Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

WHT IS N ELECTRIC CURRENT The question is often sked: Wht is n electric current No one hs ever seen it. We only know of the existence of current owing to its effects. current cn het conductor it cn hve chemicl ction when pssing through solution or it cn produce mgnetic effect. We cn mesure currents by observing their heting chemicl or mgnetic effects.



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The question is often asked: "What is an electric current?'' No one has ever seen it. We only know of the existence of a current owing to its effects. A current can heat a conductor, it can have a chemical action when passing through a solution, or it can produce a magnetic effect. We can measure currents by observing their heating, chemical or magnetic effects. The practical unit of current is called the Ampere.

Two things are necessary to cause an electric current to flow first — a complete circuit, and second — a driving force called the electromotive force (e. m. f.).

If you put free electrons on an insulated copper ball, what would  they do? In this case they would try to repel each other. In case you connected this charged ball to another ball of equal size by a copper wire, what would be the result? The electrons would move along the copper wire until the number of electrons on each ball were the same. This is an example of electromotive force causing a current to flow.

A battery has a surplus of electrons on one of its two plates; so you say that a battery furnishes an e. m. f. If a copper wire is run from one plate to the other, a current flows in the complete circuit thus made. If a small bulb is placed in the circuit, it will light up, giving evidence to a current flow. If the battery were disconnected and a generator substituted for it, we should have a typical lighting system. Both batteries and generator are the most common sources of electromotive force. The practical unit of e. m. f. is the Volt.

Currents will flow more readily in some substances than in others, chat  is, various substances offer lesser or greater resistance to the flow of current. Such substances as porcelain, ebonite, rubber, glass and the like having extremely high resistance are known as insulators. The practical unit of resistance is the Ohm.

Substances whose properties lie between those of conductors and insulators are called semiconductors. Let us name but a few most widely used at present, they are germanium, silicon, selenium and copper oxide. The importance of semiconductors in our life cannot be overestimated. But for these tiny "workhorses" electronic industry would not have achieved such a great progress.