

A: Do they? Why’s that then?

B: Oh, my Dad was born in Dublin.

A: Was he really? He doesn’t sound Irish at all!

B: No… well his family left when he was about ten. What about you? Have you ever been there?

A: Well, we were going to Dublin last summer and then there was that long ferry strike…

B: That’s right, there was.

A: Anyway we were hoping to go this year instead, but hotel prices have gone up so much…

B: Yes, I know they have, it’s terrible. I tell you what, shall I give you my cousin’s address? Perhaps you can stay with her for a few days?

A: Are you sure we can? It seems a bit cheeky…

B: No…

LINKING

In connected speech words are not separated from each other. To achieve this, the following rules should be observed:

1. A word ending in a consonant blends with the initial vowel of the next word, no glottal stop should be heard.

e.g. as a rule

2. The letter ‘r’ is sounded at the end of a word if the next word begins with a vowel sound. But there is no linking  [r] between two words separated by a pause.

e.g. nearer and nearer

      He paused there, and then spoke again.

3. Between the word final [i]  and the initial vowel of the next word an extra [j] sound can be heard to link them.

 

e.g. the apple [  ðijæpl]

4. Between the final [u] and the initial vowel of the next word an extra [w] sound can be heard to link them.

e.g. go and do that [gәuwәndu:ðæt]

Mark the links in the following phrases and sentences:

a. free entrance

b. blue eyes

c. no understanding

d. The awful aunty is here in a new outfit.

e. The doctor advised me to eat only apples.

f. The author is an ugly individual who earns a lot.

g. A new Austin is too expensive for us to afford.

h. He and Hugh Appleby are thirty-eight years old.

Exercise 53

Look at this famous book, play and film names and mark the links. Repeat the names with the tape.

War and Peace

Out of Africa

Death on the Nile

Alice in Wonderland

The Wizard of Oz

Close Encounters of the Third Kind

A Clockwork Orange

Laurence of Arabia

Cat on a Hot Tin Roof

Kiss of the Spiderwoman

Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom

Venus and Adonis

First among Equals

Death of a Salesman.

Exercise 54

Put down the sentences you hear, work out their meanings and practise reading them.

               Multi-word verbs are often difficult to understand because of linking!

Exercise 55

Listen and practice saying these London place names, paying attention to the linking.

THE WEST END

MARBLE ARCH

Gatwick Airport

THE CITY OF LONDON

Heathrow Airport

Westminster Abbey

The Royal Albert Hall

The Houses of Parliament

The Tower of London

Shaftsbury Avenue

The London Underground

The Bank of England

Exercise 56

Listen to the sentences and complete them, transcribe them and mark all the links. Practise reading them.

a. What a ______________!

b. It was an ____________.

c. The weather was ____________!

d. He got into their ____________.

e. She speaks ____________ and __________.

f. It was an ______________!

g. She lives in a __________.

h. I’ll phone for an _________!

Exercise 57

Listen and practise saying the names quickly in pairs.

Names ending in the sound [ә] are linked with an extra [r] sound. With names which already contain [r] the final [ә]  is elided and the [r] and the linking [r] merge when speaking at speed.

e.g. Sarah and Sheila [ sεәrәnd ∫i:lә]

A.

Maggie – Susie

Cathy - Charlie

Bobby - Billy

Tommy - Lizzie

Johnnie – Andy

Linda – Hannah

Laura – Sarah

Sheila – Patricia

Sandra – Amanda

Romeo – Juliet

Othello – Desdemona

Horatio – Hamlet

 

B.

Kennedy    -    Cleopatra

Plato          -     John Lennon

Franco        -    Charles

Victoria      -    Kruschev

Isabella      -    Mussolini

Diana         -    Albert

Mary          -    Minnie (Mouse)

Yoko Ono  -    Aristotle

Antony       -    Ferdinand

Mickey       -    Joseph

Exercise 58

Put down the sentences you hear on the tape; practise reading them, inserting the extra [j] and [w] sounds to link the words, where possible.

Exercise 59

Complete these pairs of dialogues with ‘very’ or ‘too’. Listen to the tape and compare your answers. Practise reading the dialogues with a partner.

a/ i. Excuse me for asking, but how much did the rain ticket to Newcastle cost?

      It was _______ expensive, about ₤60.

  ii. Why didn’t you come here on the train?

       It was ______ expensive, about ₤60.

b/ i. It seems quite safe in this area at night.

      Actually it’s ______ unsafe.

   ii. Why didn’t you travel up here i that old car of yours?

       Actually, it’s ______ unsafe.

c/ i. How did you feel about things when you woke up this morning?

       To be honest, I was still _______ annoyed.

  ii. Why didn’t you come out for a drink with the boss last night?

       To be honest, I was still ______ annoyed.

d/ i. Why didn’t Mary apply for that job, do you know?

       I’m not sure, but I think she was ______ old.

  ii. How old was her grandmother when she died?

      I’m not sure, but I think she was ______ old.

Exercise 60

Listen to the tongue-twisters, pay attention to all the links. Practise until you can say them smoothly and quickly.

a. My aeroplane arrives in Australia at bout eight o’clock in the evening.

b. Uncle Alfie and auntie Elsie always go away at Easter.

c. Are you asking us to accept an offer of only eighty pounds?

d. Nicky and Laura are off to Italy and Austria again.

e. Bruno and Anna are arriving in an hour or so and they’re often early.

Exercise 61

Listen to the dialogue and mark the linking [r]s. Practise reading the dialogue with a partner.

M: Peter! Are you going anywhere over Easter this year?

P: Well, yes, as a matter of fact we are. We’re off on a tour of Italy for a week or two.

M: Mmm. That sounds really wonderful. Where exactly will you be going?

P: Oh, here and there. Rome’s more or less definite, but apart from that we’re open to suggestion.

M: Are you traveling by coach?

P: No, by car, actually.

M: Dear old Italy! When you’re in Rome you must remember to throw a coin over your shoulder

    into the Trevi fountain.

P: Really? What for?

M: Well, if you do that, it means that, sooner or later, you’re sure to return.

Exercise 62.

Listen to the dialogue which is rather informal. Can you catch all the words? Try to put the dialogue down and read it at the same speed as it is on the tape.


ASSIMILATION

Assimilation is a phonetic process as a result of which one of the sounds becomes fully or partly similar to the neighbouring sound.

Assimilation can affect different characteristics of a sound, and its types are numerous. Some of the most frequent types are:

1. Alveolar [t], [d], [n], [l], [s], [z] are replaced by their dental variants when immediately followed by the interdental [θ] or [ð].

e.g. tenth, on the desk

2. The sonorants [m], [n], [l], [w], [r], [j] are partly devoiced when preceded by the voiceless consonants.

e.g. rush – crush, got wet

3.  Consonants followed by [w] become slightly rounded.

e.g. twin, swift

4. In a cluster of two plosives, when the positions of the organs of speech are the same for both consonants, the first plosive loses its plosion.

e.g. bookcase, that child

5. When the positions of the organs of speech are different, the first plosive has an incomplete plosion.

e.g. talked, good book

6. When a plosive is followed by the syllabic [n] or [m] the nasal plosion is produced.

e.g. shipmate, escape noisily

7. When a plosive is immediately followed by the sound [l] the lateral plosion is produced.

e.g. black, settle, it lasts

8. In rapid speech ‘do you’ often becomes [d  u].

e.g. Do you know his name? [dZu nәu hiz neim]

Exercise 63

Listen to the phrases on the tape, put them down, work out their meanings,  explain the difference in the way they sound.

Exercise 64

Listen and cross out the unpronounced plosive sounds in the following sentences, comment on all the other cases of assimilation there are in them.

a. She was wearing a deep purple evening dress.

b. They had dinner at eight o’clock.

c. We’ve got a flat tyre, I’m afraid.

d. She gave him a quick kiss.

e. You’re a big girl now dear.

f. He didn’t do the washing-up.

g. We had a really good time at Antonia’s.

h. What are my job prospects after the course?

i. Mmm! I love ripe bananas!

j. Give that ball a big kick!

k. They’ve got a lovely back garden.

Exercise 65

Listen to the dialogues and write in B’s answers. Pay attention to the pronunciation of the questions ‘Do you …?’

1. A: Do you know the time?

   B:

2. A: Do you have a light?

   B:

3. A: Do you speak English?

   B:

4. A: Do you understand?

   B:

5. A: Do you have milk?

   B:

6. A: What do you do?

   B:

Exercise 66

Listen to the conversation between Bob and Anna. Put it down and practise reading it with a partner. Pay attention to the pronunciation of ‘do you’ and ‘would you’ questions.

Exercise 67.

Listen to the conversation, write it down. Make up similar conversations with a partner.

Revision Exercise

Every other line in this poem is in transcription. Do the same to the first lines in each verse. Be prepared to comment on all the cases of reduction, linking and assimilation. Prepare model reading of the poem.

*Sean is said [∫O:n]

Flatearther

Cried Uncle Sean, ‘The earth is flat!

[ai riqli jxm kwait Suqr qv Dxt]

And just to prove I tell it true

[ail wO:k frqm hiq tq kxtmandH]

Somewhere the earth is bound to stop,

[Den Of Di jeG ail Suqli drOp]

He left at five and got as far

[qz dAblin bei jqn mikiz bR]

‘Twas five to twelve he staggered out,

[rOkiN qn rJliN O:l qbaut]

At sea-wall’s edge his feet they tripped

[qn daun qpOn Dq bJC hi  flipt]

He lay there thinking he was dead,

[Den traiqmf flxSt intH hiz hed]

‘I’m right! I’m right!’ yelled Uncle Sean

[rimHviN frqm hiz biqd q prO:n]

Which proves that when one’s had some drinks,

[wAn kxn bilJv GAst wOt wAn TiNks]

                                                                                      /Jack Randle/


SECTION 4

SYLLABLE FORMATION. SYLLABLE DIVISION

1. A syllable is a sound or a sound sequence forming a single uninterrupted unit of utterance.

2. In English a syllable is formed by a vowel alone or in combination with consonants, and word final sonorants [l], [m], [n] preceded by a consonant.

 

e.g. are

     fame

     trouble

In some syllables formed by the sonorants the vowel [q] may be pronounced, in this case the sonorants are non-syllabic.

e.g. level [ levl] or [ levәl]

3. In terms of phonetics the two basic types of syllable are the open syllable (ending in a vowel) and the closed syllable (ending in a consonant).

4. Correct syllable division is important from the point of view of pronunciation and understanding.

e.g. a nice house

      an ice house

5. The basic syllable division rules are as follows:

a. the English long monophthongs, diphthongs and unstressed short vowels [i], [q], [u] always occur in a phonetically open syllable when they are separated from the next syllabic sound by only one consonant.

e.g about [  q -  baut]

     music [ mju: - zik]

     Michael  [ mai – kl]  

b. A short stressed vowel followed by only one consonant always occurs in a phonetically closed syllable.

e.g. pity [ pit – i]

     coffee [ k  f – i]

c. Intervocalic combinations of consonants belong to the next syllable if such combinations are typical of English (i. e. they can be found at the beginning of words). Otherwise, the consonants must be divided between the two syllables.

e.g. naturally [ næ t∫ - rә  –  li]

   (næ –  and  t∫rә –  are impossible in English)

Divide the following words into syllables. Consult a dictionary if in doubt.

Employer, drizzle, listening, nature, , over, finish, without, colony, discover, follower, ready, early, nearer, position, sorrow, motivate, luggage, international, exotic, exposure, origin, originality, energy, language

Exercise 1

Think of the words which might answer the clues. Listen and check your answers. What’s the peculiarity of these words?

a. the opposite of ‘boring’

b. you can buy lunch or dinner here

c. the month after January

d. you use it to find the meanings of new words

e. brown and sweet

f. potatoes, carrots, peas

g. you use it to take photos

h. the day before Thursday

i. all, every

j. military man

k. not single – has a husband or wife

Practise saying the phrases below. Think of more phrases of your own (see the listof words for ideas)

My favourite chocolate

Every Wednesday evening

What an interesting camera!

Are you comfortable?

They aren’t married

For ideas: different, documentary, fashionable, raspberry, several, sociable, courageous, especially, extraordinary, miserable, reasonable, strawberry, temperature


WORD STRESS

1. Word stress is singling out one or two syllables in a word by giving them greater prominence.

2. Syllables may be stressed (primary stress), half stressed ( secondary stress) or unstressed. Some words in English may have two primary stresses or a primary and a secondary stress.

e.g.  re ′write,  four ′teen

       organi ′zation

Shift of stress may result in changing the actual meaning of a word.

e.g.  ′object – ob′ ject

      ′ re ′cover –  re ′cover

      a ′ blackbird – a  ′black  ′bird

3. Word stress in English usually falls on the first root syllable.

4. In most disyllabic words stress is on the initial syllable; in words with a prefix that has lost its original meaning, the stress is on the second (root) syllable.

e.g.  border,  ready

     be ′fore, a ′go

In most disyllabic verbs ending in –ate, -ise, -ize, -fy the stress is on the second syllable

e.g. di ′ctate, sur ′prise, de ′fy

In some words of French origin the stress is on the second syllable.

e.g. ma ′chine, po ′lice

4. In most three and four-syllable words the stress is on the third syllable from the end.

e.g.  ′cinema, de ′mocracy,  ′qualify, o ′riginate

6. The stress is on the final syllable in words with the suffixes –ee, -eer, -ier, -ade, -esque.

e.g.  refu ′gee,  engi ′neer,  lemo′nade,  pictu 'resque

The stress is on the second syllable from the end before the following suffixes: -ian, -ience, -ient,

- cient, -al, -ial, -ual, -eous, -ious, -iar

e.g. phy 'sician, ex′ perience, e' fficient, pa 'rental, e 'ssential, ha 'bitual, cou 'rageous,    de 'licious, fa 'miliar

7. Most words of four and more syllables have two stresses: primary and secondary. The primary stress falls either on the third or the fourth syllable from the beginning of a word, the secondary stress is on the syllable separated from the nuclear one by one unstressed syllable.

e.g.  deco 'ration,  possi 'bility, re sponsi 'bility

8. In many derivatives the secondary stress falls on the same syllable which has the primary stress in the original word.

e.g. pe 'culiar – pe culi 'arity, a 'ppreciate – a ppreci 'ation

If the original word has both the primary and the secondary stress, the secondary stress is retained in the same place, but the main stress falls on the syllable immediately preceding the suffix.

e.g.  reco 'mmend –  recommend 'dation

9. Words with two primary streses form several groups: words with a distinct meaning of their own (e.g. anti-, dis-, ex- ,etc.), compound numerals, nouns, adjectives and verbs.

10. Word stress in compound nouns depends on the semantic value of the elements. Normally, the first element is stressed if it is semantically more important.

e.g. ' music hall,  'fountain pen

Most compound adjectives and some compound nouns have two primary stresses, as both elements are equally significant.

e.g.  'well- 'bred, 'first – 'class, 'ice- 'cream

Compound adjectives with only one stress on the first element occur when the second element is semantically weak.

e.g.  'childlike,  'oval-shaped

Compound verbs have stress on both elements.

e.g.  'give  'in,  'turn  'out

11. In connected speech words with two stresses often lose one of their stresses because of the rhythm.

e.g.  'Turn off the  'light.  'Turn it  'off.

Exercise 2

Put the words from each box into columns according to their stress patterns. Listen and check your answers, then listen again – make sure you stress them correctly!

a.

champagne

shampoo

crosswords

sardines

cigars

Japan

paintings

hotels

matches

toothpaste

discos

cassettes

guitars

cartoons

records

trumpets

coffee

apples

Britain

roulette

b.

potatoes

hamburgers

sausages

oranges

tomatoes

chewing gum

pineapple

margarine

cigarettes

spaghetti

celery

lemonade

bananas

magazines

newspapers

Brussels sprouts

tobacco

cucumber

sultanas

vinegar

apricots

c.

beautiful

chandelier

exciting

expensive

families

generous

government

impolite

incorrect

marvelous

polluted

recently

together

untidy

wonderful

d.

absolutely

advertisement

authority

babysitting

calculator

celebrating

chiropodist

communicate

embarrassing

environment

exhibition

fortunately

independence

information

opposition

photographic

politician

supermarket

e.

Superman

efficient

unbearable

habitat

achiever

happening

Cinderella

compulsive

batteries

certainly

distracted

energetic

philosophy

abilities

efficiently

occupation

everything

copyright

demanding

rehearsal

management

enjoyable

creative

excuses

Exercise 3

A.

Listen and repeat the names of the countries below. Pay attention to stress. Write nationality words next to the name of each country. Listen and check your answers.

Nepal

Poland

Holland

Italy

Korea

China

Brazil

France

Malaysia

Norway

Turkey

Switzerland

Canada

Russia

Japan

Germany

Belgium

Greece

Egypt

Australia

Hungary

Spain

England

Portugal

B.

The stress in the –ese nationality words changes when they are followed by a noun, or if two of them are contrasted with each other.

Listen to the following sentences and mark the stress in the nationality words.

a. Kamal, my guide, was Nepalese.

b. I wouldn’t like to meet a Nepalese tiger.

c. I think that bowl’s Japanese.

d. What a beautiful Japanese fan.

e. I’d like a Chinese takeaway.

f. Do you speak Chinese?

g. There’s a very good Portuguese restaurant round the corner.

h. Her boyfriend’s Portuguese.

i. That isn’t Chinese writing, it’s Japanese.

j. She isn’t Brazilian, she’s Portuguese.


Do the following exercises:

A. Mark word stress in the words below. Explain the stress – pattern in them.

Novel, legalize, rotate, forget, sympathize, eager, brigade, organ, magician, behind, official, apart, technique, trainee, orchestra, orchestral, unity, harvest, delegate, profiteer, company, budget, advise, academy, intensify, politician, ability, capacity, politics, economy, hamper, sedate,  debate, arabesque, volunteer, argument, enumerate, comment, imitate, accent, accentual, practitioner, peculiar, beautician

B. Read the words below according to the models. Think of your own examples.

(a) M o d e l:  agitate -  agi tation

aberrate, aberration; actualize, actualization; modify, modification; dominate, domination; clarify, clarification

(b) M o d e l: e liminate – e limi nation

accentuate, accentuation; accommodate, accommodation; americanize, americanization; administrate, administration

C. Read the following word families. Concentrate on the stress shifts.

a. family – familiar – familiarity

b. diplomat – diplomacy – diplomatic

c. photograph – photographic – photographer – to photograph

d. industry – industrial – industrialist – industrialize

e. invention – inventive – inventor – invent

f. competition – competitive – competitor – compete

g. criticism – critical – critic – criticize

h. politics – political – politician – politicize

i. nation – nationalistic – nationalist – nationalize

j. analysis – analytical – analyst – analyze

D. Read the sentences below. Pay attention to the difference in stress in compounds and in word combinations.

a. He is in the greenhouse. – He is in the green house.

b. We saw some black birds. – We saw some blackbirds.

c. Do you need a blackboard? – Do you need a black board?

d. He is in the darkroom. – He is in the dark room.

e. He lives in the lighthouse. – He lives in the light house.

f. Does he live in the White House? – Does he live in the white house?

g. He picked up the hot plate. – He picked up the hotplate.

h. Have you seen a horsefly? – Have you seen a horse fly?

E. Practise reading the following sentences. Are the underlined words stressed in the same way or differently? Why?

1. This article is for export only. The country exports a lot of wool.

2. Where’s my gramophone record? These instruments record weather conditions.

3. I disapprove of his conduct. He will conduct the meeting tomorrow.

4. You have made little progress in English, I’m sorry to say. The work will progress slowly.

5. He speaks with a perfect accent. You are to accent the words correctly.

6. Where’s the object in this sentence? I object to your last remark.

7. You need a permit to go there. Will you permit me to say a few words?

8. Rain is quite frequent here. I used to frequent the park there.

9. You could see every detail in the picture. He couldn’t detail all the facts.

F. Practise reading the sentences below. Concentrate on the influence of rhythm on the stress pattern of compound adjectives.

1. This book belongs to our absent-minded professor. Our professor is absent-minded and often leaves his books behind.

2. The upstairs room has an outside staircase. He lives upstairs.

3. Wash it with luke-warm water. The water is luke-warm.

4. She is quite good-looking. There’s a good-looking girl over there.

5. He’s having afternoon tea now. We have tea nearly every afternoon.

6. They watched the changing of the Buckingham Palace guards. It’s near Buckingham Palace.

7. The boss is unbelievably bad-tempered. How can you stand such a bad-tempered person?

8. He’s always of-hand. He gave me an off-hand answer.

9. The Budapest’s climate is of continental type. He lives in Budapest.

10. Have a piece of home-made cake. This cake’s home-made.

Exercise 4

Listen and respond to the information you hear on the tape, like this:

:There was a strike where I work that lasted  ten  months!

:What! A  ten-month  strike!

Exercise 5

A.

Put one of the multi-word verbs in the box into each of the sentences below. Repeat the sentences, paying attention to the stress.

Notice the stress patterns in multi-word verbs:

a) if they are separated, there is a stress on the adverb/postposition:

   e.g. to  put the  meeting  off

b) if they are not separated and followed by an object, the adverb/postposition is not normally stressed:

   e.g.  Look for the  book.

c) When there is no object, the adverb/postposition is stressed:

   e.g.  The plane took off.

d) When there is another preposition after a multi-word verb, it is not stressed:

   e.g.  I  don’t  get  on with my sister.

put smb up

look after smb or smth

come round

make smth up

look at smb or smth

listen to smth

take after smb

wait for smb or smth

pull smth down

put smth off

look for smb or smth

bring smb up

take off

a. The manager has _______ the meeting ______ until tomorrow.

b. _______ that man in the funny hat!

c. His parents died when he was six, so really his grandmother ______him _____.

d. I’m ______ the scissors, I can’t find them anywhere.

e. Lynne _______ for a chat this afternoon.

f. I don’t know what’s happened to Kevin. We’ve been _______ him for the last two hours and he’s not usually late.

g. When she hasn’t got anyone to play with she often _______ imaginary friends.

h. _______ that noise outside!

i. Could you possibly ______me _______ for the night when I come down to London for my interview?

j. The plane ________ but had to make an emergency landing again almost immediately.

k. Both of the children ________ their mother’s side of the family. They’re not like their father at all.

l. They’re going to ________ the old village church _________ you know. They say it’s a public danger.

B.

Use the following multi-word nouns and verbs to fill the gaps I the following pairs of sentences. Remember that the noun and the verb often differ in meaning.

Repeat the sentences with the tape. What do you notice about the stress in multi-word nouns and verbs?

break-in

make-up

send-off

break-down

fall-out

takeoff

drop-out

comeback

sell-out

lookout

a.

They’ve had another _______ next door. Fortunately nothing very much was stolen this time.

Did they _______ through the back window then?

b.

Keep a _______ for a parking space, will you?

_______ for pickpockets!

c.

She had a nervous ________ last year and had to give up her job.

I hope our car doesn’t _________ again.

d.

I’d rather you didn’t use my _______ ! You left the top off the mascara and it’s all dried up now.

Don’t let’s argue, darling. Let’s kiss and _______, shall we?

e.

He’s a university _____, you know. He left after only two years.

She wants to ________  of the play. She says she’d had enough.

f.

If ever there’s a nuclear war, more people will die from radioactive ________ than from the explosion.

I don’t want to ______ with you. I hate arguments.

g.

He does a wonderful ________ of Margaret Thatcher. He sounds just like her.

Is the plane going to __________ soon?

h.

We gave the newlyweds a fantastic ________ - champagne, cake, tin cans tied to the car! It was perfect.

the summer school in Rome looks interesting. I think I’ll ________ for a brochure.

i.

the Michael Jackson concert was a complete ________. There wasn’t a single ticket left.

I’m sure we’ll _______ of these cards before Christmas, and we won’t be able to order any more before the New Year.

j.

This was the year that 1950’s heart-throb, Bart Pontoni, made his ________.

Good-bye, Arthur. I’m leaving. Maybe one day I’ll _______ to you, but don’t count o it!


RHYTHM

1. Intonation is a complex unity of speech melody (variations of pitch produced by the voice moving up or down), sentence stress (greater prominence given to some words in a sentence), voice quality (a special emotional colouring of the voice), rhythm (alteration of stressed and unstressed syllables) and tempo (the speed with which sentences or their parts are uttered).

2. Rhythm in English is based on the alteration of strongly and weakly stressed syllables. The important feature is that stressed syllables occur at fairly equal intervals. The unstressed syllables between stressed ones have to be fitted in. the more unstressed syllables there are between the stressed ones, the more weakly and rapidly they are pronounced.

e.g. The  students are  interested in  improving their  speech rhythm.

Words with double stress may lose one of their stresses due to the rhythm.

e.g. ' number  seven' teen

      'seventeen ' students

Some notional parts of speech, which are normally stressed, may lose their stress under the influence of rhythm.

e.g.  'How  'many do you  need?

      ' How many  'rooms do you need?  

A stressed syllable together with the preceding or following unstressed syllables forms a rhythmic group; each rhythmic group takes approximately the same time to pronounce.

Do the following exercises:

Practise reading the following phrases. Each time the number of unstressed syllables between the two stressed ones will be different. Make sure you can fit the unstressed syllables in to say the phrases rhythmically.

A.

1. Try again.

   Hurry up.

   Where’s your hat?

   I want to know.

   It’s quite all right.

   It doesn’t matter.

2. I wanted to know.

   Send me a card.

   What have you done?

   I’ve finished my lunch.

   It’s very unfair.

   I’m glad you have come.

3. I think it’ll be fine.

   I didn’t know the way.

   I wanted you to write about it.

   It’s not the one I borrowed.

   You’re wanted on the phone.

   The children are in bed.

4. Walking along the road.

   Why didn’t you run away?

   Multiply it by three.

   What’s the name of the book?

   Coming back home again?

   Remember what I told you.

B.

Children love toys.

Children play with toys.

The children will play with toys.

The children will play with some toys.

The children will play with some new toys.

The children are playing with some new toys.

The children will be playing with some new toys.

C. Break the sentences below into rhythmic groups. Practise reading the sentences.

The session’s nearly over.

What’s the name of the actor?

Robert is taller than Allan.

The inflation may lead to a depression.

I can give you the answer in a minute.

I’ll repeat the suggestion as I heard it.

You can see it in a moment that he needs it.

When the cat’s away, the mice will play.

As you surely know, it’s time for lunch.

Since he seems surprised, you’d better speak.

I’ll help you with your hair when you are ready for it.

I think he would be shocked if you asked him for it.

I never would have thought you would give it to me.

Exercise 6

Choose a word from the box  on the left which rhymes with the words on the right. Fill in the gaps in each sentences with a suitable rhyming pair. Listen and check your answers. Practise saying the sentences with the correct rhythm.

a. rhyme

b. half

c. write

d. sword

e. knee

f. wreck

g. limb

h. know

i. who

j. plant

k. rustle

l. funny

m. farm

n. bet

o. smile

p. diet

climb

gnawed

muscle

knight

money

aunt

through

quiet

debt

though

laugh

psalm

hymn

cheque

quay

aisle

a. The dragon _________ St. George’s ________.

b. I gave my __________ a lovely ____________.

c. He signed a _________ to buy the __________.

d. If you’re in _________, you shouldn’t _______.

e. The bridegroom’s ________ shone down the __________.

f. We’ll never _________ who wrote it, ___________.

g. I strained each _________ to sing the __________.

h. Please put me _________ to you-know-________.

Exercise 7

Listen to the poem and mark the stress. Note that when you read it aloud some syllables are ‘heavier’ than others. The unstressed syllables have to be ‘squashed in’ between the stressed. Listen to the first verse again and clap the rhythm with the tape, then practise reading the whole poem aloud.

FUTURE INTENTIONS

In June this year I’ll finish school,

And the summer’s getting near/

My classmates all know what they want to do,

But I haven’t got any idea.

Pippa’s going to ravel round the world.

Hannah’s going to stay at home.

Peter’s going to join a punk rock band.

And Richard’s going to teach in Rome.

Amanda’s going to move to Hollywood

Where she hopes to become a star.

Frank’s going to pass his driving test

And then he’s going to buy himself a car.

Paula’s going to study up at Cambridge.

And Roger’s going to learn how to cook.

Emma’s going to have a lot of babies,

And Sarah’s going to write a book.

Steven’s going to be a scientist

And try to help the human race.

Helen’s going to be in the Olympic team

And finish in the long jump in first place.

Ian’s going to be a millionaire.

And Anna’s going to help the poor.

But I still don’t know what I want to do,

So I’ll sit here and I’ll think some more.

Exercise 8

Sort out the following lines to make two separate poems: “Superman” and “Cinderella”. Listen and check your answers. Practise reading the two poems, make sure you do it rhythmically.

Don’t be sorry.

Here in this parcel, so

Hello there, Superman.

With my magic

Are you crying Cinderella?

I’ve got a telegram.

                        You will make it to the dance.

Wishing you happy Returns of the day!

Now you’re defenseless, and can’t run away

And your pumpkin

And there is some kryptonite

Here’s your chance:

Exercise 9

Listen to two more poems, write them down, mark the strongly stressed words. Practise reading the poems.

Aladdin          Sir Lancelot           Guinevere

On your own:

Prepare model reading of the following rhymes. Find more rhymes and read them aloud paying attention to the rhythm in them.

A. One, two, three, four, five, six, seven.

    All good children go to heaven.

    Some fly east,

    Some fly west,

    Some fly over the cuckoo’s nest.

B. Twinkle, twinkle, little star.

   How I wonder what you are.

   Up above you fly so high,

   Like a diamond in the sky.

c. One, two, three, four.

   Mary at the cottage door.

   Five, six, seven, eight.

   Eating cherries off the plate.

SECTION 5:     INTONATION OF CERTAIN SENTENCE PARTS

DIRECT ADDRESS

Direct address is a word or a group of words used to address a person or a group of people.

e.g.  How  are you, Harry?

The intonation of a direct address depends on its position in the sentence and on the speaker’s attitude.

At the beginning of a sentence, a direct address is always stressed and forms a separate sense-group which is pronounced with the Low Fall (in formal or serious speech)or with the Fall-Rise 9in informal, lively speech.)

e.g.  Robert, you must  think  carefully  before re fusing the  offer.

        Dad,  will you  mend my  bike?

In the medial or final position, a direct address is usually unstressed and does not form a separate sense-group; it continues the melody of the last stressed syllable.

e.g.  I   beg your  pardon, sir,  it’s  not  my fault.

In emphatic speech, however, a direct address may take the rise of the Fall-Rise.

e.g.  Get  out of the  pool at  once,  Peter!

Practice:

A.

1. Victor, you can’t go there alone.

2. Don’t lose heart, old boy!

3. Will you give me that newspaper, Tom?

4. Ladies and gentlemen, let me introduce Mr. King to you.

5. Will you. Bill, answer my question?

6. You know, Lorna, let’s speak about it some other time.

7. Nelly, where are you?

8. You needn’t go into so much trouble, Mrs. Bellows.

B.

1/ I don’t know Mr. Smith.

   I don’t know, Mr. Smith.

2/ He doesn’t remember John.

   He doesn’t remember, John.

3/ Have you forgotten dear old tom?

  Have you forgotten, dear old Tom?

4/ Can you hear Helen?

   Can you hear, Helen?

ADVERBIAL PHRASES

Adverbial phrases at the beginning of a simple sentences are normally stressed and form separate sense-groups pronounced with the Low Rise or the Mid-Level tone.

e.g.  Yesterday  I  stayed  in all day.

      In  front of the  house,  there is a  green  lawn.

In sentence final position adverbials are not stressed and don’t form separate sense-groups.

e.g.  I  stayed  in all day yesterday.

      There is a  lawn in front of the house.

An adverbial at the end of the sentence can form a separate sense-group if it is an afterthought, additional comment, clarification, etc.

e.g.  Any  news from  Mary? – She’s  coming to  Boston, this  after noon.

Practice;

1. A few minutes later we heard a knock at the door.

2. I was utterly exhausted by the end of the week.

3. At the door I shook Fanny’s hand and left.

4. A few years ago, the place was quiet and desolate.

5. There was an old, creaky rocking-chair on the farthest corner of the room.

6. In September the weather here is still fine, but in October most days are quite nasty.

7. Why not drop in at his office, instead of phoning him?

8. He thought it was his good luck to have such an opportunity so early in his career.

APPOSITIONS

Appositions are words that restate or identify a noun or pronoun. As a rule, appositions form separate sense-groups and repeat the melody of the previous sense-group which they are closely connected with.

e.g. Jack has a wife, Jennifer, and two children, a son and a daughter.

Practice:

1. The master called loudly for Mr. Bumble, the man in charge of the workhouse.

2. He was my mother’s old friend, Mr. Davis, who once was my music teacher.

3. Kublai khan, grandson of Genghis, was the first Mongol emperor of all China.

4. Michael Jackson, the king of pop, was once married to     , Elvis Presley’s daughter.

5. The Natural History Museum, which is part of the British Museum, moved to its present site in

   1880.

6. The river Thames flows by two more parks, Hampton Court park and bushy Park.

ENUMERATON

Enumeration is represented in sentences with homogeneous members. Each enumerated word is stressed and requires a separate sense-group pronounced with the Rise, the last enumerated word is pronounced with the Fall.

e.g. He  got up  early,  ate his  usual  breakfast,  read his  morning  paper,  and  left for the  city.

Since the falling tone carries more conviction than the rising tone, the use of the fall makes the utterance more expressive. Pronounced with the falling tone, enumeration sounds more emphatic.

Practice:

1. You are learning to speak, to understand, to read and to write English.

2. His voice was musical, soft and lulling.

3. London  bridge, built of stone was a remarkable achievement. Shops, houses and a chapel were

   built on the bridge.

4. The visitor was the most astonishing contrast to the tall, thin, grey-haired, neatly-dressed scientist

5. It was a dark, gloomy, forbidding house.

6. There are camps, camping sites, hostels and tourist centers for young travellers.

7. I’ll toss up a snowball, and make him look out, and then say a kind word to him.

8. Hair, clothing and jewelry all send messages to a prospective employer.

9. The university sent us catalogues, maps, housing applications and other information.

10. We used to go out, walk around the town, meet our friends and live happily.

PARENTHESES

A parenthesis is a word, phrase or clause which is connected with the rest of the sentences I order;

- to show the speaker’s attitude towards the idea expressed;

- to connect the sentence with another one

- to summarize or add some detail to what is said in the sentence.

At the beginning of a sentence a parenthesis is stressed and may form a separate sense-group if it is semantically important. This sense-group may be pronounced either with the Rise or with the Fall, or with the Fall-Rise.

e.g. To  crown it  all, we had a  fantastic  ball in the evening.

       By the  way,  what  time is it?

In the middle or at the end of the sentence parentheses are not stressed and do not form separate sense-groups. They are pronounced as the unstressed or partially stressed syllables of the intonation group

.

e.g. He’s  quite am bitious, you know.

      You  know of  course  how am bitious he is.

Practice:

1. Besides, I’m often mixed up with my twin brother.

2. To put it mildly, he isn’t quite sane.

3. Simon isn’t particularly keen on Italian food, I suppose.

4. The house wasn’t in fact all that big.

5. Now that I know him well enough of course, I find him very pleasant.

6. In my opinion, he deserved what he got.

7. Fortunately for me, it was a translated version.

8. He’s stubborn, as far as I know.

9. You are right, though.

10. You never ask yourself, I suppose, whether I mater at all.

AUTHOR’S WORDS

The author’s words may introduce, interrupt or follow direct speech.

The author’ words introducing direct speech form a separate sense-group normally pronounced with the falling tone.

e.g. And  then he  said, “  Perhaps, you are  right.”

If the author’s words follow direct speech, they continue the melody of the sense-group as its unstressed or partially stressed tail.

e.g. “ What is it  for?” he asked.

If the author’s words form a fairly long sequence, they may form a separate sense-group which is usually pronounced with the same intonation as the preceding sense-group but at a lower pitch.

e.g. “Do you think it’s fair?” she   asked, looking at me with  surprise.

Practice:

1. “I can’t believe you ate the whole watermelon,” she said.

2. My father began by saying, “I refuse to listen to any excuses.”

3. “You are the last person on earth I’d ask for help,” she told me with contempt.

4. “What rubbish!” he exclaimed leaving the room.

5. “Mel Gibson is one of my best customers,” the street vender bragged.

6. “He wants the money,” Charles said after a dramatic pause, “and he wants it now.”

7. “I can’t eat anything,” he growled, putting his head in his hands.

8. “Miss Bloom,” I said breathlessly, “we must go back now.”

9. Her cousin shrugged and said curtly, “I don’t care a bit.”

10. “Are you glad to see me, Bobby?” asked Aunt Ellie.

COMPLEX AND COMPOUND SENTENCES

A compound sentence consists of two or more coordinated clauses. The choice of the terminal tone depends on the degree of their semantic unity. If the non-final sense-group is semantically independent and doesn’t imply continuation, the falling tone is used.

e.g. It was   getting  dark, and I   hurried  home.

If the idea is not completed, the low  rising tone or falling-rising tone can be used.

e.g. He nodded in agreement, but his eyes glittered with silent contempt.

A complex sentence consists of a principle and one or several subordinate clauses which may precede, follow or break the main clause.

a/ if the principle clause and the following subordinate clause present a single semantic whole, they do not form separate sense-groups.

e.g. You can   stay  here as  long as you  want.

b/ If the principle clause implies continuation, it is pronounced with the low-rising tone.

e.g. It   doesn’t  really  matter to me   what  all of them  think.

c/ if both clauses are semantically independent, they are pronounced with the Fall.

e.g. You can  stay here  if you   really  want to.

Subordinate clauses, preceding the principle one, form separate sense-groups. They are pronounced with the Low Rise to stress the logical connection with the following sense-group.

e.g. If   anything can  go  wrong, it  will go wrong.

The falling tone is also possible, depending on the semantic value of the clause.

SEQUENCE OF TONES

As a rule, complex, compound and simple extended sentences can be divided into some logical parts. While pronouncing them, the sequence of tones must be observed. The most common sequences in unemotional speech are Fall + fall and Rise + Fall.

The sequence Fall + Fall is used in sense-groups conveying finality; they sound definite, firm, weighty.

e.g. It’s the   absolute  truth, I  swear.

The sequence Rise + Fall is used in sense-groups which are logically closely connected, or when the speaker is leading up to something more and continuation of some kind is implied.

e.g. If   I were  you,  I’d   wait and  see what  happens.

     My  parents and  I,   usually  spend our  holidays to gether.


Practice:

1. She hates tea but adores coffee.

2. When the classes are over early, at about 11.30, Jane usually called on her friend and does some shopping.

3. I can’t come to your party tomorrow because I don’t feel quite well.

4. Everything is fine, she is happy.

5. Londinium flourished, and within a generation it had become the administrative center for the

   province.

6. When Brian saw his wife’s face, he was so shocked that he stopped speaking and stared at her in

    horror.

7. Cathy didn’t cry but sat silently by his side.

8. The square, when they reached it, was full of wind and flying dust.

9. It was a perfect plan, and it would work.

10. People can now use wood substitutes, which are becoming more available.

Intonation Revision Exercise

1. Most evenings they dine out.

2. The garden looked white and quiet behind the glass doors of the gallery.

3. What’s on my shopping list? Oh yes, some chocolate, cigarettes and gin.

4. What’s the mater with you, Mr. Walker?

5. By the way, are you going anywhere over Easter?

6. I am not very good at languages, you know.

7. Henry VIII, the English king of the Tudor Dynasty, is known as the Blue Beard.

8. After the rain was over, a huge rainbow could be seen bright in the sky.

9. Sir, if that was your master, why was he wearing a mask over his face?

10. The thin trees were blowing wildly, and untidy grey clouds were sailing past a pale, sickly  moon.

11. She must be very miserable, and very lonely, in that dark, unpleasant house.

12. Friends, I am here to ask you for support.

13. The others thought it would be worthwhile, anyway.

14. Well, Nora, I give in! Tell me the answer now.

15. Mum, isn’t that shirt too big for me?

16. Mr. Brooke, my tutor, doesn’t stay here, and I have no one to keep me company.

17. He could not stop looking at her, and I knew there was no hope for him.

18. The young man looked very pale and went straight to his room.

19. One night, when my life as Jekyll seemed impossibly dull and boring, I mixed a dose of the drug and drank it.

20. Her play is full of coincidences, false anticipations, and non-responsive dialogues.

21. I shall come back before midnight, and then we shall send for the police.

22. If I finish it, however, he will probably not notice it.

23. When the manager told me what the apartment cost, I decided living at home with Mom and  Dad was not so bad.

24. He described skiing in the Alps, swimming I the Adriatic, and driving across the Sahara Desert.

25. Te film’s last seen showed that his battle had been for nothing, that he had lost her and his dream  was dead.

26. There were no photographs of the wanted man and no two people could agree about his appearance.

27. “Don’t be long!” said Henry, with a not of warning in his voice.

28. Her cousin repeated the question, “Who told you that?”

29. “Have you ever heard him sing?” I asked Mr. Bartell.

30. ‘If nothing’s the matter,” Eddy said mildly, “why are you crying?”

31. These shoes are the best; they are durable, inexpensive, and stylish.

32. Don’t waste time, don’t waste money, but – most important of all – don’t waste your energies and talents.

33. At his greatest, Jean Renoir expresses the beauty of our common humanity – the desires and  hopes, the absurdities and follies, that we all, to one degree or another, share.


SECTION 6: TEXTS FOR READING PRACTICE

Text 1

Listen and write in the missing words. Listen again and practise reading the story phrase by phrase, then read the whole of it aloud.

_________ first ___________ June_____________-two, _________ French burglar broke_________ house________ Paris.

_________ went _________ living_________ stole two pictures. Then ____________ went __________ kitchen. ________opened _________ saw _________. __________ ate ___________.Next, _________ two __________. __________ both ________. ________ felt

__________ rest___________ asleep. When __________ morning _________ around ______.

Text 2

Listen to the letter and mark the stressed words in it. Practise reading the letter phrase by phrase and then read the whole of it aloud.

Dear Mum and dad,

I’m really sorry, but I’m leaving home. When you read this, I’ll be far away. Don’t try to find me. Martin and I are getting married next Saturday.

I know you’ve never liked Martin. You didn’t want me to go out with him because you said he was just a car salesman and he wasn’t good enough for me. I know that you’ve always wanted the best for me, but Martin is the best for me. I love him very much indeed.

Text 3

Listen to the passage. Divide it into sense-groups, mark the stressed words and intonation in each sentence. Practise reading the whole passage aloud.

On the fourteenth of January nineteen seventy-eight, Mrs. Brewin was working in her garden. Her cat, Henry, was playing around her. It climbed a tress in the garden and couldn’t get down, so she called the Fire Brigade. While she was waiting for them to arrive, she offered some fish to try to get him down.


Text 4

Listen to the passage and write it down, paying attention to the correct punctuation.

. – full stop

, - comma

‘ - apostrophe

- - hyphen

: - colon

You will hear the same passage broken into short sections first and then in longer sentences. Listen and repeat each phrase/sentence with the correct intonation. After that, read the whole passage through.

Word list: drab

                Cynthia

Text 5

Read the story through and put one of the words from the box into each gap. Listen and check your answers. Break the passage into sense-groups and mark the intonation. Practise reading the passage aloud.

to    at    about    off     to    from    at      in  in

 My friend Susie met her husband in a strange way. She was traveling to Eastern Europe by train one summer. For some time she looked _____ the handsome young man sitting opposite her. Finally he smiled ________ her and said ‘Hello’. It was a long trip and they talked _______ a lot of different things. He came ________ Hamburg, and was very interested ______ politics and English. When he got _____ the train in Hamburg, Suzy felt a little sad because she didn’t even know his name. Then she noticed a book on the floor. It had an address, but no name _______ it. She didn’t know if it belonged  ______ the handsome German man, but she decided to write _____ the address in the book. After a couple of weeks she got a reply. The following summer he visited her in England, and last year they got married.


Text 6

Look through the passage below and mark all the cases of linking in it. Listen to the tape, mark the intonation. Practise reading the passage.

Most people’s picture of a typical Englishman is a man in a suit, with an umbrella, a copy of The Times, and a bowler hat. Not everybody knows, however, that this hard, low, round-brimmed hat was invented in the nineteenth century, or that it was made after a pair of British hat makers, Thomas and William Bowler.

    The first example of a bowler hat was ordered by a country gentleman, Thomas Coke, who lived in Norfolk. He wanted a strong and practical hat that he could wear when he went shooting.

    In America the bowler hat is known as a derby.

Text 7

Insert the missing verbs in the passage below. Listen and check your answers. Mark the intonation and practise reading the passage aloud.

A cleaning woman shot in a bank robbery in Cricklewood yesterday evening. She said to be safe and comfortable in hospital. The bank broken into by two masked men. They have not yet found. A total of   ₤1 million stolen I the robbery, and a bag of jewels kept in a bank safe by Lady Crickle who told the bad news late last night by the bank manager.

      ‘most of my jewels made of gold’, she told reporters. ‘My favourite ring made in china three hundred years ago. I can’t possibly buy another one.’

     A red Ford Fiesta seen near the bank and later found in a car park at Heathrow Airport. A reward offered by the police for any information about the crime.

Text 8

Break the paragraph into short sections, practise reading it. Prepare model reading of the passage.

I was fifteen. He was nineteen and already doing well. He was a tailor like his father and worked with him. One day my grandmother came and called me she took me to one side and said,

‘Zeina, you’re going to marry Sobhi.’

‘But, Setti, how do I marry him?’ I asked.

He was my cousin: the son of my dead mother’s sister, but I knew nothing of marriage.

‘You’ll be his wife and he’ll be your husband and you’ll serve him and do what he tells you.’

I started to cry.

‘Will I have to leave you, Setti?’

The old woman took me in her arms.

‘No, no, you’ll have your own room in the house and I’ll always be with you. You’re a big girl now. You can cook and clean and look after a man and he’s your cousin, child, he’s not a stranger.’

Well… I went out to the other girls in the yard but my heart was full of my new importance. I didn’t say anything but in a few hours everyone knew anyway and Sobhi stopped coming to our part of the house. From the time Setti told me, I only saw him again on the wedding night.


Learn the poem:

Sledging by Starlight

By Alexander Reid

Good-bye to the days of the bicycle

The days that are blue and are gold.

And welcome the nights of the icicle

And stars sharpened bright by the cold.

To bathe I warm seas in bright summer

Is pleasant enough in a way.

But what can compare with the rush through the air

As you dash down a hill on a sleigh.

One push – and you’re off, you’re flying!

Hold tight! How the starts stream away!

Oh what can compare with the rush through the air

As you dash down a hill on a sleigh.

- 97 -


 

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  Если же предполагаемый отец умер то речь идет уже об установлении факта отцовства или факта признания отцовства. Если при рассмотрении заявления в суде будет установлено что лицо при жизни признавало своё отцовство материнство в отношении ребенка то суд удовлетворяет заявление и признает факт отцовства или факт признания отцовства. Порядок судебного установления отцовства При наличии какого-либо спора установление отцовства осуществляется в судебном порядке по иску заинтересованного лица.
76490. Оспаривание отцовства и (или) материнства 15.82 KB
  Запись акта о рождении ребенка с указанием сведений о его родителях является доказательством происхождения ребенка от конкретных лиц: женщины и мужчины. Например в силу действующей в семейном праве презумпции отцом ребенка был записан муж его матери однако фактическим отцом он не является поскольку в момент зачатия ребенка проходил военную службу в другой местности. Или в случае подмены ребенка в роддоме когда ни супруг ни супруга зарегистрированные в качестве родителей ребенка не являются его биологическими родителями. При...
76491. Личные права несовершеннолетнего ребенка 14 KB
  К ним относятся: право ребенка жить и воспитываться в семье п. 54 СК РФ; право ребенка на общение с родителями дедушкой бабушкой братьями сестрами и другими родственниками ст. 55 СК РФ; право ребенка на защиту своих прав и законных интересов ст.
76492. Имущественные права несовершеннолетнего ребенка 21 KB
  Создание условий жизни необходимых для развития ребенка обеспечивается главным образом родителями несущими основную финансовую ответственность за его достойное содержание. Статья 60 СК наделяет ребенка следующими имущественными правами: а правом на получение содержания от своих родителей и других членов семьи то есть совершеннолетних трудоспособных братьев и сестер дедушки бабушки; б правом собственности на полученные им доходы имущество полученное им в дар или в порядке наследования и на любое другое имущество приобретенное на...
76493. Споры о воспитании детей 16.87 KB
  Существует два вида споров о воспитании детей: споры о месте жительства несовершеннолетнего ребенка при раздельном проживании родителей; споры об участии отдельно проживающего родителя в воспитании ребенка. 66 Семейного Кодекса Российской Федерации родители при их раздельном проживании могут решить вопрос о месте проживания ребенка соглашением письменным договором в котором сами определяют с кем из родителей будут жить несовершеннолетние дети кто и в каких размерах будет выплачивать средства на их содержание Однако такое соглашение не...
76494. Права и обязанности родителей 19.17 KB
  Большинство прав родителей корреспондируются с правами ребенка однако последние шире по объему. Втретьих при осуществлении родительских прав и обязанностей должен соблюдаться приоритет интересов ребенка п. Это положение имеет принципиальное значение поскольку нередки жизненные ситуации когда интересы родителя противоречат интересам ребенка. Например родители не оказывают должного внимания духовному развитию ребенка ссылаясь на нехватку времени.
76495. Осуществление и защита родительских прав 14.01 KB
  Способы воспитания детей должны исключать пренебрежительное жестокое грубое унижающее человеческое достоинство обращение оскорбление или эксплуатацию детей. Родители осуществляющие родительские права в ущерб правам и интересам детей несут ответственность в установленном законом порядке. Все вопросы касающиеся воспитания и образования детей решаются родителями по их взаимному согласию исходя из интересов детей и с учетом мнения детей.
76496. Осуществление прав отдельно проживающим родителем 16.2 KB
  66 СК родитель проживающий отдельно от ребенка имеет право на общение с ребенком участие в его воспитании и решение вопросов получения ребенком образования что согласуется с установленным в Кодексе принципом равных родительских прав и обязанностей п. В результате ущемляются законные права и интересы как одного из родителей так и ребенка. 66 СК установлено что родитель с которым проживает ребенок не должен препятствовать общению ребенка с другим родителем если такое общение не причиняет вред физическому и психическому здоровью...
76497. Меры государственной помощи семьям, имеющим детей 17.04 KB
  Основные виды государственных пособий гражданам имеющим детей в связи с их рождением и воспитанием перечислены в Федеральном законе от 19. При этом более подробные нормы об условиях назначения детских пособий и порядке их выплаты содержатся в Приказе Минздравсоцразвития России от 23 декабря 2009 г. N 1012н Об утверждении Порядка и условий назначения и выплаты государственных пособий гражданам имеющим детей. В указанных правовых актах перечислены следующие виды пособий: 1 пособие по беременности и родам; 2 единовременное пособие...