Great Britain. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland


География, геология и геодезия

The British Isles consist of two lrge islnds Gret Britin nd Irelnd seprted by the Irish Se nd lot of smll islnds the min of which re the Isle of Mn in the Irish Se the Hebrides group of islnds off the northwestern cost of Scotlnd: the Orkney Islnds nd the Shetlnd Islnds. Gret Britin is situted in the temperte zone of Europe. The nture of Gret Britin is gretly ffected by the se: there is no plce situted more thn 100120 km from the seshore in the northern prts only 4060 km.



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Great Britain

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is situated on the British Isles – a large group of islands lying off the north-western coast of Europe and separated from the continent by the English Channel and the Strait of Dover in the south and the North Sea in the east. The British Isles consist of two large islands – Great Britain and Ireland – separated by the Irish Sea, and a lot of small islands, the main of which are the Isle of Man in the Irish Sea, the Hebrides – a group of islands off the north-western coast of Scotland: the Orkney Islands and the Shetland Islands.

Historically the territory of the United Kingdom is divided into four parts: England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. The total area of the United Kingdom is 224 square kilometers.

Great Britain is situated in the temperate zone of Europe. The nature of Great Britain is greatly affected by the sea: there is no place situated more than 100-120 km from the seashore, in the northern parts only 40-60 km. The territory of the Great Britain can be divided into three natural regions:

1) Scotland with highland and upland relief and coniferous and mixed forests.

2) Wales and mountains England with upland considerably cut by ravines and valleys and covered with meadows, moorland and cultivated farmland, with patches of broadleaf forest.

3) South-east England with plain landscape, fertile soils, the predominance of cultivated farmland, with patches of broadleaf forest.

Great Britain enjoys the humid and mild marine West-Coast climate with warm winters and cool summers and a lot of rainfall throughout the year. The prevailing winds blow from the ocean, they are mild in winter and cool in summer, and are heavily charged with moisture at all times. As they approach the mountainous areas near the west coasts, they rise up the mountain slopes. Their temperature drops, which causes condensation of moisture in the form of rain. Therefore the wettest parts of Britain are those areas where high mountains lie near west coast: the western Highlands of Scotland, the Lake District and North Wales. The eastern part of Britain is said to be in the rain-shadow, as the winds lose most of their moisture in their passage over the highlands of the west.

All parts of the British Isles receive rain at any time of the year. Still autumn and winter are the wettest seasons, except in the Thames district, where most rain falls in the summer half of the year. Oxford, for example, has 29 per cent of its rain in summer and only 22 per cent in winter. As to temperature, Great Britain has warmer winters than any other district in the same latitude. It is due in large measure to the prevalence of mild south-west winds. Another factor is the Gulf Stream, which flows from the Gulf Mexico and brings much warmth from the equatorial regions to north-western Europe.

Great Britain is rich in coal. There are rich coal basins in Northumberland, Lancashire, Yorkshire, Nottinghamshire, South and North Wales and near Glasgow. Among other mineral resources, iron ores found alongside coal layers are of primary importance, but the iron content of most of the ores is very low.

There are tin and copper mines in Cornwall and Devonshire, copper and lead mines in England. Lead and silver ores are also mined in Derbyshire and Cumberland and Lancashire.

The United Kingdom was the first country in the world which became highly industrialized. During the rapid industrialization of the 19th century, one of the most important factors was that coal deposits were situated near the ground surface, which made mining easy. Coal mining is one of the most developed industries in Great Britain. The biggest coal and iron mines are in the north-east of England, near Newcastle, in Lancashire and Yorkshire; in Scotland near Glasgow; in Wales near Cardiff and Bristol. Until recent times, Britain’s heavy industry was mainly concentrated in the centre of England and in the London region. Such towns as Birmingham, Coventry and Sheffield produced heavy machines, railway carriages and motor-cars. In the 20th century new branches of industry have appeared: electronics, radio, chemical industry and others.

Of great importance for Britain is ship-building industry. It is concentrated in London, Glasgow, Newcastle, Liverpool and Belfast. Great Britain produced a lot of wool, and woollen industry is developed in Yorkshire. British woollen products are exported to many countries.

Sea-ports play a great role in the life of the country. London, Liverpool and Glasgow are the biggest English ports, from which big liners go to all parts of he world. Great Britain exports industrial products to other countries and imports food and some other products.

Britain is bound by the Council of Europe’s European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, which covers primarily civil and political rights.

Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion: the right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance.

Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through media and regardless of frontiers.

No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

Everyone has the right to take part in the government of his country, directly or through freely chosen representative.

Britain is a parliamentary democracy, the Government being responsible to the people through the elected House of Commons, which have the power to force a government to resign on a vote of no-confidence. The other House in the British Parliament is the non-elected House of Lords, which is normally a chamber of discussion and revision of proposals and not a rival to the Commons.

In Britain’s view, democracy and respect for human rights reinforce sound economic policies and produce conditions in which individual initiative can flourish. Aid is used in a practical way to support economic and social reform, increase the effectiveness of governments and help strengthen democratic institutions such as free press, an in depended judiciary and free elections. In Britain’s view, the more open a society is, the more transparent the decisions of government, the more difficult it is to hide corruption and the abuse of human right.

Let’s talk about British newspaper. First of all there is no subscription. You may buy any on sale. There are too many types of newspaper; the “popular” papers and the “quality” papers. The popular papers are less in size, with many pictures, big headlines and short articles. They are easy to read. The quality papers are for more serious readership. These papers are bigger in size, with large articles and more detailed information. The newspapers in Britain are proud of the fact that they are different from each other – each tries to have a definite profile. The following is a witty, but at least partly accurate, description of the people who read the different papers.


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