ПОСОБИЕ ПО ПРАКТИЧЕСКОЙ ФОНЕТИКЕ
Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика
Артикуляция (Articulation) – уклад органов речи при произнесении того или иного звука. Палатализация (Palatalization) – смягчение согласного под влиянием следующего за ним гласного переднего ряда. Палатализация создаётся поднятием средней части языка во время произнесения...
ЛИПЕЦКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ПЕДАГОГИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ
ПОСОБИЕ ПО ПРАКТИЧЕСКОЙ ФОНЕТИКЕ
ДЛЯ 1 КУРСА АНГЛИЙСКОГО ОТДЕЛЕНИЯ
ФАКУЛЬТЕТА ИНОСТРАННЫХ ЯЗЫКОВ
Section 1: Introductory Course …………………………..……...………………… 4
Section 2: Sound Revision………..…………………………………………………32
Section 3: Basic Course…………...………………………………...………………46
Principles of Classification of Consonants…..………………………………………46
Principles of Classification of Vowels………………………………………………50
Section 4: Phonetic Word Structure …...……..…………………………………….69
Syllable Formation. Syllable Division…….…………………………………………69
Rhythm in Words………………………….…………………………………………80
Section 5: Intonation………………...………………………………………………85
Section 6: Texts for Reading Practice…...…………………………………………..93
SECTION 1: Основные понятия
1. Артикуляция (Articulation) уклад органов речи при произнесении того или иного звука.
2. Палатализация (Palatalization) смягчение согласного под влиянием следующего за ним гласного переднего ряда. Палатализация создаётся поднятием средней части языка во время произнесения согласного, поэтому для избежания палатализации необходимо следить за тем, чтобы средняя часть языка была опущена.
3. Аспирация (Aspiration) придыхание, слышимое в конце произнесения сильных глухих [p],[t],[k]. Аспирация наиболее сильная перед ударным долгим гласным или дифтонгом, слабее перед кратким ударным гласным, наиболее слабая перед безударным гласным и в конечной позиции. Аспирация теряется после звука [s].
4. Позиционная долгота гласного (Positional Length of Vowels) изменение количественных характеристик гласного звука в зависимости от позиции в слове. В конечной позиции звук произносится наиболее долго, перед звонким согласным короче, пред глухим наиболее коротко. Позиционная долгота соблюдается при произнесении всех ударных гласных.
5. Твёрдый приступ (Glottal Stop) задержка начала колебания голосовых связок. Следует избегать твёрдый приступ при артикуляции начального гласного или в сочетании двух гласных: easy, go out.
6. Словесное ударение (Word Stress) выделение в слове одного или нескольких слогов среди других. Ударные слоги акустически более сильные.
7. Носовой взрыв (Nasal Plosion) взрывной согласный с последующим носовым сонантом [n], [m] произносится слитно, при этом взрыв смычного происходит в процессе произнесения сонанта, и струя воздуха проходит через носовую полость. Носовой взрыв происходит как в словах, так и на стыках слов: happen, help me.
8. Латеральный взрыв (Lateral Plosion) взрывной согласный с последующим сонантом [l] произносится слитно, взрыв смычного происходит в процессе произнесения сонанта, и струя воздуха проходит вдоль боковых сторон языка. Латеральный взрыв происходит как в словах, так и на стыках слов: cattle, read louder.
9. Потеря взрыва (Loss of Plosion) в сочетании смычного согласного с другим смычным или аффрикатой первый смычный произносится без взрыва, если место их артикуляции совпадает: that child, big cup. Если места их артикуляции различны, взрыв первого согласного неполный: object, good girl.
10. Редукция (Reduction) ослабление гласных в безударных служебных словах и местоимениях. Различают количественную (quantitative) редукцию, когда сокращается долгота звука, и качественную (qualitative) редукцию, когда меняется качество звука.
11. Ассимиляция (Assimilation) качественное уподобление смежных согласных звуков. Ассимиляция может затронуть место образования преграды, активный орган речи, работу голосовых связок, позицию губ, мягкого нёба, способ образования взрыва.
12. Интонация (Intonation) сложная взаимосвязь мелодики, силы, темпа, тембра и ритма произнесения высказывания.
13. Синтагма (Sense-group) относительно законченный по смыслу отрезок предложения, характеризующийся определённой интонационной структурой.
14. Мелодика речи (Speech Melody) изменение в высоте основного тона (понижение или повышение голоса на каждом ударном слоге синтагмы).
15. Фразовое ударение (Sentence Stress) выделение в предложении одних слов среди других. Как правило, знаменательные слова ударны, служебные безударны.
16. Логическое ударение (Logical Stress) разновидность фразового ударения, выделяющая логический центр высказывания и подчёркивающая элемент противопоставления. Логическое ударение может падать на любое слово в предложении.
17. Эмфатическое ударение (Emphatic Stress) разновидность фразового ударения, придающая большую выразительность и эмоциональность ударным словам.
18. Эмфатика (Emphasis) выразительность и эмоциональная окраска высказывания.
19. Темп (Tempo) относительная скорость высказывания, которая определяется чередованием моментов говорения и пауз и их продолжительностью.
20. Тембр (Voice Quality) качество звучания, передающее эмоциональное состояние говорящего.
21. Ритм (Rhythm) чередование ударных и безударных слогов в равные промежутки времени.
22. Ядерный тон (Nuclear/Terminal Tone) понижение или повышение голоса на последнем ударном слоге в синтагме. Слог, несущий это изменение, является ядром (Nucleus) синтагмы, её смысловым центром.
23. Низкий нисходящий тон (Low Fall) - один из основных ядерных тонов, выражающих законченность мысли, категоричность, эмоционально нейтрален.
24. Низкий восходящий тон (Low Rise) один из основных ядерных тонов, выражающих незавершённость мысли, связь между синтагмами, заинтересованность говорящего.
25. Шкала (Scale/Head) последовательность ударных и безударных слогов, характеризующаяся сменой высоты тона и наличием ядерного тона на последнем ударном слоге. Основной тип шкалы нисходящая ступенчатая шкала.
26. Для каждого из четырёх базовых типов вопросов характерна своя интонационная модель.
Общие вопросы (General/Yes-No Questions) произносятся с повышением тона на последнем ударном слоге.
Специальные вопросы (Wh -Questions) произносятся с понижением тона на последнем ударном слоге.
Разделительные вопросы (Disjunctive/Tag Questions) состоят из двух смысловых групп, первая из которых произносится с понижением, вторая с повышением тона.
Альтернативные вопросы (Alternative Questions) также состоят из двух смысловых групп, первая из которых произносится с повышением, а вторая с понижением тона.
LESSON 1: [t], [d], [p], [b], [k], [g], [s], [z], [f], [v], [v], [n],
[i], [e], [ә]
1. [t], [d] переднеязычные апикально-альвеолярные смычные взрывные согласные. При их произнесении кончик языка касается альвеол, образуя полную преграду, средняя и задняя части языка опущены. Струя воздуха со взрывом размыкает эту преграду. Английский глухой согласный [t] сильнее русского [т] и произносится с аспирацией: [th].
Английский звонкий согласный [d] значительно слабее глухого [t]. В отличие от русского согласного [д] английский [d] в конце слов оглушается лишь частично.
При произнесении русских согласных [т], [д] передняя часть языка касается верхних зубов, кончик языка несколько опущен (дорсально-зубная артикуляция).
2. [p], [b] губно-губные смычные взрывные согласные. При произнесении этих звуков губы, смыкаясь, oбразуют полную преграду. В отличие от русского согласного [п] английский [p] произносится с аспирацией: [ph]. Для английского согласного [p] характерна сильная артикуляция, особенно в конце слов. Английский согласный [b] в конце слов частично оглушается.
3. [k], [g] заднеязычные велярные смычные взрывные согласные. При произнесении [k], [g], так же как и при произнесении русских [к[, [г] задняя спинка языка касается мягкого нёба, образуя полную преграду. Английский глухой согласный [k] энергичнее соответствующего русского звука и произносится с аспирацией: [kh].
Английский звонкий согласный [g] значительно слабее глухого [k]. В отличие от русского [г] английский [g] в конце слов не оглушается полностью.
4. [s], [z] переднеязычные апикально-альвеолярные щелевые фрикативные согласные. При произнесении этих согласных узкая щель образуется между кончиком языка и альвеолами. Английский глухой согласный [s] энергичнее русского [с]. Английский звонкий согласный [z] слабее английского глухого [s]. В отличие от русского [з] английский согласный [z] в конце слов оглушается частично. В отличие от английских согласных русские [с], [з] характеризуются дорсально-зубной артикуляцией.
5. [f], [v] губно-зубные щелевые фрикативные согласные. Артикуляционно эти согласные совпадают с соответствующими русскими согласными [ф], [в]. Глухой английский согласный [f] сильнее соответствующего русского согласного, особенно в конце слов, звонкий согласный [v] слабее [f] . В конце слов звонкий согласный [v] частично оглушается.
6. [m] губно-губной смычный носовой сонант. При произнесении [m] губы, смыкаясь, образуют полную преграду, но мягкое нёбо опущено, и струя воздуха проходит через полость носа. По сравнению с русским [м] следует отметить болеe напряжённую артикуляцию английского согласного [m].
7. [n] переднеязычный апикально-альвеолярный смычный носовой сонант. Уклад органов речи тот же, что и для [t], [d], но мягкое нёбо опущено, и воздух проходит через полость носа.
Русский звук [н] носовой дорсально-зубной сонант.
8. [I] монофтонг переднего отодвинутого назад ряда высокого подъёма широкой разновидности, краткий нелабиализованный. При произнесении [i] язык находится в передней части полости рта, средняя часть языка поднята к твёрдому нёбу, но значительно ниже, чем при соответствующем русском [и], кончик языка находится у нижних зубов, губы растянуты.
Чтобы избежать ошибки типа закрытого русского звука [и], не следует слишком высоко поднимать язык, необходимо слегка оттянуть его назад и сократить звук.
При ошибке типа русского центрального [ы] язык следует продвинуть вперёд, растянуть губы и максимально сократить звук.
9. [e] монофтонг переднего ряда среднего подъёма узкой разновидности, краткий нелабиализованный. При произнесении гласного [e] язык находится в передней части полости рта, кончик языка у основания нижних зубов, средняя часть языка поднята к твёрдому нёбу, губы растянуты. По сравнению с русским гласным [э] английский [e] более закрытый. При ошибке типа русского [э] следует меньше раскрывать рот, губы слегка растянуть и продвинуть язык вперёд.
10. [ә] нейтральный безударный монофтонг смешанного ряда среднего подъёма, краткий нелабиализованный. При произнесении этого гласного в начале или середине слов несколько приподнят весь язык целиком. Для английского [ә] в этом положении характерна краткость и отсутствие чёткости артикуляции. В конечной позиции английский звук приближается в своём звучании к русскому безударному [а], однако недопустима замена английского нейтрального гласного русскими [а] или [ы].
Phonetic Exercise 1
Phonetic Exercise 2
Phonetic Exercise 3
1. Read the exercise, paying attention to the degree of aspiration of the voiceless consonants [p], [t], [k].
pit - tip
pen - neck
2. Practice reading the sentences, paying attention to the intonation.
Tim is sick.
Bess is ten.
Eddy is busy.
Tim isnt sick
Bess isnt ten.
Eddy isnt busy.
Is Tim sick?
Is Bess ten?
Is Eddy busy?
3. Practise reading the sentences; make them negative and interrogative as in the previous exercise.
Sid is big.
Mick is six.
Kevin is seven.
Vicky is skinny.
Dennis is in bed.
Ken is in.
Nick is in Sidney.
Phyllis is in Venice.
Mr. Nixon is in Denver.
Mrs. Gibson is in Texas.
4. Practise reading the following conversations.
a/ Cindy is busy.
Cindy isnt busy. Kitty is busy.
b/ Is Ben six?
Ben? Ben isnt six. Ben is seven.
c/ Is Ed in?
Ed ? Ed isnt in.
Is Teddy in?
Teddy? Teddy is in.
5. Listen to the sentences below, mark the intonation. Practise reading them.
4. Its Victor.
5. Its better.
6. Its a pity.
7. Its definite.
8. Its indefinite.
9. Lets get it.
10. Betty did it.
14. Is it Victor?
15. Is it better?
16. Is it a gift?
17. Is it definite?
18. Is it expensive?
19. Is it Test Seven?
20. Isnt it significant?
LESSON 2: [l], [h], [r], [j], [w], [ŋ]
[i:], [α:], [æ], [A], [ ε:], [u], [u:], [ O ], [ O:]
1. [ l ] переднеязычный апикально-альвеолярный боковой сонант. Кончик языка прижат к альвеолам, но боковые края языка опущены, образуя проход для струи воздуха.
При произнесении русского [л] кончик языка находится у верхних зубов.
Так называемый тёмный (твёрдый) оттенок [l] звучит в конце слов и перед согласным. Светлый (палатализованный) оттенок [l] звучит перед гласными и перед согласным [j]. Смягчение достигается поднятием средней спинки языка. Следует иметь в виду, что английский палатализованный согласный [l] твёрже соответствующего русского варианта, а английский тёмный согласный [l] несколько мягче русского [л].
2. [ i: ] долгий нелабиализованный дифтонгоид переднего ряда высокого подъёма узкой разновидности. При произнесении [i:] язык находится в передней части полости рта, кончик языка касается нижних зубов, средняя часть языка поднята высоко к твёрдому нёбу, губы несколько растянуты. В процессе артикуляции язык от более низкого и отодвинутого назад положения переходит к боле высокой и продвинутой вперёд позиции: [i] > [й].
При произнесении русского [и] передняя часть языка поднята выше и несколько продвинута вперёд по сравнению с английским гласным. Чтобы избежать ошибки типа русского [и], следует обратить особое внимание на неоднородность артикуляции [i:]. Исходной должна быть позиция языка, как при английском [i], только к концу артикуляции язык занимает положение, сходное с русским [и].
3. [ α: ] долгий нелабиализованный монофтонг заднего ряда низкого подъёма широкой разновидности. При произнесении гласного [α:] язык находится в задней части рта, задняя часть языка слегка приподнята, кончик языка оттянут от нижних зубов, губы нейтральны. При ошибке типа русского [а], звука центрального ряда, следует оттянуть язык назад и несколько удлинить гласный. Не следует широко раскрывать рот.
4. [ h ] глухой щелевой фарингальный согласный. При его произнесении в области зева образуется неполная преграда сближением корня языка и задней стенки зева. Язык в момент произнесения [h] принимает положение для последующего гласного. Звук встречается только перед гласным и на слух представляет собой лишь выдох. При произнесении русского [х] задняя часть языка высоко поднята к мягкому нёбу. При ошибке типа русского [х] следует ослабить согласный до лёгкого выдоха, предшествующего гласному.
5. [ j ] среднеязычный щелевой срединный сонант. При произнесении этого согласного средняя часть языка поднята к твёрдому нёбу, но не так высоко, как в случае с русским согласным [й]. Края языка прижаты к верхним зубам, образуя проход для струи воздуха вдоль середины языка. Органы речи постепенно переходят в позицию для произнесения последующего гласного. Английский согласный значительно слабее соответствующего русского согласного.
6. [ r ] переднеязычный заалвеолярный срединный щелевой сонант. При его произнесении кончик языка поднят к заднему скату альвеол. Английский сонант [r] представляет собой однородный звук и акустически сильно отличается от прерывистого раскатистого русского звука [р]. При произнесении русского [р] кончик языка занимает то же положение (заальвеолярное), но он расслаблен и вибрирует. Чтобы избежать ошибки типа русского [р], следует кончик языка держать напряжённым и неподвижным и не касаться им альвеол.
7. [ u: ] долгий лабиализованный дифтонгоид заднего ряда высокого подъёма узкой разновидности. При произнесении этого гласного язык находится в задней части полости рта. Задняя часть языка значительно приподнята. В процессе произнесения [u:] язык перемещается от продвинутого вперёд и более низкого положения в направлении более задней и закрытой позиции. Губы значительно округлены, причём округление значительно увеличивается к концу произнесения. По сравнению с английским гласным русский гласный [у] является более задним, более закрытым и более лабиализованным. В случае ошибки типа русского [у] следует в первую очередь следить за тем, чтобы губы были округлены, но не вытянуты вперёд.
8. [ u ] краткий лабиализованный монофтонг заднего продвинутого вперёд ряда высокого подъёма широкой разновидности. При произнесении этого гласного язык находится в задней части полости рта, но не так далеко, как при [u:]. Задняя часть языка поднята меньше, чем при [u:]. Губы слегка округлены. В случае ошибки типа русского гласного [у] следует продвинуть язык вперёд и не вытягивать губы.
9. [ ŋ ] заднеязычный смычный носовой сонант. При его произнесении задняя часть я зыка касается мягкого нёба, мягкое нёбо опущено, и воздух проходит через полость носа. В русском языке подобного звука нет. В случае ошибки типа [n] или [н] шире откройте рот и проследите, чтобы кончик языка не поднимался к верхним зубам или альвеолам, а находился у корней нижних зубов.
10. [ w ] губно-губной заднеязычный срединный щелевой сонант. При его произнесении губы сильно округляются и выдвигаются вперёд, образуя круглую щель. Задняя часть языка поднята к мягкому нёбу. Затем мгновенно язык и губы переходят в положение для произнесения следующего гласного. Подобного звука в русском языке нет. В случае ошибки типа русского [в] необходимо следить за тем, чтобы нижняя губа не касалась верхних зубов. В случае ошибки типа русского [у] следует ещё больше напрячь и округлить губы.
11. [ æ ] полудолгий нелабиализованный монофтонг переднего ряда низкого подъёма широкой разновидности. При произнесении [æ] рот довольно широко открыт, язык находится в передней части полости рта, плоско лежит во рту, средняя его часть несколько приподнята. Кончик языка находится у нижних зубов. Углы губ слегка оттянуты в стороны. Подобного звука в русском языке нет.
Русский гласный [э] менее открытый, чем английский гласный [æ], a русский гласный [а] открытый, но более задний (центрального ряда) по сравнению с английским гласным [æ]. Чтобы избежать ошибки типа русского [э] следует шире открывать рот, кончик языка остаётся у нижних зубов. В случае ошибки типа русского звука [а] следует прижать кончик языка к нижним зубам и шире открыть рот.
12. [ A ] монофтонг смешанного ряда среднего подъёма широкой разновидности, краткий нелабиализованный. При произнесении рот полуоткрыт, губы нейтральны, язык несколько оттянут назад. Задняя часть языка слегка приподнята. В случае ошибки типа русского [a] язык следует несколько отодвинуть назад. Английский звук более краткий.
13. [ O ] краткий лабиализованный монофтонг заднего ряда низкого подъёма широкой разновидности. При произнесении [ O ] язык находится в задней части полости рта, задняя часть языка слегка приподнята, рот широко раскрыт, губы округлены. По сравнению с [α:] английский гласный [ O ] несколько более задний и закрытый. В отличие от английского [ O ] русской гласный [о] менее открытый, губы сильнее округлены. В случае ошибки типа русского [о] следует шире раскрыть рот, ниже опустить и отодвинуть язык, округляя губы, не вытягивать их вперёд и несколько сократить звук.
14. [ O :] долгий лабиализованный монофтонг заднего ряда низкого подъёма узкой разновидности. При произнесении [O: ] язык находится в задней части полости рта. Задняя спинка языка поднята к мягкому нёбу несколько выше, чем для [ O: ]. При ошибке типа русского [о] следует добиваться более открытой артикуляции. По сравнению с [ O ] гласный звук [ O :] менее открытый и более лабиализованный.
15. [ ε: ] долгий монофтонг смешанного ряда среднего подъёма узкой разновидности, нелабиализованный. При произнесении [ε:] язык приподнят, спинка языка лежит плоско, кончик языка находится у нижних зубов, зубы чуть обнажены, расстояние между верхними и нижними зубами небольшое. В случае ошибок типа [е], [э] не следует слишком растягивать губы. В случае ошибки типа [о] следует добиться нейтрального положения губ, не открывать широко рот, продвинуть язык слегка вперёд, добиваясь его плоского уклада.
Phonetic Exercise 1
Phonetic Exercise 2
see seed seat
fee feel feet
lee league leak
Phonetic Exercise 3
car calm cart
far farm part
bar bard bark
a far star
a dark garden
Phonetic Exercise 4
Phonetic Exercise 5
a risky trick
a merry cricket
Ricks car isnt red.
His sister Elinor is a secretary.
Phonetic Exercise 6
a music student
a stupid rule
a beautiful tune
Phonetic Exercise 7
see - seeing
Phonetic Exercise 8
wet and windy
Will you quit whistling?
When will we see the Queen?
Phonetic Exercise 9
did dead dad
pin pen pan
big- beg bag
Sid said sad
pit pet pat
sit set sat
miss mess mass
six sex sax
a black handbag
Miss Bradley is traveling is Canada.
Sam Anderson is visiting Amsterdam.
Phonetic Exercise 10
tongue - hut
a London bus
a hundred coloured buttons
As snug as a bug in a rug
Every country has its customs.
Phonetic Exercise 11
core cord caught
saw sword sought
four form force
tore tall talk
want - water
a horrible holiday
Paul is a football reporter from York.
Bob, its your fault.
Awfully sorry, Maude.
Phonetic Exercise 12
fir- firm- first
bur bird burst
sir serve serf
an early bird
learn forty verbs
her worst work
1. Read the exercise, paying attention to the articulation of the long and short vowels.
2. Read the exercise, paying attention to the differences in the articulation of the vowels.
3. Read the sentences, paying attention to the intonation.
Kevin is a dean.
Liz is a dancer.
Peter is a builder.
Isnt Kevin an artist?
Isnt Martin a dean?
Isnt Liz a singer?
Isnt Emily a dancer?
Isnt Peter a farmer?
Isnt Nick a builder?
Martin is an artist.
Martin is an artist.
Emily is a singer.
Emily is a dancer.
Nick is a farmer.
Nick is a farmer.
4. Make the sentences below negative and interrogative; then make up dialogues using Exercise 3 as a model. Practise reading them with proper intonation.
Martin is a builder.
Victor is a farmer.
Elton is a businessman.
Peter is a fitter.
Margaret is a dancer.
Emily is an artist.
Helen is a dean.
Willy is a president.
Steve is an architect.
Robert is a worker.
Susan is a model.
Anne is a bookkeeper.
Thomas is a butler.
Polly is a cook.
Sam is a footballer.
Alice is an economist.
Patrick is a boxer.
Ronald is a runner.
5. Listen to the following conversations, mark the intonation. Practise reading the conversations together with the tape.
a/ Is Andrew a boxer or a wrestler?
Andrew is a footballer.
Is he? Isnt he a wrestler?
Donald is a wrestler.
b/ Matt is an actor.
Isnt he a singer?
He isnt a singer but he is an excellent actor.
And whos a singer?
6. Listen to the following sentences. Pay attention to the logically stressed words. Practise reading the sentences.
1. Kelly Nixon is fifty- seven.
Kelly Nixon is fifty-seven.
Kelly Nixon is fifty-seven.
Kelly Nixon is fifty-seven.
2. Is Kelly Nixon fifty- seven?
Is Kelly Nixon fifty-seven?
Is Kelly Nixon fifty-seven?
Is Kelly Nixon fifty-seven?
7. Mark the intonation in the dialogues below, then listen to the tape and check whether you have done it correctly. Practise reading the dialogues.
a/ Is Mr. Bricks seventy- six?
Mr. Bricks is sixty-six.
Is Mrs. Bricks sixty-six?
Mrs. Bricks is fifty.
b/ Is Luke a businessman from Finland?
Luke is a businessman from England.
Is Rick a businessman from England?
Rick is a farmer from England.
8. Read the following sentences, making different words logically stressed each time.
1/ Get ten eggs ready for breakfast.
2/ Betty is very neat.
3/ Rob didnt mean to hurt Yvonne.
4/ Carl saw twelve fox cubs in the woods.
5/ Did Sam learn any beautiful tunes last week?
6/ Max never asks stupid questions.
7/ He bought his car in December.
8/ Is it your uncle in the picture?
LESSON 3: [ θ ], [ ð ], [ S], [ Z ], [ C ], [ G ]
[ei ], [ ai ], [ Oi ], [ au ], [ әu ], [ εә ], [ iә ], [ uә ]
1. [ θ ], [ ð ] переднеязычные апикально-межзубные щелевые фрикативные согласные. При произнесении этих звуков язык распластан и не напряжён, кончик языка находится между зубами. Струя воздуха проходит между языком и верхними зубами. Зубы обнажены.
Звонкий [ ð] значительно слабее глухого [θ] и в конце слов частично оглушается.
В русском языке подобных звуков нет. В случае ошибки типа [т], [д] не следует прижимать язык к верхним зубам, необходимо оставлять щель между зубами и языком. Чтобы избежать ошибки типа [с], [з[, не следует держать язык в зазубном положении. Кончик языка должен находиться между зубами. Во избежание ошибки типа русских [ф], [в] следует опускать нижнюю губу.
2. [ S ], [ Z ] переднеязычные альвеолярно-палатальные щелевые согласные. При их произнесении кончик языка находится у альвеол, а средняя часть языка поднимается к твёрдому нёбу. Поднятием средней части языка к твёрдому нёбу объясняется тот оттенок мягкости, которым английские [S], [Z ] отличаются от твёрдых русских согласных звуков [ш] и [ж]. Чтобы избежать ошибок типа русских звуков [ш], [ж] следует поднять среднюю часть языка.
3. [ C ], [ G ] переднеязычные альвеолярно-палатальные смычные аффрикаты, т.е. сложные согласные звуки, первый компонент которых взрывной звук [t] или [d], а второй фрикативный [∫] или [ ]. При их произнесении кончик языка касается альвеол, одновременно средняя часть языка поднимается к твёрдому нёбу. Постепенно кончик языка отходит от альвеол. Таким образом, эта полная преграда переходит в неполную.
Английский звук [t ] по сравнению с русским звуком [ч] звучит твёрже. Английский звук [d ] не имеет соответствующего звука в русском языке. Нельзя допускать раздельного произнесения компонентов аффрикаты как в русских словах джаз, джем.
4. [ ei ] дифтонг. Ядро дифтонга краткий гласный переднего ряда среднего подъёма узкой разновидности, нелабиализованный. После произнесения ядра язык делает движение вверх в направлении звука [i], не достигая, однако, его полного образования. Нельзя допускать произношения звука типа русского [й].
5. [ ai ] дифтонг. Ядро дифтонга гласный звук переднего ряда низкого подъёма широкой разновидности, нелабиализованный. При произнесении ядра дифтонга язык находится в передней части полости рта и лежит плоско, кончик языка касается нижних зубов, губы немного растянуты. Как монофтонг этот звук не встречается. После произнесения ядра язык делает движение вверх в направлении звука [i]. В случае ошибки типа [ Λi] язык следует продвинуть вперёд, с тем чтобы сделать звук более передним; при ошибке типа [ай] второй элемент дифтонга следует произносить как можно слабее и среднюю часть языка не следует поднимать высоко.
6. [ Oi ] дифтонг. Ядро дифтонга - звук заднего ряда низкого подъёма, лабиализованный. Он представляет собой звук, средний между [ O ] и [ O :] . После произнесения ядра язык движется в направлении гласного [i]. В случае ошибки типа [ой] следует сделать первый элемент дифтонга более открытым и менее лабиализованным, а второй элемент значительно ослабить.
7. [ әu ] дифтонг. Ядро дифтонга гласный смешанного ряда среднего подъёма узкой разновидности, лабиализованный. Язык находится не так далеко, как для русского [о]. Ядро дифтонга близко по звучанию к [ ε:] . После произнесения ядра язык делает лёгкое движение вверх и отходит назад.
В начале произнесения дифтонга губы слегка округлены, затем постепенно губы ещё больше округляются (без вытягивания вперёд). В случае ошибки типа русского [оу] надо следить за тем, чтобы губы не были вытянуты вперёд, язык следует продвинуть вперёд. При ошибке типа русского [эу] следует не растягивать губы (губы округлены) и несколько оттянуть язык назад.
8. [ au ] дифтонг. Ядро дифтонга гласный переднего отодвинутого назад ряда низкого подъёма широкой разновидности, нелабиализованный. Он произносится почти так же, как первый элемент дифтонга [ai], а затем язык делает движение назад и вверх в направлении звука [u]. Второй элемент дифтонга должен быть очень слабым. В случае ошибки типа [ау] следует продвинуть язык вперёд, чтобы сделать первый элемент дифтонга более передним и значительно ослабить второй элемент.
9 [ iә ] дифтонг. Ядро дифтонга гласный переднего ряда высокого подъёма широкой разновидности, нелабиализованный. После произнесения ядра язык движется к центру, в направлении [ә]. Чтобы избежать ошибки типа [iΛ] следует ослабить второй элемент дифтонга.
10. [ εә ] дифтонг. Ядро дифтонга гласный переднего ряда среднего подъёма широкой разновидности, нелабиализованный, второй элемент нейтральный гласный.
11. [ uә ] дифтонг. Ядро дифтонга гласный заднего продвинутого вперёд ряда высокого подъёма широкой разновидности, слегка лабиализованный. После произнесения ядра язык движется к центру, в направлении [ә]. Следует избегать сильного округления и выпячивания губ при произнесении первого элемента. В современном английском языке сильна тенденция к замене дифтонга [uә] монофтонгом [ O :] .
Phonetic Exercise 1
something rather funny
three brothers together
This is the author of the novel.
Phonetic Exercise 2
Phonetic Exercise 3
a huge jam jar
Phonetic Exercise 4
hay hail hate
bay bathe base
tray trade - trait
waiting for a train
Play that game again.
Hes eighty-eight today.
Phonetic Exercise 5
sigh side sight
lie lied light
tie tide tight
Smile ninety nine times.
I hate saying good-bye.
Dyou mind the bright light?
Phonetic Exercise 6
toy coin voice
boy boil boyish
enjoy enjoys rejoice
all doll Doyle
chore chop choice
raw rock royal
a spoilt boy
Avoid this noisy toy!
Lets talk to the point.
Phonetic Exercise 7
low load loaf
so soul soap
go goal goat
sir saw sow
firm form foam
hurt bought - boat
an old joke
Dont go poking your nose into other peoples business!
Phonetic Exercise 8
how- hound house
bow town about
allow loud doubt
Dont shout so loud!
I found a mouse in our
Its the highest tower around.
Phonetic Exercise 9
his sheer fear of his peers
Beware of the bear!
Make sure the water is quite pure.
1. Read the exercise paying attention to the differences in the articulation of the monophthongs and diphthongs.
2. Read the exercise paying attention to the articulation of the voiced and voiceless consonants.
Fetch the bag.
Catch the dog.
Reach the park.
3. Practise reading the sentences paying attention to the intonation in different question types.
a/ Is this Nicks coat?
Whose coat is this?
This is Nicks coat, isnt it?
Is this Nicks or Marks coat?
b/ Are those Marys gloves?
Whose gloves are those?
Those are Marys gloves, arent they?
Are those Marys gloves or mittens?
c/ Is that Arthurs girlfriend?
Who is that?
That is Arthurs girlfriend, isnt it?
Is this girl or is that girl Arthurs girlfriend?
4. Put different questions to the sentences below. Practise reading them with proper intonation.
This is Maggies house.
These are Janets children.
That is Georges Volvo.
This is a Chinese vase.
That is Richards letter.
This is orange juice.
Those are Michaels trainers.
That is Mr. Greggsons case.
5. Listen to the dialogue. Practise reading them with a partner. Make sure you imitate the intonation on the tape correctly.
: Dyou know Polly?
: Polly? What Polly?
: Polly Smith, a model.
: No. Is she a good model?
: Look. This is her port folio. Shes a perfect model.
: Oh yes. These photos are perfect in deed. Lets meet her.
: Its a pity Polly isnt in the city.
: Isnt she?
: Polly is in Italy. Shell be back next Thursday.
6. Listen to the dialogue, mark the intonation. Practise reading the dialogue with a partner.
: Have you ever met victor Robertson?
: Victor Robertson? Whos he?
: Hes an architect from Scotland.
: Ive never met Victor. Is he a good architect?
: Hes an excellent architect, believe me. Have a look at his blueprints.
: Marvellous! Simply marvellous! Can we meet Victor Robertson?
: Its a pity victor isnt in the city. Hes in Finland now.
: When will he be back?
: Pretty soon I guess. In fact, Ive asked him to come to the conference on Tuesday next week.
: Excellent. So well seeing Victor on Tuesday.
1. We must watch for the positional length of the vowel […]. It is the longest in the final position, it is shorter before a voiced consonant, it is the shortest before a voiceless consonant.
e.g. [gou] [goul] [gout]
2. we must watch for the aspiration of the voiceless consonants [p, t, k ]. They are most strongly aspirated before stressed vowels esp. long monophthongs and diphthongs; they are less aspirated in the final position and before an unstressed vowel; they lose their aspiration after [s].
e.g. [pi:] [pit] [nip] [spit]
3. We must watch for the lateral plosion in the word / in the phrase ______. The plosion of the consonant […] becomes lateral under the influence of the sonorous consonant [l].
e.g. [ setl], [ faind lu:k]
4. We must watch for the nasal plosion in the word / in the phrase _______. The Plosion of the consonant […] becomes nasal under the influence of the nasal sonorants [n], [m].
e.g. [ kitn], [ lend mi]
5. We must watch for the loss of plosion in the word / in the phrase________. The consonant […] loses its plosion under the influence of the following plosive consonant […].
e.g. [ mi:t tim]
6. We must watch for assimilation in the word/phrase _______. The alveolar consonant […] becomes dental under the influence of the interdental […]. The consonant […] becomes rounded under the influence of the following sonorant [w]. The sonorant […] becomes partly devoiced under the influence of the voiceless consonant […].
e.g. [ri:d ðә buk], [swift]
7. We must watch for reduction in the word ________. This word is used in its weak (reduced) form; its strong form is _______. Its a case of qualitative/ quantitative/ zero reduction.
The parts of speech that are normally reduced (form-words) are as follows: articles, particles, prepositions, conjunctions, modal and auxiliary verbs, personal, possessive and reflexive pronouns.
The parts of speech that are never reduced (notional words) are as follows: nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, numerals, interrogative pronouns.
e.g. [hi:] [hi ] [hi] [h], [ iznt]
8. We must watch for the absence of the glottal stop in the word _______ where the vowel occurs in the initial position.
e.g. [ i:zi]
9. We must watch for the absence of palatalization of the consonant [..] before the front vowel […].
e.g. [pen], [bi li:v]
10. We must watch for the linking [r] in the phrase ________.
e.g. [nevәr ә gein]
Comment on the phonetic phenomena to be observed in the following exercises. Practise reading them.
My red pencil
Your weak point
Her short coat
His great trouble
Their old clock
Glad to see you.
I want to ask you.
He hasnt got it.
He doesnt teach her.
Let me see.
I dont know.
We dont like it.
He doesnt learn it.
Late at night
What nasty weather.
What wonderful roses.
What lovely violets youve got.
What valuable pearls she has.
How pretty she is.
How clever of you.
How nice of you to come to see me.
How strange this old man is.
dear dare- doer
tear tear tour
mere mare - moor
a rear corner
a spare minute
a poor animal
Oh dear, its quite clear.
There are tears in her eyes.
There isnt much time.
It isnt quite right.
She hasnt got a piano.
a famous scientist
a cruel pirate
a fragrant violet
a cold shower
a clean towel
a front vowel
1. Read each of the phrases below three times: with the falling, rising and falling-rising intonation.
d/ On Saturday.
e/ Mr. Robinson.
f/ In Moscow.
g/ To New York.
h/ Next Year.
i/ To the North.
j/ All right.
k/ Thank you.
m/ At night.
p/ She is here.
q/ Mind the step.
r/ Enjoy the music.
s/ Dont be late.
t/ Come to my place, please.
2. Read the questions with the intonation appropriate for each question type.
a/ - Is his childs eye-sight as poor as his own?
b/ - Do you know the story about Robin Hood, a hero of English ballads?
c/ - Can you tell me the latest news?
d/ - Can you touch your nose with your left hand and pull your left ear with your
right hand at the same time?
e/ - Does it mean that you refuse to take part in the play?
- How long does it take you to accomplish this kind of work?
- Does he prefer to stay in a hotel or with his friends?
- Bill lets you drive his car sometimes, doesnt he?
f/ - Shall I telephone John and tell him about the incident right now?
g/ - Do you invite your friends to your birthday parties every year?
h/ - Do you do anything to develop your memory?
i/ - Are there any facts that can prove your supposition?
j/ - Do Japanese children have as much time to play as children in other countries
4. Listen to the conversation below. Mark the intonation and be prepared to comment on it. Practise reading the dialogue together with a partner.
“Granny, have I any cousins?”
“Yes, Benny, you have two.”
“Whose children are they? How old are they? Are they boys or girls?”
“Not so many questions at once, please, Benny! Your cousins are: a five-year-old boy, Georgie, and a four-year-old girl, May. They are your Aunt Emilys children. They are in Canada now with their parents: your Aunt Emily, my daughter, and her husband, Mr. Thomas Brown.”
“In Canada? Whats Canada, Granny? Where is it?”
“Canada is a far away country. It is in the north of America.”
“In the north of America? Where is it? Is it as far as London?”
“Oh, no, Benny! Its much farther.”
“But, Granny “
“Come along, my dearest. Its just the time for your midday milk.”
SECTION 2: SOUND REVISION
Look at the pictures and listen. Read the sentences together with the tape. Pay attention to the th sound.
Listen to the dialogues. Practise reading them with a partner. Make sure your [ θ ] and [ ð ] sounds are correct.
: Edith smith is only thirty.
: Is she? I thought she was thirty-three.
: Ediths birthday was last Thursday.
: Was it? I thought it was last month.
: The Smiths house is worth thirty thousand pounds.
: Is it? I thought it was worth three thousand.
: Mr. Smith is the author of a book about moths.
: Is he? I thought he was a mathematician.
: Im so thirsty.
: I thought you drank something at the Smiths.
: No. Edith gave me nothing to drink.
: Shall I buy you a drink?
: Thank you.
: Sally, have you got anything planned for Thursday?
: For Thursday, Simon?
: For Thursday the 13th. Its my birthday, you see.
: Simon! Your birthday! Thank heavens you said!
: Yes, Im going to be thirty-three. I thought Id throw a party or something to
: What a super idea!
: Do you think youll be free?
: For Thursday? Yes, I think so.
: Fine, so Ill see you soon. It starts at six.
: Yes, thanks… oh, and Simon…
: So Im so slow.
Look at the pictures and listen. Practise saying the sentences paying attention to the sound [f].
Listen and then practise saying the following sentences first very slowly, then faster. Pay attention to the correct articulation of the sounds [b] and [v].
a. Vincent brought Brenda a marvelous souvenir vase hed bought in Venice.
b. Bob Viney, the village bakers boy, loves betty Vole, the barmaid at “The Bull.
c. Vera Bathory, the Viennese vampire, bathes every evening in buckets of blood.
d. A visiting burglar broke victor Bartons marble bust of Voltaire into various bits.
e. Valentine Barlowe, the TV ventriloquist, lives in “Belleview a vast brick villa built in 1812.
Listen to the tape and practise saying the following headlines.
British Van Driver Banned from Costa Brava Bar
Bomb Victim Vivienne Gives Birth to Baby Boy
Brighton Vicar Leaves Boring Wife for Blond Barmaid
Brave Bob Saves Baby Vicki from Blazing Bedroom
Violent Bolivian Lover Obsessed by Vow of Revenge
Listen to the sentences below. Practise saying them paying attention to the sound [w].
Match the questions and the answers, then listen and check your answers. Practise reading them in pairs.
1. Where was Wendy while they were watching the whales?
2. What was wrong with the weather on Wednesday?
3. Which wine would you like, Winifred?
4. When were they walking in Wales?
5. Why were Wayne and Wanda whispering?
a. While we were in Hawaii.
b. The sweet white one, Walter.
c. Working in Washington.
d. They didnt want Will to worry.
e. It was wet and windy.
Listen to the dialogue. Practise reading it. Watch for the correct articulation of the sounds [w] and [v].
: Did you see Victor on Wednesday, Wendy?
: Yes. We went for a walk in the woods near the railway.
: Wasnt it cold on Wednesday?
: Yes. It was very cold and wet. We wore warm clothes and walked quickly to keep
: Its lovely and quiet in the woods.
: Yes. Further away from the railway it was very quite, and there were wild squirrels
everywhere. We counted twenty squirrels.
: How wonderful! Twenty squirrels! And did you take lunch with you?
: Yes. About twelve we had veal sandwiches and sweet white wine, and we watched
the squirrels. It was a very nice walk.
Listen to the sentences, practise saying them first slowly and then faster. Pay attention to the [h]s.
a. Helen has cut her own hair again its absolutely horrible!
b. Have you heard about Hannahs horrific adventure in Hamburg?
c. Henrys uncle Herbert has had another heart attack in hospital.
d. Old Hugh hasnt eaten his ham and eggs already, has he?
e. Hazel and Alan have had another unhappy holiday hitchhiking in Austria
Put the jumbled sentences below in the correct order. Listen to the tape and compare your answers. Repeat each sentence with the tape.
a. helped/ I have?
b. hamburgers/ hate/ eating/ I!
c. in/ Abigail/ here/ hovered/ has?
d. Aunt Hannah/ Alan Harbord/ his/ adores.
e. heart attack/ had/ Harriet Elston/ old/ a.
f. Helmut/ Anna/ hurriedly/ about/ asked/ English/ homework/ his.
g. overcoat/ a/ Arthur Harris/ in/ always/ handkerchief/ his/ has.
Listen to the dialogue. Practise saying it line by line, then read it with a partner.
M: Whos that with Henry Higgins?
W: Its his wife, Hazel.
M: Hazel? But his wifes names Helen!
W: Oh no, Helen left him… hes married to Hazel now.
M: No! How did it happen?
W: Well, you know last Easter, Henry and Helen had a holiday in Honolulu.
M: Yes… What happened?
W: They had a horrible holiday, and when they arrived home, Helen left him!
M: I see.. and who are those horrid little girls?
W: Holly and Hannah, Hazels children from her first marriage.
M: But Henry hates children!
W: Mm… how interesting!
Listen to the dialogue, write it down, then practise reading it, paying attention to the [s] sounds.
The Six Star Hotel
Listen to and practise reading the following text, paying attention to the difference in the articulation of the sounds [s] and [ S ].
Sheila is a a receptionist at the International Hotel in Chicago. At the moment shes studying Spanish.
Listen to the tape and put down the sentences you hear. Practise saying them as fast as possible.
Listen to the following headlines and practise saying them.
English Shoppers Short of Cash
Swedish Fashion Show Shocks British
Inflation Hits Russian Champagne
Ambitious Scottish Receptionist Shoots Boss
Irish Fishing Ship Sinks in Pacific Ocean
Listen to the tongue-twisters. Practise saying them very slowly first and then faster. Make sure you pronounce the sounds [s], [z], [ S ], [ Z ], [ C ], [ G ] correctly.
a. Which of Shirley Hatchards children stole a portion of cherry cheesecake from the kitchen shelf?
b. Sheila Charltons Czech washing machine chewed up Richard Sheridans checked shorts.
c. The rich Turkish sugar merchant purchased a shining Porsche for his Chinese chauffeur to polish.
d. Sasha, the Russian chess champion, chased Sharon, the Scottish chambermaid,
round the kitchen floor, so Sharon showed Sasha the door.
a. In his youth, Jerry Josephs, the New York millionaire, used to play jazz on a huge
b. Julian Jones is jealous of Eunices Jaguar, but Eunice Jones is jealous of Jasons
jacuzzi, and Jason Jones is jealous of Julians yacht.
c. That fabulous jade unicorn is the most beautiful Japanese statue in any
d. Journalist Jane Young stupidly damaged George Joyces new yellow jeep on the
edge of the bridge.
Listen to the dialogue, mark the intonation and practise reading it with a partner.
Jim: Excuse me. Did you use to live in York?
Jim: Did you use to be a tutor at the University?
Jack: Yes. For a few years.
Jim: do you remember Hugh Young? He was a music student.
Jack: Hugh Young? Did he use to have a huge yellow jeep?
Jim: Yes. And he used to play beautiful tunes on the tuba.
Jack: Yes, I knew Hugh. He used to be a very stupid student. Do you have any news of Hugh?
Jim: Yes. Hes a millionaire now in New York.
Jack: A millionaire? Playing the tuba?
Jim: Oh, no. He produces jam in tubes, and tins of sausages and onion stew, and sells them in
Europe. I read about Hugh in the Newspaper yesterday.
Jack: Oh! Well, he wasnt so stupid.
Listen to the dialogue and prepare its model reading, trying to imitate the intonation.
Jerry: Just outside this village theres a very dangerous bridge.
John: Yes. Charles told me two jeeps crashed on it in January. What happened?
Jerry: Well George Churchill was the driver of the larger jeep, and he was driving
very dangerously. Hed been drinking gin.
John: George Churchill? Do I know George Churchill?
Jerry: Yes. That ginger-haired chap. Hes the manager of the travel agency in
John: Oh, yes. I remember George. Hes always telling jokes. Well, was anybody
Jerry: Oh, yes. The other jeep went over the edge of the bridge, and two children and
another passenger were badly injured.
John: Were both the jeeps damaged?
Jerry: Oh, yes.
John: And what happened to George?
Jerry: George? Hes telling jokes in jail now, I suppose!
Match up the following mini-dialogues. Listen to the keys and practise reading the sentences, paying attention to the [ ŋ ] sounds in them.
Captain! I think we are sinking.
have you got an English-Hungarian dictionary?
This orange looks strange, Miss.
Were not inviting that boring old thing for Christmas.
All right, Angela, you can exchange it for another one.
But darling, hes single, ninety-nine, and his only niece lives in Montreal.
Incredible! They said the Titanic was unsinkable!
Bilingual dictionaries are with the foreign language books on the second floor, sir.
Put the jumbled sentences below into the correct order. Listen to the tape and check your answers. Practise saying them.
a. skating rink/ Aunt Angela/ at a/ a tango/ Uncle Frank/ Birmingham/ with/ while dancing/ banged/ her ankle
b. at the pretty, young singer/ in a singles bar/ winked/ drinking/ the Hong Kong gangster/ singing romantic sings/ a gin sling
c. tongue/ pink/ long/ this/ string/ whats/ Angus Kings/ that/ on?
d. hanged/ for killing/ a boxing ring/ wrongfully/ a Singapore dancer/ Washington banker/ outside/ was/ a
Listen to the dialogue, write it down, mark the intonation. Prepare model reading of the dialogue.
Listen and practise reading the headlines below. Pay attention to the sound [ W ].
BIRMINGHAM GIRL MURDERED
Nurse Kirsty marries in Turkey
Prince Alberts thirtieth birthday
GERMAN UNIVERSITY BURNS
British workers worst in world
Listen to the dialogue. Prepare its model reading. Work with a partner.
Sir Herbert: Nurse!
Colonel Burton: Nurse! Im thirsty!
Sir Herbert: Nurse! My head hurts!
Colonel Burton: NURSE!
Sir Herbert: Curse these nurses!
Colonel Burton: Nurse Sherman always wears such dirty shirts.
Sir Herbert: And such short skirts.
Colonel Burton: She never arrives at work early.
Sir Herbert: She and …er…Nurse Turner werent at work on Thursday, were
Colonel Burton: No, they werent.
Sir Herbert: Nurse Sherman is the worst nurse in the ward, isnt she?
Colonel Burton: No, she isnt. Shes the worst nurse in the world!
A. Listen to the following phrases, practise saying them. Pay attention to the short and long [u] sounds.
a full moon
a stupid wolf
a school bully
a beautiful woman
a cookery book
a rude butcher
a huge computer
B. Listen to some more phrases, put them down and practise reading them.
Make up sentences of your own, using as many of the phrases as possible.
Below are some common English sayings and proverbs. Work out their meanings and practise reading the proverbs.
a. No news is good news.
b. I wouldnt like to be in your shoes.
c. Hes getting too big for his boots.
d. The proof of the pudding id in the eating.
e. Its too good to be true.
f. Hes got a screw loose.
Put down all the words you hear on the tape. Concentrate on the sounds [ O: ] and [әu]. Check for the spelling in a good dictionary.
Invent your own tongue twisters using as many words and phrases from the exercise as possible.
Listen to the mini-dialogues, write them down and practise reading them, paying attention to the differences in articulation of the vowels [ O ], [ O :], [ әu ].
Listen to and practise saying the sentences. Start by saying them slowly and then faster. Make sure you pronounce the [ æ ] and [ A ] sounds correctly.
a. The young man was wearing fashionable sunglasses, black gloves, and a gangsters hat.
b. The wasp thats trapped in the jar of blackcurrant jam is buzzing angrily.
c. Thank you very much for coming to pay back that money you borrowed on Monday, Danny.
d. While cutting up lamb the drunken butcher hacked off his thumb with a hatchet.
e. My husband had a double brandy, my mother wanted apple juice, but I drank champagne.
Listen to the dialogue, write it down and practise reading it with a partner.
Listen to and practise reading the following phrases, paying attention to the short and long [i] sounds. Make up similar phrases of your own.
Listen to Jenny talking about her holiday. Are the bold sounds [e] or [ei]? Practise reading the paragraph.
Last year, I went to Spain on holiday with my friend Jane. The hotel was great, but the weather was terrible! It rained every day for ten days!
Listen to the dialogue, mark the intonation. Practise reading the dialogue, paying attention to the correct articulation of the diphthong [ai ].
Myra: (smiling) Hello, Mike!
Mike: Hello, Myra. Hello, Violet! Youre looking nice, Violet. (silence)
Mike: Would you like some ice-cream, Violet?
Violet: No thanks, Mike. Im busy typing. Talk to me some other time. I have
ninety-nine pages to type by Friday.
Mike: Never mind. Do you like riding, Violet?
Mike: Would you like to come riding with me tonight, Violet?
Violet: Not tonight, Mike. Im going for a drive with Nigel.
Mike: What about Friday?
Violet: Im going climbing with Miles.
Mike: Hm! Oh, all right. Bye!
Myra: Violet, hes put something behind your typewriter.
Violet: Is it something nice, Myra?
Myra: No. Its a spider.
Put the following jumbled sentences into the correct order. Listen and compare your answers with the tape. Practise saying the sentences. Make sure your [au] is correct.
a. lying/ this morning/ ₤ 50/ I found/ I town/ on the ground/ I was/ when.
b. s going to/ now/ round/ Laura/ you/ the house/ show.
c. downstairs/ shower room/ in the/ we caught/ mouse/ little/ a/ this morning/ brown.
d. and/ theyve got/ you/ know/ town/ country/ house/ a/ a/ house.
e. from/ the/ they/ to the/ tower/ ground/ cow/ of the/ the/ lowered/ window.
A. Listen and then read the phonemic symbols paying attention to the correct articulation of the diphthongs.
a. [ ә riәl biәd ]
b. [ ә leizi dei ]
c. [ fεә hεә ]
d. [ nOizi bOiz ]
e. [ ә kәuld nәuz ]
f. [ ә brait lait ]
g. [ ә laud ∫aut ]
B. Listen to the phrases and fill in the gaps, then listen again and practise saying the phrases.
a. a __________ combing his _______
b. a __________ wearing a _________
c. a __________ making a __________
d. a __________ holding a __________
e. a __________ drinking a _________
f. a __________ saying ____________
g. Mr. ________ asking the _________
SECTION 3: BASIC COURSE
Principles of Classification of English Consonants
1. The consonant is a sound in the production of which the air stream meets an obstruction in the mouth cavity and a certain degree of noise is heard.
2. English consonants are classified according to:
- the degree of noise
- the manner of articulation
- the place of articulation and the active organ of speech
3. According to the degree of noise English consonants are divided into noise consonants and sonorants. Noise consonants are further classified according to the work of the vocal cords. When the vocal cords are brought together and vibrate, voiced consonants are produced; when the vocal cords are drawn apart, voiceless consonants are heard. Sonorants are always voiced, in their production tone prevails over noise.
4. According to the manner of articulation consonants may be occlusive, constrictive and occlusive-constrictive (affricates).
When an occlusive consonant is produced, the air stream meets a complete obstruction in the mouth cavity. Occlusive noise consonants are also called plosives as they are produced with a kind of slight explosion when the obstruction is released.
Constrictive consonants are those in the production of which the air stream meets an incomplete obstruction. Constrictive noise consonants are also called fricatives as the air escapes from the mouth with some friction.
Affricates are noise consonants produced with a complete obstruction which is slowly released and becomes incomplete.
5. According to the active organs of speech consonants may be labial, lingual and glottal.
Labial consonants are made by the lips. They are bilabial (produced only by the lips) or labio-dental (produced by the upper teeth biting the lower lip).
Lingual consonants are forelingual, mediolingual and backlingual. Forelingual consonants are articulated with the tip of the tongue (apical articulation). According to the place of obstruction consonants may be alveolar, post-alveolar, palato-alveolar and interdental. Mediolingual consonants are produced with the front and the central part of the tongue raised towards the hard palate. Backlingual consonants are produced with the back part of the tongue raised towards the soft palate (velar articulation). The glottal consonant [h] is articulated in the glottis.
Prepare model reading of each set of sentences concentrating on the headline groups of consonants.
1. Occlusive Noise Consonants.
a. Pretty Polly Perkins has a pair of pretty plaits.
b. Ill have a proper cup of coffee in a proper coffee cup.
c. Ping-pong is a popular sport and is played in many countries.
d. Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers,
a peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked.
If Peter Piper picked a peck a pickled peppers,
Wheres the peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked?
e. Barbara is a beautiful blonde with bright blue eyes.
f. A trip by train took a tiresome twenty-two hours.
g. Too many teenagers tend to waste their time watching TV.
h. Dennies daughter Diana doesnt dislike darning.
i. If we keep quiet we may be lucky to see the cuckoo.
j. Cut your coat according to your cloth.
k. Curiosity killed the cat.
l. Trifles make perfection, and perfection is no trifle.
2. Constrictive Fricative Consonants.
Fine fellows met at five on the first of February. “Philip, said Ferdinand, I fear we must fight. Then Philip and Ferdinand fought fairly for fifty-five minutes, after which they fell down in a faint, for the fight had been fearfully furious. When Philip came out of the faint, Ferdinand offered his hand. Fairs fair, said Philip, and I think this affair shows neither of us fears to fight.
Every evening Victor and Vivian visit eve. Victor and Vivian are rivals. Both vow to love Eve forever. But Eve is very vain. Vivienne is vivacious and full of verve. Eventually, Victor gives up and goes over to Vivienne, leaving eve to Vivian.
Arthur smith, a thick-set, healthy athlete sees three thieves throw a thong round Theas throat and threaten to throttle her. He throws one thug to earth with a thud that shakes his teeth. Both the other thieves run off with filthy oaths. Thea thanks Arthur for thrashing the three hugs.
These are three brothers. This is their other brother. These are their mother and father. Their other brother is teething.
Sue and Cecily are sisters. Sue is sixteen in summer. Cecily was seventeen last Sunday. Sue is sowing grass seed. She sees Cecily asleep with a glass of cider and a nice sixpenny ice by her side. Sue slips across, sips the glass of cider and eats the ice. Cecily gets such a surprise when she awakes.
Zoe is visiting the zoo. A lazy zebra called Desmond is dozing at the zoo. He feels flies buzzing round his eyes, ears and nose. He rouses, opens his eyes, rises and goes to Zoe. Zoe is wearing a rose on her blouse. Zoe gives Desmond the buns.
I wish to be shown the latest fashion in short shirts.
Mr. Mash sells fish and shell-fish fresh from the ocean.
She was still shaking from the shock of being crushed in the rush.
I cant measure the pleasure I have in viewing this treasure at leisure.
The decision was that on that occasion the collision was due to faulty vision.
Humble hairy Herbert has his hand on his heart because he sees how his brothers horse has hurt his hoof in a hole while hunting.
Henry helps him to hobble home. Henry is very humorous
3. Occlusive-Constrictive Consonants (Affricates).
Charles is a cheerful chicken-farmer. A poacher is watching Charles chickens, choosing which to snatch. He chuckles at the chance of a choice-chicken to chew for his lunch. But the chuckle reaches Charles who chases the poacher and catches him.
For lunch Charles chose a cheap chop and some chips, with cheese and cherries afterwards.
They cheered the cheerful chap who chose to venture to match his skill with the champions.
How much wood would a woodchuck chuck if a woodchuck would chuck wood?
The aged judge urges the jury to be just but generous. In June and July we usually enjoy a few jaunts to that region.
He injured his jaw on the jagged edge of the broken jar.
4. Sonorous Consonants.
a. The murmur of the bees in the elms brings back memories of many memorable summers.
b. Since time immemorial he moon has moved men to make poems.
c. That fine bunch of bananas will make a nice snack.
d. The rain in Spain falls mainly o the plain.
e. They ran and rang the bell.
f. the spring brings many charming things.
g. The real reason is really rather curious.
h. Robert Rowly rolled a round roll round.
i. Let Lucy light a candle and well all look for the ball.
j. He lost his life in the struggle for liberty.
k. It was a pleasure to watch the wonderful way in which they worked.
l. What, why, when and where are the words we use quite often when we want to ask questions.
m. Yesterday I heard a curious and beautiful new tune.
n. Dont argue about duty, or youll make me furious.
Principles of Classification of English Vowels.
1.The vowel is a sound in the production of which the air stream does not meet an obstruction and there is no noise component.
2. Vowels are classified according to:
- the stability of articulation
- the tongue position
- the lip position
- the length of the vowel
3. According to the stability of articulation vowels are divided into monophthongs, diphthongs and diphthongoids.
The articulation of monophthongs is almost unchanging throughout their pronunciation.
In the articulation of diphthongs the organs of speech glide from one vowel position to another within one syllable. Each diphthong consists of two elements: the nucleus and the glide. The nucleus is strong and distinct; the glide is weak, its articulation is not fully accomplished.
Diphthongoids are characterized by some change in the articulation between the starting point and the end but the difference is not so distinct as in diphthongs.
3. According to the tongue position vowels are divided into front, back and central. A front vowel is produced when the tongue is in the front part of the mouth cavity and its front part is raised. The tongue may be slightly retracted, then the vowel is front-retracted. When the tongue is in the back part of the mouth cavity and its back part is raised towards the soft palate, back vowels are produced. The tongue may be slightly advanced, then the vowel is back-advanced. When the central part of the tongue is raised, the vowel is central.
Depending on the height of the raised part of the tongue, vowels are divided into close, open and mid.
A close vowel is produced when the tongue is raised high towards the palate. An open vowel is produced when the tongue is placed low in the mouth cavity. Mid vowels are produced when the position of the tongue is intermediate between the highest and the lowest.
To make the classification of vowels more precise, it is necessary to distinguish broad and narrow variants.
4. According to the lip position vowels are rounded (with the lips rounded) and unrounded (with the lips neutral or spread).
5. English monophthongs may be long or short.
1. Short Monophthongs.
a. Its a pity that little kitty lives in a big city.
b. Ted meant to spend the night in a tent.
c. Well weather the weather whatever the weather whether you like it or not.
d. East or west, home is best.
e. All is well that ends well.
f. A black cat sat on a mat and ate a fat rat.
g. Thats the man who sat on my hat in the tram.
h. Once there lived a lad who was always very sad,
For he hadnt any mother and he hadnt any dad.
i. If you, Sandy, have two candies,
Give one candy to Andy, Sandy;
If you, Andy, have two candies,
Give one candy to Sandy, Andy.
j. A small pot is soon hot.
k. The cook took a good look at the cookery book.
l. Dont trouble trouble until trouble troubles you.
m. Are you tough enough for my love?
2. Long Monophthongs.
a. Extremes meet.
b. Greek meets Greek.
c. He speaks Chinese and Japanese with equal ease.
d. It isnt easy to please Lizzie.
e. Honey is sweet but the bees sting.
f. Still waters run deep.
g. First come, first served.
h. The first word is a verb and the third word is an adverb.
i. Many words hurt more than swords.
j. Old birds arent caught with chaff.
k. The teacher thought, and thought, and thought;
but no one knew the thought he thought.
l. Half heart is no heart.
m. Martha and Martin plant garlic in the garden.
n. He laughs best who laughs last.
o. Its enough to make a cat laugh.
a. Plenty is no plague.
b. Haste makes waste.
c. He who makes no mistakes makes nothing.
d. Like to like.
e. Out of sight, out of mind.
f. Ike and Ivy sit side by side quite like mice.
g. What have you found out about it?
h. Oh no, dont go home alone, nobody knows how lonely the road is.
i. Soams never knows of what he boasts, but Rose never boasts of what she knows.
j. Joyce enjoys annoying Roy.
k. Where there is a will, there is a way.
l. were near the end of the year.
m. What cant be cured, must be endured.
n. Curiosity is incurable.
o. A rolling stone gathers no mos.
p. Autumn leaves tumble down,
Autumn leaves bumble down,
Autumn leaves crumble down.
Shaking and flaking
Tumble down leaves.
Down, down, down,
Red, yellow, brown.
Words that bear information (notional parts of speech) are usually stressed in sentences and sense groups. Form words help to link notional words in an utterance and are usually unstressed. In unstressed positions their weak, or reduced, forms are used.
Reduction is a phonetic process of weakening, shortening or disappearance of sounds in unstressed positions.
Reduction affects form words (articles, particles, prepositions, conjunctions, auxiliary and modal verbs, personal, possessive, reflexive, relative pronouns and the word some meaning indefinite quantity. These words have two forms: strong and weak.
There are three degrees of reduction:
e.g. he [hi: - hi∙ hi]
- Qualitative reduction (changing of the quality of a vowel)
e.g. can [ kæn kәn]
- Zero reduction (omission of a vowel)
e.g. Im [aim]
The following cases should be remembered as the traditional use of strong forms:
a. Prepositions have their strong forms in the sentence final position or when followed by an unstressed personal pronoun at the end of a sense-group or a sentence.
e.g. What are you looking at? [ æt ]
Im listening to you. [tu:]
b. Auxiliary and modal verbs are in their strong forms when introducing a question, at the end of a sentence or sense-group and in contracted negative forms. In all those cases the verbs are stressed.
e.g. Are you free? [α: ] I am. [ æm]
I cant come. [k α: nt]
c. The verb to have in the meaning of to possess is used in its full form whether stressed or unstressed.
e.g. I have a brother. [h æ v]
d. The verb to do is not reduced when used for emphasis.
e.g. Do tell me about it. [ du: ]
e. The demonstrative pronoun that is never reduced while the conjunction that is always weak.
e.g. I know that. [ ðæt]
I know that you are ill. [ ðәt ]
Jane is talking about her pets. Write the text down and practise reading it, using short forms.
In the conversation that follows, the words a and the are not there. Put in the missing articles. Comment on all the weak and strong form words. Practise reading the conversation.
Remember : a and the are nearly always weak.
: Do you have children, Shirley?
: Yes, son and daughter.
: Oh thats nice, what do they do?
: My daughter Jennys music teacher, and Michael, my son, is at college he wants to be pilot!
: Oh, lovely!
: Do they live at home?
: Michael lives with me, but Jenny lives in London shes married with two children.
: Oh! So youre grandmother!
: Yes, she has girl and boy too Rebecca and Thomas.
: Oh, lovely how old are they?
: Girls seven and boys two do you want to see photo?
: Oh yes… Ah… arent they beautiful!
Match the parts in A and B to make full sentences. Comment on weak form words.
a. Im going out
b. Theyre waiting
c. My daughters studying
d. My brothers going
e. Were going to the
f. Shes getting ready
1. to see the manager.
2. to buy a newspaper.
3. to go out with her boyfriend.
4. to meet some friends.
5. to work.
6. to become a doctor.
Listen to the dialogue, write it down and practise reading it, paying attention to the weak forms.
Listen to the descriptions of some special days in Britain. Put them down and practise reading them using weak form prepositions.
Remember: of links with the word before it.
What weak form words can you hear in the following sentences? Put down the dialogues and practise reading them.
Listen to the tape and complete the sentences below. Transcribe them and be prepared to comment on the weak form words.
a. ________ bank opens _________.
b. He goes _________ seven ________.
c. This office ________ half past two.
d. We get up _________ oclock.
e. Her plane ______ two fifteen.
f. The programme _________ about _________ thirty.
g. The film _________ at half _________.
h. My train _______ about ________.
Complete the sentences below with suitable prepositions. Listen to the tape and check your answers. Practise reading the sentences.
a. Id like a pot ___ hot tea ___ breakfast, please.
b. Lets meet ___ Waterloo station ___ eight.
c. Give it ___ Julie and say its ___ me.
d. Well be closed ___ Monday because ___ the strike.
e. Elvis went ___ Las Vegas ___ four months.
Which sentences goes with which stress pattern?
Listen to the conversation between James Bonds boss, M., and his secretary, Miss Moneypenny. Fill in the missing prepositions and practise reading the conversation with a partner.
Boss: Hello. Can I speak ___ Miss Moneypenny?
Boss: Hello, M. here. Im phoning ___ the Ritz.
Im looking ___ James Bond. We had a lunch
appointment ___ twelve. Is he there?
Secretary: Im sorry, sir, but hes gone ___ Budapest.
Boss: I was afraid ___ that. Where exactly?
Secretary: Hes staying ___ the Hotel Royal.
Boss: Why didnt he listen ___ me? Hes just asking
Secretary: Hes only staying there ___ a couple ___ days.
Boss: All right. Contact him and tell him ___ me hes
a damn fool. Oh, and you can tell him
Im waiting ___ his call.
Secretary: Yes, sir.
Listen to the short dialogues at a party and fill in the missing words. Are they weak or strong? Practise saying the dialogues with a partner.
1. How long are you here ___?
Only ___ another couple ___ days.
2. My brothers working ___ Macdonalds this summer.
Oh, whats he working ___?
___ a cook!
3. Wheres the other half ___ that bottle ___ whiskey?
You left it ___ the bottom ___ the stairs.
4. Would you like ___ come back ___ my flat ___ a drink?
Id love ___!
A. Answer the questions using short answers. What forms of auxiliary verbs do you use each time?
B. Mark the auxiliary verbs in the following sentences W if they are weak and S if they are strong. Practise saying the questions and the answers with the tape.
b. Was she born in Japan?
c. Can she speak English?
d. Has she got a job?
e. Have they got any children?
f. Do they share the housework?
g. Were they married in Japan?
It was in April.
b. Have you got a good English dictionary?
Yes, I have.
c. Does your mother work in an office?
Yes, she does.
d. Where were your parents married?
I think they were married in London.
e. Has your father got dark hair?
Yes, he has.
f. Do you get the bus to work?
Yes, I do.
g. How many languages can you speak?
I can speak two English and French.
Rewrite the following sentences using contractions where possible. Listen and check your answers. Repeat the sentences with the tape.
We use contractions in conversations and in informal writing. Here are some rules for contractions:
1/ There are no contractions in affirmative answers: Is he French? - Yes, he is.
2/ The only contraction with nouns and names is “s” (from is or has): Marys arrived. ( not: The childrenve arrived.)
3/ The only contraction with non-personal pronouns ( e.g. what, who, here, that, etc.) is “s”: Wheres the ball? ( not: Whereve you been?)
4/ There are no “s” contractions with wh-questions ending in the word it: What is it?
5/ The contracted form of am I not is Arent I: Arent I going with you?
a. You should not eat fatty foods.
b. The planet will not survive if people are not more careful.
c. She cannot speak German very well.
d. You have not read it, have you?
Yes, I have.
e. When is your birthday?
f. There is a good film on TV tonight.
g. Jane would like to be an English teacher.
h. Her boyfriend has got a Volkswagen.
i. I am late, am I not?
j. It will be over 500 floors high.
k. What are your names?
l. Luckily the plane did not crash, and the passengers were not hurt.
m. Who is it?
n. I did not use to like vodka.
Listen to the dialogue and fill in the correct verb forms (affirmative or negative): can, could, was, were. Practise saying the dialogue line by line paying attention to the pronunciation of these verbs.
: My mothers parents, Thomas and Frida, _____ a strange couple. There ___ married nearly twenty years. They _____ very rich, but they _____ very happy.
: Frida _____ English… she _____ speak English very well.
: Where _____ she from?
: Berlin… Germany.
: _____ Thomas speak German?
: Well, he _____ speak many languages, but he _____ speak German.
: Thats strange! And what about your mother? _____ she speak German?
: Well, she _____ understand it very well, but she _____ really speak it.
Listen to the conversation between three friends. State where they say can or cant in each case. Put the dialogue down and practise reading it.
Remember: if the stress and sound s are said incorrectly, it is often difficult to hear the difference between can and cant in connected speech.
Study the table below. Learn the weak forms of auxiliary verbs and their contractions, then practise saying them in the sentences that follow.
Do you [dʒu] or [dʒә]
Were [wiә] or [wә]
Youre [juә] or [jә]
wasnt [ wɒznt]
werent [w ɜ:nt]
Im [aim] or [ æm]
Ill [ail] or [ æl]
Have [hәv] or [әv]
Theyve [ðeiv] or [ðev]
a. Do you really like Beethoven?
b. You werent in when I called.
c. Theyre leaving this Wednesday.
d. Shes just being difficult.
e. I was worried about you.
f. Ive been waiting for you to phone.
g. Were dealing with the problem.
h. I havent said a word to anyone.
i. Im afraid we were too late.
j. Ill have finished typing it by lunchtime.
k. Theyve never been happy together.
Listen to the sentences and write the missing words in the gaps. Practise saying the sentences with the tape, paying attention to the weak form verbs.
a. ___________________ here a lot?
b. They ____________________ us.
c. They ___________________ another argument.
d. The car _________________ at the moment.
e. This letter _______________ two months ago.
f. That ____________________ me all day.
g. We _____________________ to help.
h. We _____________________ anything yet.
i. Im sure we ______________ just then.
j. I _______________________ home by eight oclock.
k. They ___________________ a lot of problems lately.
l. We _____________________ for you at the entrance.
Listen to the following sentences, write them down. Which of the auxiliary verbs here are weak and which are strong?
Listen to the dialogue, practise reading it line by line with the tape first and then on your own. Be prepared to comment on the weak and strong forms of form-words in it.
A: Have you ever been to Ireland, Pete?
B: Yes, loads of times. My parents go over there every year, you see.
A: Do they? Whys that then?
B: Oh, my Dad was born in Dublin.
A: Was he really? He doesnt sound Irish at all!
B: No… well his family left when he was about ten. What about you? Have you ever been there?
A: Well, we were going to Dublin last summer and then there was that long ferry strike…
B: Thats right, there was.
A: Anyway we were hoping to go this year instead, but hotel prices have gone up so much…
B: Yes, I know they have, its terrible. I tell you what, shall I give you my cousins address? Perhaps you can stay with her for a few days?
A: Are you sure we can? It seems a bit cheeky…
In connected speech words are not separated from each other. To achieve this, the following rules should be observed:
1. A word ending in a consonant blends with the initial vowel of the next word, no glottal stop should be heard.
e.g. as a rule
2. The letter r is sounded at the end of a word if the next word begins with a vowel sound. But there is no linking [r] between two words separated by a pause.
e.g. nearer and nearer
He paused there, and then spoke again.
3. Between the word final [i] and the initial vowel of the next word an extra [j] sound can be heard to link them.
e.g. the apple [ ðijæpl]
4. Between the final [u] and the initial vowel of the next word an extra [w] sound can be heard to link them.
e.g. go and do that [gәuwәndu:ðæt]
Mark the links in the following phrases and sentences:
a. free entrance
b. blue eyes
c. no understanding
d. The awful aunty is here in a new outfit.
e. The doctor advised me to eat only apples.
f. The author is an ugly individual who earns a lot.
g. A new Austin is too expensive for us to afford.
h. He and Hugh Appleby are thirty-eight years old.
Look at this famous book, play and film names and mark the links. Repeat the names with the tape.
War and Peace
Out of Africa
Death on the Nile
Alice in Wonderland
The Wizard of Oz
Close Encounters of the Third Kind
A Clockwork Orange
Laurence of Arabia
Cat on a Hot Tin Roof
Kiss of the Spiderwoman
Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom
Venus and Adonis
First among Equals
Death of a Salesman.
Put down the sentences you hear, work out their meanings and practise reading them.
Multi-word verbs are often difficult to understand because of linking!
Listen and practice saying these London place names, paying attention to the linking.
THE WEST END
THE CITY OF LONDON
The Royal Albert Hall
The Houses of Parliament
The Tower of London
The London Underground
The Bank of England
Listen to the sentences and complete them, transcribe them and mark all the links. Practise reading them.
a. What a ______________!
b. It was an ____________.
c. The weather was ____________!
d. He got into their ____________.
e. She speaks ____________ and __________.
f. It was an ______________!
g. She lives in a __________.
h. Ill phone for an _________!
Listen and practise saying the names quickly in pairs.
Names ending in the sound [ә] are linked with an extra [r] sound. With names which already contain [r] the final [ә] is elided and the [r] and the linking [r] merge when speaking at speed.
e.g. Sarah and Sheila [ sεәrәnd ∫i:lә]
Cathy - Charlie
Bobby - Billy
Tommy - Lizzie
Kennedy - Cleopatra
Plato - John Lennon
Franco - Charles
Victoria - Kruschev
Isabella - Mussolini
Diana - Albert
Mary - Minnie (Mouse)
Yoko Ono - Aristotle
Antony - Ferdinand
Mickey - Joseph
Put down the sentences you hear on the tape; practise reading them, inserting the extra [j] and [w] sounds to link the words, where possible.
Complete these pairs of dialogues with very or too. Listen to the tape and compare your answers. Practise reading the dialogues with a partner.
a/ i. Excuse me for asking, but how much did the rain ticket to Newcastle cost?
It was _______ expensive, about ₤60.
ii. Why didnt you come here on the train?
It was ______ expensive, about ₤60.
b/ i. It seems quite safe in this area at night.
Actually its ______ unsafe.
ii. Why didnt you travel up here i that old car of yours?
Actually, its ______ unsafe.
c/ i. How did you feel about things when you woke up this morning?
To be honest, I was still _______ annoyed.
ii. Why didnt you come out for a drink with the boss last night?
To be honest, I was still ______ annoyed.
d/ i. Why didnt Mary apply for that job, do you know?
Im not sure, but I think she was ______ old.
ii. How old was her grandmother when she died?
Im not sure, but I think she was ______ old.
Listen to the tongue-twisters, pay attention to all the links. Practise until you can say them smoothly and quickly.
a. My aeroplane arrives in Australia at bout eight oclock in the evening.
b. Uncle Alfie and auntie Elsie always go away at Easter.
c. Are you asking us to accept an offer of only eighty pounds?
d. Nicky and Laura are off to Italy and Austria again.
e. Bruno and Anna are arriving in an hour or so and theyre often early.
Listen to the dialogue and mark the linking [r]s. Practise reading the dialogue with a partner.
M: Peter! Are you going anywhere over Easter this year?
P: Well, yes, as a matter of fact we are. Were off on a tour of Italy for a week or two.
M: Mmm. That sounds really wonderful. Where exactly will you be going?
P: Oh, here and there. Romes more or less definite, but apart from that were open to suggestion.
M: Are you traveling by coach?
P: No, by car, actually.
M: Dear old Italy! When youre in Rome you must remember to throw a coin over your shoulder
into the Trevi fountain.
P: Really? What for?
M: Well, if you do that, it means that, sooner or later, youre sure to return.
Listen to the dialogue which is rather informal. Can you catch all the words? Try to put the dialogue down and read it at the same speed as it is on the tape.
Assimilation is a phonetic process as a result of which one of the sounds becomes fully or partly similar to the neighbouring sound.
Assimilation can affect different characteristics of a sound, and its types are numerous. Some of the most frequent types are:
1. Alveolar [t], [d], [n], [l], [s], [z] are replaced by their dental variants when immediately followed by the interdental [θ] or [ð].
e.g. tenth, on the desk
2. The sonorants [m], [n], [l], [w], [r], [j] are partly devoiced when preceded by the voiceless consonants.
e.g. rush crush, got wet
3. Consonants followed by [w] become slightly rounded.
e.g. twin, swift
4. In a cluster of two plosives, when the positions of the organs of speech are the same for both consonants, the first plosive loses its plosion.
e.g. bookcase, that child
5. When the positions of the organs of speech are different, the first plosive has an incomplete plosion.
e.g. talked, good book
6. When a plosive is followed by the syllabic [n] or [m] the nasal plosion is produced.
e.g. shipmate, escape noisily
7. When a plosive is immediately followed by the sound [l] the lateral plosion is produced.
e.g. black, settle, it lasts
8. In rapid speech do you often becomes [d u].
e.g. Do you know his name? [dZu nәu hiz neim]
Listen to the phrases on the tape, put them down, work out their meanings, explain the difference in the way they sound.
Listen and cross out the unpronounced plosive sounds in the following sentences, comment on all the other cases of assimilation there are in them.
a. She was wearing a deep purple evening dress.
b. They had dinner at eight oclock.
c. Weve got a flat tyre, Im afraid.
d. She gave him a quick kiss.
e. Youre a big girl now dear.
f. He didnt do the washing-up.
g. We had a really good time at Antonias.
h. What are my job prospects after the course?
i. Mmm! I love ripe bananas!
j. Give that ball a big kick!
k. Theyve got a lovely back garden.
Listen to the dialogues and write in Bs answers. Pay attention to the pronunciation of the questions Do you …?
1. A: Do you know the time?
2. A: Do you have a light?
3. A: Do you speak English?
4. A: Do you understand?
5. A: Do you have milk?
6. A: What do you do?
Listen to the conversation between Bob and Anna. Put it down and practise reading it with a partner. Pay attention to the pronunciation of do you and would you questions.
Listen to the conversation, write it down. Make up similar conversations with a partner.
Every other line in this poem is in transcription. Do the same to the first lines in each verse. Be prepared to comment on all the cases of reduction, linking and assimilation. Prepare model reading of the poem.
*Sean is said [∫O:n]
Cried Uncle Sean, The earth is flat!
[ai riqli jxm kwait Suqr qv Dxt]
And just to prove I tell it true
[ail wO:k frqm hiq tq kxtmandH]
Somewhere the earth is bound to stop,
[Den Of Di jeG ail Suqli drOp]
He left at five and got as far
[qz dAblin bei jqn mikiz bR]
Twas five to twelve he staggered out,
[rOkiN qn rJliN O:l qbaut]
At sea-walls edge his feet they tripped
[qn daun qpOn Dq bJC hi flipt]
He lay there thinking he was dead,
[Den traiqmf flxSt intH hiz hed]
Im right! Im right! yelled Uncle Sean
[rimHviN frqm hiz biqd q prO:n]
Which proves that when ones had some drinks,
[wAn kxn bilJv GAst wOt wAn TiNks]
SYLLABLE FORMATION. SYLLABLE DIVISION
1. A syllable is a sound or a sound sequence forming a single uninterrupted unit of utterance.
2. In English a syllable is formed by a vowel alone or in combination with consonants, and word final sonorants [l], [m], [n] preceded by a consonant.
In some syllables formed by the sonorants the vowel [q] may be pronounced, in this case the sonorants are non-syllabic.
e.g. level [ levl] or [ levәl]
3. In terms of phonetics the two basic types of syllable are the open syllable (ending in a vowel) and the closed syllable (ending in a consonant).
4. Correct syllable division is important from the point of view of pronunciation and understanding.
e.g. a nice house
an ice house
5. The basic syllable division rules are as follows:
a. the English long monophthongs, diphthongs and unstressed short vowels [i], [q], [u] always occur in a phonetically open syllable when they are separated from the next syllabic sound by only one consonant.
e.g about [ q - baut]
music [ mju: - zik]
Michael [ mai kl]
b. A short stressed vowel followed by only one consonant always occurs in a phonetically closed syllable.
e.g. pity [ pit i]
coffee [ k f i]
c. Intervocalic combinations of consonants belong to the next syllable if such combinations are typical of English (i. e. they can be found at the beginning of words). Otherwise, the consonants must be divided between the two syllables.
e.g. naturally [ næ t∫ - rә li]
(næ and t∫rә are impossible in English)
Divide the following words into syllables. Consult a dictionary if in doubt.
Employer, drizzle, listening, nature, , over, finish, without, colony, discover, follower, ready, early, nearer, position, sorrow, motivate, luggage, international, exotic, exposure, origin, originality, energy, language
Think of the words which might answer the clues. Listen and check your answers. Whats the peculiarity of these words?
a. the opposite of boring
b. you can buy lunch or dinner here
c. the month after January
d. you use it to find the meanings of new words
e. brown and sweet
f. potatoes, carrots, peas
g. you use it to take photos
h. the day before Thursday
i. all, every
j. military man
k. not single has a husband or wife
Practise saying the phrases below. Think of more phrases of your own (see the listof words for ideas)
My favourite chocolate
Every Wednesday evening
What an interesting camera!
Are you comfortable?
They arent married
For ideas: different, documentary, fashionable, raspberry, several, sociable, courageous, especially, extraordinary, miserable, reasonable, strawberry, temperature
1. Word stress is singling out one or two syllables in a word by giving them greater prominence.
2. Syllables may be stressed (primary stress), half stressed ( secondary stress) or unstressed. Some words in English may have two primary stresses or a primary and a secondary stress.
e.g. re ′write, four ′teen
Shift of stress may result in changing the actual meaning of a word.
e.g. ′object ob′ ject
′ re ′cover re ′cover
a ′ blackbird a ′black ′bird
3. Word stress in English usually falls on the first root syllable.
4. In most disyllabic words stress is on the initial syllable; in words with a prefix that has lost its original meaning, the stress is on the second (root) syllable.
e.g. border, ready
be ′fore, a ′go
In most disyllabic verbs ending in ate, -ise, -ize, -fy the stress is on the second syllable
e.g. di ′ctate, sur ′prise, de ′fy
In some words of French origin the stress is on the second syllable.
e.g. ma ′chine, po ′lice
4. In most three and four-syllable words the stress is on the third syllable from the end.
e.g. ′cinema, de ′mocracy, ′qualify, o ′riginate
6. The stress is on the final syllable in words with the suffixes ee, -eer, -ier, -ade, -esque.
e.g. refu ′gee, engi ′neer, lemo′nade, pictu 'resque
The stress is on the second syllable from the end before the following suffixes: -ian, -ience, -ient,
- cient, -al, -ial, -ual, -eous, -ious, -iar
e.g. phy 'sician, ex′ perience, e' fficient, pa 'rental, e 'ssential, ha 'bitual, cou 'rageous, de 'licious, fa 'miliar
7. Most words of four and more syllables have two stresses: primary and secondary. The primary stress falls either on the third or the fourth syllable from the beginning of a word, the secondary stress is on the syllable separated from the nuclear one by one unstressed syllable.
e.g. deco 'ration, possi 'bility, re sponsi 'bility
8. In many derivatives the secondary stress falls on the same syllable which has the primary stress in the original word.
e.g. pe 'culiar pe culi 'arity, a 'ppreciate a ppreci 'ation
If the original word has both the primary and the secondary stress, the secondary stress is retained in the same place, but the main stress falls on the syllable immediately preceding the suffix.
e.g. reco 'mmend recommend 'dation
9. Words with two primary streses form several groups: words with a distinct meaning of their own (e.g. anti-, dis-, ex- ,etc.), compound numerals, nouns, adjectives and verbs.
10. Word stress in compound nouns depends on the semantic value of the elements. Normally, the first element is stressed if it is semantically more important.
e.g. ' music hall, 'fountain pen
Most compound adjectives and some compound nouns have two primary stresses, as both elements are equally significant.
e.g. 'well- 'bred, 'first 'class, 'ice- 'cream
Compound adjectives with only one stress on the first element occur when the second element is semantically weak.
e.g. 'childlike, 'oval-shaped
Compound verbs have stress on both elements.
e.g. 'give 'in, 'turn 'out
11. In connected speech words with two stresses often lose one of their stresses because of the rhythm.
e.g. 'Turn off the 'light. 'Turn it 'off.
Put the words from each box into columns according to their stress patterns. Listen and check your answers, then listen again make sure you stress them correctly!
Listen and repeat the names of the countries below. Pay attention to stress. Write nationality words next to the name of each country. Listen and check your answers.
The stress in the ese nationality words changes when they are followed by a noun, or if two of them are contrasted with each other.
Listen to the following sentences and mark the stress in the nationality words.
a. Kamal, my guide, was Nepalese.
b. I wouldnt like to meet a Nepalese tiger.
c. I think that bowls Japanese.
d. What a beautiful Japanese fan.
e. Id like a Chinese takeaway.
f. Do you speak Chinese?
g. Theres a very good Portuguese restaurant round the corner.
h. Her boyfriends Portuguese.
i. That isnt Chinese writing, its Japanese.
j. She isnt Brazilian, shes Portuguese.
Do the following exercises:
A. Mark word stress in the words below. Explain the stress pattern in them.
Novel, legalize, rotate, forget, sympathize, eager, brigade, organ, magician, behind, official, apart, technique, trainee, orchestra, orchestral, unity, harvest, delegate, profiteer, company, budget, advise, academy, intensify, politician, ability, capacity, politics, economy, hamper, sedate, debate, arabesque, volunteer, argument, enumerate, comment, imitate, accent, accentual, practitioner, peculiar, beautician
B. Read the words below according to the models. Think of your own examples.
(a) M o d e l: agitate - agi tation
aberrate, aberration; actualize, actualization; modify, modification; dominate, domination; clarify, clarification
(b) M o d e l: e liminate e limi nation
accentuate, accentuation; accommodate, accommodation; americanize, americanization; administrate, administration
C. Read the following word families. Concentrate on the stress shifts.
a. family familiar familiarity
b. diplomat diplomacy diplomatic
c. photograph photographic photographer to photograph
d. industry industrial industrialist industrialize
e. invention inventive inventor invent
f. competition competitive competitor compete
g. criticism critical critic criticize
h. politics political politician politicize
i. nation nationalistic nationalist nationalize
j. analysis analytical analyst analyze
D. Read the sentences below. Pay attention to the difference in stress in compounds and in word combinations.
a. He is in the greenhouse. He is in the green house.
b. We saw some black birds. We saw some blackbirds.
c. Do you need a blackboard? Do you need a black board?
d. He is in the darkroom. He is in the dark room.
e. He lives in the lighthouse. He lives in the light house.
f. Does he live in the White House? Does he live in the white house?
g. He picked up the hot plate. He picked up the hotplate.
h. Have you seen a horsefly? Have you seen a horse fly?
E. Practise reading the following sentences. Are the underlined words stressed in the same way or differently? Why?
1. This article is for export only. The country exports a lot of wool.
2. Wheres my gramophone record? These instruments record weather conditions.
3. I disapprove of his conduct. He will conduct the meeting tomorrow.
4. You have made little progress in English, Im sorry to say. The work will progress slowly.
5. He speaks with a perfect accent. You are to accent the words correctly.
6. Wheres the object in this sentence? I object to your last remark.
7. You need a permit to go there. Will you permit me to say a few words?
8. Rain is quite frequent here. I used to frequent the park there.
9. You could see every detail in the picture. He couldnt detail all the facts.
F. Practise reading the sentences below. Concentrate on the influence of rhythm on the stress pattern of compound adjectives.
1. This book belongs to our absent-minded professor. Our professor is absent-minded and often leaves his books behind.
2. The upstairs room has an outside staircase. He lives upstairs.
3. Wash it with luke-warm water. The water is luke-warm.
4. She is quite good-looking. Theres a good-looking girl over there.
5. Hes having afternoon tea now. We have tea nearly every afternoon.
6. They watched the changing of the Buckingham Palace guards. Its near Buckingham Palace.
7. The boss is unbelievably bad-tempered. How can you stand such a bad-tempered person?
8. Hes always of-hand. He gave me an off-hand answer.
9. The Budapests climate is of continental type. He lives in Budapest.
10. Have a piece of home-made cake. This cakes home-made.
Listen and respond to the information you hear on the tape, like this:
:There was a strike where I work that lasted ten months!
:What! A ten-month strike!
Put one of the multi-word verbs in the box into each of the sentences below. Repeat the sentences, paying attention to the stress.
Notice the stress patterns in multi-word verbs:
a) if they are separated, there is a stress on the adverb/postposition:
e.g. to put the meeting off
b) if they are not separated and followed by an object, the adverb/postposition is not normally stressed:
e.g. Look for the book.
c) When there is no object, the adverb/postposition is stressed:
e.g. The plane took off.
d) When there is another preposition after a multi-word verb, it is not stressed:
e.g. I dont get on with my sister.
put smb up
look after smb or smth
make smth up
look at smb or smth
listen to smth
take after smb
wait for smb or smth
pull smth down
put smth off
look for smb or smth
bring smb up
a. The manager has _______ the meeting ______ until tomorrow.
b. _______ that man in the funny hat!
c. His parents died when he was six, so really his grandmother ______him _____.
d. Im ______ the scissors, I cant find them anywhere.
e. Lynne _______ for a chat this afternoon.
f. I dont know whats happened to Kevin. Weve been _______ him for the last two hours and hes not usually late.
g. When she hasnt got anyone to play with she often _______ imaginary friends.
h. _______ that noise outside!
i. Could you possibly ______me _______ for the night when I come down to London for my interview?
j. The plane ________ but had to make an emergency landing again almost immediately.
k. Both of the children ________ their mothers side of the family. Theyre not like their father at all.
l. Theyre going to ________ the old village church _________ you know. They say its a public danger.
Use the following multi-word nouns and verbs to fill the gaps I the following pairs of sentences. Remember that the noun and the verb often differ in meaning.
Repeat the sentences with the tape. What do you notice about the stress in multi-word nouns and verbs?
Theyve had another _______ next door. Fortunately nothing very much was stolen this time.
Did they _______ through the back window then?
Keep a _______ for a parking space, will you?
_______ for pickpockets!
She had a nervous ________ last year and had to give up her job.
I hope our car doesnt _________ again.
Id rather you didnt use my _______ ! You left the top off the mascara and its all dried up now.
Dont lets argue, darling. Lets kiss and _______, shall we?
Hes a university _____, you know. He left after only two years.
She wants to ________ of the play. She says shed had enough.
If ever theres a nuclear war, more people will die from radioactive ________ than from the explosion.
I dont want to ______ with you. I hate arguments.
He does a wonderful ________ of Margaret Thatcher. He sounds just like her.
Is the plane going to __________ soon?
We gave the newlyweds a fantastic ________ - champagne, cake, tin cans tied to the car! It was perfect.
the summer school in Rome looks interesting. I think Ill ________ for a brochure.
the Michael Jackson concert was a complete ________. There wasnt a single ticket left.
Im sure well _______ of these cards before Christmas, and we wont be able to order any more before the New Year.
This was the year that 1950s heart-throb, Bart Pontoni, made his ________.
Good-bye, Arthur. Im leaving. Maybe one day Ill _______ to you, but dont count o it!
1. Intonation is a complex unity of speech melody (variations of pitch produced by the voice moving up or down), sentence stress (greater prominence given to some words in a sentence), voice quality (a special emotional colouring of the voice), rhythm (alteration of stressed and unstressed syllables) and tempo (the speed with which sentences or their parts are uttered).
2. Rhythm in English is based on the alteration of strongly and weakly stressed syllables. The important feature is that stressed syllables occur at fairly equal intervals. The unstressed syllables between stressed ones have to be fitted in. the more unstressed syllables there are between the stressed ones, the more weakly and rapidly they are pronounced.
e.g. The students are interested in improving their speech rhythm.
Words with double stress may lose one of their stresses due to the rhythm.
e.g. ' number seven' teen
'seventeen ' students
Some notional parts of speech, which are normally stressed, may lose their stress under the influence of rhythm.
e.g. 'How 'many do you need?
' How many 'rooms do you need?
A stressed syllable together with the preceding or following unstressed syllables forms a rhythmic group; each rhythmic group takes approximately the same time to pronounce.
Do the following exercises:
Practise reading the following phrases. Each time the number of unstressed syllables between the two stressed ones will be different. Make sure you can fit the unstressed syllables in to say the phrases rhythmically.
1. Try again.
Wheres your hat?
I want to know.
Its quite all right.
It doesnt matter.
2. I wanted to know.
Send me a card.
What have you done?
Ive finished my lunch.
Its very unfair.
Im glad you have come.
3. I think itll be fine.
I didnt know the way.
I wanted you to write about it.
Its not the one I borrowed.
Youre wanted on the phone.
The children are in bed.
4. Walking along the road.
Why didnt you run away?
Multiply it by three.
Whats the name of the book?
Coming back home again?
Remember what I told you.
Children love toys.
Children play with toys.
The children will play with toys.
The children will play with some toys.
The children will play with some new toys.
The children are playing with some new toys.
The children will be playing with some new toys.
C. Break the sentences below into rhythmic groups. Practise reading the sentences.
The sessions nearly over.
Whats the name of the actor?
Robert is taller than Allan.
The inflation may lead to a depression.
I can give you the answer in a minute.
Ill repeat the suggestion as I heard it.
You can see it in a moment that he needs it.
When the cats away, the mice will play.
As you surely know, its time for lunch.
Since he seems surprised, youd better speak.
Ill help you with your hair when you are ready for it.
I think he would be shocked if you asked him for it.
I never would have thought you would give it to me.
Choose a word from the box on the left which rhymes with the words on the right. Fill in the gaps in each sentences with a suitable rhyming pair. Listen and check your answers. Practise saying the sentences with the correct rhythm.
a. The dragon _________ St. Georges ________.
b. I gave my __________ a lovely ____________.
c. He signed a _________ to buy the __________.
d. If youre in _________, you shouldnt _______.
e. The bridegrooms ________ shone down the __________.
f. Well never _________ who wrote it, ___________.
g. I strained each _________ to sing the __________.
h. Please put me _________ to you-know-________.
Listen to the poem and mark the stress. Note that when you read it aloud some syllables are heavier than others. The unstressed syllables have to be squashed in between the stressed. Listen to the first verse again and clap the rhythm with the tape, then practise reading the whole poem aloud.
In June this year Ill finish school,
And the summers getting near/
My classmates all know what they want to do,
But I havent got any idea.
Pippas going to ravel round the world.
Hannahs going to stay at home.
Peters going to join a punk rock band.
And Richards going to teach in Rome.
Amandas going to move to Hollywood
Where she hopes to become a star.
Franks going to pass his driving test
And then hes going to buy himself a car.
Paulas going to study up at Cambridge.
And Rogers going to learn how to cook.
Emmas going to have a lot of babies,
And Sarahs going to write a book.
Stevens going to be a scientist
And try to help the human race.
Helens going to be in the Olympic team
And finish in the long jump in first place.
Ians going to be a millionaire.
And Annas going to help the poor.
But I still dont know what I want to do,
So Ill sit here and Ill think some more.
Sort out the following lines to make two separate poems: “Superman” and “Cinderella”. Listen and check your answers. Practise reading the two poems, make sure you do it rhythmically.
Dont be sorry.
Here in this parcel, so
Hello there, Superman.
With my magic
Are you crying Cinderella?
Ive got a telegram.
You will make it to the dance.
Wishing you happy Returns of the day!
Now youre defenseless, and cant run away
And your pumpkin
And there is some kryptonite
Heres your chance:
Listen to two more poems, write them down, mark the strongly stressed words. Practise reading the poems.
Aladdin Sir Lancelot Guinevere
On your own:
Prepare model reading of the following rhymes. Find more rhymes and read them aloud paying attention to the rhythm in them.
A. One, two, three, four, five, six, seven.
All good children go to heaven.
Some fly east,
Some fly west,
Some fly over the cuckoos nest.
B. Twinkle, twinkle, little star.
How I wonder what you are.
Up above you fly so high,
Like a diamond in the sky.
c. One, two, three, four.
Mary at the cottage door.
Five, six, seven, eight.
Eating cherries off the plate.
SECTION 5: INTONATION OF CERTAIN SENTENCE PARTS
Direct address is a word or a group of words used to address a person or a group of people.
e.g. How are you, Harry?
The intonation of a direct address depends on its position in the sentence and on the speakers attitude.
At the beginning of a sentence, a direct address is always stressed and forms a separate sense-group which is pronounced with the Low Fall (in formal or serious speech)or with the Fall-Rise 9in informal, lively speech.)
e.g. Robert, you must think carefully before re fusing the offer.
Dad, will you mend my bike?
In the medial or final position, a direct address is usually unstressed and does not form a separate sense-group; it continues the melody of the last stressed syllable.
e.g. I beg your pardon, sir, its not my fault.
In emphatic speech, however, a direct address may take the rise of the Fall-Rise.
e.g. Get out of the pool at once, Peter!
1. Victor, you cant go there alone.
2. Dont lose heart, old boy!
3. Will you give me that newspaper, Tom?
4. Ladies and gentlemen, let me introduce Mr. King to you.
5. Will you. Bill, answer my question?
6. You know, Lorna, lets speak about it some other time.
7. Nelly, where are you?
8. You neednt go into so much trouble, Mrs. Bellows.
1/ I dont know Mr. Smith.
I dont know, Mr. Smith.
2/ He doesnt remember John.
He doesnt remember, John.
3/ Have you forgotten dear old tom?
Have you forgotten, dear old Tom?
4/ Can you hear Helen?
Can you hear, Helen?
Adverbial phrases at the beginning of a simple sentences are normally stressed and form separate sense-groups pronounced with the Low Rise or the Mid-Level tone.
e.g. Yesterday I stayed in all day.
In front of the house, there is a green lawn.
In sentence final position adverbials are not stressed and dont form separate sense-groups.
e.g. I stayed in all day yesterday.
There is a lawn in front of the house.
An adverbial at the end of the sentence can form a separate sense-group if it is an afterthought, additional comment, clarification, etc.
e.g. Any news from Mary? Shes coming to Boston, this after noon.
1. A few minutes later we heard a knock at the door.
2. I was utterly exhausted by the end of the week.
3. At the door I shook Fannys hand and left.
4. A few years ago, the place was quiet and desolate.
5. There was an old, creaky rocking-chair on the farthest corner of the room.
6. In September the weather here is still fine, but in October most days are quite nasty.
7. Why not drop in at his office, instead of phoning him?
8. He thought it was his good luck to have such an opportunity so early in his career.
Appositions are words that restate or identify a noun or pronoun. As a rule, appositions form separate sense-groups and repeat the melody of the previous sense-group which they are closely connected with.
e.g. Jack has a wife, Jennifer, and two children, a son and a daughter.
1. The master called loudly for Mr. Bumble, the man in charge of the workhouse.
2. He was my mothers old friend, Mr. Davis, who once was my music teacher.
3. Kublai khan, grandson of Genghis, was the first Mongol emperor of all China.
4. Michael Jackson, the king of pop, was once married to , Elvis Presleys daughter.
5. The Natural History Museum, which is part of the British Museum, moved to its present site in
6. The river Thames flows by two more parks, Hampton Court park and bushy Park.
Enumeration is represented in sentences with homogeneous members. Each enumerated word is stressed and requires a separate sense-group pronounced with the Rise, the last enumerated word is pronounced with the Fall.
e.g. He got up early, ate his usual breakfast, read his morning paper, and left for the city.
Since the falling tone carries more conviction than the rising tone, the use of the fall makes the utterance more expressive. Pronounced with the falling tone, enumeration sounds more emphatic.
1. You are learning to speak, to understand, to read and to write English.
2. His voice was musical, soft and lulling.
3. London bridge, built of stone was a remarkable achievement. Shops, houses and a chapel were
built on the bridge.
4. The visitor was the most astonishing contrast to the tall, thin, grey-haired, neatly-dressed scientist
5. It was a dark, gloomy, forbidding house.
6. There are camps, camping sites, hostels and tourist centers for young travellers.
7. Ill toss up a snowball, and make him look out, and then say a kind word to him.
8. Hair, clothing and jewelry all send messages to a prospective employer.
9. The university sent us catalogues, maps, housing applications and other information.
10. We used to go out, walk around the town, meet our friends and live happily.
A parenthesis is a word, phrase or clause which is connected with the rest of the sentences I order;
- to show the speakers attitude towards the idea expressed;
- to connect the sentence with another one
- to summarize or add some detail to what is said in the sentence.
At the beginning of a sentence a parenthesis is stressed and may form a separate sense-group if it is semantically important. This sense-group may be pronounced either with the Rise or with the Fall, or with the Fall-Rise.
e.g. To crown it all, we had a fantastic ball in the evening.
By the way, what time is it?
In the middle or at the end of the sentence parentheses are not stressed and do not form separate sense-groups. They are pronounced as the unstressed or partially stressed syllables of the intonation group
e.g. Hes quite am bitious, you know.
You know of course how am bitious he is.
1. Besides, Im often mixed up with my twin brother.
2. To put it mildly, he isnt quite sane.
3. Simon isnt particularly keen on Italian food, I suppose.
4. The house wasnt in fact all that big.
5. Now that I know him well enough of course, I find him very pleasant.
6. In my opinion, he deserved what he got.
7. Fortunately for me, it was a translated version.
8. Hes stubborn, as far as I know.
9. You are right, though.
10. You never ask yourself, I suppose, whether I mater at all.
The authors words may introduce, interrupt or follow direct speech.
The author words introducing direct speech form a separate sense-group normally pronounced with the falling tone.
e.g. And then he said, “ Perhaps, you are right.”
If the authors words follow direct speech, they continue the melody of the sense-group as its unstressed or partially stressed tail.
e.g. “ What is it for?” he asked.
If the authors words form a fairly long sequence, they may form a separate sense-group which is usually pronounced with the same intonation as the preceding sense-group but at a lower pitch.
e.g. “Do you think its fair?” she asked, looking at me with surprise.
1. “I cant believe you ate the whole watermelon,” she said.
2. My father began by saying, “I refuse to listen to any excuses.”
3. “You are the last person on earth Id ask for help,” she told me with contempt.
4. “What rubbish!” he exclaimed leaving the room.
5. “Mel Gibson is one of my best customers,” the street vender bragged.
6. “He wants the money,” Charles said after a dramatic pause, “and he wants it now.”
7. “I cant eat anything,” he growled, putting his head in his hands.
8. “Miss Bloom,” I said breathlessly, “we must go back now.”
9. Her cousin shrugged and said curtly, “I dont care a bit.”
10. “Are you glad to see me, Bobby?” asked Aunt Ellie.
COMPLEX AND COMPOUND SENTENCES
A compound sentence consists of two or more coordinated clauses. The choice of the terminal tone depends on the degree of their semantic unity. If the non-final sense-group is semantically independent and doesnt imply continuation, the falling tone is used.
e.g. It was getting dark, and I hurried home.
If the idea is not completed, the low rising tone or falling-rising tone can be used.
e.g. He nodded in agreement, but his eyes glittered with silent contempt.
A complex sentence consists of a principle and one or several subordinate clauses which may precede, follow or break the main clause.
a/ if the principle clause and the following subordinate clause present a single semantic whole, they do not form separate sense-groups.
e.g. You can stay here as long as you want.
b/ If the principle clause implies continuation, it is pronounced with the low-rising tone.
e.g. It doesnt really matter to me what all of them think.
c/ if both clauses are semantically independent, they are pronounced with the Fall.
e.g. You can stay here if you really want to.
Subordinate clauses, preceding the principle one, form separate sense-groups. They are pronounced with the Low Rise to stress the logical connection with the following sense-group.
e.g. If anything can go wrong, it will go wrong.
The falling tone is also possible, depending on the semantic value of the clause.
SEQUENCE OF TONES
As a rule, complex, compound and simple extended sentences can be divided into some logical parts. While pronouncing them, the sequence of tones must be observed. The most common sequences in unemotional speech are Fall + fall and Rise + Fall.
The sequence Fall + Fall is used in sense-groups conveying finality; they sound definite, firm, weighty.
e.g. Its the absolute truth, I swear.
The sequence Rise + Fall is used in sense-groups which are logically closely connected, or when the speaker is leading up to something more and continuation of some kind is implied.
e.g. If I were you, Id wait and see what happens.
My parents and I, usually spend our holidays to gether.
1. She hates tea but adores coffee.
2. When the classes are over early, at about 11.30, Jane usually called on her friend and does some shopping.
3. I cant come to your party tomorrow because I dont feel quite well.
4. Everything is fine, she is happy.
5. Londinium flourished, and within a generation it had become the administrative center for the
6. When Brian saw his wifes face, he was so shocked that he stopped speaking and stared at her in
7. Cathy didnt cry but sat silently by his side.
8. The square, when they reached it, was full of wind and flying dust.
9. It was a perfect plan, and it would work.
10. People can now use wood substitutes, which are becoming more available.
Intonation Revision Exercise
1. Most evenings they dine out.
2. The garden looked white and quiet behind the glass doors of the gallery.
3. Whats on my shopping list? Oh yes, some chocolate, cigarettes and gin.
4. Whats the mater with you, Mr. Walker?
5. By the way, are you going anywhere over Easter?
6. I am not very good at languages, you know.
7. Henry VIII, the English king of the Tudor Dynasty, is known as the Blue Beard.
8. After the rain was over, a huge rainbow could be seen bright in the sky.
9. Sir, if that was your master, why was he wearing a mask over his face?
10. The thin trees were blowing wildly, and untidy grey clouds were sailing past a pale, sickly moon.
11. She must be very miserable, and very lonely, in that dark, unpleasant house.
12. Friends, I am here to ask you for support.
13. The others thought it would be worthwhile, anyway.
14. Well, Nora, I give in! Tell me the answer now.
15. Mum, isnt that shirt too big for me?
16. Mr. Brooke, my tutor, doesnt stay here, and I have no one to keep me company.
17. He could not stop looking at her, and I knew there was no hope for him.
18. The young man looked very pale and went straight to his room.
19. One night, when my life as Jekyll seemed impossibly dull and boring, I mixed a dose of the drug and drank it.
20. Her play is full of coincidences, false anticipations, and non-responsive dialogues.
21. I shall come back before midnight, and then we shall send for the police.
22. If I finish it, however, he will probably not notice it.
23. When the manager told me what the apartment cost, I decided living at home with Mom and Dad was not so bad.
24. He described skiing in the Alps, swimming I the Adriatic, and driving across the Sahara Desert.
25. Te films last seen showed that his battle had been for nothing, that he had lost her and his dream was dead.
26. There were no photographs of the wanted man and no two people could agree about his appearance.
27. “Dont be long!” said Henry, with a not of warning in his voice.
28. Her cousin repeated the question, “Who told you that?”
29. “Have you ever heard him sing?” I asked Mr. Bartell.
30. If nothings the matter,” Eddy said mildly, “why are you crying?”
31. These shoes are the best; they are durable, inexpensive, and stylish.
32. Dont waste time, dont waste money, but most important of all dont waste your energies and talents.
33. At his greatest, Jean Renoir expresses the beauty of our common humanity the desires and hopes, the absurdities and follies, that we all, to one degree or another, share.
SECTION 6: TEXTS FOR READING PRACTICE
Listen and write in the missing words. Listen again and practise reading the story phrase by phrase, then read the whole of it aloud.
_________ first ___________ June_____________-two, _________ French burglar broke_________ house________ Paris.
_________ went _________ living_________ stole two pictures. Then ____________ went __________ kitchen. ________opened _________ saw _________. __________ ate ___________.Next, _________ two __________. __________ both ________. ________ felt
__________ rest___________ asleep. When __________ morning _________ around ______.
Listen to the letter and mark the stressed words in it. Practise reading the letter phrase by phrase and then read the whole of it aloud.
Dear Mum and dad,
Im really sorry, but Im leaving home. When you read this, Ill be far away. Dont try to find me. Martin and I are getting married next Saturday.
I know youve never liked Martin. You didnt want me to go out with him because you said he was just a car salesman and he wasnt good enough for me. I know that youve always wanted the best for me, but Martin is the best for me. I love him very much indeed.
Listen to the passage. Divide it into sense-groups, mark the stressed words and intonation in each sentence. Practise reading the whole passage aloud.
On the fourteenth of January nineteen seventy-eight, Mrs. Brewin was working in her garden. Her cat, Henry, was playing around her. It climbed a tress in the garden and couldnt get down, so she called the Fire Brigade. While she was waiting for them to arrive, she offered some fish to try to get him down.
Listen to the passage and write it down, paying attention to the correct punctuation.
. full stop
, - comma
- - hyphen
: - colon
You will hear the same passage broken into short sections first and then in longer sentences. Listen and repeat each phrase/sentence with the correct intonation. After that, read the whole passage through.
Word list: drab
Read the story through and put one of the words from the box into each gap. Listen and check your answers. Break the passage into sense-groups and mark the intonation. Practise reading the passage aloud.
to at about off to from at in in
My friend Susie met her husband in a strange way. She was traveling to Eastern Europe by train one summer. For some time she looked _____ the handsome young man sitting opposite her. Finally he smiled ________ her and said Hello. It was a long trip and they talked _______ a lot of different things. He came ________ Hamburg, and was very interested ______ politics and English. When he got _____ the train in Hamburg, Suzy felt a little sad because she didnt even know his name. Then she noticed a book on the floor. It had an address, but no name _______ it. She didnt know if it belonged ______ the handsome German man, but she decided to write _____ the address in the book. After a couple of weeks she got a reply. The following summer he visited her in England, and last year they got married.
Look through the passage below and mark all the cases of linking in it. Listen to the tape, mark the intonation. Practise reading the passage.
Most peoples picture of a typical Englishman is a man in a suit, with an umbrella, a copy of The Times, and a bowler hat. Not everybody knows, however, that this hard, low, round-brimmed hat was invented in the nineteenth century, or that it was made after a pair of British hat makers, Thomas and William Bowler.
The first example of a bowler hat was ordered by a country gentleman, Thomas Coke, who lived in Norfolk. He wanted a strong and practical hat that he could wear when he went shooting.
In America the bowler hat is known as a derby.
Insert the missing verbs in the passage below. Listen and check your answers. Mark the intonation and practise reading the passage aloud.
A cleaning woman shot in a bank robbery in Cricklewood yesterday evening. She said to be safe and comfortable in hospital. The bank broken into by two masked men. They have not yet found. A total of ₤1 million stolen I the robbery, and a bag of jewels kept in a bank safe by Lady Crickle who told the bad news late last night by the bank manager.
most of my jewels made of gold, she told reporters. My favourite ring made in china three hundred years ago. I cant possibly buy another one.
A red Ford Fiesta seen near the bank and later found in a car park at Heathrow Airport. A reward offered by the police for any information about the crime.
Break the paragraph into short sections, practise reading it. Prepare model reading of the passage.
I was fifteen. He was nineteen and already doing well. He was a tailor like his father and worked with him. One day my grandmother came and called me she took me to one side and said,
Zeina, youre going to marry Sobhi.
But, Setti, how do I marry him? I asked.
He was my cousin: the son of my dead mothers sister, but I knew nothing of marriage.
Youll be his wife and hell be your husband and youll serve him and do what he tells you.
I started to cry.
Will I have to leave you, Setti?
The old woman took me in her arms.
No, no, youll have your own room in the house and Ill always be with you. Youre a big girl now. You can cook and clean and look after a man and hes your cousin, child, hes not a stranger.
Well… I went out to the other girls in the yard but my heart was full of my new importance. I didnt say anything but in a few hours everyone knew anyway and Sobhi stopped coming to our part of the house. From the time Setti told me, I only saw him again on the wedding night.
Learn the poem:
Sledging by Starlight
By Alexander Reid
Good-bye to the days of the bicycle
The days that are blue and are gold.
And welcome the nights of the icicle
And stars sharpened bright by the cold.
To bathe I warm seas in bright summer
Is pleasant enough in a way.
But what can compare with the rush through the air
As you dash down a hill on a sleigh.
One push and youre off, youre flying!
Hold tight! How the starts stream away!
Oh what can compare with the rush through the air
As you dash down a hill on a sleigh.
- 97 -
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|Началом отсчета европейского Средневековья считается 476 г., когда под натиском германских племен пала Римская империя. В этот период на смену рабовладельческому обществу новое общество с феодальными отношениями, оплотом которого стало христианство....|
|8043.||Педагогика Ушинского||25.33 KB|
|В своем философском развитии Ушинский шел от идеализма к материализму, однако путь этот остался незавершенным. Хорошо изучив различные философские системы, критически используя положительные элементы этих систем, он стремился выработать свое, самост...|
|8044.||Наследие педагога и писателя А.С. Макаренко||30.27 KB|
|Наследие педагога и писателя А.С. Макаренко обычно ассоциируется прежде всего с понятием коллектив. Исследования показывают, что этот термин закрепился в его творчестве лишь в конце 20-х годов. Исследования показывают также, что используя термин ко...|
|8045.||Педагогические идеи В. А. Сухомлинского||23.46 KB|
|Педагогические идеи В А Сухомлинского В центре воспитательной системы, созданной Василием Сухомлинским, находится ребенок с его активностью, интересами, индивидуальными творческими способностями. Главная задача педагогического коллектива школы...|
|8047.||Исследование причин развития фиброза костного мозга при миелопролиферативных заболеваниях путем анализа воздействия тромбоцитарных факторов на мезенхимные стволовые клетки||451.5 KB|
|ВВЕДЕНИЕ Хронические миелопролиферативные заболевания (ХМПЗ) - это гетерогенная группа клональных заболеваний стволовых клеток крови, характеризующаяся избыточной пролиферацией клеток миелоидного ряда и относительно нормальным уровнем их созрев...|