Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика
Achievements in studying atom structure have opened up new, practically unlimited possibilities to humanity for further mastering natures forces. The discovery of atomic energy provides as profound effect for the benefit of civilization as the discovery of fire and electricity.
9. PEACEFUL ATOMS
Achievements in studying atom structure have opened up new, practically unlimited possibilities to humanity for further mastering nature's forces. The discovery of atomic energy provides as profound effect for the benefit of civilization as the discovery of fire and electricity.
After having recovered from the shock of unimaginable horror of the explosion of the atomic bomb over Hiroshima people asked scientists how soon they would be able to apply the immense power of fissioned nucleus to peaceful purposes. Many problems had to be solved: the main one was that of "braking" the released neutrons efficiently so that the chaim reaction could be controlled.
The "classical'' solution to this problem is conducting the heat generated by the fission process out of the reactor, making it boil water and forcing the resulting steam to drive turbines which, in their turn, drive electric generators. It is a way which works well aithouyh it is still rather expensive.
It is to be noted that the first power station fed by atomic fuels which was also the world's first atomic power station started working in Obninsk, near Moscow, in 1954. Its capacity was 5,000 kilowatts. Thirty years later in the Soviet Union there were already 13 atomic power stations with the total capacity of over 21 million kilowatts.
At the same time with large atomic stations smaller mobile electricity producing units have been created based on the discovery of radioactive sources isotopes. Mobile nuclear installations may be carried by rail and then by transporters to the out-of-the-way regions even in areas having no roads. Such a station according to estimates can operate without being recharged for two years.
Today scientists are looking for new more efficient nuclear processes of producing energy. But it was only lately that the physicists understood that the process of producing tremendous energy by stars, including our Sun, was the very process they were looking for. Now we know that this thermonuclear process is called fusion and it takes place at fantastically high temperatures. It can be done only by imitating on the Earth the process that makes the Sun shine.
There are many difficult problems to overcome before thermonuclear power stations based on this process can become a reality, but the problem of fuel supply is the least of them: the oceans of the Earth are practically an inexhaustible source of deuterium which plays the decisive part in the fusion process and its extraction from sea water is neither complicated nor expensive.
In short, peaceful uses of atomic energy are vast but we must stop using it on weapons of mass annihilation.
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