Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика
Los Angeles officially the City of Los Angeles, often known by its initials L.A., is the most populous city in the U.S. state of California and the second-most populous in the United States, after New York City, with a population at the 2010 United States Census of 3,792,621.
МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РОССИЙСКОЙ
Государственное образовательное учреждение
высшего профессионального образования
УРАЛЬСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКИЙ
Студент: Тангрибердиева Л. Р.
Проверил: Прешкина Т. А.
Los Angeles officially the City of Los Angeles, often known by its initials L.A., is the most populous city in the U.S. state of California and the second-most populous in the United States, after New York City, with a population at the 2010 United States Census of 3,792,621. It has a land area of 469 square miles (1,215 km2), and is located in Southern California.
The city is the focal point of the larger Los AngelesLong BeachAnaheim metropolitan statistical area and Greater Los Angeles Area region, which contain 13 million and over 18 million people in combined statistical area respectively as of 2010, making it one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world and the second largest in the United States. Los Angeles is also the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated and one of the most ethnically diverse counties in the United States, while the entire Los Angeles area itself has been recognized as the most diverse of the nation's largest cities. The city's inhabitants are referred to as Angelenos.
Spanish governor Felipe de Neve founded Los Angeles on September 4, 1781. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the MexicanAmerican War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, thereby becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood.
Nicknamed the City of Angels, Los Angeles is a global city, with strengths in business, international trade, entertainment, culture, media, fashion, science, sports, technology, education, medicine and research and has been ranked sixth in the Global Cities Index and 9th Global Economic Power Index. The city is home to renowned institutions covering a broad range of professional and cultural fields and is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States. The Los Angeles combined statistical area (CSA) has a gross metropolitan product (GMP) of $831 billion (as of 2008), making it the third largest in the world, after the Greater Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles includes Hollywood and leads the world in the creation of television productions, video games, and recorded music; it is also one of the leaders in motion picture production. Additionally, Los Angeles hosted the Summer Olympic Games in 1932 and 1984.
High percentage of creatives
Los Angeles is often billed as the "Creative Capital of the World," because one in every six of its residents works in a creative industry. According to the USC Stevens Institute for Innovation, "there are more artists, writers, filmmakers, actors, dancers and musicians living and working in Los Angeles than any other city at any time in the history of civilization."
Movies and the performing arts
Los Angeles is home to Hollywood, globally recognized as the epicenter of the motion picture industry. A testament to its preeminence in film, the city plays host to the annual Academy Awards, the oldest and one of the most prominent award ceremonies in the world. Finally, Los Angeles is home to the USC School of Cinematic Arts, the oldest film school in the United States.
The performing arts play a major role in Los Angeles' cultural identity. According to the USC Stevens Institute for Innovation, "there are more than 1,100 annual theatrical productions and 21 openings every week." The Los Angeles Music Center is "one of the three largest performing arts centers in the nation," with more than 1.3 million visitors per year. The Walt Disney Concert Hall, centerpiece of the Music Center, is home to the prestigious Los Angeles Philharmonic. Notable organizations such as Center Theatre Group, the Los Angeles Master Chorale, and the Los Angeles Opera are also resident companies of the Music Center. Talent is locally cultivated at premier institutions such as the Colburn School and the USC Thornton School of Music.
Museums and galleries
There are 841 museums and art galleries in Los Angeles County. In fact, Los Angeles has more museums per capita than any other city in the world. Some of the notable museums are the Los Angeles County Museum of Art (the largest art museum in the Western United States), the Getty Center (part of the larger J. Paul Getty Trust, the world's wealthiest art institution), the Battleship Iowa, and the Museum of Contemporary Art. A significant number of art galleries are located on Gallery Row, and tens of thousands attend the monthly Downtown Art Walk there.
Los Angeles has over 1,600 murals throughout the city that touch on a variety of subjects. The Chandler Outdoor Gallery is a collection of murals in the NoHo Arts District. Hollywoods urban art is more celebrity-focused, such as “Hollywood Jazz 1945-1972” on the iconic Capitol Records building, “You Are the Star” on Wilcox, and “Dolores del Rio” on Hudson. In Downtown L.A., “The Pope of Broadway” depicts actor Anthony Quinn dancing on the side of the Victors Clothing Building. “Los Angeles Teachers” features Edward James Olmos in character alongside Jaime Escalante in a mural located behind East L.A.s famous El Mercado marketplace. For urban art from a different point of view, Metro's Art Department has commissioned more than 300 artists to incorporate art into transportation projects throughout L.A. County.
Theres nothing quite like experiencing concerts in Los Angeles, whether its a stadium show with tens of thousands of screaming fans, or a late night jazz session in an intimate club. LAs world-class venues include the stunning Walt Disney Concert Hall and the Nokia Theatre at L.A. Live in Downtown LA, Hollywoods Dolby Theatre, and the historic Wiltern and the Palladium. LA's year-round sunny weather is ideal for enjoying outdoor concerts at the Hollywood Bowl, Greek Theatre and John Anson Ford Theatre. Music festivals and free concerts include the Grand Performances at California Plaza, the Music Spotlight Series at Universal CityWalk, and the Twilight Dance Series at the Santa Monica Pier. Concerts happen every night in smaller clubs like the Conga Room and the House of Blues Sunset Strip.
Theatre & Dance
There are more theaters in Los Angeles than any other city in the United States, and its 1,500 annual productions are more than any city in the world. Dance productions range from classical ballet to avant-garde performances. Hollywoods landmark Pantages Theatre presents all-time Broadway hits like Book of Mormon, Peter Pan and West Side Story. Center Theatre Group is one is of the largest theatre companies in the nation, with year-round programming at the Mark Taper Forum and the Ahmanson Theatre in Downtown L.A., and the Kirk Douglas Theatre in Culver City. Glorya Kaufman Presents Dance at The Music Center (KDMC) is one of the largest West Coast presenters of dance. REDCAT is a creative laboratory inside Walt Disney Concert Hall that nurtures todays cutting-edge artists.
Architecture & Gardens
Many Los Angeles landmarks are renowned as architectural masterpieces, and L.A.s lush gardens are equally as famous. Pritzker Prize winning architects designed Walt Disney Concert Hall, the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels, the Broad Contemporary Art Museum at LACMA, and the Getty Center. Legendary architect Frank Lloyd Wright designed several L.A. landmarks, including the Hollyhock House and the Ennis House. Gardens are an integral part of L.A.s cultural landscape, such as Descanso Gardens and the Huntington Library. Exposition Parks famous Rose Garden is on the National Register of Historic Places. Renowned artist Robert Irwin designed the Getty Centers Central Garden. UCLAs Mildred E. Mathias Botanical Garden maintains one of the country's most important living botanical collections.
When it comes to fashion, Los Angeles has always been a city ahead of the curve. Fashionistas should head straight to the Fashion District in Downtown L.A., one of the best shopping areas in the world for cutting edge fashion and bargain prices. Visit La Brea Avenue for trendy gear and vintage clothing, or stroll nearby West Third Street and its many boutiques. The jet set park their Ferraris on famed Rodeo Drive for the ultimate luxury items, while mere mortals can shop with the stars on Robertson Blvd. Celebrities have also made Ventura Blvd. in the Valley a hotspot for vintage and high-end fashion alike. Tomorrows fashion superstars are being created today at the Fashion Institute of Design & Merchandising (FIDM), where the public can attend the annual DEBUT Runway Show, and fashion exhibits at the FIDM museum.
Colleges and universities
There are three public universities located within the city limits: California State University, Los Angeles (CSULA), California State University, Northridge (CSUN) and University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA).
The community college system consists of nine campuses governed by the trustees of the Los Angeles Community College District: East Los Angeles College (ELAC), Los Angeles City College (LACC), Los Angeles Harbor College, Los Angeles Mission College, Los Angeles Pierce College, Los Angeles Valley College (LAVC), Los Angeles Southwest College, Los Angeles Trade-Technical College and West Los Angeles College.
There are numerous additional colleges and universities in the Greater Los Angeles area. The Claremont Colleges consortium, which includes some of the most prestigious liberal arts colleges in the United States, is located 35 miles (56 km) east of downtown Los Angeles.
Schools and libraries
Los Angeles Unified School District serves almost all of the city of Los Angeles, as well as several surrounding communities, with a student population around 800,000. After Proposition 13 was approved in 1978, urban school districts had considerable trouble with funding. LAUSD has become known for its underfunded, overcrowded and poorly maintained campuses, although its 162 Magnet schools help compete with local private schools. Several small sections of Los Angeles are in the Las Virgenes Unified School District. The Los Angeles County Office of Education operates the Los Angeles County High School for the Arts. The Los Angeles Public Library system operates 72 public libraries in the city. Enclaves of unincorporated areas are served by branches of the County of Los Angeles Public Library, many of which are within walking distance to residents.
The major daily English-language newspaper in the area is the Los Angeles Times. La Opinión is the city's major daily Spanish-language paper, The Korea Times is the city's major daily Korean language paper, and The Los Angeles Sentinel is the city's major African-American weekly paper, boasting the largest Black readership in the Western United States. Investor's Business Daily is distributed from its L.A. corporate offices, which are headquartered in Playa Del Rey.
There are also a number of smaller regional newspapers, alternative weeklies and magazines, including the Los Angeles Register, Daily News (which focuses coverage on the San Fernando Valley), LA Weekly, L.A. Record (which focuses coverage on the music scene in the Greater Los Angeles Area), Los Angeles magazine, Los Angeles Business Journal, Los Angeles Daily Journal (legal industry paper), The Hollywood Reporter and Variety (entertainment industry papers), and Los Angeles Downtown News. In addition to the major papers, numerous local periodicals serve immigrant communities in their native languages, including Armenian, English, Korean, Persian, Russian, Chinese, Japanese, Hebrew, and Arabic. Many cities adjacent to Los Angeles also have their own daily newspapers whose coverage and availability overlaps into certain Los Angeles neighborhoods. Examples include The Daily Breeze (serving the South Bay), and The Long Beach Press-Telegram.
Los Angeles and New York City are the only two media markets to have seven VHF allocations assigned to them.
The city has major broadcast channels as well as three PBS stations. World TV operates on two channels and the area has several Spanish-language television networks. KTBN 40 is the flagship station of the religious Trinity Broadcasting Network, based out of Santa Ana. A variety of independent television stations also operate in the area.
4 ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
A Gabrielino settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ (written Yang-na by the Spanish), which has been translated as "poison oak place". Yang-na has also been translated as "the valley of smoke." Owing to geography, heavy reliance on automobiles, and the Los Angeles/Long Beach port complex, Los Angeles suffers from air pollution in the form of smog. The Los Angeles Basin and the San Fernando Valley are susceptible to atmospheric inversion, which holds in the exhausts from road vehicles, airplanes, locomotives, shipping, manufacturing, and other sources.
The smog season lasts from May to October. Unlike other large cities that rely on rain to clear smog, Los Angeles gets only 15 inches (380 mm) of rain each year: pollution accumulates over many consecutive days. Issues of air quality in Los Angeles and other major cities led to the passage of early national environmental legislation, including the Clean Air Act. More recently, the state of California has led the nation in working to limit pollution by mandating low-emission vehicles. Smog is expected to continue to drop in the coming years due to aggressive steps to reduce it, which include electric and hybrid cars, improvements in mass transit, and other measures.
The number of Stage 1 smog alerts in Los Angeles has declined from over 100 per year in the 1970s to almost zero in the new millennium. Despite improvement, the 2006 and 2007 annual reports of the American Lung Association ranked the city as the most polluted in the country with short-term particle pollution and year-round particle pollution. In 2008, the city was ranked the second most polluted and again had the highest year-round particulate pollution. The city met its goal of providing 20 percent of the city's power from renewable sources in 2010.
The American Lung Association's 2013 survey ranks the metro area as having the nation's worst smog, and fourth in both short term and year round pollution amounts.
The Roman Catholic Archbishop of Los Angeles leads the largest archdiocese in the country. Cardinal Roger Mahony oversaw construction of the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels, which opened in September 2002 in downtown Los Angeles. Construction of the cathedral marked a coming of age of the city's Catholic, heavily Latino community. There are numerous Catholic churches and parishes throughout Los Angeles.
In 2011 the once common but ultimately lapsed custom of conducting a procession and Mass in honour of Nuestra Señora de los Ángeles in commemoration of the founding of the City of Los Angeles in 1781 was revived by the Queen of Angels Foundation and its founder Mark Albert, with the support and approbation of the Archdiocese of Los Angeles as well as several civic leaders. The recently revived custom is a continuation of the original processions and Masses, which commenced on the first anniversary of the founding of Los Angeles in 1782 and continued for nearly a century thereafter.
With 621,000 Jews in the metropolitan area (490,000 in city proper), the region has the second largest population of Jews in the United States. Many of Los Angeles' Jews now live on the Westside and in the San Fernando Valley, though Boyle Heights and Northwest Los Angeles once had large Jewish populations. Many varieties of Judaism are represented in the area, including Reform, Conservative, Orthodox, and Reconstructionist. The Breed Street Shul in East Los Angeles, built in 1923, was the largest synagogue west of Chicago in its early decades. (It is no longer a sacred space and is being converted to a museum and community center.) The Kabbalah Centre also has a presence in the city.
The Los Angeles California Temple, the second largest temple operated by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, is on Santa Monica Boulevard in the Westwood district of Los Angeles. Dedicated in 1956, it was the first Mormon temple built in California and it was the largest in the world when completed.
The Hollywood region of Los Angeles also has several significant headquarters, churches, and the Celebrity Center of Scientology.
Because of Los Angeles' large multi-ethnic population, a wide variety of faiths are practiced, including Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, Zoroastrianism, Sikhism, Bahá'í, various Eastern Orthodox Churches, Sufism and others. Immigrants from Asia for example, have formed a number of significant Buddhist congregations making the city home to the greatest variety of Buddhists in the world.
For Los Angeles is characterized by the absence of any clearly defined center. Historically, the city was built without a single plan (unlike Manhattan, for example), a large part of its population lives in low-rise buildings in downtown and only (downtown) towering skyscrapers few (among which is the tallest building in the United States west of Chicago - US Bank Tower). The names of many areas of the "Big Orange" known throughout the world, such as "cinematic" Hollywood, famous for its canals and Venice Beach ("Venice of America"), "enclaves millionaires" Bel Air and Beverly Hills, notorious because of race riots 1992 South Centre (South Central) and many others.
Every year, thousands of tourists visit Los Angeles. Among the attractions of "City of Angels" - monuments (including the building of the railway station "Union Station" cinema "Grauman's Chinese Theatre", the Catholic Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels, City Hall "City Hall"); "Hollywood Walk of Fame" (on which the stars dedicated to famous artists), Dolby Theatre (Kodak Theatre, it was held the awards ceremony, "Oscar", Griffith Observatory (known for its planetarium), located in Anaheim amusement park "Disneyland"; numerous museums, galleries, theaters and concert halls (including the largest art Museum of Los Angeles County, the Getty-Center, art Museum Armand Hammer Museum of Contemporary Art, Walt Disney Concert Hall), as well as the beach and promenade.
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