From track and field athletics history
Физкультура и спорт
In an extreme antiquity the person needed to be able to run quickly, dexterously to overcome various obstacles, to throw any shells. From ability to catch up with the person and neatly to strike production, from ability to be resistant and tempered in fight against...
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From track and field athletics history
Records and champions
History of domestic track and field athletics
The used literature
Track and field athletics - one of the main and most mass sports, uniting walking and run on various distances, long jumps and height, discus throw, spear, hammer, grenades (shot put), and also
the track and field athletics. all-round a decathlon, pentathlon, etc. In modern sports classification over 60 versions are track and field athletics exercises. Track and field athletics is presented in the program of the modern Olympic Games 24 numbers for men and 14 - for women. Track and field athletics competitions vkhokdit in programs of the largest continental sports meets: championships Europe, African, Asian, Balkan, British, Pan-American games etc. Basis of track and field athletics are the natural movements of the person. Occupations track and field athletics promote all-round physical development, to strengthening of human health. Popularity and mass character of track and field athletics are explained by general availability and a big variety of the track and field athletics exercises, simplicity of technology of performance, opportunity to vary loading and to give classes at all seasons of the year not only on sports grounds, but and under natural conditions. Track and field athletics part of the state system of physical training. The track and field athletics. exercises are included into school students, pupils of all types of educational institutions, into plans of the training works in all sports, in occupations of the physical. culture of the working seniors age, are one of the main parts of all steps all-Union sports complex "It Is Ready to Work and Defense" (GTO). Track and field athletics. sections take the leading place in a deyaktelnost of collectives of physical culture, sports clubs, voluntary sport ivknykh of societies. We will address to history of this sport. The history sated with the interesting events acquaintance with which will help you to gain an impression about that, what were physical capacities of the person in ancient times and what heights in this regard our contemporaries reached. In the extensive chronicle of track and field athletics sport there are a lot of nice names, with which loud victories and outstanding record achievements are connected. Champions and champions of the past, submitting time and space, paved the way for the followers, reference points for further advance on the way planned physical improvement one of composed the general progress mankind.
From track and field athletics history
In an extreme antiquity the person needed to be able to run quickly, dexterously to overcome various obstacles, to throw any shells. From ability to catch up with the person and neatly to strike production, from ability to be resistant and tempered in fight against tainstvenkny forces of nature its hunting depended good luck, so and life. So, run, jumps and throwing were familiar to already primitive person
the exercises making the base of modern track and field athletics sport. Archeologists, digging out parking of the ancient person, find many the eloquent certificates to that already at the beginning of a civilization these skills played the huge role in everyday life of the person. Of course, during that time about sport in the modern its understanding and the speech couldn't go. He was born much later. Sport homeland it is possible to consider Ancient Greece. The program of these competitions was generally track and field athletics. First them participants competed only in run at the distance equal to length of stadium (192 m 27 cm) which was called "stages". (Otsyukda, actually, also there was a word "stadium".) More than half a century this type of run stadiodry remained the only type of competitions on the Hellenic Olympic holidays. At the Games The 14th Olympic Games (724 BC) prizes in run were for the first time played on distance equal to two stages. At the Games of the 15th Olympic Games there was a run on endurance from 7 to 25 st.
Already during that time participants of Games specialized in separate types of the program competitions. For example, long-distance runners, as a rule, very seldom started in sprint. But very often same
the athlete acted at two short distances and quite often it appeared the strongest on both at once.
On the Olympic holidays also competitions of runners were held, acting in full fighting equipment. The athlete winning on the short distances, and also in this type of competitions, I received an honorary title "триаст", that is three-time winner. Twice Leo-Midas received such honor with islands Rhodes. Since the 16th Olympic Games (708 BC) the program of Games was enriched with the new look pentathlon. It included run, discus throw, long jumps, a throwing spear and fight (as we see, and in this all-round track and field athletics makes basis). At that time athletes carried out a long jump with special dumbbells in
hands. Then was considered that it helps to strengthen the swing movement of hands and
to overcome bigger distance in flight. The spear and a disk were thrown from the small
eminences. And the spear was held not simply in hand, and by means of a loop from
leather belt into which the thrower implanted fingers. Javelin throwers during that time
competed in throws on accuracy of hit in the purpose, whereas discus throwers competed on range.
What were achievements of participants of the Olympic competitions of antiquity? To
to regret to compare their results with results of modern athletes it is quite difficult. The matter is that we were reached by the extremely inconsistent data on this subject. But on separate sources it is possible to draw a conclusion that winners of the antique Olympic Games achieved quite good results even on
to modern measures. So, according to a legend, the discus thrower Flegy on training could
to throw a disk through the river Alpheus (its width reaches 50 m now). Winners of competitions were celebrated then very magnificently. They were crowned with wreaths from an olive branches for which cut off a special gold knife from the old sacred trees. When champions came back home, they were met by crowds joyful compatriots. Poets composed the laudatory in honor of winners anthems. Names of champions were cut on stone plates, and some of them even monuments were put. Exactly thanks to it we were also reached by their names... Development of modern track and field athletics began in the 30-40th of 19 century (the first competitions in college of. Rugby in England in 1837); in the 80-90th in many respects the countries amateur clubs, leagues, etc. were organized, Development of modern track and field athletics is closely connected with the Olympic Movement. It is enough to tell that draw of the Olympic awards in Athens in 1896 became first official international track and field athletics competition. Since then it strongly took the leading place in the program of all Olympic Games.
And the athlete became the first Olympic champion. It was the American James Connolly who on April 5, 1896 won a victory in a triple jump with result of 13 m 71 cm. However not Connolly became the original hero of the I Olympic Games present. Several days later fight was entered by marathoners. They ran 40 km on that to the most stony road on which I ran from the settlement about 2500 years ago Marathon to Athens the Hellenic soldier messenger with a message about a victory of Greeks over Persians. According to the legend, the messenger came running to the city, without stopping in way, and with exclamation "We won!" I fell dead. In honor of a feat of this soldier in the program The Olympic Games run from the Marathon to Athens was also included. Subsequently marathon race became one of obligatory types of track and field athletics.
For Greece the hostess of the I Olympic Games the victory in this type of the program was a question national pride and honor. Thousands of fans disappointedly sighed, when from the middle of a distance the message came: among leaders there are no Greek runners. But then the situation at a distance changed. Former leaders, not having sustained heats, descended, and the first on stadium Greek Spyros Luís, modest ran in the mail carrier from the settlement of Maruzi. The last circle together with the winner was run by the king of Greece, in a rush feelings left a royal box. Luís became the national hero of the countries. In general the Olympic debut of "the queen of sport" passed in Athens very modestly. Athletes competed only by 12 types (compare: now the program of track and field athletics totals 43 look). In total came for start less hundred athletes. For example, in height only five jumped. It is much more participants were brought together by competitions in gymnastics and firing.
Such episode of the Olympic competitions deserves attention. On start of a distance 100 m most of runners left in short white trousers and boots with short tops. And only one athlete American Thomas Burke was in pants and in footwear it is easier, reminding modern shipovky. If his rivals
accepted start standing, Burke fell by one knee and rested against the earth hands. The audience even laughed over this original. But what was them amazement when Burke finished the first. Since then low start became standard in competitions of sprinters. The technology of run a little than reminded in those days the perfected movements of the modern runners. Athletes ran is held down, intensely. And only over time became it is clear, that speed is incompatible with tight muscles that, than more freely run, that is higher speed. Already at the II Olympic Games in Paris (1900) the American Francis Jervis much more improved the Olympic record, having overcome 100 m for 10,8 page. Achievements of the strongest athletes during that time grew quickly enough, not that now. So, Elleri Clark from the USA jumped in Athens in length at only 6 m of 35 cm, and his compatriot Alvin Krentsleyn became the best at the II Olympic Games in Paris with result of 7 m 18 cm. The same awards in run on 5000 and 10000 m are played, in relays of 4Х100 and 4Х400 m, and also in a decathlon. At eight Olympic Games of the present only men combated. But here in Amsterdam in 1928 to track and field athletics arenas for the first time there were women. Them the Olympic debut surpassed all expectations. In all five types of the program
women set world records.
Records and champions
The history of each sport stores names of the heroes athletes, setting the records which were blowing the mind and moving apart the settled ideas of opportunities of the person. And track and field athletics therefore received title of "the queen of sport" that among her "citizens" athletes outstanding it appeared more, than in any other look. Let's get acquainted with some of them. "The greatest athlete of all times and the people" called in the thirties Black runner Jesse Owens. And in it there was no exaggeration. Owen was the tenth child in the farm laborer's family from the amerikanksky city Cleveland. The boy in elementary grades of a shkokla found the surprising abilities: he was porazitelkno fast, dexterous and instantly grabbed to the technician of any, also the most difficult, sports exercise. Aged 12 13 years it was ahead of all contemporaries in sprint competitions. On one from competitions the 14-year-old athlete so fine ran 220 yards (slightly it is more than 200 m) that the judge decided that he spoiled a stop watch. And in 15 years (it was in 1930) Owen overcame 100 m for 10,8 with, I jumped in height on 1 m 83 cm and in length at 7 m. When Jesse grew up and became the student, his main goal began to get on Olympic Games of 1936. He very persistently trained. And it bore fruit. One year prior to the Olympic Games, speaking at student's competitions in staff Michigan, Owen set five world records in sprint and hurdling. Its run was magnificent is easy and prompt at the same time. But behind this years of persistent work stood ease. "Success is achieved hardly and not at once the athlete remembered later. As the sponge absorbs water, and the athlete has to accumulate experience, absorb knowledge of others. Everything serves to achievement of one purpose..." At the Olympic Games in Berlin to Owens wasn't equal in all types of the program, in which he took part. Jesse achieved a convincing victory in run on 100 and 200 m, then I took priority in long jumps, having shown very high even to modern measures result 8 m 06 cm. And fourth gold medal it Clark in Athens was awarded for participation in victorious relay of 4Х100 m I overcame in height of 1 m of 81 cm, and American Irving Baxter in Paris subdued level on a mark of 1 m 90 cm.However, then not only promptly achievements grew, but also is continuous the program of competitions in track and field athletics extended. If at the I Olympic Games athletes competed generally in classical types, is later more and more other disciplines won to themselves the right for life. So, in 1900 Olympians
for the first time left in sector on hammer throw and for the first time competed in run on
distances of 200 m. In 1912 were If for Owens favourite elements I was speed, the well-known Finnish runner Paavo Nurmi became famous for the numerous victories in run on endurance. Nurmi took part in
three Olympic Games, having won in total 7 gold medals. In he didn't know a current of ten years to himself equal at distances from 1500 m to 20 km.Audience was pleasant to run its unperturbable manner with a stop watch in hands.It seemed, Nurmi battled not to rivals, but only over time.
For the first time he loudly declared himself at the Olympic Games in Antwerp in 1920. On start
run it came to 5000 m, as usual, with a stop watch in a hand. Alas, this time the stop watch played with it a dirty trick. The Finn was in the lead, from time to time throwing view of its arrows. Rate of run quite suited it. It seemed, a victory already at it in a pocket. But on a home straight unexpected breakthrough was undertaken by the Frenchman Joseph Guiliemo. Nurmi rushed was in a pursuit, but late... This lesson wasn't for the Finn in vain. He understood how it is dangerous to be too self-confident, also I made everything not to repeat a tactical mistake on the following distance 10000 m. Here he acted much more prudently: I allowed at first other runners to come forward, and before the finish I made winning shot.Before the Olympic Games in Paris (1924) Nurmi was at the zenith of fame. Thousands fans gathered on Kolomb stadium to see performance"the great Finn". And it met expectations: I made the original sports feat, having won two gold medals within one hour. At a distance of 1500 m of Nurmi took priority, without having left to rivals any hopes. Its run was prompt and beautiful. Englishman Stellard finishing the third, I failed on an unconscious path. When he recovered, Nurmi already I stood on start of run on 5000 m where again it appeared the first. It got the third gold medal in cross-country on 10000 m. This running took place
under the scorching sun beams. Its many participants didn't sustain a heat and were compelled to withdraw. And only tireless Nurmi was, appear, it is absolutely tolerant to heat. It overcame a distance with an accuracy well the debugged mechanism. He received two more gold medals for pobekda in team run on 3000 m and komandkny cross-country on 10 km (then were carried out and
Won the last Olympic victory of Nurmi in 1928 in Amsterdam ondistances of 10 km.
The great runner was honored to carry by a torch on a path of stadium and to light Olympic flame. Presently Paavo Nurmi's statue reminds of victories of this athlete, established near the Olympic stadium in Helsinki. By the way, onto this arena in 1983 the World Cup, the first in the history of track and field athletics, was held. The stadium in the capital of Finland is memorable also to the Soviet athletes. Exactly here in1952 their Olympic debut took place. Already first emergence of ours athletes on the arena of the Olympic Games was revelation for a sporting world. From Helsinki they brought home 2 gold, 8 silver and 7 bronze medals, having conceded in a team competition only to athletes of the USA who had already extensive experience of participation in the largest international tournaments.
History of domestic track and field athletics
In Russia in 1888 the first sports circle in Tyarlev, near St. Petersburg was formed. Broad development of modern track and field athletics is connected with revival of the Olympic Games (1896) as largest international competitions; the national track and field athletics championships began to be played (in Russia in 1908 16 annually). In 1911 the All-Russian union of fans of track and field athletics which united about 20 sports leagues of St. Petersburg, Moscow, Kiev, etc. is founded; In 1912 Russian athletes for the first time participated in the Olympic Games. In 1912 the International amateur track and field athletics federation (IAAF) is created
First competitions of owls. athletes took place in 1918 in Petrograd, in 1920 the Olympic Games in which program the main place was occupied by track and field athletics:
Siberian (Omsk), Cisural (Yekaterinburg), Central Asian (Tashkent), North Caucasian (Mineralnye Vody). In 1922 the championship of RSFSR in track and field athletics (Moscow), in 1923 took place the first international meeting (with athletes of Finland), in 1928 the first all-Union sports contest. In the 30th scientific and methodical bases of modern system of training of athletes started being created. With introduction in 1931 of a complex "It is ready to work and
to defense of the USSR" (GTO) track and field athletics became one of the most mass sports. Formation and development of domestic track and field athletics in the 30th the 40th.
it is connected with names C. And. and G. I. Znamensky, A. A. Pugachevsky, F. K. Vanin, E. M. Vasilyeva, M. I. Shamanova, T. A. Bykova, R. D. Lyulko (run), N. G. Ozolina (jumps), S. T. Lyakhova (throwing) and others which these years showed results of the international class.
In 1948 the All-Union federation of track and field athletics of the USSR entered in members of IAAF (for January 1 1972 IAAF I united national federations of 143 countries).
From 1946 owls. athletes participate in the European championships (are carried out with 1934 in even years between the Olympic Games), with 1952 in the Olympic Games. With 1958 track and field athletics matches between athletes of the USSR, etc. countries (the USA, GDR, France, Great Britain, Italy, Poland, Czechoslovakia), the international competitions devoted to memory of outstanding athletes are regularly played (memorials brothers Znamensky in the USSR, Ya. Kusochinsky in Poland, E. Roshitsky in Czechoslovakia, etc.), on prizes of the organizations and newspapers ("Truth" and "News" in the USSR, "Yumanita" in France, etc.), with 1964 the track and field athletics European championships for juniors, with 1965 competitions on the European cup, with 1966 the European championships indoors.
In 1968 the European association of track and field athletics is founded. EAA uniting 35
national federations, including the USSR (1972), at the end of 60 - the beginning of the 70th organized federations of track and field athletics of Asia, Africa, Latin American
countries, New Zealand and Oceania. In 1952 72 Soviet athletes won at the Olympic Games 35 gold, 31 silver and 41 bronze medals, in the European championships respectively 61, 46 and 51 medals.
Olympic champions: N. V. Avilov, P. G. Bolotnikov,
A.P. Bondarchuk, V. F. Borzoye (twice), L. I. Bragina, V. N. Brumel, V. S. Golubnichy (twice), R. I. Klim, V. S. Krepkina, V. P. Kuts (twice), Ya.V. Lusis, L. I. Lysenko, F. G. Melnik, E. A. Ozolina, N. A. Ponomareva (twice), I. N. Press (twice), T. N. Press (three times), V. V. Rudenkov, V. D. Saiyeev (twice), L. V. Spirin, Yu. A. Tarmak, T. A. Tyshkevich, V. S. Tsybulenko, R. M. Shavlakadze, N. V. Chizhova, I. V. Yaunzem.
Champions of Europe: E. A. Arzhanov, V. M. Bogdanova, V. N. Bulanchik, N. Ya. Dumbadzs, A.V. Ignatyev, M. L. Itkina, H.3. Karakulov, K.Ya. Lapteva, N.G. Otkalenko, S. K. Popov, T.N. Sevryukova, E.I. Sechenova, N. V. Smirnitskaya, V. V. Kuznetsov, I.A. Tsr-Ovanesyan, I.R. Turova, A.P. Chudina, T.S. Shchelkanova, L.M. Scherbakov, etc.
Repeatedly improved world, European and all-Union records in different types of track and field athletics: E.E. Gorchakova, E.V. Gushchin, G. Ya. Klimov, G. I. Zybina, M.P. Krivonosov, Yu.N. Lituyev, V. I. Truseiyev.)
The used literature
1. V.'s smiths, Tennov V. Olympic rings of "queen of sport". Moscow, Soviet Russia", 1979.
2. E.A. Malkov. Make friends with "the queen of sport". Moscow, "Education", 1987.
3. Priests V., Suslov F., Livado E. Young athlete. Moscow, "Physical culture and
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