79581

FUNDAMENTALS OF THEORY AND PRACTICE OF TRANSLATION

Книга

Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

Тhe educational material is grouped in topical arrangements and staffed within the case modules’ framework representing the set of submodules enabling one to familiarize the trainees with the theoretical information and to consolidate it in slideshow illustrations, assignments, exercises.

Английский

2015-02-13

1.44 MB

3 чел.

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE

OF THE REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN

TURAN-ASTANA” UNIVERSITY

ABISHEVA K.M., STATIVKIN V.V.

FUNDAMENTALS OF THEORY AND PRACTICE OF TRANSLATION

MANUAL

ASTANA

2014

УДК 81’35:81’27

ББК 81.2 рус – 5 – 923

А15

Reviewers:

Kairjanov A.B., doctor of philological sciences, professor

Zhunusova Zh.N., doctor of philological sciences, professor

Sagidolla K., doctor of philological sciences, professor

Abisheva K.M., Stativkin V.V.

А15 Fundamentals of theory and practice of translation. Manual. – Astana: “Turan-Astana” University, 2014. – 352 pp.

ISBN 978 – 601 – 214 – 000 – 2

The tutorial is intended for students of the "Translation studies" specialty, undergraduates, it gives an idea about the general problems of the theory of translation connected with the revealing of its essence, the specification of models of translation activity, a description of its types, methods of translation. There is a personality of translator given, the parameters of its structure described. Also there are examined the lexical and stylistic issues of translation, the focus is on the national specificity of lexical and stylistic units, causing difficulties in the translation activity.

The educational material is grouped in topical arrangements and staffed within the case modules' framework representing the set of submodules enabling one to familiarize the trainees with the theoretical information and to consolidate it in slideshow illustrations, assignments, exercises. The control over the acquiring of the material studied is carried out in the course of questions-answering mode, and also by testing procedure.

Recommended for publication by the academic Council of the "Turan-Astana" University Univy

ISBN 978 – 601 – 214 – 000 – 2

© Abisheva K.M., Stativkin V.V., 2014

© “Turan-Astana” University, 2014

Content

Forword……………………………………………………………….

10

Case-modul # 1 Main constituents of the category structure of the science of “Theory of translation” ..............................................................

1.1 Theoretical submodul. Theory. Information frames. 

1.1.1 Subject of the science of “Theory of translation”……………………

14

1.1.2 Object and subject of the discipline ……………………………………

Consequences …………………………………………                                 

26

1.2 Illustrating submodul                    …………………………………………

26

1.3. Enquiry submodul. Enquiry frames. Glossary. List of main and additional literature. “Enquiry-information sites”…………………………

27

1.4 Control-training submodul. Operation frames. “Tasks”, “Excercises”…..

29

1.5 Control submodul. Controling frames. “Control questions and the variants of answers to them”. Tests for the intermediate control on the theme  ……….

31

1.6 Statistical submodul. Resulting frames (feedback). “Answers to the questions”. “Sypher to the tests”                              ………………………….

34

Case-modul # 2. Methodology and methods of the science of “Theory of translation”.

2.1 Theoretical submodul. Theory. Information frames. 

2.1.1 Methodology of “Theory of translation” and general science principles of its research                                 …………………………………………….

34

2.1.2 The general science methods of research of “Theory of translation”                            

37

2.1.3 The concrete (specialized) methods of research of “Theory of translation”                   ………………………………………………………..

39

Consequences…………………………………………………………............

47

2.2 Illustrating submodul. Illustration frames. “Graphics”. “Examples”……………………………………………………………

48

2.3 Enquiry submodul. Enquiry frames. Glossary. List of main and additional literature. “Enquiry-information sites”. …………………………………….

53

2.4 Control-training submodul. Operation frames. “Tasks”, “Excercises”….

54

2.5. Control submodul. Controling frames. “Control questions and the variants of answers to them”. Tests for the intermediate control on the theme  

58

2.6. Statistical submodul. Resulting frames (feedback). “Answers to the questions”. “Sypher to the tests”…………..……………….

60

Case-modul # 3. The essence of translation

3.1. Theoretical submodul. Theory. Information frames. 

3.1.1. Theory as an activity                                                ……………….........

61

3.1.2 Translation as an intercultural communication…………………………

65

3.1.3 Translation as a text activity ………………………………….

69

Consequences…………………………………………………......................

69

3.2. Illustrating submodul. Illustration frames. “Graphics”. “Examples”

71

3.3. Enquiry submodul. Enquiry frames. Glossary. List of main and additional literature. “Enquiry-information sites”.……………

74

3.4. Control-training submodul. Operation frames. “Tasks”, “Excercises”…...

78

3.5. Control submodul. Controling frames. “Control questions and the variants of answers to them”. Tests for the intermediate control on the theme  

83

3.6. Statistical submodul. Resulting frames (feedback). “Answers to the questions”. “Sypher to the tests”..........................................

85

Case-modul # 4. The language personality of a translator as a subject of translation activity  

4.1.1. Peculiarities of the language personality of translator as a bilingual personality and mediator in the interlinguistic communication …………….

86

4.1.2. Structure of the language personality of translator…………………….

91

4.1.3 Language abilities of translator and the translation competence, its constituents ………………………………..

95

Consequences ………………………………………………………………...

98

4.2. Illustrating submodul. Illustration frames. “Graphics”. “Examples”

99

4.3. Enquiry submodul. Enquiry frames. Glossary. List of main and additional literature. “Enquiry-information sites”.…………………………..

100

4.4. Control-training submodul. Operation frames. “Tasks”, “Excercises”.

102

4.5. Control submodul. Controling frames. “Control questions and the variants of answers to them”. Tests for the intermediate control on the theme  

105

4.6. Statistical submodul. Resulting frames (feedback). “Answers to the questions”. “Sypher to the tests”……………………….

108

Case-modul # 5. Problem the translation definition, ways of translation

5.1. Theoretical submodul. Theory. Information frames. 

5.1.1. Definition of the notion of the “translation”…………………………..

109

5.1.2 Main ways of translation ……………………………………….

118

5.2. Illustrating submodul. Illustration frames. “Graphics”.   “Examples”…...

126

5.3.Enquiry submodul. Enquiry frames. Glossary. List of main and additional literature. “Enquiry-information sites”.…………………………….

129

5.4. Control-training submodul. Operation frames. “Tasks”, “Excercises”..

131

5.5. Control submodul. Controling frames. “Control questions and the variants of answers to them”. Tests for the intermediate control on the theme  

134

5.6. Statistical submodul. Resulting frames (feedback). “Answers to the questions”. “Sypher to the tests”………………………….

138

Case-modul # 6. Modeling of the translation process.

6.1. Theoretical submodul. Theory. Information frames. 

6.1.1. Main models of translation ………………………………………….

138

6.1.2 Cognitive-activity model of translation process …………….

147

6.2. Illustrating submodul. Illustration frames. “Graphics”. “Examples”…....

151

6.3. Enquiry submodul. Enquiry frames. Glossary. List of main and additional literature. “Enquiry-information sites”.……

152

6.4. Control-training submodul. Operation frames. “Tasks”, “Excercises

153

6.5. Control submodul. Controling frames. “Control questions and the variants of answers to them”. Tests for the intermediate control on the theme  

155

6.6. Statistical submodul. Resulting frames (feedback). “Answers to the questions”. “Sypher to the tests” …………………………..

157

Case-modul # 7. Realia in translation studies and the problem of rendering them into another language.

7.1. Theoretical submodul. Theory. Information frames. 

7.1.1 Problem of realia definition and their types…………………………..

180

7.1.2. Lacunae as a type of equivalentless words………………………

184

7.1.3. Realia classification in the translation studies and the ways of their translation.

193

7.2. Illustrating submodul. Illustration frames. “Graphics”. “Examples”…….

196

7.3. Enquiry submodul. Enquiry frames. Glossary. List of main and additional literature. “Enquiry-information sites”.………………...........

197

7.4. Control-training submodul. Operation frames. “Tasks”, “Excercises

201

7.5. Control submodul. Controling frames. “Control questions and the variants of answers to them”. Tests for the intermediate control on the theme  

204

7.6. Statistical submodul. Resulting frames (feedback). “Answers to the questions”. “Sypher to the tests”………………………..

206

Case-modul # 8. Problem of the polysemantic words' translation

8.1. Theoretical submodul. Theory. Information frames. 

8.1.1. Definition of the notion of the “polysemantic word”…………………

207

8.1.2. Contrastive-comparative analysis of the polysemantic words of the original and translation languages and finding out of the discrepancies in their structure……………...

211

8.1.3 Devices of the translation of the polysemantic words………………….

215

8.2. Illustrating submodul. Illustration frames. “Graphics”. “Examples”……

217

8.3. Enquiry submodul. Enquiry frames. Glossary. List of main and additional literature. “Enquiry-information sites”.…………………...............

219

8.4. Control-training submodul. Operation frames. “Tasks”, “Excercises”.

220

8.5. Control submodul. Controling frames. “Control questions and the variants of answers to them”. Tests for the intermediate control on the theme  

222

8.6. Statistical submodul. Resulting frames (feedback). “Answers to the questions”. “Sypher to the tests”…………… ………….

225

Case-modul # 9. Ways of phraseologisms' translation and problems of their translation into another language

9.1. Theoretical submodul. Theory. Information frames. 

9.1.1. General classification of the phraseologisms in linguistics and in the translation studies………………………………………………………..

226

9.1.3 Phraseologism translation devices …………………………………..

232

Consequences        …………………………………………………………..

234

9.2. Illustrating submodul. Illustration frames. “Graphics”. “Examples”….....

235

9.3. Enquiry submodul. Enquiry frames. Glossary. List of main and additional literature. “Enquiry-information sites”.………

237

9.4. Control-training submodul. Operation frames. “Tasks”, “Excercises”..

238

9.5. Control submodul. Controling frames. “Control questions and the variants of answers to them”. Tests for the intermediate control on the theme  

241

9.6. Statistical submodul. Resulting frames (feedback). “Answers to the questions”. “Sypher to the tests” …………………………

243

Case-modul # 10. The synonyms translation problem

10.1. Theoretical submodul. Theory. Information frames.  

10.1.1. Classification of the synonyms……………………………………

244

10.1.2 Types of connections, functions of the synonyms and the problem of the adequate rendering of the synonyms into the language of translation …..

247

10.1.3 Devices of synonyms' translation…………………………………….

250

Consequences ………………………………….

251

10.2. Illustrating submodul. Illustration frames. “Graphics”. “Examples”

252

10.3. Enquiry submodul. Enquiry frames. Glossary. List of main and additional literature. “Enquiry-information sites”.….............

253

10.4. Control-training submodul. Operation frames. “Tasks”, “Excercises” …

255

10.5. Control submodul. Controling frames. “Control questions and the variants of answers to them”. Tests for the intermediate control on the theme  

257

10.6. Statistical submodul. Resulting frames (feedback). “Answers to the questions”. “Sypher to the tests” ………………………….

259

Case-modul # 11. Terms and the problem of their translation

11.1. Theoretical submodul. Theory. Information frames. 

11.1.1. On the main defects in the process of terms' translation………...

260

11.1.2 Terminological concept: its main features…………….

263

11.1.3 Ways of terms' translation…………………………………...

267

11.2. Illustrating submodul. Illustration frames. “Graphics”. “Examples”.......

270

11.3. Enquiry submodul. Enquiry frames. Glossary. List of main and additional literature. “Enquiry-information sites”.....................................

272

11.4. Control-training submodul. Operation frames. “Tasks”, “Excercises”...

273

11.5. Control submodul. Controling frames. “Control questions and the variants of answers to them”. Tests for the intermediate control on the theme  

275

11.6. Statistical submodul. Resulting frames (feedback). “Answers to the questions”. “Sypher to the tests”.……………………………………...

278

Case-modul # 12. Problem of the metaphor translation

12.1. Theoretical submodul. Theory. Information frames. 

12.1.1. Linguistic theory of metaphor…………………………………

279

12.1.2. Devices of metaphor translation ...................................................

283

12.2. Illustrating submodul. Illustration frames. “Graphics”. “Examples”...

286

12.3. Enquiry submodul. Enquiry frames. Glossary. List of main and additional literature. “Enquiry-information sites”.………

288

12.4. Control-training submodul. Operation frames. “Tasks”, “Excercises

289

12.5. Control submodul. Controling frames. “Control questions and the variants of answers to them”. Tests for the intermediate control on the theme  

291

12.6. Statistical submodul. Resulting frames (feedback). “Answers to the questions”. “Sypher to the tests”………………..

293

Case-modul # 13. Problems of metonimy translation.

13.1. Theoretical submodul. Theory. Information frames. 

13.1.1 Metonimy as a linguo-cognitive mechanism of the speech-thought activity……………………………………….

294

13.1.2 Mental metonimic models……………………………….

297

13.1.3 Devices of the metonimy translation......................................................

299

13.2. Illustrating submodul. Illustration frames. “Graphics”. ……………

303

13.3. Enquiry submodul. Enquiry frames. Glossary. List of main and additional literature. “Enquiry-information sites”.………...………….

305

13.4. Control-training submodul. Operation frames. “Tasks”, “Excercises”.

306

13.5. Control submodul. Controling frames. “Control questions and the variants of answers to them”. Tests for the intermediate control on the theme.  

308

13.6. Statistical submodul. Resulting frames (feedback). “Answers to the questions”. “Sypher to the tests” ………………………….

310

Case-modul # 14. Comparisons and ways of their translation

14.1. Theoretical submodul. Theory. Information frames.

14.1.1. Linguo-cognitive origin of comparison…………………….

311

14.1.2. National specifics of the imaginative comparison…………………

313

14.1.3. Devices of the comparison translation………………………................

315

14.2. Illustrating submodul. Illustration frames. “Graphics”. “Examples”…...

319

14.3. Enquiry submodul. Enquiry frames. Glossary. List of main and additional literature. “Enquiry-information sites”.….

321

14.4. Control-training submodul. Operation frames. “Tasks”, “Excercises”…

323

14.5. Control submodul. Controling frames. “Control questions and the variants of answers to them”. Tests for the intermediate control on the theme  

325

14.6. Statistical submodul. Resulting frames (feedback). “Answers to the questions”. “Sypher to the tests” …………………………..

327

Conclusion ………………...…………………………………………………

328

Tests of the first midterm control ………………………... …………

331

Tests of the second midterm control…………………………………

338

Test for the final students' knowledge control ………………....................

345

Foreword 

 



Intensification at the present stage of these types of socio-cultural interaction, globalization, language, and cultural expansion, diffusion contributed to the updating processes of interethnic communication and exchange of a variety of information between representatives of different linguistic and cultural communities. Intercultural communication between multilingual interactants requires knowledge of a common language and appropriate social and cultural experience. Ignorance of a secondary language code required for communicative interaction between partners leads to a necessity of mediating activity of the translator, because this kind of transfer satisfies the need of communication between people, for knowing the language and principles of other cultures in the situation of bilingual communication. In this regard, there is increasing interest in the problems of translation, to its theory.
In recent decades, a large number of publications on this or other general or specific aspects of the theory and practice of translation appeared. However, in the literature investigating the questions of translation activities, there is still not solved fully the basic problems of translation. Theory of translation as an academic discipline is still evolving, it is not institutionalized and has not received the status of science, highlighting the problems of translation theory, revealing the essence of the process of transferring, systematizing its types, methods, methods that could guide and intensify the translation activity. Due to the fact that so far there is not developed a general theory of translation, the richest practice of translation has not received the sufficient theoretical understanding of the modern Humanities linguistics. According to the testimony of A. D. Schweitzer, there have been done in this area only the first, albeit promising steps in understanding the nature and fundamental laws of the translation process. These first steps are the two problems applying for a theoretical solution: 1) fundamental issues such as the status of the theory of translation, the essence of the translation, definition of the limits of translation, translatability, adequacy; 2) problems due to the procedural aspect of translation, namely: technology transfer (procedures and strategies of translation, translation as a communicative act, and others) [Schweitzer, 1988, 4].
The problems caused by the procedural aspect of translation, can be attributed to the establishment of the types of equivalences, and the question of translation transformations and its types. In addition, there is required the interpretation and theoretical study of issues related to the definition of the object, subject, methods of translation activity - categorical structure of this science. It is also necessary to identify communicative and active nature of translation as a secondary reproductive activity, to describe the language of the translator, the components of its competence, to focus on language and cultural differences that contribute to linguistic and ethnic barriers, and the emergence of linguistic and cultural interference.
Translation is a complex aspect of human activity requiring an integrated approach to its solution. Therefore, this textbook offers a theoretical concept of translation based on an interdisciplinary approach to the study of translation activity. It is a difficult methodological paradigm, which includes the principles and main provisions related to the sciences (linguistics, cultural studies, psycholinguistics, cognitive linguistics, intercultural communication, text linguistics and theory of language contacts) used in the analysis of translation activity, that will be effective and efficient in the process of characteristics of the categorical system of translation as a discipline, the study of the personality of the translator as a bilingual person, the study of factors determining and regulating the translation process. 

This tutorial helps, at least partly, to fill gaps in the general theory of translation. Without pretending to completeness and thoroughness of the stated problems and conditions, it in general outlines. And at the same time it seeks to theoretically understand them, identify ways to solve the problems. The authors, based on stated in translation studies results, expressed their views on some problems of the general theory of translation. Its purpose is to acquaint the students with the theoretical problems of the general theory and practice of translation.
The educational material presented in the book on modular technology, which includes the package of submodules, such as: 1) theoretical submodule (theory), illustrative submodule ("Graphics", "Examples"), reference submodule ("Glossary", "List of basic and additional literature", "reference sites"), the controlling submodule ("Job", "Exercises"), the control submodule ("questions and answers on them." Interim tests on the topic is a statistical submodule ("Result frames").
There are 14
case of modules. They contain the instructional materials needed to implement the training, fixing, controlling, statistics of the resulting program. In each case in a compressed form there is presented some theoretical information on the topic of discipline "Theory of translation", it is shown in the illustrating materials specified as a primary and secondary literature, information sites, the "Glossary" on the subject, there are given the assignments, exercises to consolidate and assimilate the material learned. In addition, in each case there are given the questions for self-control, hypoparathyroidism, composed tests for intermediate control on the topic. The results of the answers to the questions -  the ciphers to the tests are given in the statistical submodule. At the end of the book there is described the tests for the first, second, and final boundary control.
The cases containing the package information on the topic of the course, consistently present educational information:
Case module # 1. The main components of the categorical structure of science of the "Theory of translation" (it is characterized by the object, the subject of translation, provides a picture of the subject of translation activity);
Case module # 2. Methodology and methods of science "Theory of translation" (discusses the methodological foundations of this science, describes the General and private research methods used in the process of translation activities);
Case module # 3. The essence of translation (characterized as a kind of spiritual and practical, reproductive activity, as a kind of intercultural communication, as a linguistic-textual activity);
Case module # 4. The language of the translator as the subject of translation activity (characteristics of a language of personality of a translator, describes the parameters of its structure, scope);
Case module # 5. The problem of defining translation methods (translation clarifies the definition of translation, characterized by its types and describes the techniques used by translators in the process of professional activity);
Case module # 6. Modeling of the process of translation (describes the basic translation models described in the literature, we propose a new cognitive-pragmatic model of translation);
Case module # 7. Realities and gaps in Translation studies, transfer them to another language (characterized by the realities of the gaps and describes their types, specified translation techniques of realities and elimination of gaps);
Case module 8. The problem of translation of multiple-meaning words (a more detailed definition of polysemantic words, ambiguous words of different languages are investigated on the basis of contrastive-comparative method and identifies differences in their semantic structure, specify the techniques of multiple-meaning words translation);
Case module # 9. Idioms and problems of translation to another language (classification of phraseological units in linguistics and in translation studies reveals the peculiarities of phraseological units, considered ways of translating idioms into another language);
Case module No. 10. The problem of translation, synonyms, types, types of relationships between them (look at the synonyms, clarifies their definition, characterized by their types of relationships between synonyms);
Case module No. 11. The terms and the problem of translating (there are analysed the mistakes in the translation of terms, discusses the term-concept, identifies the techniques of translation of terms);
Case module No. 12. The translation of metaphor (there is discussed the cognitive theory of metaphor, the types of metaphorization, techniques of translation);
Case module No. 13. the problem of translation of metonymy (metonymy is characterized in linguistic and cognitive aspects, there are are considered the mental metonymic models, described the techniques of translation of metonymie);
Case module No. 14. Comparison and ways of their translation (there are analyzed the cognitive and linguistic nature of the comparison characterized by its national specifics and techniques of translation). 

 In the proposed tutorial there is described the main topics required to study the course of "Theory of translation", the prescribed model program for the undergraduate degree V - Translation.
There are dealt with
the problems of translation theory and the practical ways of their solution in this paper and it gives a complete picture of the difficulties and complications that arise in the process of translation activities: it addresses a number of questions concerning the nature of translation, types, models, the identity of the translator, "untranslatable", translation lexical expressive means, reflects the typical situation of difficulty, in which the translator aims at eliminating the problems of translation difficulties. Therefore, the main objective of this work is to develop the skills to determine the difficulties, to enhance their knowledge about the causes of complications in the translation, to focus on national-specific in the structure of cultural-linguistic and stylistic elements, learning the practical application of their knowledge and skills.
Structure of the manual is such as it allows one to engage in the learning process as a theoretical sources for the discussion of translation problems, and to enhance one's knowledge in the process of familiarization with illustrations, Glossary, literature on the topic, as well as assignments, exercises. In addition, the textbook provides for monitoring of the teaching material on the topic, which involves the checking of students ' knowledge in the answers to the questions for self-assessment and interim testing on the subject. At the end of the tutorial there are given tests for mid-term and final examinations for the course of "Theory of translation". 

  To determine a more accurate range of theoretical problems of this discipline, it is necessary to identify the main components of a categorical system of this or that science, which helps to build a common disciplinary theory. W.E. Aliyev explores such components as object, subject, method, function, the result of the operation of science, which are included in the disciplinary paradigm, and they are the integral components of the subject model, is a scientific discipline that allows one to submit its abstract status [Aliyev, 1996, 36].
There is the i
dentification of the elements of a categorical structure of the discipline "Theory of translation" that contributes to the definition of its status and institutionalization.
The object of this discipline in many concepts is not clearly defined. According to A.I. Fedorov, theory of translation in its linguistic aspect analyzes, explains and summarizes the facts of translation experience, establishes correspondence and differences between languages" [Fedorov, 2002, 263].
The most consistent approach to the definition of the shared object translation was presented in the work A. Krasnyh "Introduction to a General theory of translation", in which the author's opinion was expressed  such as that the theory of translation is not a linguistic and not literary, and is independent scientific discipline, with its own object and subject of research. However, in this work, the object is not separately considered and is represented as a conglomerate of items that should be united by the idea of translation.
The s
tudy of the concept  by A. Krasnyh shows that the author, first, is not distinguishing between the object and the subject of the transfer; secondly, there are many research subjects that are poorly linked, they have no common ground; third, in spite of correct and successful definition of translation as the re-creation of the content and form of the original by means of another language", the author considers the problem of "recreation" as the object of translation [Lilova, 1985,40].
Only in the recent research the attempts of a distinction of the object and subject of translation were made. So, V.V. Sdobnikov and O.V. Petrov, considering that the object that belongs to the circle of material phenomena of the world, understood as the object of linguistic theory of translation "intermediary translation activities in the framework of interlingual communication submitted directly (process), and indirectly, that is "reflected in the results of the translation process" [Sdobnikov, Petrov, 2007, 70].  The subject of translation theory, in the opinion of the authors, is the study of the regularities in the translation process, factors influencing the course of the translation process and determining the result of the translation [Sdobnikov, Petrov, 70].
In general, the object and subject of translation theory is correct, because the object of translation is a translation activity, and the subject - the general principles of this process is to analyze which requires new knowledge. However, in the work there is not considered the rest of the categorical system of discipline, without which it is impossible to establish its status. 

  S.V. Seal  does more fully discuss the conceptual framework of the discipline, namely: object, subject and methods, and the object and subject of translation theory are discussed separately. According to the author, "the object of study in translation studies is the process of cross-language verbal communication. This refers to the communication based mainly on natural (not artificial) verbal languages (not languages, signals, gestures, etc.)" [Seals, 2004, 28]. The subject of the science of translation, according to the researcher, "... is the actual process of translation activities, as well as the result(s) of such activity - text(s) of transfer (transfers) [Seals, 2004, 28].
This concept of translation, despite the reservation of the author, that cross-language communication as the object of translation is carried out with the help of a translator (or translation), the object does not reflect the nature of translation and does not characterize its essence, because the translation is not communication, and activities related to communication, whereby a secondary character. The discipline's subject and object are mixed, then how should they be allocated on the basis of various criteria. The object is a key concept in the logic of categorial system of translation. As to the thinking of W.E. Aliyev, the object of scientific disciplines is "things, phenomena, processes of reality, interact with the subjects of science in cognitive research”. Here the object is the product of interaction of the subject and objective reality and as such does not exist outside of the subject [2, 39]. According to the criterion of "essence of existence" W.E. Aliyev clearly distinguished from the object of study and the object of knowledge. The object of research is something that is directed to the cognitive research activity of the subject of this science (existence). Object knowledge (nature) - "what is found in this object, which is itself the desired theoretical economic knowledge, which is actually the subject of this science [Aliyev, 1996, 117].
On the basis of a common object definition and criterion of "essence of existence", we define the object of theoretical knowledge in translation as translation ability, immanent translation activities, but actualizing in the process of secondary reproductive spoken text and mediating activity of the translator. This definition is set to something that is directed cognitive activity of the subject of the research, namely: translation ability, manifested in the ability to recreate the content and form of the original in the target language. If language ability, according to Y.U. Karaulov, is understood "as the ability of a structured isomorphic to the level of the unit of language representing the language from the perspective of the ability to create and understand texts" [Karaulov, 1987]. Translation ability is realized in the ability to speak two languages, to understand the source text and copy it to the target language, to carry out the interpretation of the text and recreate it in another language according to the author, to aware of the technology transfer, to take part in intercultural communication-texture array of activities, to convey the artistic intent of the author and features of the art image in the work.

Because the translation ability is manifested in the process of translation activity, the object of knowledge can be itself the translation activity, which can be characterized as a secondary, reproductive activity, carried out in the process of interlingual communicative act during the use of the two languages and their normative value of correlation. The result of this secondary transformative activities are prepared in the form of text in the target language. As a result of translation activity it creates the translated text. In the process of forming and creating an updated translation abilities and skills.
On disciplinary grounds, the object of translation is characterized as polydisciplinary or complex, emerging at the crossroads of many disciplines, as translation is a complex process, which is determined by many diverse factors.

1.1.2 Subject and the subject of a discipline.

The subject of science "Theory of translation" is also controversial, as different concepts it is defined in different ways: in addition, first, the subject and the object of translation is not the same as "object" and "subject" refer to the same processes and phenomena. In this case, the translation process and its result is understood as an object and as a subject. For example, Svetlanov relates to the subject of translation as a process of translation activity and the result of this activity [10, 28].
Secondly, the subject of translation theory is understood in the broad sense, when in the process of analysis translation activity involves data related Sciences, as it is impossible adequately to describe the translation process, not considering the fact that he is not an idealized construct, and human values and psychological orientation which inevitably affects the final result. "Therefore, " writes Addwater, is in the subject developed in this book the theory of translation is the translation process in a broad socio-cultural context affects extralinguistic factors - social, cultural and psychological determinants. Excluding the last hardly possible adequate theoretical description of the transfer and disclosure of its essence" [15, 8-9].

Owiewowa and Evidalia, considering translation as a multifaceted process, consider it necessary to identify the subject of translation as the process of identifying the entity drop-down in various aspects. "So depending on which side of the translation activity is subject to scientific research, in each case, the subject of translation theory is to study the essence of translation, and the interaction of the various components of the translation process and the identification of all factors, which are directly related to translation and directly or indirectly affect the end result" [Evvoia, Dolina, 2004, 7].

Vincessero also believes that the subject of the translation is complex, because the subject is considered not only the original and translated texts, but also knowledge, experience, features of perception of people, which is the translation. The translator should also take into account the characteristics of the originator and recipient of this message, the aspects of interlingual communication, influencing the course and outcome of the creative process. Thought Vincessero, the subject of translation theory is not limited to the translation process and its result, and includes as an object the consideration of the aspects of translation as interlingual communication, as well as determining factors as well as language and external to the language, but directly or indirectly influencing the choice of language units in the translation process [of Commissioners, 1990, 40-47]. 

  In our opinion, appropriate understanding of the subject of translation theory as the mediating translational activity (i.e. the result is the bill text)body of knowledge required to describe features of the translated text. The notion of a subject of translation includes translation ability, which includes all kinds of intercultural knowledge, abilities and skills of the translator. And only in this case we can represent the subject as an object of knowledge - the subject of science and the product of the interaction of subject and object of scientific disciplines, i.e. their dialectical unity" [2, 41]. The subject of science is understood in two ways: first, as a translator-communicant translation as intercultural communicative activity, and secondly, as a "scientist" [Aliyev, 1996]. The subject can be a researcher, a scientist working on issues of translation studies, working or not working in the formal academic structure, i.e. a scientist formal or informal type. To scientific workers in the formal type are employed in academic institutions, educational institutions, research institutes and other research infrastructures (temporary research teams, HAC (SAC), scientific edition and other scientific workers in the informal type include those persons who are perevodovedenie within the informal structures (scientific schools, clubs, seminars and other proactive entities)without the status of a formality.
The object of discipline "Theory of translation" should be distinguished from each other. An object is something that is directed cognitive activity of the subject, i.e. it is a secondary reproductive activity, as well as translation ability, manifested in the process of this activity. The subject of translation theory is the result of the translation activity. The subject of the theory of translation is the translator involved in translation in two roles, first as communicant party intercultural communication and as a subject of the intermediary involved in the translation industry. Secondly, as a research worker engaged in research translation theory. 

1.2 Illustration submodul. Illustration frames.

1.2.1. Graphics

Fig. 1 – Object of the science of “Translation studies”

Fig. 2Subject of the science of “Translation studies”

1.2.2 the Examples:
Example No. 1:
The translator is a person who is mediating intercultural activities of the communicants, for example:
Translator, leaning to the major, quickly began to translate the words of Alsina.
- You are a support to each other. Will be in agreement - will be able to rule the people. Unless you can manage bradbrad? Quarrels and squabbles will kill you. Work under. And if they cannot agree, consult with such as we (M Auezov. The path of Abai, s).

Example # 2:
Next, tilting her head to one side, stood a cross-eyed, snub-nosed, fat-translator translate words superiors.
Not did Orazbay rude swearing Koshkina, or approved the emergence of Abai, which he saw through the door, but he, taking her usual proud and haughty look, shouted to talmaciu:
"Tell oyasu: I don't Oralbai, I'm not the accused and not the defendant. Zhyrenshe and Asylbek said is true, and I'll say the same: no one here for Oralbai can't answer (M Auezov. The way of Abay, C. 416).

1.3. Reference submodule. Reference frames. The Glossary. The list of basic and additional literature. "Reference sites".

1.3.1. Glossary
The object of the theory of translation is something that is directed cognitive research activity of the subject of translation. The object of translation theory, identified by the criterion of "essence of existence", is a secondary reproductive translation activity, which is the product of the interaction of the subject of translation and objective reality.
The subject of translation theory is the result of the translation industry.
Subject 1 theory of translation - the translator performs translation activity.
Subject 2 translation theory - scientist, for which translation is the research object of his cognitive activity.

1.3.2. Key readings

1. Aliyev UG General disciplinary theory of science. - Almaty: Gylym, 1996.
2. Altybaeva S.M., Madanova - literary translation and comparative literature. - Almaty: National publishing office of the Kazakh Academy of education imielinski, 2000.
3. Lilova A. Introduction to the General theory of translation. - M., 1985.
4. Sdobnikov V.V., Petrov O. Theory of translation. - M, AST: East-West, 2007.
5. Schweitzer A.D. Theory of translation: the status, problems, issues. - M.: Nauka, 1988. 

Further reading

1. N.D. Arutyunova Language and the world of man): Languages of Russian culture, 1998.
2. YU.N. Karaulov. Russian language and linguistic personality. - M.: Nauka, 1987.
3. Komissarov V.N. Theory of translation (linguistic aspects) - M.: Higher school, 1990.
4. Kondubaeva MR Culture of Russian speech (in terms of bilingualism). - Almaty: Ana tili, 1993.
5. Kunanbaev S. Modern foreign language education: methodology and theory. - Almaty, 2005.
6. Left as the Art of translation. - M., 1974.
7. Evvoia J.V., Dolina E.V. Textbook on the theory of translation (English material. - M.: Philomatic, 2004.
8. Seals SV translation Theory. - M.: Gardarika, 2004.
9. Fedorov A.N. The foundations of the General theory of translation (linguistic problems). 5th ed. St. Petersburg: the Philological faculty of St. Petersburg state University. - M.: Publishing house "Philology three", 2002.
10. Shaimerdenova NJ, Avakov R.A., Language and ethnicity: tutorial - Almaty: Kazakh University, 2004.
11. Nenbert A. Text and translation //über-setzungswissenschaftliche Batrage 8 - Leipzig. 1985.
12. Stolze K. Grundlagen der Textüber setzung. - Heidelberg. 1982.

1.3.3. Reference and informational sites
www.onelook.com   
Http://dmoz.org    
Http://wwwtenmaxcom   

1.4 Control training submodule. Operating personnel. "Job". "Exercises".

Tasks for independent work of students (IWS)

1. Be summarized paragraph "Subject, object and tasks of linguistic theory of translation in the book You, Ovitrelle "Theory of translation". - M, AST: East-West, 2007. - Pp.62-72.
2. Briefly summarized section of Chapter 1, "the status of the theory of translation" in the book Addwater "Theory of translation: the status, problems and aspects", - M., 1988. - P.6-36.

Tasks for independent work of students under the supervision of a teacher (SRSP) 

1. Draw in his notebook the schema object translation theory".
2. Determine the subject of translation theory and understand for themselves in terms of the translation activity, product translation activities".
1. Explain the essence of the term "entity translation activities".
2. Determine what is the General object of translation theory in concept A. Purple, described in the book "Introduction to a General theory of translation" (M, 1985).
3. Write the definition of the object according to the criterion of "essence - existence" of monograph WE Aliyev General disciplinary theory of science". - Almaty, 1996.
4. Determine what is the nature of the translation process. Identify for this purpose, the ratio of translation theory from related disciplines, name them.
5. Select the activity essence of the translation. This article outline L.V. Scherba "About three aspects of speech activity and about the experiment in linguistics" in the book: L.V. Shcherba the Language system and speech activity. - L., 1974.
6. Install, what to do with the process of translation is cultural studies. Determine what is the differentiating feature of culture. Read the book NG Shaimerdenova and R.A. Avakova "Language and ethnicity". The tutorial. - Almaty: Kazakh University, 2004.
7. Define the concept of "Language picture of the world". Review the definition of the language picture of the world, this N Arutyunova in the book: N.D. Arutyunova "Language and the world of man". - M.: Languages of Russian culture, 1998.
8. Check whether the subject of the translation complex. Review the definition of a subject of translation, this VN. Komissarov in the book: guards NR. Theory of translation (linguistic aspects). - M.: Higher school, 1990.

1.4.2. Exercises
Exercise # 1.
Rewrite the test in a notebook, define the functions of the interpreter, after reading the following text:
Communication between cultures covers all levels and spheres of life, therefore, the representatives of different linguistic and cultural communities use a translator to communicate. However, the translator not only helps people who speak different languages to understand each other. In the negotiation process he not only translates from one language to another, it largely depends on whether you created the right atmosphere, which will help to achieve the desired understanding.

Exercise No. 2.
Hurry up, fill in the information about Lantra", remember that modern technology in the Internet provide a unique opportunity to create an international clubs. These clubs are called newsgroups. These teleconferences have translators. One of them Lantra brings together more than a thousand translators from different countries of the world. The conference operates around the clock. So the question can be asked at any time of the day or night.

Exercise # 3.
Define the social function of translation. Initially, the translation fulfills an important social function by enabling cross-language communication. Its main purpose is to meet the social needs of people in bilingual communication, to the maximum extent close to the monolingual. The social meaning attributed to the translator of independence in the public purpose of translation: to provide bilingual communication, close to monolingual. 

Exercise # 4.
Determine what is the object of the translation activity, read the statement WE Aliyev "the Object of scientific disciplines are things, phenomena, processes of reality, interact with the subjects of science in cognitive research. Here the object is the product of the interaction of subject and objective reality. The object of research is something that is directed cognitive research activity of the subject of this science.

1.5 Control submodule. Supervisory personnel. Questions and answers on them. Tests for intermediate control on the topic.

1.5.1. Questions for self-assessment and answers to them

1. What are the components allocates Urzulei in the concept of "categorical structure of science"?
2. What is the object of translation theory?
3. The focus cognitive activity of researchers in science "theory of translation"?
4. What is the subject of science "theory of translation"?
5. Distinguish whether you are of the notion of "translation ability" and "translation competence"?
6. In what forms is the subject of the translation activities? 

Answers

A. categorical structure of science is the idea of the object and the subject of this science
B. this view of its components: the object, the subject, the subject method, the functions, the
A. translation activities
B. Secondary translation and translation ability
A. Cognitive activity of researchers in science "Theory of translation" aims to identify the entity translation
B. Cognitive activity of translatologists aimed at the study of translation activity
A. the Subject of translation activity is the result
B. The subject of translation activities are the result of the translation, and language ability of the translator
A. Yes. Translation the ability to learn the target language.
B. Translation ability is mastering a second language, its norms, competence, knowledge, skills
A. the Translator is a person providing bilingual communication.
B. the Translator is a mediator in intercultural communication, as well as the researcher is concerned with the problems of translation 

1.5.2. Tests for intermediate control on the subject
1. Who of scientists believes that to build disciplinary theory needs to identify the categorical structure of a particular science?
A. J. J. Catford
B. Aliyev UI
C. L.K. Latyshev
D. VV Sdobnikov
E. SV seals
2. What is the object of science "theory of translation"?
A. Translation activities
B. Reproductive translation activities
C. the faculty of Language translator
D. Translation competence
E. Reproductive activity as a translator and language ability translator
3. What is the subject of science "theory of translation"?
A. The result of the translation industry
B. Translation competence
C. the translation Process
D. The field of interpretation and translation competence
E. the Process of identifying entity translation
4. Who is the subject of the translation industry?
A. Bilingual
B. The Mediator
C. the sender of the text
D. the recipient of the text
E. Bilingual mediating translation activities and providing bilingual communication
5. What discipline is a component of the ontological nature of translation, promotes understanding between author and translator, between the translator and the recipient?
A. Cultural Studies
B. Contrastive linguistics
C. Pragmatics
D. Cognitive psychology
E. Sociolinguistics

1.6 Statistical submodule. The resulting frames (feedback)
1.6.1. Answers to questions:
Question No. 1:
A. Wrong. The answer is not complete.
B. True. Whiz!
Question No. 2:
A. Incorrect. You made a mistake.
B. You answered correctly.
Question No. 3:
A. True. Whiz.
B. You answered incorrectly.
Question No. 4:
A. an Incomplete answer.
B. True. Whiz!
Question No. 5:
A. an Incomplete answer.
B. the Correct answer. You gave the definition of these concepts.
Question No. 6:
A. You answered incompletely.
B. True. You said of the two faces of the translator: as a mediator and as a researcher of translation activities. 

1.6.2. Cipher tests:
1. In
2. E
3. D
4. E
5. D


Case module # 2. Methodology and methods of science "Theory of translation".
2.1 Theoretical submodule. Theory. Information frames.

2.1.1 Methodology "translation Theory and scientific principles of its research
Methodology - the study of the system of scientific principles, forms and methods of research. A common understanding of the methodology allows to consider it as the doctrine of the structure, logical organization, methods and means of activity. In a narrower sense, the methodology is understood as a particular approach or set of approaches to the proposed activity at all stages. In science methodology is a "set of basic principles that guide the scientist in various stages of research, starting with the definition of its objectives and to formulate the resulting conclusions [Melnychuk, 1986, 21].
Methodology of science "Theory of translation" has a three-tier structure. On the first level it examines the scientific principles that are fundamental in nature and constitute a proper methodology. These include principles such as anthropocentric, cognitive, activity principles. At the second level methodological framework discusses the scientific research methods used in the practice of translation. On the third level describes the specific methods used to address special research tasks related to translation issues.
The fundamental principles are scientific in nature, as it is based on a General, philosophical positions, reflecting the most significant properties of objective reality and consciousness taking into account the experience gained by the person in the course of their cognitive activity. Such, for example, activity and anthropocentric principles that play an important role in the cognition of the essence of language. So, Essembekova exploring the nominative aspect of speech activity, reveals the methodological role of the principle in the knowledge of language (Kubrakov, 1986, 19-20). The basis of activity the concept of language and translation activity the concept of the person. And the gist of it is that essence is the process of production itself, its life, its content [nysanbaeva, 1991]. In the original and the translated text, as well as in language, are as common forms of human activity, and specific manifestations of mastering man his human reality, in its experience of development and cognition. 

In the translation process the translation can be viewed as a form of human activity (function); 2) language codes (language - the source text and the target language) are attributes of communication and information exchange in the process of translation as intercultural communication (attributes of communication and communication translation); 3) translation (the text of the original and translated text as the methods, the results of the verbalization of the human experience. The essence of an active principle in a more narrow sense is defined as a functional consists in the study of language in action, in its functions" [Lee, 2003, 19]. A broad understanding of the function as a purposeful human activity - member of the society consistent with the theory of speech activity (Alt), which is based on obsessionality activity theory (Anionte) an active principle of social philosophy, pragmatic conception of language. The actualization of this principle in the translation process occurs in the course of becoming objectified in the text language characters in living reality, their dynamic deployment process raspredsetevaya their translator and subsequent clarification for myself and understanding. At the stage of transformation and interpretation of the text, the translator turns raspredelenie signs of substance already in another language. In this case, the language units are functioning in speech activity, moving from substantial status in living reality, and again turning into a frozen characters in the result of objectification in the text in another language.
Anthropocentric principle focuses on the human factor, when language is seen in human activity. In this case, look at language as the source of knowledge of the person. In addition, language is studied in the aspects: "what speaks the language of man", "what knowledge about the world he invests in his own language, as the language correlate this knowledge about the world", "how to manipulate people with knowledge of the language". In the process of a comprehensive study of language in speech and cognitive human activity, as well as from the study of his speech behavior can be known of the man himself in all his guises as the language of identity, communicate, translator (creative person), writer, professional, thinker and knower, etc. This principle is manifested in the field of translation theory is that when research translation activities of the personality of the interpreter; his secondary reproductive activity language also investigated as a source of knowledge of the identity of the translator, his translation competence and abilities. During the translation industry a comprehensive study of the language in various aspects "as understood by the translator of the meaning of language units of different codes, their meaning, knowledge about the world puts people in a language, as knowledge about the world are manifested in different language pictures of the world", "as the translator manipulates linguistic knowledge in the process of using two codes" contributes to a better understanding of the language personality of a translator, gives some idea of his abilities and skills.
The cognitive principle is associated with a General philosophical theory of knowledge. It is the basis of the cognitive paradigm, according to which language is viewed as a form of consciousness and thinking, which implemented the system of human knowledge about the world, speaking and thinking in a particular language" [Lee, 2003, 14]. The feature of the cognitive approach to translation theory is manifested in the fact that considering language as a form of consciousness and thought translator, first, studying the language, consciousness, speech-thinking closely in the communicative-cognitive system", second, closely linking cognitive and linguistic patterns in the minds of individuals, proceeds from the assumption that they, as components of linguo-cognitive bases of human consciousness, all become inadequate in language pictures of the world. Moreover, varies as a mental structure is the result of the peculiarities of national mentality of ethnic groups and the way of expressing them in different languages. On the basis of features of the language picture of the world representatives of different linguistic and cultural communities (the subject of the source text and the recipient of the translated text (the translator identifies discrepancies and gaps in language pictures of the world and the cultures and languages of the sender of the text and the recipient, making the skills and abilities in order to eliminate the gap, bridge the gaps, to find functional equivalents and equivalents in the target language. And in this case it needs different knowledge - a set of information in any field, is necessary for understanding the source and reproduction of the source text. 

2.1.2 General Scientific research methods of "Translation Theory"
Such methods used in different languages, such as linguistics, didactics, comparative typology, General linguistics are contrastive-comparative and component analysis. Contrastive-benchmarking is a method of pairwise and systematic mapping of the language systems of the primary and secondary languages, with the goal of identifying common universal elements and differences in the systems of languages. As a methodological tool of analysis uses the method of typological simultaneous comparison (matching).
The key notion of contrastive linguistics is the notion of linguistic contrast or categories of contrastively [Suleimenov, 1996]. Language contrast is a specific feature of language And appearing that in comparison with any language C. the same phenomenon when comparing one language to another can act as a specific contrast phenomenon (category). Language contrast is a linguistic variable, which varies depending on the choice of language pairs. Contrastive study should include a systematic comparison of the forms and values of units of the structure maps of languages, based on the idea that different languages are available as a universal concept, and specific, based on the national systems of language.
In the process contrastive comparative analysis focuses on the structural and systemic similarity of language means of the original and the translated text. Detected when comparing similar values, functions and forms form a cross-language equivalents. Shape, diverging on the semantics and structure in their use are contrastive or non-equivalent. They can belong to different levels. This analysis identifies similarities and differences between structural types, systems, and standards-based languages pairwise comparisons and comparisons language of the original and translation, gives the data for the actual translation analysis.
Methodology contrastive comparative analysis includes the following steps: 1) develop an inventory of linguistic means in the language of the original and the target language; 2) determining their similarities in different languages; 3) the determination of their absolute and relative differences in the languages.
Component analysis is used in translation theory when transferring to another language values multiple-meaning words based on the identification of the meaning of the components included in its semantic structure. Under component analysis is a sequence of procedures that, when applied to some of the original speech or language subjects, gives each object a certain set of sets of semantic features or components. This set is called the component view [Tawahina, 1989, 27]. 

Of the proposed methods component analysis to be more acceptable in translation is the use of the methodology proposed by DSC. Shmeleva and A. M. Kuznetsov. A. M. Kuznetsov highlights during component analysis differential and integral characteristics of speech that serve to distinguish and unite the minimum values of words in the semantic structure. The minimum unit of the lexical values are heterogeneous in several respects and differ depending on what level of abstraction are the data units - invariant or variant. The first are called semantic features, the second semantic components. So, in a group of related words son-daughter, brother-sister as a semantic characteristic is the sex of the relative. As semantic components of this semantic characteristic are its specific values: "male", "female". Semantic feature can be of two types depending on the role they perform in the formation of interrelated values, i.e. are they as discerners of word meanings semantic groups (differential characteristic) or combine words (integral) [Kuznetsov, 1980, 14].
D.N. Shmelev, except differential and integral signs, allocates another and categorical features, playing a special role in the semantic organization of the lexicon. According to the author, the whole vocabulary of the language can be represented broken on certain classes formed by the intersection of exactly categorical traits. Thus the integral signs are the ballast, which is overlapped with a single unit of lexical classes, and differential characteristics serve as the beginning, which in a certain way organizes the data units within a class of words [Shmelev, 1968].
In the process of translating the words of the language of the original in another language, use the following procedure component analysis: 1) be written in parallel columns the word of the source language and the word in the language-translation; 2) to identify the composition of semen in different languages; 3) to find the integral signs, combining lexico-semantic variants in the structure of words; 4) find the differential variations in the structure of words; 5) carry out a consistent speed the identification of semen words of the original with samename allocated in the translated word; 6) to identify similarities and differences in the composition of semen in different languages (words of the original and its translation); 7) identify, using the method of distributional analysis combinability of words in different languages; 8) to build the table nemnogo composition words in the original and language translation.

2.1.3. Specific (specialized) research methods "Translation Theory"
The specialized techniques used within this discipline can be attributed to the method of segmentation of text and transformational analysis used by the translators, and this method of research, as discourse analysis.
The method of segmentation of the text, most often used by translators, proposed R.K. minyar-Belarusian. The essence of this method lies in the segmentation of text and perform some action on a specific schema: (1) the definition of the segment of text that you want to process; 2) segmentation of the text you want to highlight in each speech text one, the main information. The selection of text segments is based on the principle of preserving the continuity of the speech chain by following a managed word control word; 3) highlight important information of each speech segment. Speech segments can be uneven. Some segments may contain one unit of information, and in other segments can be divided into two units of information; 4) after the main information in each segment is selected, it must be written. You can use certain characters, symbols; 5) the transition from signs and symbols to full text. The translator must create the text again, based on the information hidden in symbolic notation. It should be based on linguistic rules, which are peculiar to the language of translation; 6) after the outline of the text is ready, you can proceed to the final stage, i.e. the creation of the finished text. For this purpose, the outline of the text you want to compare with the original (matching), then the text should add information that was not reflected so far [minyar-Belorusov, 1996]. 

 Method transformational analysis is used to distinguish meanings of individual words in a semantic field that are in identical environments (but not deployed), partially similar environments, have the same distribution formula and in different environments, but when abnoy distribution formula, i.e. by means of the transformational analysis, you can establish semantic differences that are not expressed on the distribution level.
Transformational analysis emerged based on the teachings of Sharisa and Nhamkoro on transformations in the language. Under the transformation is understood in the most General sense, transformation of sentences, carried out according to certain rules, in which there are new proposals that do not differ from the original proposals lexical composition, but differ in structure, for example, asset - liability, declarative sentences interrogative and so on
Grammatical transformations are in the process of conducting the operations to transform the so-called "nuclear syntactic structures", which may be the same in different languages and are characterized by the common logical-syntactic relations and lexical composition. The original text is minimized in a set of nuclear structures - components directly. Nuclear transformations are considered such proposals, the structure of which explains the structure of the other proposals. In this case, using the transformations of one or more nuclear deals can be obtained all sentences of the language. Sharrison was drawn up a list of such transformations, which include: 1) passive transformation; 2) transformation introduction; 3) transformation of word order; 4) transformation of nominalization; 5) transformation of adjectively; 6) the pronominal transformation; (7) the transformation of ownership; 8) the transformation of elimination [Helbig, 1966]. To this list we can add the transformation of substantively, the transformation of the question sequence, the transformation of srovnatelnosti etc. All can count to 24 or more transformations in the target language, in which nuclear proposals are deployed, the set of nuclear structures is replaced by equivalent structures of the target language, for example, nuclear sentence in the source language can be transformed into the following transformation in the language of the translation: 1) the transformation of passivization: architect prepared the project of the house; 2) transformation introduction: the architect, no doubt, will quickly prepare a draft of the house; fortunately the house was prepared by the architect for a short period of time; 3) the transformation of word order, the transformation of inversion: prepared by the architect house design; 4) transformation of nominalization: preparation of the project architect is not an easy matter; 5) transformation of comparison: architect house design will be better prepared than the superintendent; 6) the transformation of elimination: the design of the house; (7) the transformation of the question sequence: is a house project designed by the architect? Unless the house project designed by the architect? Made whether the project home architect? 8) transformation complications: the house project prepared by the architect, who developed it for months; the architect has prepared the project of the house, the head of construction Department praised the development; 9) the transformation of deployment: a young architect in record time developed the project of a nine-storey building and has submitted it for consideration in the design office; 10) transformation of denial: the architect is not prepared for the approved period house project and other
Method of distributional analysis based on the study of the set of environments in which this element may occur, in contrast to the environments in which this element can not meet. The same distribution of the words indicates the closeness of their values. This gives grounds to assume that the semantic field really combines words with related meanings. On the other hand, using a distribution method, you can define semantic scope of individual words field. On the basis of distributional analysis, you can analyze and combinability of words as the basic elements of the meaning of the word, including its stylistic and emotional characteristics that are reflected in its distribution, i.e. in the structural model compatibility. Analyzing the distribution, which can meet the foreign language word (element), we can conclude proximity, or differences in the meanings of the words. To determine the semantic value of foreign words should take into account the peculiarities of the distribution of constituents semantic field, which is expressed in different forms. Usually the distribution constituentof semantic field can be of four types: 1) matching distribution, in which both fields have produced only in the General environment in the absence of specific; 2) additional distribution, in which the environments of the analyzed words no members in common, no intersection; 3) mixed distribution, in which one word field has, in addition to General, private environment missing from other, having shared only with the first environment; 4) partial distribution, in which the environment intersect, both have produced and shared and private environment.
Distributional analysis is performed in two stages. First, in the texts vypisyvatsja all environment of foreign words and identifies the types of distribution. Then identifies the values and environments consider the words - Union of the set of text units distributions on the basis of similarities or differences. In this case, the same distribution of the words indicates the closeness of their values, and in terms of additional distributions meet different meanings of the same word (lexical-semantic variants of polysemantic words is LSV).
The set of values of polysemantic words is its semantic structure and structural set of possible word meanings and shades of meaning, manifested in different contexts of use and located to each other in relations of additional distribution.

2.2 Illustrative submodule. Illustrative frames. "Graphics". "Examples".
2.2.1 Graph 

Fig. 1 - Levels of methodology of science "Theory of translation"

Examples:
Component analysis of the semantics of the English verb " wonder " by identifying its composition:
1. To think, to think
I wondered what I should say to Pyle.
I was thinking what will I tell my Pyle. (Green)
2. The contradiction
I wondered why she hated him so much - I don't know why she hated him. (S. Maugham).
3. The intention
Actually he was wondering whether Clyde would be inclined from now on. In essence he was interested, did Clyde since then. (T. Dreiser)
4. Doubt
And it came into his mind to wonder... And in his head he had doubts ...
5. Wonder
So we all wondered what he was using to live on. And we were all wondering what he lives (U. Faulkner).
In the process of English translation of the above English sentences with the verb " wonder " do not use the part of this verb components, because each component of the English verb is transferred to different Russian verbs.

2.3 Reference submodule. Reference frames. "Glossary". List of basic and additional literature". "Reference sites".

2.3.1. Glossary
Component analysis is a method of identifying this component in the semantic structure of words of the source language and the target language by decomposition of the semantic structure of the words on the semantic factors that determine this on the basis of integral signs, and location of the various components through the use of differential characteristics.
Contrastive-benchmarking is a method and pairwise semantic mapping units of the language systems of the primary and secondary languages in order to identify the universal elements and differences, contrasts in both languages.
Method of distributional analysis is a method based on learning complex environments of words of the source language and the target language.
Transformational analysis is a method of converting lexical and grammatical units of the source language in the target language in accordance with certain rules of transformation.

2.3.2. The list of basic and additional literature

Key readings 

 

1. Brandes. Style and translation (in the German language. - M.: Higher school, 1988.
2. Whether V.S. paradigm of knowledge in modern linguistics. - Almaty: Kazakh University, 2003.
3. Kubrakov Y.S. Nominative aspect of speech of human activity. - M., 1986.
4. Melnychuk A.S. ON the methodology of linguistic research //the Value Astronautic methods and methodology in philological science. - M., 1986.
5. Minyar-Belorusov R.K. Theory and methods of translation. - M., 1996.

Further reading

1. Ivin A.A. Understanding and values - logical structure of understanding // Questions of philosophy, 1986, No. 9.
2. Thevagina FORCE TOWARDS a typology of methods component analysis Applied aspects of linguistics. - M., 1989.
3. Kuznetsov A. M. Problems of component analysis in the vocabulary. - M., 1980.
4. Nysanbaeva D.A. Subject-action Genesis of language // proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR, 1991, No. 10.
5. Sabitova M.L. TO the question of cross-language correlation idioms in raznostoronnih languages // Vestnik Kazumasa, 2000, No. 1.
6. Suleimenov ED Kazakh and Russian languages. The basics of contrastive linguistics. - Almaty: Demeu, 1996.
7. DMITRY Shmelev. The problem of semantic lexical analysis. - M., 1973.
8. Gadamer H. Klеine schriften. - Tubingen, 1967.
9. Dilthey W. Gesmmelte schriften. Bd.VII. - Stuttgart - Gottingen, 1968.

2.3.3. Reference and informational sites
Lantra - L (http:www.geocities.com/Athens/7110/lantra.htm.   )
http://dmoz.org  

2.4 Control training submodule. Operating personnel. "Job". "Exercises".

2.4.1. Tasks for independent work of students (IWS)

1. Describe communicative and active nature of language. For more details, review the D.A. Nysanbaeva "Subject-action Genesis of language" published in the journal "proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the Kazakh SSR", 1991 no 10.
2. Write the definition of contrastive linguistics from the book AT Suleymenova "Kazakh and Russian languages. The basics of contrastive linguistics". - Almaty: Demeu, 1996.

Tasks for independent work under the guidance of a teacher (SRSP)

1. According to the position that said-thinking, secondary to mental activity, reproductive activity of the translator has three sides: 1) communication as a form of life translator (function); 2) a means of understanding and translation from a source language into a target language (primary and secondary languages as a means of understanding, interpretation and translation); 3) as a way of verbalizing the human experience (original and translated texts), how do you explain the action activity and anthropocentric principles in the process of translation activities? Make a chart of the interaction activity, anthropocentric and cognitive principles in translation.
2. Using the methodology contrastive-comparative analysis, a set of universal elements and categories of contrast in Russian and Kazakh, Russian and English languages.
3. Map phraseological equivalents in Russian and English languages, determine their types, the degree of equivalence
white spot is blank spot
side by side - side by side
to be the master of its fate - be one's own master
away, home is best - there is no place like home
air castles - castles in spin
to live like a cat with a dog - lead a cat and dog
face to face - face to face
lucky - good fortune
like a yardstick swallowed - bolt upright
powerful - high and mighties
good riddance - good riddance
4. Using the method of component analysis, compare the composition of words AK, white, white in Kazakh, Russian and English languages.

1. Transform nuclear supply source of the Kazakh language Myung, euderma blind oimen and turn them into transformation of passivization, substantively, transformation introduction, transformation of srovnatelnosti, the transformation of woodnote, the transformation of the question sequence, etc. in the target language (Russian and English).
2. Segment of the source text, using the methodology proposed R.K. minyar-Belarusian. Translate it to English, decoding the symbols and conventional signs. Compare the original text and the translated text.

The original text

The text in the target language
Soon diversity among herds were seen private Yurt. It was clear that the nomads were desales straight rows and arrived to the place at the same time: all villages have already installed kerege and now brought dome Yurt from long uyk, painted in bright red and visible from afar. Then they began to throw rug and all is calm green sea was covered with white domes. Soon in the heart of the villages rose vismistananda Large Yurt Ulzhan are buried. Barely finished its installation, as in all other villages began to appear their Large Yurt.
All the Parking is located from akshoky no further than the length of run of the snow. While Ospan and his companions down to the village from the hill, got to the Parking lot Ulzhan are buried, installation Yurt ended everywhere. Fifteen villages, grew up in a deserted valley, immediately enlivened her, was filled with noise and movement.
Not stopping at the Big Yurt, the brothers went straight to the funeral aul of Tatiana, located next to the Parking lot Ulzhan are buried. (Moutou. The path of Abai, s).

2.4.2. Exercises
Exercise # 1:
Read excerpts from D. Austen's "Mansfield Park" and interpret it on four levels hermeneutic interpretation (grammatical, stylistic, historical, subjective linguistic):
But why go to the crew Crawford or in the crew? "said Edmund. Why not take advantage of Mama's Phaeton? When the days first started talking about this trip, I could not understand why not to go in the carriage, if we are talking about a family visit.
How? "cried Julia. - This weather to be three in a closed carriage, when you can sit in the cab" (Doten. sobrac, Vol.2, s).

The exercise No. 2:
Using the method of the transformational analysis convert the proposal carpenters built a large house owner on the edge of the forest of the source language in the target language. Convert nuclear proposals in the transformation of the question sequence, comparative transformation, crossing, substantively, and other passivization

Exercise # 3:
Review the table Contrastive-comparative analysis of idioms and identify General and contrastive in different languages":

Contrastive-comparative analysis
idioms 

Exercise # 4.
Using the method of distributional analysis will compare the environment of the words AK, white, white, weibe in different languages. Identify them the same and additional distribution.

2.5. Control submodule.
Supervisory personnel. Questions and answers on them.

2.5.1. Questions for self-assessment and answers to them

1) What is the methodology of science "Theory of translation"?
2) What scientific principles are the starting point for this discipline?
3) What scientific methods are used in translation theory?
4) what contrastive comparative analysis?
5) How is the procedure component analysis?
6) What methods of lexical transformation of the original words can you name?
7) What methods of segmentation of the text describes R.K. Minyar-Belarusian?
8) What are the levels of the method of understanding and interpretation in the process of translation activities you can describe? 

A. Methodology is a set of scientific principles
B. the Methodology of translation theory are the principles, methods (scientific and astronaute)
A. For the theory of translation of the source are anthropocentric, cognitive, activity
B. Anthropocentric principle
A. In translation theory, component analysis is used
B. To scientific methods are competent analysis, distribution analysis, the method of comparative-contrastive
A. Contrastive-comparative method compares the values of two languages
B. Pairwise comparison of the units of the two languages in order to identify similarities and differences
A. Procedure component analysis consists of the following steps: 1) decomposition of words of the original language and translation components; 2) identification of differential components; 3) identification of the integral components; 4) conclusion
A. Techniques of lexical transformations are: generalization, specification, narrowing
B. Hyper-hypokiniesia replacement, generalization, specification
A. (1) the definition of the segment of the text; 2) segmentation of the text; 3) highlight important information; 4) recording main information by means of symbols; 5) the transition from character to full text; 6) creation of text
B. the Division of the text into segments
A. the First level of understanding and comprehension of the text;
The second level of interpretation in linguistic and cultural terms
The third level of interpretation at the level of norms of the recipient
Levels of understanding and interpretation 

2.5.2. Tests for intermediate control on the subject
1. What principle is aimed at the study of language in the process of human life?
A. Cognitive
B. Anthropocentric
C. Pragmatic
D. Activity
E. Dialectical
2. Due to how the language can be studied as a form of creating and thinking
A. Cognitive
B. Anthropocentric
C. Pragmatic
D. Activity
E. Dialectical
3. What kind of analysis is aimed at identifying the environment of the word,
A. Method of transformational analysis
B. Method of distributional analysis
C. Component analysis
D. Contrastive-comparative analysis
E. Method of segmentation of the text
4. By what method can convert the units of the source language in the target language?
A. Method of transformational analysis
B. Method of transformational analysis
C. Component analysis
D. Contrastive-comparative analysis
E. Method of segmentation of the text
5. By what method it is possible to comprehend and interpret the text of the original?
A. Method of distributional analysis
B. Method of distributional analysis
C. Competent analysis
D. Contrastive-comparative analysis
E. Method of understanding and interpreting

2.6. Statistical submodule. The resulting frames (feedback)
2.6.1. Answers to questions
Question No. 1.
A. an Incomplete answer.
B. You answered correctly
Question No. 2.
A. You answered correctly. Whiz!
B. Incorrect answer.
Question No. 3.
A. Incomplete response
B. You answered correctly. Well done!
Question No. 4.
A. Incomplete response
B. You answered correctly.
Question No. 5.
A. that's the Wrong answer. Think again.
B. You give a detailed answer to the question.
Question No. 6.
A. Incorrect
B. the Correct answer.
Question No. 7.
A. You gave a detailed answer. Whiz!
B. Incomplete answer.
Question No. 8.
A. You answered correctly.
B. You give a superficial answer.

Tests' Cipher
1. B
2. A
3. B
4. A
5. E 

Case module # 3. The essence of the translation
3.1. Theoretical submodule. Theory. Information frames

3.1.1. Translation as an activity
Activity approach to translation allows to represent the process of translation as an activity of the spiritual and practical nature, related to communication and language with procedural and dynamic nature. The activity essence of the translation can be expanded on the basis of the provisions of L. C. Szczerba, about three aspects of speech activity and the dialectic of objectification and raspredsetevaya. L. C. Szczerba, studying three aspects of speech activity, gave them the following definition:
The first aspect is speech activity, including the processes of speaking and understanding; the second aspect is the dictionaries and grammars of languages - language system; the third aspect of language material, i.e. the set of all languages spoken in the particular situation in a particular epoch in the life of this social group [szczerba, 1974]. In the translation of the secondary rehabilitating activities the process of speaking and understanding takes place in a situation of simultaneous interpreting, and while translation the attention of the translator focuses on the understanding of the source text based on the primary language code (primary language system). Source text - the trail of the activities of communicant or the author, whose properties as a subject of activity turned into a converted form object properties activity. According to the law of dialectics every human activity involves primarily the process of transformation properties of the entity acting as the characteristics of its operation, its movement and life in the properties of the object of activity, characteristics that are transmitted by human-to-object and get a new form of existence is inseparable from its subject media. K. Marx called this process opredeljivanje: "the Process dies in the product... Work connected with the subject of the work. The labour embodied in the subject, and the subject in the form of activity [Unruhe], now on the side of the product is in the form of resting properties [rudende Eigenschaft], in the form of being" [Marx, Engels, 1963].
The product of labour can be assigned consumed as any gift of nature, completely regardless of and with indifference to the fact that the commodity is the result of human labor. But the product of labour can be assigned to and in this way, when it acts as objectified labour as subject form active abilities. Last work out in the product and turned to resting property, reborn to new life and re-enters in the form of human activity. This process raspredsetevaya. The dialectic processes of objectification and raspredsetevaya during translation activity is manifested in the fact that the translator in the process of understanding the text of the original has to deal with objectified, turned into object properties text that captures the traces of the activity. It is the subject form of the active abilities of the author of the text. The translator in the process of understanding and interpretation of this text raspredsetevye it, restoring it to new life. When this unit's primary language code, resting in objectified form as language material-product, come back to life in rehabilitating language-the text of the translator's activity. After the source text is understood, comprehended and understood by the translator, it transcodes raspredeleny text in the target language, again turning it into an objectified product of its interpretive secondary activity. This translation is the result of creative reproductive activities translator in objectified form, but in another language comes to the addressee, which again raspredsetevye it using the signs of language in a dynamic form. Imagine the processes of objectification and raspredsetevaya in diagram No. 3:
As you can see, activity nature of translation is manifested, first, in the actualization of the processes of speaking and understanding in the process of raspredsetevaya objectified source text; secondly, in the use of units of language systems of the primary and secondary codes, thirdly, the transformation of the source text in the translation product of labor already in the second language and the newly objectified on the basis of the secondary code, fourthly, in raspredsetevaya destination specific product of translation activities in the language of the recipient. 

3.1.2 Translation as intercultural communication
The translation process can be seen as an act of intercultural social communication, during which the exchange of information between speakers and recipients. The translation can be thought of as the process of recoding of the thoughts expressed in one language by means of a second language.
Translation as an activity for the exchange of information can be considered in terms of information theory, as it has all the components of the communication that includes the following elements: information source (the speaker), the communication channel (the environment in which the transmission of the message), the receiver (the device receiving the information (the recipient), the code is a means of exchange of information), the product of the speech text. Communication as a process of exchange of information is carried out in intercultural environment, the subjects of which have a common language and a shared social experience, the same system of cultural values and orientations.
Unlike communication, translation is a bilingual communication, when the communication is by means of two language codes. Stakeholder communication in translation more, because in addition to the two interactants (sender and recipient) has the person engaged in the translation process decoding messages on the primary code and encoding it with sign language secondary language. It is the translator who is fluent in two languages. He is the mediating link between a source (the author of the text, the speaker and the addressee, the recipient information in another language. However, the translator can act as a recipient of the message from the sender, and the role of the message sender to the recipient in another language. In the translation process, the sender (the author of the text, speaking) transmits a message or objectified in the form of (text) or passes directly in raspredelenno (oral communication). This message is encoded in the primary, source language code. Interpreter who speaks a primary language, it takes the encoded message, decrypts it, interprets and clarifies for himself. Then the received message is transformed by the translator in the same message, but in another language, when a translator, interpreting the received information after seeing it in raspredelenno (marks primary code into dynamic elements rehabilitating activity), again opredmechivaetsya it, turning it into objectified text - converted form of their life. The recipient of the message - recipient in the process of exploring objectified in the secondary language is a product of the translator's work again raspredsetevye this text, but on the basis of characters of a different language system. Consider the process of translation as intercultural communication scheme No. 5:
Translation is viewed as a form of communication, because its components are similar to the structural components of communication: the communicants, interaction, code, function, result. However, this type of communication has its own characteristics, which shows, first, that in the translation of the subject of communication more. In this case, communicate not two communicate (speaking and listening), and three - communicant, mediating communicant, recipient. Secondly, the processes of speaking and listening as if repeated, as initially transmits information between the sender of the original message and the translator, which acts as the recipient. This recipient, receiving information on the primary language code and decoding it. In the process of transformation of text using the characters of the second language and its transmission to the recipient, the medium of another language, the translator acts as the sender of the message, but in another language. Recipients in this case will be the recipient of the message translator. Thirdly, in the process of translation activities are two language - primary source language (S) and the secondary language is the language of the translation (translation language). Fourthly, during the updating of translation activities are performed certain functions, such as communication (communication and information exchange), representative (the representation of the source text in a second language, remaining faithful to the original), regulatory (rules, postulates communication). Fifthly, intercultural communication is a type of mediating communication.
A distinctive feature of the process of mediated communication is that it, in addition to the two normal for any communicative process (generation of the source text partner and perception of the text partner), there is an intermediate phase (transcoding from one natural language to another). This phase is referred to as linguistic mediation (sprachmittung), and the person providing language mediator (sprachmitter) [Jäger, 1975]. 

The concept of mediated translation, Jaeger correctly draws attention to the special place of translation mediated communication, however, this trait is not differential for translation. Sixth, classifying the sign of translation as a form of intercultural communication is its public purpose, the essence of which consists in the ability to meet the needs of society. On the thoughts of L. K. Latysheva, the public purpose of the translation is its permanent sign that is present in all implementations. "The public purpose of translation, " writes L. K. Latyshev, - is that the maximum (data linguistic or extralinguistic conditions) to bring bilingual communication with translation to natural language communication as to perform communicative functions, and from the point of view of their implementation" [Latyshev, 1988, 9-10]. Seventh, the result of translation as intercultural communication differs from the usual intercultural communication, as the product of translation activities should be issued no common language, owned by partners, and other third language - the language of the recipient of the translated text. Eighth, the specificity of translation as intercultural communication is, according to C. N. Komissarova, in the triune identification of two multilingual texts. Such communicative comparison of the source and target text distinguishes translation from any other transmission mode for another language" [Commissioners, 1980, 33]. The translation is not limited to the act of writing or speaking translator. It is an act of intercultural communication involving two voice works in different languages, combine in this act as different forms of the same message. Therefore, in translation it is always assumed the existence of two texts plus their Association in the process of communication. In other words, here we deal with three different speech acts: (a) the act of communication through OIA, creating original; b) the act of communication with the help of five, creating the translated text; C) act of Union (communicative equating) speech works, which were achieved through communication acts (a) and (b)" [Commissioners, 1980, 34]. Ninth, translation as a kind of intercultural communication not only determined by the sociolinguistic factors (social and situational variables)included in the socio-cultural rehabilitating activity partners in the translation process of social history communicants, "channel" exchange information, social language codes), but is governed by cultural variables, as in the process of translation activities are of special importance to the adequacy of normative attitudes, value orientations and values and principles of the subjects of the source and target texts. It is the similarity of stereotypes, postulates of communication, values and norms contributes to the understanding of the subjects of translation activity and correct interpretation of their source and target texts. In a situation of transfer of the knowledge of the cultural systems of the partners is a condition of effectiveness of the process of translation, since "culture is a set of meanings, values and norms that are owned by the interacting entities, and a set of media that objectivist, are engaged in socializing and reveal these values" [Sorokin, 1992, 218]. Tenth, in the process of translation activity creates a secondary text, which, although it reflects and transmits the basic information contained in the source text, but contains traces of creative activity of the translator. Therefore, according to A. D. Schweitzer, the translation can be distinguished from other types of intercultural communication on the basis of two characteristics: secondary text and installed on the replacement (the representation of) the source text in a different language and cultural environment. 

3.1.3. Translation as a textual activity
The confusion of the concepts of "text" and "discourse" in the literature due to the fact that many researchers and these concepts were seen as products rehabilitating activities speaking and listening. M. M. Bakhtin exactly defines the text, viewing it "as a result of the activity testoobraznogo specific producer, directed to a specific recipient" [Bakhtin, 1979]. The discourse was also determined as language material formed in the process of symbolic interaction. At the present stage of development of cognitive science discourse is studied in broader terms, communicative interaction, combining the process and the result. Thought I. A. van Dyck, "the discourse is speech stream, the language in its constant motion, absorbing all the variety of historical periods, individual and social characteristics as communicant and communicative situation in which communication occurs. In the discourse reflects the mentality and culture, as a national, universal and individual, private" [van Dijk, 1989].
The text from the perspective of linguistics is seen as a holistic unit of communication, the General design and the content of which is transmitted through the language unit. T. M. Dreze gives this definition: "the Text as a complex sign and complete unit of communication is a system of semantic elements functionally (i.e., for the specific purpose of communication) combined in a single closed hierarchical communicative-cognitive system General concept or idea (the communicative intention of the subjects of communication) [Dreze, 1984, 57].
In psycholinguistic terms, the text is studied in the framework of a specific communicative situation; however, the form and content of the texts are determined by psychological characteristics of individuals participating in the communication, as textprovider producers. Therefore, in speech activity, the text examines how verbal, symbolic form is fixed (in oral or written form) the product rehabilitating activities. And in this case it also seems correct definition of the text, this L. C. Szczerba, which takes into account linguistic and psycho-linguistic characteristics of the text as objectified labour and the processes of speaking and understanding of the subject of communication: "all language values with which we operate in word and grammar, as concepts, in the immediate experience (either psychological or physiological) we are not given and can be displayed by us only from the processes of speaking and understanding, that I call in such of their functions language material... Under the latter I can understand, therefore, not the activities of individuals and the set of all languages spoken in the particular situation in a particular epoch in the life of this social group. In the language of linguists who are texts" [szczerba, 1974, 26].
I. R. Galperin, considering the text as a work receptorsare process, objectified in the form of a written document, literary processed in accordance with the type of this document, the product consisting of the name (title) and some special units, such as paragraph unities combined different types of lexical, grammatical, logical, and stylistic connection with a specific focus and pragmatic installation" [Halperin, 1981], stated on such signs text as a header, different types of links and the number of special units - components of the text.
In addition to these signs, the text has such features as unity, wholeness, including thematic, communicative and structural unity. Can be called as the signs of the text modality, functional-semantic relatedness, informative, good structure. 

Connectivity is explicitly expressed the relationship between adjacent sentences of the text. The main means of communication in the text: 1) lexical means of communication (synonymous, contextual, repetitions, full, repetitions, the pronominal substitute); 2) lexico-grammatical means (unions, Union adverbs, introductory words and phrases); 3) grammatical means of communication (- aspect verb forms, word order, syntactic parallelism); 4) serial link sentences in the text. In parallel connection, the first sentence says something in common, and each subsequent opens and completes its meaning. Means of communication such proposals are similarities in the construction of sentences, matching or contrasting words and sentences, for example: "was unbearably hot July day. The sun blazed in the sky, hovered, and the heat was relentless. The air was impregnated stuffy dust" (I. S. Turgenev). When the serial link every following sentence contains something new in comparison with the previous suggestion, but it remains with him closely related. 5) communications act repetition, pronouns, synonyms, for example: "I first came to the capital of Kazakhstan, Astana. Astana has made a big impression on me, as it is a modern metropolis".
The structure of the text expresses the relations existing between the parts, elements, units of the given object). In the text are highlighted thematic, logical-composition and content (predicative) patterns. Thematic structure of the text forms the subject matter, i.e., as reported in the text. Logical-compositional structure of the text reflects the sequence of semantic units in the text, for example, article, review, report, have a special composition.
The structure of the content. The content of the texts is reflected and reified through language signs knowledge of the fragments of reality. Language tools have formal symbolic expression in the form of lexical, phonological, grammatical and syntactic categories.
The text has structural integrity, as it has an introduction, main part, conclusion. An indicator of the completeness of the text is the title reflecting the content of the text. The structural integrity of the text also implies taking into account the characteristics of its external and internal structure. The internal structure of the text differ in such structural-semantic parts: the beginning (start), main part (middle) and the ending. In the beginning is usually marked theme. It also provides information on the characters, the place and time of the event. The main part develops the theme outlined by the proem. It is observed sequence of events, changing storylines, actors, speech of the characters. The end of the text embodies the outcome of the story and indicates the completeness of the event, contains the conclusion.
The integrity of the text implies its meaning unity, which implies the presence of deep meaning and thematic unity. Thought Century. Century. Red, deeper meaning is expressed through the concept, which minimized contains semantic structure of the text. "Concept, " writes centuries of Red, is the embodiment of intention as some psycholinguistic categories. From a substantive point of view, under the concept is understood as meaning a single semantic structure of the text, which is the embodiment of intention and through it the motive of the activity of the author, which led to the firing of the text" [Red, 1998, 57]. 

  Concept as the embodiment of intention provides the author's intent. Intention, motive statements appear in the speech situation as the fragment objectively existing objective reality and includes a number of speech acts. During the actualization of the situation of the speaker and the listener, guided by a particular motive, feel the need of speaking and carry out their intentions - intentions that contains the author's intent. On the basis of intention arises concept, which contains the core of the text. It is a collection of element of the text's meaning and embodies its thematic unity.
It is through a concept is meaningful, semantic unity of the text. Wholeness arises in the process of awareness and understanding of the text as a result of the analytico-synthetic activity of the recipient [Leontiev, 1979]. In the act of communication by the author of the text expresses some of the content, which should occur at reading in the perception of this text. Here is the contents that occur in the human psyche and can be defined as wholeness.
Functional-semantic types of speech. Functional-semantic type of speech is a universal typological unit of text that is allocated on the basis of various characteristics (communicative-pragmatic, logical-semantic, structural and semantic). There are also such types of speech, such as description, narration, definition, reasoning, proof, message. Description - this is such a functional-semantic type of speech that contains information about the object, its properties, characteristics, character, structure, and different event modality. The text descriptions are typically used to describe the nature, expression of the human condition, his portrait of the situation. The kind of description is a definition. The purpose of the definition is characteristic of the subject based on the instructions of its essential features. The story is functional-semantic type of speech in which transmitted information about events, actions that occurred in the past, ever. The reasoning is functionally semantic type of speech, through which is passed the process of obtaining new knowledge about the object based on a logical conclusion about it. Text-reasoning the explanation of any facts, events, indicating causality. To build such texts need three parts: the thesis (main idea), evidence-based cast the argument proving the main idea of the thesis, conclusion (General conclusion), the message. The message is functional-semantic type of speech used to convey information about any events, circumstances. The purpose of the message is to inform about any objects, events, their characteristics and changes.
The information content. The informative text is that the text passed to various messages. And depending on what is being communicated, there are three types of messages, called " information: factual, conceptual, and podtekstoval [Yuriev, 2006, 12-13].
Factual information text is a description of facts, events, venue, duration of action, reasoning of the author, the movement of the plot.
Conceptual information is the expression of the worldview of the author, his main thoughts, ideas works.
Extratext information. It is only implied. It occurs due to the ability of words to conceal a hidden meaning.

3.2. Illustrative submodule. Illustrative frames. "Graphics". "Examples"
3.2.1. Graphics  

Fig.5 - Dialectic processes of objectification and set distribution in the translation industry 

 

Fig.6 - Main stages of the reproductive translation activities 

Fig.6 - Translation as intercultural communication 

Fig. 7 - Text in the process of translation activity and its characteristics, types

3.2.2 Examples
Example No. 1: the process of raspredsetevaya text in the target language
N. A. Rubakin considered the text as correlated with the reader, producing preconstruction text based on their own mname as "a word, phrase, mnema memory. P. Simon considered as an organic ability of living cells to absorb, store and transmit impressions.
The book is not the essence transmitters and exciters psychic experiences in each individual mneme (CIT.by: Sorokin, 1985, S. 136).
The objectivation of translation is, as you can see, in the process of perekonstruirovany text, the experience of it.
Example # 2:
The first condition for the establishment of a good translation - a deep understanding of the content and the meaning of the text of the original. The first step in commencing it is a careful, close reading of the original text, trying to understand everything. Itself read by the translator of the book, which he intended in the future to transfer, must be different from reading another person. If others read for themselves, the interpreter reads and for themselves, and primarily for readers (S. Abdrakhmanov, 2008, 135).
Example No. 3:
Wrong reading of the original text, the lack of understanding of the realities in the original text leads to errors during decoding, for example, trimmed with fur slipper from tales of Charles Perrault's "Cinderella" in the Russian translation was crystal.

3.3. Reference submodule. Reference frames. "Glossary". "List of references". "Reference sites".

3.3.1. Glossary
Objectification is the transformation of the labour of the subject, the result obtained during the life of the subject, resting in the property.
Objectified labour is a transformed form of life and properties of the abilities of a subject in a static integer.
The objectivation process of turning a static language characters in dynamic, in the process of speech activity.
The text is part of the speech, the speaker as a result tekstologiia activity producers characterized by integrity, information content, coherence, modality, conceptuality, the presence of a certain structure and header.
The text in the target language is objectified in the language of the addressee of the text, acting as a transformed form of the activity of the translator and preserving a property of the identity of the translator, his / her skills, competence and abilities.

3.3.2. The list of basic and additional literature
Key readings

Halpern P. Y. the Text as an object of linguistic research. - M., 1981.
Drize T. M. Textual activity in the structure of social communication (problems of semiotically). - M.: Nauka, 1984.
Commissioners Century. N. Linguistics translation. - M., International relations, 1980.
Latyshev L. K. Translation: problems of theory, practice and methods of teaching. - M.: Education, 1988.
Szczerba L. Century. the Language system and speech activity. - L., 1974.

Further reading 

Bakhtin, M. M. the Aesthetics of verbal creativity. - M., 1979.
T. A. van Dijk. Language. Cognition. Communication. - M., 1989.
Zalewski, A. A., Kaminska, E. E., Medvedev, I. L., Rafikova N. In. Psycholinguistic interaction of words and text. - Tver, 1998.
Red Century. Century. From concept to text and back//Vestnik MGU. Ser.9. Philology, 1998, No. 1.
Leont'ev A. A. Statement as a matter of linguistics, psycholinguistics and theory of communication //the Syntax of the text. - M., 1979.
Leontiev, A. N. The General notion of activity. //Fundamentals of the theory of speech activity. - M., 1974.
Sorokin P. Man. The civilization. Society - M., 1992.
Tarasov E. F. Sociolinguistic problems of the theory of speech communication //fundamentals of the theory of speech activity. - M.: Nauka, 1974.
Yur'ev A. N. The Russian language. Types and styles of speech. - Almaty, 2005.
Jäger G. Translation und Translations - linguistis. - Halle (Saale), 1975.

3.3.3. Informational sites
www.m-w.com 
Http://search.thesaurus.com 
www.anriintern.com/slovari/toc.htm  
www.google.kz/?hl=ru 
3.4. Control training submodule. Operating personnel. "Job". "Exercises".
3.4.1. Tasks for independent work of students (IWS)

Insert, what is the dialectic of human activity. Draw a diagram of the correlation processes raspredsetevaya and of objectification in the aspect of "language - speech".
Map the schema of subject and translation activities. Find their similarities and differences.

Tasks for independent work of students under the supervision of a teacher (SRSP)

Identify the function of translation as intercultural communication, describe them, find out how they differ from each other.
Compare the definitions of text and discourse, data P. I. Galperin, L. C. Szczerba and T. A. van Dyck, and identify what is their difference.
Describe the characteristics of the text and answer the question, what means of communication are used in the text.
Determine what functional-semantic type of speech is this text:
We entered the house. A young fellow, in a long robe of thick blue cloth, met us on the porch. From the front covered different colorful paintings, we entered a small room - Cabinet Radilova. I took off his hunting armor, put the rifle in the corner. (M Turgenev. Notes of a hunter).
Determine what functional-semantic type of speech applies this text. Translate into English.
Contrary to usual care Cossacks about the cleanliness, the room was all dirty and in the greatest disorder. On the table were thrown bloody coat, half of the sweet cakes and beside her osianna and torn calka for feeding the hawk. On the benches, scattered, leadi pistons, gun, dagger, pouch, wet dress and rags. In the corner, in a tub of dirty, stinking water, pulp other pistons; there was a rifle and a filly. On the floor was thrown network, several dead pheasants, and around the table were walking, tapping on the dirty floor, tied by the leg of the chicken. (L. Tolstoy. Cossacks). 

Determine what functional-semantic type of speech applies this text. Bring on the Kazakh and English languages.
People should be intelligent. And if he profession does not require intelligence? And if he could not get an education: both circumstances? And if the environment does not allow? And if intelligence will make a black sheep among his colleagues, friends, relatives, will just interfere with his relations with other people?
No, no and no! Intelligence is needed in all circumstances. It is needed and for others, and for the man himself. This is a very, very important, and above all to live happily and long: Yes, long time! For intelligence equal moral health, and health need to live a long life, not only physical but also mental. (D. Likhachev. About intelligence).
Determine the type of text.
Earthquake similar one to another. Geologists and geophysicists studying the development of the Earth, have long realized that her appearance is constantly changing. But it happens, usually very slowly. Only earthquakes and volcanic eruptions are related to rapid - and because of the catastrophic events that seem to represent these changes. To date, no single theory adequately describes the evolution of our planet and at the same time explaining how the driving forces of change and their results are visible on the surface of the Earth. (Zhuravlev, M. Geoecology: a training manual).
Carefully read the text, determine its internal and external structure.
Analyze the text and make a diagram of the processes of perception and understanding of the translator's source text.

3.4.2. Exercises
Exercise # 1.
P. G. Chebotarev in his book "translation as a tool and subject of communication" (M, 2006) indicates that when translated in the General scheme of communicative interaction we have not two subjects and three, that is, the sender information, translator and recipient of information. The translator is "wedged" between the sender and receiver of information on the translation stage. Accordingly, the roles of the participants are classified from the point of view of communication in a special way:
sender information first passes it to the translator in one language, and one becomes the recipient of the information
then the interpreter becomes the sender of this information in another language, and transmits it to the target recipient (Chebotarev, 2006, S. 58-59).
Define social roles of the interactants and build scheme of interaction of role partners. 

Exercise # 2
After reading the definition of "genre" define the genre of the text, with whom you will work in the future.

The genre of the text is typical of a single text or group of texts reproduced the text characteristics that distinguish it from other texts that define the scope of its use, subject-logical content, purpose, sequence, solve communicative tasks and the language design.

Exercise # 3.
Read an excerpt from a business text. Explain how it manifests: a) objectivity; (b) accuracy; clarity; g) standardisierung; e) completeness.
For the investment of pension savings You can choose one of the managers of the companies which signed with PFC relevant contract. In this case, the chosen management company will be directed retirement savings reported on Your individual personal account on the date of the transfer of funds to the management company.
The statement about the choice of the management company should be directed to the PFC no later than 15 October 2011. Applications submitted after October 15, 2011 will not be considered. Information about the amount of funds transferred to Your chosen management company, will be brought to Your attention additional upon execution of your application and will contain data on income received before the date of transfer of funds to the management company.
Information about managing companies required to fill the application form can be obtained from the media. Information about the organizations that PFC authorized to certify Your signature, You can get in a work place, postal and banking institutions, in the media.
On issues arising in connection with the receipt by You of Notice and application, You can apply to the territorial authority PFC at the place of residence or address:
Department of PFC on, Astana, Kazakhstan, 050020, Ul. Sary-ARKA, D. 73.
Pension Fund of Kazakhstan

Exercise # 4
Examine the Internet sites of Newspapers (for example, www.rg.ru, www.aif.ru). Compare how covered the event in Newspapers in different directions (opposition, democratic). Translate passages of text into another language. Pay attention to the modes of transmission of metaphors, verbal aggression and verbal manipulation.

Exercise No. 5.
Determine the method of presentation in a scientific text.
Parcel 1: All engineers know math
Parcel 2: Igor Smirnov - engineer
Conclusion: Igor Smirnov knows math


3.5. Control submodule. Supervisory personnel. "Questions and answers", "Tests for intermediate control on"

3.5.1. Questions for self-assessment and answers to them

Why translation is seen as a secondary reproductive activity?
What are the stages of reproductive translation activities can you name?
Why translation is considered as a kind of intercultural communication?
Why we can talk about translation as testoobraznuyu activity?
What types of texts dealing with an interpreter? 

What genres of texts you can call?

Options ototokoi otveta. This activity aimed at the creation of the product translational activity of Deneb. Translation is the reproductive process, it is implemented linguistic-textual activity on the material of the two languages daneta. Three adapalene. I. Stage of comprehension of the original text; 2) analysis of the source text, interpretation, decoding; 3) preparation of text perioddrama. In the process of translation is the communication activities of Deneb. In the translation process is the communication between O. R. (translator), trans. - P. daneta. During translation, the translator creates objectified text in the target language of Deneb. Translation is a linguistic-textual activity daneta. Text-the original text in the language of periodograms. With two types of texts daneta. There are many different texts: business, journalistic, nucleants. Official business; public normativnye texts, art, conversation, religiosidade
Tests for intermediate control on the subject
1. What is the nature of the activity translation?
In language-text activity
In creating a secondary text
In reproductive activity
Understanding and comprehension of the original text
In raspredsetevaya-objectification; the transformation of the source text in the translation product of creativity
2. Why translation activity is reproductive?
Because text is created in the target language
Created objectified text
Because the text as the product is created in the secondary language
Because the translator replaces the language code and encodes the text
Because in the process of translating the source text is not transmitted verbatim, and converted
3. What is the difference between translation as intercultural communication from the normal communication?
In the language
As part of communicants
That the translator has to deal with two types of texts
In the secondary product
Communicants three uses two languages, objectified text is created in the target language
4. Who among researchers gave the following definition: "work receptorsare process, objectified in the form of a written document, literary processed in accordance with the type of this document, the product consisting of the name (title) and some special units"
T. M. Dreze
M. M. Bakhtin
T. A. van Dijk
L. C. Szczerba 

I. R. Galperin
5. What functional-semantic type of speech conveys the process of obtaining new knowledge about the object based on the logical conclusion that it explains the facts, events, indicating causal relations
Description
Reasoning
Narrative
Message
The definition of
6. What genre of text functions such as the function of the message function of the impact
Official
Scientific
Journalistic
Art
Spoken

3.6. Statistical submodule. The resulting frames (feedback)
3.6.1. Answers to questions:
Question No. 1:
Incomplete answer.
Detailed answer. Correctly.
Question No. 2:
A superficial answer.
You answered correctly.
Question No. 3:
A superficial answer.
Detailed answer. Whiz!
Question No. 4:
True. Well done!
Incomplete answer.
Question No. 5:
The full answer. Well done!
A superficial answer.
Question No. 6:
Incomplete answer.
Detailed answer. True.

3.6.2. Cipher tests
E
E
E
E
In
With 

Case module # 4. The language of the translator as the subject of translation activity

4.1.1. Features of the linguistic identity of the translator as a bilingual person and mediator in interlanguage communication
Speaking about the interpreter as a bilingual bilingual person, we take into account the specific traits of personality, and well, treating them as typical properties inherent not only to a particular individual but to the collective notion of "identity", "linguistic personality", "the language of the translator". The concept of "linguistic personality of the translator" is a collective, it has several features that are unique to the language of the person who is engaged in translational activity. Such features characterizing collective image of the personality of the interpreter, are, first, the possession of two or three language codes; second, the individual with specific language skills; thirdly, with the secondary language consciousness; fourth, with a high level of social and cultural competence; fifthly, the person who owns cultural, and full types of bilingualism; sixth, which has a definite structure; seventh, tolerance for other cultures, internalize its norms and values in the process of acculturation; eighth, who belong to multiple socionormal, the members of which he is; in the ninth, owning translation professional competence, knowledge and skills; in the tenth, the ability to comprehend and interpret texts, to translate it into another language; eleventh, able to exercise reproductive activities related to major speech segments-texts.
Consider first such feature of the personality of the translator as proficiency in several languages, which characterizes it as a bilingual or trilingual personality. Bilingual linguistic personality is determined by K. M. Abisheva "as one of the manifestations of personality, defined by the sum of its individual properties and characteristics, which are determined by the degree of communicative and linguistic needs of bilingual cognitive-cultural band, formed in the course of a learning experience and level of language competence bilingual, ability to choose communicative code of communicative systems (first and second language system)when the automation between the signified and signifier (new) provides a complete perception and purposeful-ing the transfer of information, as well as its ethnic compression in the process of intercultural communication" [Abisheva, 2001, 47].
The translator, as a bilingual person, characterized by the possession of coordinationin type of bilingualism, in which two languages are completely Autonomous, each language has its own set of concepts. Grammatical categories of the two languages are also independent. This bilingualism is called full. Thought E. D. Suleymenova, "full bilingualism involving knowledge of both languages perfectly, extremely rare phenomenon" [Suleimenov].
Full bilingualism as a high level of professionalism inherent in certain groups of people - writers, translators, therefore, S. of Talanov drew attention to the necessity of mastering the translator full, coordinationin bilingualism: "DLN itanda, iindia e the process - ek Halit get-can, Omir tigen terebene, alipasa in Balanesti Baladi. Salardi arasin blame brrrp, then getter - audiomachine seberle toady. Ons stew ushin Audrey originally oyya I tln, al Sona Audra bestaande original tln mytyp Otaru Kerek" [Talanov]. 

The possession of such coordinative full bilingualism meets the requirements of professional competence of a translator, as incomplete knowledge of a second language (when a second language is perceived through the prism native), mixing systems of the two languages mixed bilingualism (when there is a single mechanism analysis and synthesis of speech, and coexisting languages differ in the level of surface structures), leads to the appearance of interference errors due to defective competence in the second language.
A specific feature of the translator-bilingual is a possession of the cultural type of bilingualism. This type of bilingualism is the result of proximity of bilingualism, when the individual layers of the society due to cultural interests, professional needs, conscious choice of a second language, due to its authority and necessity, become acquainted with the texts in this language, master a second language. The possession of such type of bilingualism due to the pressing needs of society in need of intermediaries in cases of bilingual communication, when an individual bilingualism individuals aimed at satisfying the needs of society in the translators, and to meet the public queries about the achievements of other cultures by translating books, scientific articles, publications, technical literature from one language to another.
Cultural bilingualism is bilingualism, which is effected by written channels. This bilingualism implemented in cases pristrastnych contacts when the contacts of the two languages are satisfied cultural needs of society. This peritrate contacts are made on the basis of the literary forms of the two languages. Translators not only acquaint the representatives of their society with the achievements of other cultures, and meet the needs of society in new means of communication. In this case, they implement the mechanism of reinterpretation.
The linguistic mechanism of reinterpretation can apparently be explained by the possibility of understanding the individual languages as an integral and yet complementary systems division objective reality. "Any individual language, " says C. F. von Humboldt, can be called a fragment only in a figurative sense...the whole is composed of a number of interacting and consistently targeted parts, but rather from a number of methods representing always coherent, but always different functioning of these parts. In this respect, languages, if not to consider their relationship, rather, complement each other" [Humboldt].
Each such "language-fragment", as a complete whole, with his usual picture of the world and the organization of technical means not only clearly and "irresistible" distinguished from all other languages, but also because of the same "additionality" is associated with other languages. 

In the process of familiarization with the new language systems of bilinguals is faced with various specific implementations of the functional-semantic similar, as would be "invariant" grammar and wider - language categories. Arising in carriers of two language systems in the sense of "deficit" gives rise to the intention to search and reinterpretation.
The translator is characterized by belonging to multiple communities, as a member of different linguistic and cultural communities, as proficiency in several foreign languages facilitates the integration of it into another society, identifying it with the other members of this or another linguistic-cultural community. And in this case, bilingualism is "as a communicative bridge between the two (or more) multi-lingual teams" [Karlinsky, 2007]. Thought A. E. Karlinsky, bilingual in such cases comes in three language communities: the primary linguistic commonalities with the primary language bilingual; secondary linguistic commonalities with secondary language bilingual; bilingual linguistic continuum with two languages, regardless of the degree of ownership [Karlinsky, 2007].
A characteristic feature of the translator is also mastering them secondary language consciousness in the process of acculturation in a different linguistic and cultural community. It should move freely in the language picture of the world of other peoples, to know the value principles of different cultures, norms, value orientations, to have a common socio-cultural experience, relevant experience as a partner of the primary communication (the sender of the text), and the experience of partner secondary intercultural communication (the experience of the recipient of the text). The formation of their secondary language consciousness is in the process of inculturation and socialization within a different cultural system, learned members of another society. And in this case, the translator must know at a high level not only a second language, but the culture of another people. And only in this case he will be able to adequately understand the original text, interpret it and decode, translate into another language, focusing on the norms of the recipient of the text.  Understanding and interpreting texts (original and translation) helps in this case, the similarity in the overall speech activity, common conditions of communication (common language), the conditions of understanding the content of the text and speech intentions of the author on the background value contexts learned as the sender of the text and the recipient.
The translator is the person performing the secondary reproductive translation activity, as during the decoding of the text, the understanding and interpretation carries out the further encoding it in a second language, translates text and creatively reinvents it, eliminating and eliminating gaps, adapting the translation to the normative preferences of the recipient. The essence of the reproductive activity of the translator is to reproduce the original text in the target language. During playback of the original text, the translator does not seek literally translate every word of the original text, and reproduces the information received in tangible units of a second language, perebiraja its meaning. After stage preverjanja sense of the information received, the translator identifies the translated text with the original, and if it finds that the information submitted in the language of the translation is incomplete, then seeking reimbursement strategies information. And in this case he does not simply reproduce the text of the original, and creative processes it by choosing the right words, phrases, fit lexico-syntactic and stylistic figure, grinding phrases, achieving functional-stylistic and genre compliance, the adequacy of the meaning and intent of the author in the source and translated texts. 

Thus, the language of the translator is characterized by the presence of certain features (the knowledge of two languages, mastering full and cultural types of bilingualism, the implementation of reproductive translation activity, achieving a high level of translation competence, knowledge of the culture of another linguistic-cultural community, the realization of oneself as representative of various societies, and so on), peculiar only to him.

4.1.2. The structure of the language personality of a translator
Y. N. The guards, in their theoretical and epistemological model "linguistic identity" distinguishes three levels, which allow to consider a variety of quality characteristics of language personality in terms of three characteristics: verbal-semantic, cognitive and pragmatic [Karaulov, 1987, 3].
The defining parameters of the linguistic identity of the translator, which allow to describe his personality, has certain properties and characteristics that enable a person with cognitive and cultural range, degree of communicative needs, intercultural competence, language skills, and abilities are: motivation, verbal-semantic, cognitive, professional, socio-cultural, pragmatic, functional, motivational. Motivational structure parameter of linguistic identity of the translator allows you to find the motivation translation activities. Motive is the need to meet public requests, the need for bilingual communication needs in mediating the person who introduces the members of his society with the achievements of other cultures. It is the need for reinterpretation and vocabulary of their language by means of another language, acquaintance with the achievements and values of other cultures, the need to bring to the attention of the recipient with the necessary information in the target language serves as an incentive translation activities. Translation communicative need is determined by the imperative of communicants partner intercultural translation and communication in the exchange of semantic and evaluative information, presented in a dynamic, raspredelenno in living rehabilitating activities, and in the form of objectified labour, preserving traces of the activities of the communicants and their properties during primary and secondary stages of intercultural communicative activity. The degree of motivation is determined by the power requirements, which is concentrated in a communicative setting of the translator, in his communicative intention. It is linguistic-communicative setting plays a significant role in the transition from the General meaning of the concept to the stage of internal programming of speech actions. It is like the unity of communicative needs and demands of external reality precedes the beginning of the process of speech in one language with the sender of the message, then organizes the subject of the action of the forces necessary for the implementation of the secondary stage of communication - the decoding of the source text, converting it to another language and translation. Communicative language setting performs organizing, integrating and selective function, which is manifested in the actualization of the following: organization and actuation forces required for the exchange of information on the primary and secondary languages, the integration of the two language systems, selection of language codes necessary for the exchange of information, as well as the selection of language features necessary to convey the content of the source text and the communication to the recipient of the author's intent.
Verbal-semantic structure parameter of a bilingual translator includes proficiency in two languages and linguistic competence in two languages, i.e., knowledge of phonetics, vocabulary, grammar first and second languages. Includes the vocabulary of the two languages - entire stock of words and phrases, which the translator is in the process of translation from one language to another. The translator is the ability to use the linguistic means in accordance with the social differentiation of language situations, the subsystems of the national language, knowledge of the meanings of the words of the first and second language. Verbal-semantic parameter allows us to characterize the translator as a person who can manipulate in the cultural space of the bodies of the characters of the second language by associating with their communication partner of the same mental images. This requires him to assign and secondary culture of the society in which he develops his mental functions of speech, language, get used to them in the process of secondary rehabilitating activities. E. F. Tarasov emphasized that the society, giving each individual culture to assign and build his personality allows him to shape up, with one hand, as a public person, and on the other hand, limits its part of their culture, of cultural items... It is the commonality assigned culture ... enables symbolic communication when the communicants, manipulating in the intercultural space bodies of characters that can associate with them the same mental images" [Tarasov, 1996, 9-10]. 

The necessity of mastering as the bodies of the characters of the second language, and their mental images is the precondition for the understanding of communicants. To do this, the interpreter requires the formation of a secondary language consciousness. Linguistic personality must possess primary and secondary language consciousness, because they are, on the one hand, represent one of the variants of possible schemes of mastering the world (in each language has its own way of conceptualizing the world, so each language has its own special language picture of the world), on the other hand, linguistic consciousness is the means of creating, storing and processing of language signs. Consequently, the presence of the linguistic identity of the primary and secondary language consciousness presupposes knowledge of the language of pictures of different people, which leads to the existence of a common language and shared socio-cultural practices that contribute to the understanding of communicants.
Cognitive parameter includes many characteristics that form in the process of cognitive experience of the interpreter of his inner world in the intellectual and emotional planes. Among the cognitive characteristics that are essential for language personality of a translator, it is necessary to specify, first, the knowledge of two language systems, providing adequate perception and understanding of semantic and evaluative information, knowledge culture media of another nation, its value standards. In this case we can speak about the cognitive aspect of language acquisition: "When we talk about communication or communicative-pragmatic aspect of mastery or proficiency, I mean how would a focus on the interviewee is ultimately communication because there is an optimal effect on the interlocutor. But acquiring a foreign language, we simultaneously digested inherent to the respective people of the world, a particular vision of the world through the prism of national culture, one of the most important component of which is language. The main task in the field of language acquisition can be formulated as follows: to learn to speak (or write) as says or writes native speaker (or at least strive to do so). Then the formulation of the main problem of such ownership in the cognitive aspect will be the following: learn to make orientation "as it is implemented by the native speaker" [Leontiev, 1999, 43].
It is the common cultural systems of the two Nations - the winners of the primary and secondary languages, the similarity of the images of the world will contribute to the success, relevance and understanding of the communicants in the process of translation. 

 Cognitive characteristics include information not only about the language picture of the world's peoples, but also knowledge about the world, ideas about concepts, concepts of mental structures and methods for their explication in the language.
Cognitive parameter requires an understanding of the meaning of the statement. When the understanding of the translator performs the exact choice of words, and is appropriate for the context. In the process of understanding the meaning, the translator updates the first factors associated with the perception of the text: 1) the factor of similarity of "own" and "alien" perceptions, overcoming ethnocentric attitudes; 2) the similarity rehabilitating activities of the communicants; 3) the similarity of the language systems (common language); 4) knowledge of the characteristics of the text (topic, coherence, cohesion, structure, information); 5) factors related to the specifics of personal consciousness (the degree of ownership of the thesaurus, the level of competence, the stereotyped language of thinking, the presence of background knowledge, and others).
Socio-cultural parameter is associated with social variability of the first and second language codes; the ability to adequately transfer warerooms linguistic means depending on the social characteristics of the individual and of the text; the ability to adequately transfer the national-specific, embedded in a simulated text; adequate transmission of the artistic image of the text; search language equivalent means capable of reproducing cultural standards, standards, implemented in the source text, ethnic and cultural stereotypes, social norms, involvement of the interpreter as communicant-receptor in the process understanding the source of the messages, sayings, text in a network of social relations culture of the source language in the framework of social interaction with the first Communicator or with the original text, mastering the rules of socio-cultural interaction through text with native culture and language, socialization secondary plan in another society.
Functional parameter includes the following main characteristics, namely: 1) a practical knowledge of stock of verbal and non-verbal means of two language systems to implement communicative, pragmatic and representative functions in the process of translation activities; 2) knowledge of not only the units of the primary and secondary languages, but the ability to use them in different situations, respectively situational variables, the ability to vary; 3) the ability to switch from one language to another; 4) the ability to perceive the source text (perceptual function), then translate it into another language (representa - tive function); 5) the ability to come in contact with partners in communication (the sender of the text and the recipient is in another language) - lymph function; 6) the ability to regulate communication by using language and cultural norms, postulates communicationregulatory function); 7) the ability to adequately convey visual tools feelings of the author of the text, its modal characteristics (expressive and emotional function).
Pragmatic factor. This factor includes the characteristics of defined goals and objectives, primary and secondary level of intercultural communication in the process of translation. Pragmatic features also include knowledge of communication and translation strategies and tactics, knowledge of the communicative-pragmatic norms of communication on the primary and secondary languages, knowledge of the language specifics of cross-cultural speech act types of speech acts, knowledge of the etiquette and rules of speech behavior of interactants in certain situations. 

 Professional structure parameter of a translator includes such characteristics that are associated, first, with membership of a particular professional group strata of the society, group of people, associated with a specialized and institutionalized activities for a long time. These groups include people, for a long time engaged in linguistic and textual spiritual and practical activities, resulting in all members of this group have the same labour and socio-cultural experience, skills, and professional jargon. Secondly, knowledge of the translation industry as reproductive activity type; third, knowledge of several languages, fourthly, the level of professional competence, fifthly, the level of intercultural competence, sixth, knowledge coordinating and cultural types of bilingualism, the seventh, the ability to creatively rework the text to demonstrate their language ability and skills in the course of translation.
Thus, the language of the translator, characterized by the presence of several parameters (motivational, cognitive, socio-cultural, functional, verbal-semantic, professional) differs from linguistic identity by its characteristics.

4.1.3. Language abilities of the translator and translation competence and its components
Updating and development rehabilitering of the translator's activity involves the formation of specific functional systems, which are considered as properties of an interpreter. It is the faculty of language translator and translation competence. Language ability is considered th. N.Karaulov as one of the main characteristics of linguistic identity, as it was considered as "multi-layered and multi-component set of language abilities, skills, preparedness to implement the speech acts of different complexity, things that are classified, on the one hand, the kinds of speech activity (speaking, listening, writing, reading), and on the other levels of language, i.e. phonetics, grammar and vocabulary" [Karaulov, 1987, 5].
The concept of "language ability" is defined A. M Shakhnarovich "as a kind of functional hierarchically organized system, which is the result of reflection (and generalization) of the elements of the system of the native language, functioning on certain (unconscious) rules. Thus, the faculty of language is a system of elements and rules of their choice. In this system, having, apparently, a hierarchical structure, there are a number of components - phonetic, grammatical and syntactical" [Shakhnarovich, St. George, 1990, 42].
A. A. Leontiev language ability is considered in the framework of a ternary system "the faculty of language - language process - locale" [Leont'ev, 1965].
The faculty of language translator provides mastering, production, reproduction and adequate perception of language characters both primary and secondary languages. Language ability is manifested in the course of mastering the language of signs and cultural norms of the secondary language. It is equivalent to the process of assigning the culture of the society in an indirect form in the form of linguistic signs within interpersonal communication. The social nature of language ability, apart from its psychological side, which is a prerequisite for its development, is that it contributes to the cultural appropriation of the company. The social nature of language ability is determined by the fact that it is formed, on the one hand, in the process of learning the system of linguistic signs, which modeled the social dimension of human life, and on the other hand, the crucial role played by the form of the activity that creates the preconditions for this learning - interpersonal communication.
The language ability of the translator in the process of learning a second language is manifested in learning the phonetic, grammatical and semantic components of the language, its phonetic, lexical and grammatical rules. The semantic component of language ability is formed in the process of structuring reality, when between "slice of reality" and reflecting his statement is the process of structuring reality, with the aim to identify selected elements of the situation with the help of linguistic means. It is this process and is the basis of mastering the semantics of the formation of semantic structures. This process is characteristic and for generating speech patterns. It takes place in the speech production process at the pre-speech stage, culminating in the construction of program statements. In this case, the model generation of statements between blocks of "intention - motive and the program has a place and a semantic component. At this stage, apparently, there is a "highlight" main semantically meaningful elements of the situation, giving them signs and building the hierarchy - importance. However, at the stage of programming statements is, in addition to the lexico-grammatical and syntactic, and even semantic programming, which is an implementation of the semantic component of language ability" [Shakhnarovich, St. George, 1990, 51]. 

Sykova the ability of the interpreter is based on psycho-physiological mechanisms of generation of speech utterances in a second language, the development of its phonetic, grammatical and semantic components, which, though correlated with the levels of the language system, but are General in nature, and the relationships between them are of a functional nature.
The language ability of the translator as the development opportunities of mastering the mechanisms of generation of utterances in a second language as possible assimilation of the components of language ability should be distinguished from translation competence, which refers to the ability to acquire different knowledge. On thoughts Century Wilsa, translation competence is the competence of the migration underlying the translation process. In the competence transfer includes the competence of both linguistic and extralinguistic as receptive and reproductive. Then, as the translator conceptualize the text, as it builds and builds strategy, which he based on the circumstances, elects functional perspective statements, as it is based on the original creates a new text - it is his translation competence [Wills, 1997, 284].
Statements of D. Himes about communicative competence is closer to the concept of translation competence than the concept of the competence of the migration Century Wilsa. Communicative competence, Etc. Hims reflects the norms of behavior in real acts of communication. This concept includes four parameters: the grammatical correctness, feasibility, acceptability and frequency of occurrence. It is necessary, writes his, to explain the fact that a normal child acquires knowledge of sentences, not only with regard to their admissibility, in short, the child learns a repertoire of speech acts, becomes able to participate in the speech actions and to evaluate the speech actions of others. Moreover, the competence is inextricably linked with the attitudes, values, motivation, language and its use" [Hymes, 1972, 277-278].
Some components of communicative competence applicable to translation competence. So, acceptability (compliance statements to the context or situation) means in relation to translation of the necessity of taking into account as reflected in the text of the extralinguistic situation and context in which it is allowed to use one or another form in the source language and the target language. In addition, the notion of admissibility is accounting of the two communicative situations - the situation of generation of the source text with its participants, role relationships and communication facilities and the situation of the translation with the same parameters.
The notion of occurrence also has a special significance in relation to the translation, since unit equivalents can occur in both languages, but differ significantly from each other by their frequency (occurrence).
More correctly represented to us the definition of translation competence in the work of A. D. Schweitzer, which includes in its membership all of the qualifying characteristics, allowing the interpreter to carry out the act of interlingual and intercultural communication: a special "translation" speaking two languages (at least receptive mastery of the source language and reproductive target language), in which languages are mapped to each other; the ability to "translation and interpretation of the source text (i.e., to the vision of his eyes medium of another language and another culture); ownership of technology transfer (i.e., a set of procedures that provide an adequate reproduction of the original, including modifications required to successfully overcome the "cultural barrier"; the knowledge of the norms of the target language; knowledge translation rules governing the choice of translation strategy; knowledge of the rules of this style and genre of text; a certain amount of "background knowledge"necessary for an adequate interpretation of the source text and in particular what is called the "knowledge"necessary for the successful transfer of this specialization of an interpreter. The concept of translation competence can be specific to the different types of translation and include, for example, creativity necessary for art, and in particular, poetic translation" [Schweitzer, 1988, 28].
Components of translation competence are language competence (knowledge of language units of the primary and secondary languages), communicative competence (languages (first language on the level of understanding, and the second level of play texts, generate statements, secondary, and primary language codes, knowledge of linguistic units at certain communicative tasks in certain situations), sociolinguistic competence (knowledge of social norms, the acquisition of information about social and situational variables on social relationships, social roles and their aspectarian, about the forms of existence of language (literary language, territorial and social dialects, colloquial), functional styles, acquisition of bilingualism), intercultural competence (knowledge of the value of the principles and components of the culture of another people, knowledge of behavioral stereotypes, ethnic norms, value orientations inherent representatives another linguistic-cultural community), pragmatic competence (knowledge translation rules, translation strategies), business competence (knowledge of techniques and technology transfer, information about the peculiarities of translation, and so on).
Thus, the main properties characterizing the interpreter as a language of identity, are the ability to develop your language skills and professional translation competence. 

Conclusions

The analysis of the concept of "linguistic personality of the translator" lets talk about it, how about the species concept of the generic "linguistic personality". "The language of the translator" is characterized by the presence of special features that are unique in the whole of linguistic identity and personality. "The language of the translator" is a collective term that includes a number of characteristics of persons engaged in translational activity. To such features include: (a) possession of several language codes; b) the ability to knowledge of language units of the second language, the ability to produce speech utterances in this language, the acquisition and development of phonetic, grammatical and semantic component of language ability; formedness secondary language consciousness; g) acquisition of full and cultural types of bilingualism; d) the presence of the structure; (e) the ability to acculturate to another culture; g) knowledge of the norms, principles and values of another culture; C) belonging to multiple communities; and) possession of translation competence; C) the ability of understanding and interpretation of texts; l) the ability to exercise reproductive activities in a second language.
The structure of the linguistic identity of the translator includes a number of options: verbal-semantic (speaking two languages and linguistic competence in two languages), motivation (satisfaction of social needs in bilingual communication and mediator, able to bring to the medium of another language the information encoded in another language, the need to meet the demands of the society in the new language media), cognitive (cognitive language learning based on the learning image in the world of other people, the formation of secondary language consciousness, learning about their own and other cultural world), sociocultural (the ability to vary the language units of the primary and secondary languages depending on the situation, knowledge of the social history of communicant, social norms, rules of socio-cultural interaction), the functional parameter (the implementation in the process of translation activities of the various functions of language is communicative, perceptual, factual, regulatory, expressive, emotional, representative), professional (professional knowledge of the language, business competence, knowledge of two languages).

4.2. Illustrative submodule. Illustrative frames. "Graphics". "Examples".
4.2.1. Graphics 

                                                           

4.4. Control training submodule . Operating personnel. "Job". "Exercises"
4.4.1. Job. Tasks for independent work of students (IWS)

Read the book Y. N. Karaulova "Russian language and linguistic personality" (M, 1981), write down the definition of "linguistic personality".
Write an essay on a topic of translation as a linguistic personality".

Tasks for independent work of students under the guidance of a teacher (SRSP)

Compare the structure of linguistic identity, the parameters of which pointed Y. N. Karaulov, and the structure of the language personality of a translator. Determine what options they differ?
Determine which parameter of linguistic identity is specified in the statement of L. K. Latysheva "Translation meets the ever-evolving need for communication between people who do not speak a common language, or, in other words, separated lingualtechnik barrier" (L. K. Latyshev. Translation: problems of theory, practice and methods of teaching. - M.: Education, 1988).
Ignorance of the value of phraseological cripples "skeleton in the closet", "dark horse" shows a lack of maturity at Bilingua which parameter?
Determine what level of language personality is characterized by Y. N. Karaulov in the following statement: "...including goals, motives, interests, attitudes and intentionality; this layer provides the analysis of linguistic identity is natural and is due to the transition from the estimates made her speech activity to the understanding of real activity in the world" (Karaulov Y. N. Russian language and linguistic personality. - M., 1987).
Determine what level are described in the following definition Y. N. Karaulov: "...units which are the concepts, ideas, concepts, folding each language identity in a more or less systematic worldview, reflecting the hierarchy of values; ...level involves the extension of the values and the transition to knowledge, and thus covers the intellectual sphere of the person, giving the researcher access through language, through the processes of speaking and understanding to knowledge, consciousness, the processes of human cognition" (Karaulov Y. N. Russian language and linguistic personality. - M., 1987).
Check whether the linguistic identity of the sender of the text, translator and recipient representatives of the same linguistic and cultural community or not. Prove it or another position, arguing their findings.
In Russian linguaculture language individuals can use the phrase black stockings, yellow house, tabloids, blue bird, white bone, blue blood. Check whether there are phrases in the lexicon of a language personality, knowing only their native language is Kazakh. If there is a match the value of the word, install their community.
To ascertain the kind of competence and knowledge required to compensate for the "denotation Yam", the elimination of gaps. Prove why the differences between the cultures we are talking about gaps, why it is necessary to compensate for them. Determine what strategies are necessary for this.
In the German linguaculture widely used symbols of man and his nature with symbols of birds and animals: Wandervogel, Spaβvogel, Spottvogel. In the Kazakh linguaculture used in these situations, the only marking of animals: Aidan oir, bot, Kozy, Arlan, it MNEs, at Baylor, at and Einaudi, the Tau Adam, the Stren it Apti. In Russian linguaculture to denote human and traits of his character quite often use the names of the grasses, plants, birds, Oats, Grachev, Soloviev, old bird, goose gripping, owl, crow, thieving magpie, tumbleweeds.
Is it possible for these facts to draw conclusions about the features of the nominative of the strategies of German, Kazakh, Russian language personalities.

4.4.2 Exercises 

Exercise # 1:
Analyze the situation and make a conclusion about the importance of knowledge translator "usual" structures of different languages.
The difference between "usual structures of different languages is often very thin, hard to grasp for a foreigner, but if you don't mind, can get ridiculous and rude.
One of my friend Cech said that he had read the novel "the Gods are thirsty", referring to the Roman Frans A. "the Gods crave. American student who taught English, spoke of leaving, "Have a good day" (have a nice day) and suggested to "use the stairs" (use the stairs), and do not go up the Elevator.
Exercise No. 2.
Answer the question, why the interpreter should be aware of functional styles, social differentiation of language, for their ignorance, lack of discernment genres of texts leads to translation errors.
The translator should be able to speak and write in their native language, i.e. not only have a large vocabulary, but also to know how to use it, be able to correctly reproduce the style of human speech, which he translates. Because it is often figurative speech of foreigners means we are not the literary Russian language, and not "kancelarie". And, more recently, in the translation of films on youth lingo, and then, for example, the President of the United States may complain to the adviser that the Congress took him.

Exercise # 3.
Determine why we are talking about linguistic and cultural interference at the wrong translation of the realities of Russian culture "the elder" as the old man the old man, although The Oxford English Dictionary offers several alternatives matches:
elder old man
elderly advisor
spiritual adviser
But these interpretations do not convey the essence of reality "the elder".


4.5. Control submodule. Control and personnel training. "Questions and answers on them." Interim tests on"
4.5.1. Questions for self-assessment and answers to them

How do you understand "cultural bilingualism"?
Why the translator can be considered as representative of the multiple linguistic and cultural communities?
What are the parameters of the structure of language personality of a translator, you know?
What characteristics includes motivational parameter?
That includes verbal-semantic option?
What characteristics includes functional parameter?
How do you understand the term "the faculty of language translator"?
What are the components of translation competence, you know?  

 Exercise # 1:
Analyze the situation and make a conclusion about the importance of knowledge translator "usual" structures of different languages.
The difference between "usual structures of different languages is often very thin, hard to grasp for a foreigner, but if you don't mind, can get ridiculous and rude.
One of my friend Cech said that he had read the novel "the Gods are thirsty", referring to the Roman Frans A. "the Gods crave. American student who taught English, spoke of leaving, "Have a good day" (have a nice day) and suggested to "use the stairs" (use the stairs), and do not go up the Elevator.
Exercise No. 2.
Answer the question, why the interpreter should be aware of functional styles, social differentiation of language, for their ignorance, lack of discernment genres of texts leads to translation errors.
The translator should be able to speak and write in their native language, i.e. not only have a large vocabulary, but also to know how to use it, be able to correctly reproduce the style of human speech, which he translates. Because it is often figurative speech of foreigners means we are not the literary Russian language, and not "kancelarie". And, more recently, in the translation of films on youth lingo, and then, for example, the President of the United States may complain to the adviser that the Congress took him.

Exercise # 3.
Determine why we are talking about linguistic and cultural interference at the wrong translation of the realities of Russian culture "the elder" as the old man the old man, although The Oxford English Dictionary offers several alternatives matches:
elder old man
elderly advisor
spiritual adviser
But these interpretations do not convey the essence of reality "the elder".


4.5. Control submodule. Control and personnel training. "Questions and answers on them." Interim tests on"
4.5.1. Questions for self-assessment and answers to them

How do you understand "cultural bilingualism"?
Why the translator can be considered as representative of the multiple linguistic and cultural communities?
What are the parameters of the structure of language personality of a translator, you know?
What characteristics includes motivational parameter?
That includes verbal-semantic option?
What characteristics includes functional parameter?
How do you understand the term "the faculty of language translator"?
What are the components of translation competence, you know?

Answer options  push-button. This oral communication on two ASYCUDA no B. Cultural bilingualism is bilingualism, carried out on written kanel and no 2A. Proficiency in several languages allows the interpreter to identify with representatives of different linguistic and cultural message B. no Translator can be integrated in different societies Yes no 3A. Seven parametrable no Century. In the structure of the personality of the interpreter are: verbal-semantic cognitive, motivational, socio-cultural, functional, pragmatic, professional parametrize no 4A. Allows you to identify the motivation of translation deyatelnosti B. no Translation is designed to meet the needs of obshestva no 5A. Verbal-semantic parameter includes proficiency in two languages Yes no B. Under this option, the translator must be fluent in two languages and be competent in their linguistic structure Yes no 6A. Under this option, the translator must use the language of units of two languages respectively situatied no B. the Translator must be aware of the functional styles, stylistic stratification of language sredstva no 7A. The faculty of language translator understood as acquired the ability to pick up language periodate B. no Language ability of the translator is developing the possibility of mastering the mechanisms of generation of speech utterances in a second language, the ability to learn the skills, techniques, strategies, translation deyatelnosti no 8A. Language competence, communicative competence, sociolinguistic competence, pragmatic competence, business competence Yes no B. Skills translation skills deyatelnosti no 

Tests for intermediate control on the subject

What type of bilingual identity is the translator?
Bilingual, fluent in mixed bilingualism
Bilingual, fluent bilingualism coordinationin
Bilingual, fluent in cultural bilingualism
Bilingual, fluent in full bilingualism
Bilingual, fluent in a second language, knowing the culture of the people-native language
2. What is the constituent structure of the interpreter gives an idea about the knowledge of two language systems?
Cognitive parameter
Socio-cultural setting
Functional parameter
Motivational parameter
Verbal-semantic parameter
3. What is the constituent structure of the interpreter gives an idea about the ways of cognition, language picture of the world?
Cognitive parameter
Socio-cultural setting
Functional parameter
Motivational parameter
Verbal-tematicheskie option
4. Who gives this definition of language ability: "layered and mnogokomponentnyi set of language abilities, skills, preparedness to implement the speech acts of different complexity"
Y. N. Karaulov
A. M. Shakhnarovich
A. A. Leontiev
D. Haims
A. D. Schweitzer
5. What component of translation competence includes knowledge, skills, abilities translation activities?
Verbal-semantic
Cognitive
Functional
Pragmatic
Socio-cultural

4.6. Statistical submodule. The resulting frames (feedback).
4.6.1. Answers to questions:
Question No. 1:
The answer is incomplete
True. Whiz!
Question No. 2:
The correct answer
Incomplete answer.
Question No. 3:
Surface response
Detailed answer. True.
Question No. 4:
The answer is correct.
A common response.
Question No. 5:
Incomplete answer.
Detailed answer
Question No. 6:
Incomplete response
Detailed answer. True.
Question No. 7:
Incomplete answer.
Detailed answer. True.
Question No. 8:
The right answer. Well done!
A superficial answer.

Code to the tests
E
E
A
A
D 

Case module # 5. The problem of defining the translation, its types and techniques.
5.1. Theoretical submodule. Theory. Information frames.

5.1.1. The definition of "translation"
The definition of "transfer" is inadequate in the works of various scholars, as this concept is defined differently, depending on what is indicated if the translation as a form of human activity or its result, do you consider it as a type of linguistic mediation or accounted for its purpose. Therefore, the concept of "translation" requires a terminological clarification due to the collision of different views on the essence of the translation. Terminological disorder in the definition of "transfer" is the result of different trends in terminologization the concept of "translation": 1) the study of translation as a process and define it as an activity, as the activities undertaken by the translator, cf.: "Translation is the process of converting speech works in one language into the speech work in another language while maintaining the same content, meaning" [barkhudarov, 1975, 11]; "translation as a process is a specific oral or written activities aimed at recreating existing one language spoken or written text (works) in another language, while preserving the invariance of the content and qualities of the original, and the author authenitcate" [Lilova, 1988, 10]; "Under the transfer means this kind (verbal) of human activity, in which due to the special (special) the processing of the original text that exists in one language, creates a text (or texts), representing (representing) the language (languages) translation [seals, 2004, 10]; 2) translation as a result of the translation industry: "Translation is considered primarily as speech the work and its correlation with the original and due to the nature of the two languages, and with membership of the material to the different genre categories" [Fedorov, 2002, 14]; 3) the translation is purposeful activity. Representatives of teleological direction, take into account the fact that the translation is done with a specific purpose: 1. who the addressee (recipient, text) with the work in its original language; 2. right to transfer the contents of the original in another language, the full present original: "translation can be defined as a way to provide cross-language communication through the creation of a five (translating the language of text to a full replacement of the original" [Commissioners, 1997, 167]; 4) translation as a type of linguistic mediation. The study of translation as intercultural communication helped define the role of the translator as a person, indirectly transmitting the source information in another language, and translation as a process that implements the ability to transmit information through an interpreter to the recipient of the text. And in this case, the linguistic mediation facilitates the exchange of information between speakers of different languages, and the translation is a bilingual communication. The exclusiveness of the translation in this case is that the communicants through translator exchanged communicative equivalent information. C. N. Commissioners, seeing the exclusiveness of translation in ensuring communication and functionally equivalent information gives this definition of translation as a form of linguistic mediation: "Translation is a kind of linguistic mediation, which is entirely focused on the original. Translation is considered as a foreign form of existence of the message contained in the original. In other words, the text of the translation and the original are recognized communicative-equivalent, that is capable of performing the same function (or functions) in different conditions of communication. Therefore, the task of translation is to provide the kind of interlingual communication, in which the generated text in the language of the receptor could act as a full-fledged communicative replacement of the original and to identify the receptors are translated into the functional, structural and substantial relation" [Commissioners, 1990, 42]; 5) translation as a transformation of the characters of one language to another. Representatives of semiotic trends in perevodovedenie define translation as the replacement of signs: "...the translation can be defined as the transformation of signs or representations in other signs or representations. If the originals Express any value, we usually require that their display was expressing the same value or (more realistically)that it is possible expressed the same value. The preservation of invariant values is the Central problem of translation from one language to another [Dettinger, 1960, 104]; 

It follows that there are two types (subclass) of linguistic mediation: 1) is equivalent to the linguistic mediation or translation, in which the communicative function of the source and target texts are identical to each other and in terms of linguistic mediation is influenced by only natural (i.e. not affecting the communicative function) changes in the communicative situation; 2) heterovalent linguistic mediation or arrangement with the processing content (inhaltsbearbeitende Űbertragung) is the term adopted in the practice of interlingual communication in the GDR), which in the additional, not caused by the nature of linguistic mediation of changes in the secondary communicative situation, the final text performs a different communicative function than the original text, although between these texts found some regular relationship, it is quite understandable from the point of view of conditions of communication [Cadet, 1977, 31-33].
The analysis of the various definitions of translation shows that researchers, considering the translation of different positions, note the specific symptoms that characterize this process. But many of the definitions noted the vagueness, ambiguities in the clarification of the essence of translation. The lack of definitions given in the description of translation as a process or the result, not look at the purpose of the translation, the result of the translation is regarded as a "constant content", the preservation of the qualities of the original, which is the only definition of a good translation quality, but does not reveal its essence. More correctly it is possible to consider that the definition of translation, this Century. N.Komissarov, in which said target-oriented translation, considered its role in language mediation, the focus is on the communicative equivalence of the original and translated text. Definitions of translation, data scientists, also has several disadvantages. Osmosensitivity approach in the case of the definition of translation as a character translation of the source text in the translation, definition of transfer through the presentation to him of requirements, in particular requirements of equivalence does not reveal that the author does not take into account extra-linguistic conditioning of translation activities-Ty, when he talks about the processes and the verbalization of the source and target texts. Meanwhile, the author must consider the rules of the language translation peculiarities of perception of the communicants, the ratio of the two cultures in the translation process, the ratio of the two communicative situations.
In our opinion, a more appropriate definition of translation is to recognize the definition given O. Cadet, which is treated as dwuhfaznosti translation, and the presence of two types of linguistic mediation (equivalent and heterovalent). Thought the Acting Cadet, dwuhfaznosti translation characterizes it as a special process. However, this definition also does not take into account the ratio of two cultures, the need to adapt to the norms of the recipient of the text.
In determining the translation must be expressed in its essence, an indication of what characteristics the translation differs from other types of activities and intercultural communication, it should also be noted in the target exclusiveness, motive, determining the process factors, performance. Therefore, the translation can be defined as purposeful, satisfying the needs of society in bilingual communication reproductive-mediating activity, actualizing during the three stages of translation activities, for which there is a primary (between the source text and receptor-translator) and secondary (between the translator-the sender and receiver of the text communications are characterized by effectiveness (the original text and the text in the target language), the determinacy of extra-linguistic and socio-cultural factors (social history of communicants, situational variables, the postulates of communication, norms, values-based culture principles), a number of functions (communication, representative, accumulative, perceptual (perception and understanding, comprehension), lymph), the implementation of special operations, in addition to the processes of speaking and understanding (perception, understanding, representation, implementation of the installation for the transmission of the communicative effect, the intentions, the impact of the author), modified and creative rethinking, selection of strategies, tactics, choice of techniques of translation and other 

5.1.2. The main methods of translation
In the process of translation from one language to another should be aware of the ways of translation. Usually talk about two ways of transfer: transformation, interlineation, pragmatic. Transformational transfer method is the use of transformations in the process of translation of the source text. According to centuries Sdobnikova, O. C. Petrova, "any and all use of translation transformations (lexical, grammatical, stylistic and waiver of the formal-structural correspondences and implementation of the transformation method of translation" [Sdobnikov, Petrova, 2007, 261].
And. And. Rezwin and B. Yu. Rosenzweig interlearning way transfer call transfer according to the preset correspondences, known to the interpreter before the start of translation. In this case, there is a direct transition from the sign S to the signs of the translation language. The latter is the formal-structural correspondence of the sign of S (of the same type or readnotify), which respectively means interlinearly translation. Pragmatic transfer method involves the correlation of situations, postulates of communication, principles of communication in OIA and five. In the framework of the transformation method used such transformation as: specification, generalization, antonymy transfer, compensation, rearrangement, replacement of parts of speech, the replacement of members of the sentence, the syntactic substitution in compound sentence, addition, omission.
Within interlinear conversion method using such techniques as transcription, transliteration, calques and literal translation.
Pragmatic transfer method relates to methods correlated with other methods of transfer, such as explanations in the text (they can be in the form of additions, therefore, relate to the transformational method of transfer), podstroechnye footnotes and comments to individual phenomena in the text there is a way to save interlinearly translation.
Let us characterize briefly the techniques of translation within the framework of the ways of translation. Thus, the transformation method, the implementation of such techniques that transform units of the source language in the translation. HP barkhudarov, developed a typology of translation transformations (permutations, substitutions, additions and omissions), argued that "the translation transformation is the numerous and qualitatively diverse cross-language transformations that are performed to achieve translation equivalence ("adequate translation"), despite the differences in formal and semantic systems of the two languages" [barkhudarov, 1975, 190].
Permutation is changing the sentence structure of the source language in the target language when the components of the sentences of the source language change in translation. In this case, changing the fixed word order, for example, the English sentence may contain a large group of subject with an indefinite article. This group is a Central message in the translation as they are issued at the end of the sentence:
A big wave of actions by all species of fish - large and stall, river and sea, herbivorous and predatory - for places with more food and cleaner water is rising.
Increases the movement of all species of fish, small and large, river and sea, herbivorous prey in places with plenty of food and clean water.
Many persons have helped by discussions and editorial criticism.
In the edition of the book was attended by many employees, who discussed and criticized the text.
The interpreter translates the proposal, retreating from word order and changing its syntactic structure.
Replacement of parts of speech is a technique for replacing missing parts of speech, not matching shapes and structures in the target language. If the original form is not in the target language, or perform other functions, it may be replaced with another or change its character. Replacement trick is used in cases of inadequate standards compatibility, standards usage in different languages, for example, the English sentence Bake the buns till light golden is imperative as a form of representation of the culinary action. In English, the imperative is replaced by the indefinite personal verb form that matches the form of the third person singular + particle-by:
The buns are baked until Golden brown. 

5.1.2. The main methods of translation
In the process of translation from one language to another should be aware of the ways of translation. Usually talk about two ways of transfer: transformation, interlineation, pragmatic. Transformational transfer method is the use of transformations in the process of translation of the source text. According to centuries Sdobnikova, O. C. Petrova, "any and all use of translation transformations (lexical, grammatical, stylistic and waiver of the formal-structural correspondences and implementation of the transformation method of translation" [Sdobnikov, Petrova, 2007, 261].
And. And. Rezwin and B. Yu Rosenzweig interlearning way transfer call transfer according to the preset correspondences, known to the interpreter before the start of translation. In this case, there is a direct transition from the sign S to the signs of the translation language. The latter is the formal-structural correspondence of the sign of S (of the same type or readnotify), which respectively means interlinearly translation. Pragmatic transfer method involves the correlation of situations, postulates of communication, principles of communication in OIA and five. In the framework of the transformation method used such transformation as: specification, generalization, antonymy transfer, compensation, rearrangement, replacement of parts of speech, the replacement of members of the sentence, the syntactic substitution in compound sentence, addition, omission.
Within interlinear conversion method using such techniques as transcription, transliteration, calques and literal translation.
Pragmatic transfer method relates to methods correlated with other methods of transfer, such as explanations in the text (they can be in the form of additions, therefore, relate to the transformational method of transfer), podstroechnye footnotes and comments to individual phenomena in the text there is a way to save interlinearly translation.
Let us characterize briefly the techniques of translation within the framework of the ways of translation. Thus, the transformation method, the implementation of such techniques that transform units of the source language in the translation. HP barkhudarov, developed a typology of translation transformations (permutations, substitutions, additions and omissions), argued that "the translation transformation is the numerous and qualitatively diverse cross-language transformations that are performed to achieve translation equivalence ("adequate translation"), despite the differences in formal and semantic systems of the two languages" [barkhudarov, 1975, 190].
Permutation is changing the sentence structure of the source language in the target language when the components of the sentences of the source language change in translation. In this case, changing the fixed word order, for example, the English sentence may contain a large group of subject with an indefinite article. This group is a Central message in the translation as they are issued at the end of the sentence:
A big wave of actions by all species of fish - large and stall, river and sea, herbivorous and predatory - for places with more food and cleaner water is rising.
Increases the movement of all species of fish, small and large, river and sea, herbivorous prey in places with plenty of food and clean water.
Many persons have helped by discussions and editorial criticism.
In the edition of the book was attended by many employees, who discussed and criticized the text.
The interpreter translates the proposal, retreating from word order and changing its syntactic structure.
Replacement of parts of speech is a technique for replacing missing parts of speech, not matching shapes and structures in the target language. If the original form is not in the target language, or perform other functions, it may be replaced with another or change its character. Replacement trick is used in cases of inadequate standards compatibility, standards usage in different languages, for example, the English sentence Bake the buns till light golden is imperative as a form of representation of the culinary action. In English, the imperative is replaced by the indefinite personal verb form that matches the form of the third person singular + particle-by:
The buns are baked until Golden brown. 

Antonymy translation is the phrase translation via antonymy within the meaning of the expressions, for example, nobody loves him in the team - team all hate; such a phenomenon is rare - this phenomenon is not common. I think no one will refuse to help - I think everyone will agree and help him.
Effeminacy the original value is the neutralization of the original values by replacing more powerful, emotionally-evaluation of the meaning of the word in a neutral, for example, replacement of invective a source language into a more neutral expression, neutralization of verbal aggression replacement taboo, for example, instead of hell with him, you can say the jester with him or to bring foreign language expression, rather than a rough stinks you can say bad smells, bad smells, lover dear friend, lover, mar friend, cancer - canzer.
Within interlinear translation implemented such techniques as calques, transcription, transliteration, word-for-word translation.
The transcription. Translation transcription is a formal pafonine recreate the original lexical units using phonemes translating language, phonetic imitation of the original words. In the process of transcription of the original word is represented in a form adapted to the phonetic (pronunciation) rules and regularities translating language, for example, Shakespeare - Shakespeare: Russian form of the name should be partially read the rules of English writing sounds (sounds W, K, s, p are direct analogues of the original. Sounds transform them into approximately similar in those cases where, in Russian there is no phonetic counterparts. In this case, the English diphthongs become monotony e, and - according to the initial element of the diphthong). This method of transcription is a practical rule for the transmission of English names into English.
Practical transcription of the record of foreign words by means of national alphabet based on their pronunciation. This transcription is based on the rules of transfer of graphemes or graphic combinations of one language graphemes or graphic combinations of another language. Unlike the transliteration of these rules must consider how graphemes and graphic combinations are pronounced in each case. One of the basic requirements of practical transcription is probably more accurate preservation of the sound pattern of the transmitted word, but along with this practical transcription should keep the morphemic structure of words, graphic features, phonemic oppositions language belongs to the transmitted word, provides ease of assimilation. In the practical transcription of foreign language words that are not being translated may be included in the text.
Transcription will powerhouse proper names, geographical names, names of firms, companies, publishing houses, cars, periodicals, ethnonyms-names of things, folklore characters, terms, for example, Cherokee - Cherokee, Ford Mustang Ford Mustang, New Quarterly Press new Press Quaterly, Western Michigan University, Thanes River - the river Thames, the Haage - the Hague, Bank of London - the Bank of Logan, Ivan the Terrible Ivan the terrible and other
Transliteration is a formal letter-by-letter recreate the original lexical unit with alphabet translating language, letter-by-letter imitation of the form of the original word. This method of translation of a lexical unit of the original by re-establishing its graphical form with the help of letters of the target language. This letter-by-letter sending texts and single words using one of the graphics system by a different graphics system, for example, Lapshin in the English language is passed as Lapshin, French Lapchine, Italian Lapsin, Polish Lapszyn, German - Lapschin.
Calques is a process of translation of the inner form of the word, its structure through the use of the resources calciuma language, resulting in the language of the translation of new words, motivated by the meaning and structure of words. 

There are several types cripples semantic, derivational, phraseological. Semantic calques are words and structures formed from the original material on the model of the inner form - motivation and semantic model of another language. In this case, the original word under the influence of another language expands its semantic structure, including in addition the new values arising from the semantic model of the source language. In this case, the word in the target language is used in the expansion is, for example, the Turkic word "hearth" was used only in the values: 1) stone Asan acylating ush ATI shear Temir; 2) stone Asan ASAP Tama psiren, tastan, kresten ALAP jasaan NRSE (Kazakh interpretation dictionary of Kazakh language, 7-s, b.).
T he broad meaning of the word "hearth" in the sense of "home" appeared in English in the second half of the nineteenth century, and the value "Ochag" - "the focus of something" appeared in the mid-twentieth century, cf.: cultural centers, centers of industrialization, the hotbed of rebellion and other Motivation values ocag contributes to the emergence of the semantic structure of a native word "marvelously" additional values formed by semantic replication, for example: "Walden Myung-de almatyy, wasps neg ustulata Madeniet okay THMs" /F. Slonov. Girl Imbat, 369 b./; “Maidan tlaga Sikes, Zhastar nem artyon eryndlyn Council odaini bass Komir okay - categorise Donbass namster Olinda Alanna bar, Aranda NDRs system briny guldara Aranda ush ECE art tsken” /I. Yesenberlin. Mist Maidana, 59 b./; Alrdy Ondiris ocertain klenda asrd she tadani Kala alhamisi” /Asrg Oris Ali, 43 b./.
Morphological calques are those words that reproduce the morphological structure calciumin of words, designs and models which they created with calcerous language. Morphological calques arose as a consequence Parfenova translate words.
In our opinion, the derivative of tracing paper are the result of convergent influence of another language, manifested in the use of structural and semantic models one language to another. In cases of word-formation comes from the Kazakh new words appear in the design of their structural-semantic model of the Russian language. Most words with the Russian language, prefixes-lexical formations, calcerrada in the Kazakh language by words and combinations of words, combinations of root and affix, e.g.: glissandi (unemployment), Altara (manuscript), Baneasa (video), dnage cseres (worldview), it render (revival), TBE top (top), Oh trireme (reasoning), and other
In the complex of Russian adjectives calcerrada in the Kazakh language the first part of the word, the second issued by the affixes-you, -t, -dy, -ly, -l, for example: CP polysty (multi), CP of tragedy (circulation).
The whole expression is passed by morphological parts: the root is passed as the root and affixes Russian language are processed by the affixes of the Kazakh language: principal (principal), suits (architect), mazmundagi (content), Tabarly (trademark), laboranti (laboratory assistant), tapirus (task) and other
Differences in grammatical structures of different languages often prevent accurate transfer of the internal structure of Russian models, therefore, may yield accurate or inaccurate morphological calques. In the exact calques structural arrangement of the components of the model and onion skins and their values are identical, cf.: toasty (refrigerator), morban (autobiography), Orynbasar (Deputy), scenes (applicant), Samaras (cleaner), aynalem (turnover), dabyl (Nabat), caldow (analysis), dildine (argumentation), cesars (opinion), Tim (payment), ran (motto), unchk (decade), HTS (agitator), inviting (the authority), bastami (proem), NSAU (instruction), Akikat (true), DS (method), Chechen (speaker), TPSA (original), taliya (full-blooded), and other 

 On-page footnotes - receiving explanations, when the word is explained below, in the bottom of the page, note, cf.: "Near the squadron of belongings, bags of flour, different Cooley lazily walks hour and envious looks on the holiday type of comrades" (Including Valikhanov. SOBR.Op. 5 t, so 2, S. 183). (Note - comrade (goal) - comrade); "June 23, at 9 o'clock went from Tezuka. The space between the [rivers] Kargaly and Agregaty called the Kirghiz Chubar" (Including Valikhanov. SOBR.Op. 5 TT, T. 1, S. 352). Below is given an explanation of the word: Chubar (motley grove). "They also said that the Sirt feel special udushlivost in the air that people and animals are a victim of tutuka" (Including Valikhanov. SOBR.Op. 5 TT, so 3, S. 61). Bottom note: So they called this phenomenon.
Comment translation is a technique that accompanies the words at the lexical-semantic transformation. A comment is given in the case, if not known lexical background of the word, the word has a national-cultural component values or absent in the target language, and dictionaries are not given sufficient explanation or not fixed this word, for example, require a translation of the commentary phraseologies-we have a national-cultural specificity: hit as chicken in the soup, to rush headlong, the promised land, turocy on wheels, see?; reality - non-equivalent words, common words, words, the absence of which in the language of the translation leads to "denotation holes", for example, beskonak, Nauryz, soup, shoes, tortilla, mother-in-law, mother-in-law, tutek, hut, hut, carnival and other
Thus, the analysis techniques of translation shows that they should, first, to correlate with specific translation methods; directing and clarifying the choice of techniques of translation; second, the use of certain types of transfer in accordance with the selected method of transfer; thirdly, the translation can be applied in the translation process in an integrated way. 

Conclusions

Definition of transfer in the literature is ambiguous. Terminological inconsistency in the definition of this concept is the consequence of the study of translation from different perspectives and with different approaches to the definition of its essence. Meanwhile, the concept of "translation" must take into account its essential features that distinguish it from other activities. Therefore, the translation can be defined as purposeful, satisfying the need of the society in bilingual communication secondary reproductive activity, actualizing during the three stages of translation activity, during which the processes are carried on the primary and secondary communication, comprehension, understanding, and interpretation of the source text within its adaptation to the norms of the recipient, recoding in the secondary language, spawning a secondary text -  Predtechensky life of a translator.
Types of translation are classified differently depending on the execution of any function: function of the message, communication (informative translation), the function of the aesthetic - literary translation, the nature of the execution of the translation action (whether oral, written, oral and written, pismenno-verbal and other); the degree of mechanisms. In the process of perception of the source material (written translation, simultaneous interpretation, translation worksheet, consecutive interpretation, paragraph-phrase translation, translation); the degree of contact of the primary and secondary languages in the process of translation activities (literal translation, free translation, simplify the translation, literal translation).
Translation techniques varied. Systematization of their shows that they need to relate with certain ways of translation, in which they receive terminology orderly and systematic, and clarity. The main methods of translation - transformation, interlinearly, pragmatic, consistent with certain techniques for facilitating any translation operations, which are the same type of translation steps. Correlation techniques with translation methods shows that in the framework of the transformational way of implementing such typed translation steps, as: , transliteration, calques, literal translation, and the pragmatic - explanatory notes in the text: podstroechnye footnotes, translation comments.

5.2.Illustrative submodule. Illustrative frames. "Graphics". "Examples"
5.2.1. Graphics 

 

Fig. 10 are examples of the translation corresponding to certain ways

5.2.2. Examples
Example No. 1 :
Translation transcription is a formal pafonine the reconstruction of lexical units using phonemes translating language, for example:
Yuri - Yuri
Subaru - Subaru
Facts on file - facts he file
New Quarterly press new press Quaterly
New newspaper Novaya Gazeta
Example No. 2
Transliteration
Capitalism - capitalism
Communism - communism
Democrat Democrat
Ideology - ideology
Internationalism - internationalism
Japan-Japan
Catholic - Catholic
Example No. 3
Welcome add :
He grasped my hand with a nervous impressments
Which alarmed me and strengthened the suspicions already entertained. His countenance was pale even to ghastliness, and his deep - set eyes glared with unnatural luster.
In Russian translation:
Shaking hands, he clenched his hand to me, and this nervous vehemence reawakened and strengthened my earlier fears. In the face of Legrand was a look of deadly pallor, sunken eyes sparkled with feverish brilliance.
In this example, first of all, we see this transformation as adding. The translator adds the word "greeting"to clarify that Legrand squeezed his hand when he greeted. The verb "graspy" is translated by the verb "squeezed". This verb means "to pinch, squeeze my hand." The translator showed how much Legrand squeezed his hand when greeted.
There was also the replacement of the English phrase "already entertained" adjective "recent" in the semantic development.
Subject in the English sentence is transformed into a circumstance the place in the Russian proposal " his countenance" in the face of Legrand". Moreover, the possessive pronoun "his" is replaced by your own name "Legrand". In English personal pronouns are used more often than in Russian.

5.3. Reference submodule. Reference frames. "Glossary".
List of basic and additional literature".
"Reference sites".
5.3.1. Glossary
Replacement of parts of speech is a welcome replacement of missing parts of speech, unmatched shapes and designs of translation. If the original form is not in the target language, or perform other functions, it may be replaced with another or change its character. 

Calques is the process of translating the inner form of the word, its structure through the use of the resources calciuma language, resulting in the language of the translation of new words, motivirovannyh meaning and structure of words.
Descriptive translation is the essence of descriptive translation lies in this conversion, when the word in the translation process is replaced by the phrase, periphrasis, descriptive expression, in some cases euphemisms.
The omission is welcome when when translating individual words, phrases, and even that-clause, excessive from the point of view of the interpreter, are not necessary to convey meaning, are omitted or reduced.
A permutation is changing the sentence structure of the source language in the target language when the components of the sentences of the source language is changed in the translation process in its place.
Translation transcription is a formal pafonine the reconstruction of lexical units using phonemes translating language, phonetic imitation of the original words.
A pragmatic way of translating is a pragmatic adaptation of the text when the source text is adapted to the norms of the target language.
Practical transcription of the record of foreign words by means of national alphabet based on their pronunciation.
Transformational method of translation is the process of converting units of one language in another.
Transliteration is a formal letter-by-letter recreate the original lexical unit with alphabet translating language, letter-by-letter imitation of the form of the original word.

5.3.2. The list of basic and additional literature

Key readings

Barkhudarov HP Language and translation. Questions of General and special theory of translation. - M.: International relations, 1975.
Kazakova, T. A. literary translation. Theory and practice. - SPb.: LLC Inhabitat", 2006.
Commissioners Century. N. Theory of translation (linguistic aspects) - M.: Higher school, 1990.
Sdobnikov centuries, Petrov O. Century translation Theory. - M, AST: East-West, 2007.
Talanov C. Korkem euderma Turala. - Almaty: Asmare Baspasy, 1962.

Further reading

Commissioners Century. N. New trends in perevodovedenie //Information-communicative aspects of translation: FR.scient.works. Part 1. Novgorod: Lunn them.N. A. Dobrolyubova, 1997.
Lilova A. Introduction to the General theory of translation. - M., 1985.
Minyar-Belorusov R. K. Theory and methods of translation. - M., 1996.
Rosenzweig C. Y. translation Theory and the theory of language contact //Report on conference on information processing in machine translation and automatic reading of text. Vol.9. - M., 1961.
Seals S. C. Theory of translation. - M.: Gardarika, 2004.
Fedorov A. N. The foundations of the General theory of translation (linguistic problems). 5th ed. St. Petersburg: the Philological faculty of St. Petersburg state University. - M.: Publishing house "Philology three", 2002. 

Каdе О. Zu einigen Grundpositionen bei der theoretischen Erklärung der sprachmittlung als menschlichen Tätigkeit //Űbersetzungs wissenschaftliche Beiträg - Leipzig, 1977.

Nida E.A., Taber C. The theory and practice of translation. – Leiden. 1969.

Oettinger A.G.  Automatic language translation. – Cambridge (mass). 1960.

Wills W. Ubërsetzungswissenschaft: Probleme und Methoden. – Stuttgart, 1977.

5.4. Control training submodule. Operating personnel. "Job". "Exercises".
5.4.1. Job
Tasks for independent work of students (IWS)

To prepare the abstracts on the topics of "translation", "translation tools".
S
ummarize paragraph 14 "requirements for the translator of a literary text and functions translators" from the book of centuries Sdobnikova, O. C. Petrova "Theory of translation". - M.: AST: East-West, 2007.

Tasks for independent work of students under the guidance of teachers (SRSP)

Determine the reception of transformation in the following sentence, translated from English:
From such measurements the interatomic spacing and structure of molecules can be measured.
Using such measurements, one can determine interatomic distances and the structure of molecules.
Determine what kind of technique is the transformation used in the translation. Explain why you need the conversion.
An attempted overthrow in Peru.
An attempted coup in Peru.
What kind of technique is used in the following phraseological units?
lights up
no skin off one's back
neck or nothing
either sink or swim
Explain whether the structure of phraseological units in the source language and the target language
Slow but steady will eile weile und
As well be hanged for a sheep as for a lamb - Seven bed - one answer.
Explain what reception lexico-semantic transformation used in the translated sentences of the source language?
You are probably going to Stavropol?
So exactly with the state of things.
I suppose you are going to Stavropol?
Yes. Sir. I am...with some government baggage.
Why the word "thing" "Rennin"with a broad meaning, are replaced in the translation by "baggage"?
What kind of transfer is used in the following context:
"And again it started to snow, sapurina, howled, but with such fury, as if winter had second thoughts and decided finally hard to remind myself. "This beskonak", was held in the beard Eshelby, he keeps explaining to David. He rages for three days in a row without getting tired. If three days is not settled, then, consider, Burnet seven days. And, sometimes nine days straight. This is the last snowstorm of the year. It paves the way for spring. This is a tradition from time immemorial" [G Belger. The house of the wanderer, S. 214].
What kind of transfer is used when translating the following words in the context. Specify the type of reception.
Aim (bait), Adam (recat), Bane (MSN), ecprd (ARIN), dur (Tarikhi case), Zhuldyz (MADI Aldy, betke star), Kenes (inalas), biik (dragel), Wen (saryn), Orta (orshan AUM), etc. Cf.: Kazakhstan Ken he's a devil gildy oyinda”, “Careside Osip San Otis TRT cphs shyly Aldy” (J. Sain. Sarusi,. B.); “BL Sezen stne Sea Azamat, Apartmani, sapaly lken artane hoopty CL” (M. Auezov. Skin Ornek, b.); “She ESCM Zan JSON gazala kregen, gagalady meldem blatn sotty Yes ordinan batterup, this pet of balista Gaby dausin hundred salaun tctgen” (K. Segev. Jol,154B.); “Revolution daulphine ilarly n Menin Grego RCT Oh TCG” (C. lobster. Omir WOSTOK, b.) and other
5.4.2.Exercises
Exercise # 1.
Determine which method grammatical transformation is used in the translation of the source text:
I had never seen the good old Negro look so dispirited, and I feared that some serious disaster had befallen my friend.
I've never seen the old good-natured Negro as depressed, and I was overcome with anxiety: so if something had happened to my friend?
Exercise # 2.
Determine what grammatical transformation used when translating the following text:
Ah, if I had only known you were here! Said Legrand, but it is so long since I saw you; and how could I foresee that you would pay me a visit this very night of all others?”
If I had know you were here!- cried Legrand - But we have not seen. How can I guess what tonight you will attend?
Exercise # 3. 

Determine which lexical and grammatical transformations used a translator when translating niepalacego text:
Well, well”I said, “ perhaps you have - still in don't see them: and I handed him the paper without additional remark, not wishing to ruffle his temper;but I was much surprised at the turn affairs had taken.
Don't worry, " I said, " maybe you and drew, Legrand but I can't see them. And I gave him the drawing without further comment, not sparing to vex him. I was surprised by the strange trafficking, which took the story.
Exercise # 4.
Jupiter, by direction of his master, proceeded to clear for us a path to the foot of an enormously tall tulip-tree, which stood, with some eight or ten oaks, upon the level, and far surpassed them all, and all other trees.
By order of Legrand, Jupiter began to mow for us a path to tulpanova tree of extraordinary beauty, which was surrounded by a dozen oak trees, and far surpassed these oaks, and all these trees.
Exercise # 5.
Determine how replication
White house - White house
Winter palace - the Winter Palace
The white Guard - White guard
Our Home is Russia (Nash Dom-Rossiya

5.5. control submodule. Supervisory personnel. "date questions and answers on them." "Tests for intermediate control on"
5.5.1. Questions for self-assessment and answers to them

What kind of translation you can call?
What are the criteria for the classification of types of translation exist perevodovedenie?
How do you understand the term "transformational way of translation"?
How do you understand the term "interlineary transfer method"?
What techniques are implemented within the framework of transformational way?
What methods are correlated with interlineary transfer method?
What methods are updated in the framework of pragmatic transfer method?
Options ototokoi otveta) Adequate, literal, literal, khudozhestvennyye) Types of translation should be distinguished based on different criteria, for example, by the criterion of contact languages should provide the following translations, as appropriate, literal, free, simplifying daneta) There are several criteria for classifying types of periodograms) the Criterion of contact languages, criterion implementation of spiritual activity, psycho-linguistic criterion, the criterion of jarova stylistic varieties of texts daneta) Transformation method involves the use of transformations while translating TextEdit) Transformation method is characterized as the transformation of Danata) Interlineary way is the translation according to the preset correspondences, known perevodchikam) Interlineary method involves the use of reception cancerovarian) Within transformating method used lexical and grammatical transformation Danet) Within transformational used techniques such as generalization, specification, adding, replacing, rearrangement, descriptive translation and other daneta) interlineary way relate to techniques such as transkrypcja, transliteration, calques, literal periodont) With this method relate to techniques such as transcription and transliteratedat) In the framework of the pragmatic method using such techniques as: explanations in the text, podstroechnye footnotes, kommentaarideta) In the framework of this method using the technique of kommentirovaniyu 

5.5.2. Tests for intermediate control on the subject
1. Who among researchers gave the definition of translation as dvukhfaznoi activity?
A) C. N. Commissioners
In) HP Barkhudarov
(C) A. D. Schweitzer
D) Acting Cadet
E) C. C. Seals
2. What the researcher is given the classification of translation on the basis of the accounting activities of the mental mechanisms?
A) The HP Barkhudarov
C) R. K. Minyar-Belorusov
(C) S. C. Seals
D.) C. Talanov
E) Century Century Sdobnikov, O. C. Petrov
3. On the basis of what criteria are such types of translation, such as: writing-the written and the oral interpretation?
A) Psycholinguistic
C) Criteria according to the operation of the mental mechanisms
(C) Criteria into account stylistic varieties of text
D) the Criterion of contact languages
E) Criterion accounting functions of translation
4. What kind of transfer is used in this case?
Jupiter opened the door, and large Newfoundland, belonging to Legrand, rushed in, leaped upon my shoulders, and loaded me with caresses; for I had shown him much attention during previos visits.
Jupiter opened the door and a huge Newfoundland Legrand burst into the room and quickly welcomed me, putting his paws on my shoulders;I became friends with him in the previous visit.
A) Generalizatio
In) Permutation
(C) Adding
D) Replacement
E) Specification
5) What kind of translation is used in this translation:
Here upon Legrand arose, with a grave and brought me the beetle from a glass case in which it was enclosed.
Legrand arose, with important views and took the beetle from a glass box where he kept it?
A) Generalization
C) Repositioning and replacement
(C) Omission and replacement
D) Specification
E) Astonomicheskii translation
6) What is the transfer used in this case
J have ided nj
Myung blame.
I don't know.
J don't get you
Myung sin tsibel.
I don't understand
A) Generalizatio
C) Modulation
C) Specification
D) Replacement
(e) the Omission
7. What is the method of translation used in this case:
Pefugee camp - Basinger lager
African nations - Africa Holy
Jragi Foras - Iraq scary cster
T. Blair is the best ruler in the House
So Bland Ukimet in Basarwa Geary Krecke not
A) Generalization
In) Specification
(C) The Permutation
D) Replacement
E) Adding

5.6 Statistical submodule. The resulting frames (feedback)
5.6.1. Answers to questions
Question No. 1:
A. an Incomplete answer.
C) True. Detailed answer.
Question No. 2:
A. an Incomplete answer.
In) Depth, the correct answer.
Question No. 3:
A. True.
C) Wrong answer.
Question No. 4:
A. the Correct answer.Whiz!
C) Wrong answer.
Question No. 5:
A. General the answer is vague.
In) Depth, the correct answer.
Question No. 6:
A. True.
In) Surface, not the correct answer.
Question No. 1:
A. the Correct answer, well done!
A General answer is vague.

5.6.2. Code to the tests
d
in
and
with
with
in
d 

Case module # 6. Modeling of the process of translation.
6.1. Theoretical submodule. Theory. Information frames.
6.1.1. The basic model of translation
Due to the fact that at the present time have any interest in the description of the translation process, one of the problems of translation theory is the modeling of translational activity. Model translation can be defined as "cosmetic procedures for the implementation of the translation process" [Commissioners, 1999, 158]. The model represents some hypothetical building, showing the main stages in the translation process and actions taken by the interpreter at each stage. The problem of description of such actions is complicated by the fact that they are all in the mind of the translator, that is not directly observable. This gives the model a hypothetical character. However, as noted by C. N. Commissioners, this does not mean that the model translation is purely speculative building. As in other cases when the researcher is dealing with non-observable system ("black box"), the reality of the model (its explanatory power) is checked by comparing the state of the "input" and "output". To translate, this means a comparison of the texts of the original and translation. If the result of the translation is the way it was supposed to happen according to this model, therefore, the model "works", although it is, of course, does not prove that the translator consciously used such a model [of Commissioners, 1999, 158].
Currently in perevodovedenie spread models such as the model of natural correspondences, situational-denotation model, the denotation model, the transformation model, the semantic model, the levels of equivalence of the three-phase model of translation, interpretative model. Consider the basic model.
A. Model a natural match. This regulatory model, which promotes the study of translation as a process that has an effective character. The result of this process - the text is analyzed from the point of view of realization of the natural correspondences. It was developed on the basis of the concept of I am. And. Retsker about the theory of natural correspondences. This theory was later supplemented in proceedings of the Century A. Fedorov, L. S. Barkhudarov, C. N. Komissarov, W. Koller. The essence of this theory is the classification matches, which are taken into account when translating from one language to another. In this classification there are three group matches: 1) equivalents; 2) counterparts; 3) adequate replacement.
Under the equivalents are understood to be constant, independent of the context of compliance units S units of five. First of all it is unambiguous terms, for example, the United Nations meets Russian Organization of the United Nations. Counterparts - this variant of conformity. Analogues can be called in the sense that between this unit and THEIR corresponding unit five-set analog relations: among synonymous five units corresponding to the unit IA, looking for an option to convey the meaning most appropriate for a given context, for example, the English word fair can be translated into English as honest and fair.
The third group - adequate replacement. To them, the translator resorts when the faithful transmission of the thoughts of the original feasible approach would be a departure from "the letters of the original", i.e. used in the original words, and the solution of the task at hand, on the basis of the whole. If the first two groups take for the basis of language units, which can be defined as conformity, in the third group it is not about matching units IA and five, and suggests specific actions translator to establish conformity between different units of OIA and five, i.e. we are talking about the techniques of translation, to which I. J. the Retsker considers the specification of undifferentiated and abstract concepts, logical development of concepts, astonomicheskii translation and compensation. The author later adds welcome "holistic rethinking"when the translator decides to translate this word or phrase, based on the understanding of the whole utterance, sometimes departing from specific elements very far, for example, when translating phraseological A good rid-dance!- good riddance used this technique.
This model is controversial and has certain disadvantages. I. S. Alekseev indicates such shortcomings of this theory as "some unfinished space in the seemingly slim building classification matches: the lack of a unified database classification; ambiguity lexical scope unambiguous equivalents, because they can contain more than one token (for example, terminological expressions, logotypes the slogans of companies, prohibitive inscriptions" [Alekseev, 2000, 3]. 

B. Situational-denotation model developed And. And. Revsine, C. Yu Rosenzweig. This model assumes that the contents of all language characters reflects some objects, phenomena, relations of reality. Items reality, reflected in the language of signs, called denotata. The situation in reality is a set of denotata and relations between them. Therefore, speech segments contain information about some situation in real life.
Following the premise underlying the situational-denotation model: any situation can be described by means of any language, aided by the commonality of our environment regardless of the language of belonging. The same phenomena can be described in many different languages, but in any case, such a description is possible, even if this language is not an appropriate name.
Hence this model describes the translation process as follows. At the stage of perception of the original text (or segment) translator, analyzing the values of linguistic symbols and their relationships, clarifies what the denotata are indicated by these characters and what the situation actually is the data set of denotata.
Once in the mind of the translator got the idea described in the original situation (kind of a picture depicting a certain fragment of reality), he describes this situation by means of another language.
In summary I. And Revzin and C. Y. Rosenzweig, who developed the model, this process, called their interpretation is as follows. There is a sender And the recipient and interpreter P. And, using the language of OIA, transmits the message C1 about some situation in fact D. the Interpreter, using a system of OIA, establishes the correspondence between C1 and D, and then, using a system of five, creates a new message C2 of the same situation; message C2 is accepted by the addressee, who, using a system of five, establishes the correspondence between S2 and reality.
In other words, the translator took some speech sequence, this sequence he goes to the situation, considering the situation, then completely abstracting away the message that he was to be transferred, and only having in mind this situation, the interpreter reports this situation to another person [Revzin, Rosenzweig, 1964, 57].
Despite the fact that this model has a number of advantages, namely that it provides an opportunity to explain those features of the translation process, which is associated with the address translator to reality. However, it has shortcomings, which, according to C. N. Requirements include: 1) it "does not work" in cases where there is a refusal from the description in the translation the same situation as in the original, as it would not provide opportunities for cross-language communication; 2) does not explain this model and those cases where the translation retains not only the situation described in the original, but the way its description, as well as the main part of the value of linguistic resources [Komissarov, 1999, 160]. 

 The denotation translation model presented in the works of J. M. Keynes.Catford, Century, The SJC. The essence of this theory is that reflected the world, one for the speakers of all cultures, consists of various kinds of phenomena, processes, objects. In any language, you can find raznoobranye outwardly and slightly different from each other in content words, which, however, point to the same reality. Hence, the content of interlingual communication is an extra-linguistic reality, and the process of translation, according to the denotation theory is the process of describing the denotata reflected in the original language, the language of the translation. Translator, sensing the source text, links language units OIA with relevant and extraneous their denotata, fragments of objective reality. Then, having identified these denotata, he describes them, but means don't OIA, five. Usually the translator in advance (without reference to the stage of identifying denotatum) knows what language units IA and five describe the same denotata. So he doesn't need to match them with the appropriate denotata, he simply replaces unit OIA relevant denotata, units of five. The advantage of this model is that it assumes the possibility of replacing the names of denotata in THEIR name the same denotation in the translation language. However, she explains how you can translate the name of the denotatum of OIA, when there is a discrepancy between languages, between cultures. When such discrepancies, in the opinion of the authors, you can use descriptive translation.
The transformational model of translation based on the ideas of transformational grammar N. Chomsky. When building this model, the transfer is treated as the text of the source language text in the target language. The translator perceives the original, produces in mind a number of cross-lingual transformation and gives the finished translation. The main decision to transform the so-called "nuclear syntactic structures", which are the same in different languages and are characterized by the common logical-syntactic relations and lexical composition.
According to the transformational theory of translation the translation process is built in three stages: 1) stage of analysis of the structure of the original (surface) structure is converted into nuclear structure S, that is the transformation within the original language; 2) the stage of transfer - replacement nuclear structure S equivalent of the nuclear structure of the translation language (interlanguage transformation); 3) a synthesis phase, or reverse engineering - nuclear structure of the translation language is deployed in the surface structure of the translation language. In the final structure of the translated text [Schweitzer, 1973].
A. D. by Schweitzer demonstrates the use of this model in the translation process. The original English sentence The White House the pressurized Sеnаtе into reconsidering its decision in the inverse transformation we have two nuclear structure:
The White House the pressurized Sеnаtе.
The Senate reconsidered its decision.
This is the first stage of the analysis. At the second stage - the stage of transfer of nuclear structure S is replaced by an equivalent nuclear structure five:
The white house has been pressing the Senate, and the reversed its decision.
The white house has been pressing the Senate to cancel its decision.
In the third step are carried out additional mapping structures in the five-context, stylistic features of the text, to provide the greatest possible equivalence of surface structures in OIA and five, that is, to take further deployment oraloader five structures in the surface structure of the translation language.
This model has both advantages and certain disadvantages.
C. N. Commissioners noted the following advantages of this model:
transformational theory is featured in a comparative study of different forms, among which may establish translation equivalence relations that creates a theoretical basis for the description of the system of translation relations between two specific languages;
the transformational model makes it possible to identify different types of translation transformations; 

an attempt to link the process of intralingual translation transformations has undoubted value, because it gives an opportunity to explain the facts of translation structures S that do not have matches in the translation language. For example, does not have a correspondence in Russian, English structure and She is poor letter-writer. At the first stage of the translation process, this structure is converted into nuclear structure within the same language: She writes letters poorly. The second step is the replacement of nuclear structure S nuclear structure five, "She writes letters bad." And then there is the deployment of nuclear structure five in the surface structure of the Russian language: "She doesn't know how to write letters" [Commissioners, 1999, 161].
The shortcomings of this theory are: 1) transformational theory does not explain how the third stage is the selection of the number of possible transform; 2) this model cannot explain the facts of equivalence between such structures, which do not lead to similar nuclear structures.
D. Semantic model of translation aims at the description of the nature of the correspondence between the plan of the original content and the content of the translation. Presented in the works of J. M. Keynes.Catford. This theory comes from the fact that in the translation process, the translator tries to keep the content original to bring it to the recipient of the transfer. However, he finds these five units that adequately convey the content of the original.
Is used for this component of the analysis. The value of each language unit S and the translation language is considered as a set of SEM, the beam semantic multiplier (SEM). Seven identified when comparing this unit with others, for example, the word "teacher" has the following beam SEM:
learning, not learning;
an employee of the University - not the teacher;
male sex is not the teacher;
singular - not teachers.
In the process of interpretation, the interpreter will look for the same line five, which more fully reflect this set of SEM.
Semantic translation model has considerable advantages, as it allows to explain many of the causes of semantic differences between the two texts, indicates the factors determining the choice of options. Its disadvantages are, according to C. N. Requirements: 1) it does not provide for cases when to describe the same situation, different languages use different semantic categories; 2) it does not affect transmission problems shaped and other associations in the translation [of Commissioners, 1999, 163].
E. three-phase model of translation O. Kade. The essence of this model is that it explains how the process of bilingual communication flowing throughout the three phases of its actualization is achieved mutual understanding between interactants. This understanding, according to O. Kade, is possible in case of realization of functions of translation, when the text in the language a turns into text on H2. Function transfer requires: (a) decoding of text I order transcoding; b) transcoding, i.e. exchange code in the narrow sense (globbing characters JA2 instead of characters a); C) implementation of the text in JA2. These tasks are solved by the translator T (Translator), which acts as an intermediate link between N and O in bilingual communication. In relation to About it is the recipient, and in relation to the final destination P is - indirect sender is.
As pointed out by O. Kade, a prerequisite for the functioning of the interpreter as' is functioning as a recoding of the link PZ. In this context, the translator performs marks the transition from one language to the signs of another language, or rather, replaces characters a signs JA2. This function translator T depends on his actions as the recipient P. 

This bilingual communication involves three phases:
Communication between O and T. the Translator T acts as the recipient of the P-message a.
MENA code a - H2 implemented T (acting as PZ);
Communication between T and P'. The interpreter acts as the sender' of the message for the recipient P'. [Cade, 1978, 74].
The advantage of this model is, according to centuries Sdobnikova, O. C. Petrova, clearly identify the stages of the process of interlingual communication, an indication of the multifunctional activity of the translator. A similar idea about the structure of the act of interlingual communication provides an opportunity to analyze various factors that exist in each of the links and affecting translation.
The lack of it, in our opinion, is that in this model, special attention is only on the translation as communication, and translation as an activity includes secondary textbrush activities that are being recoded in another language.
J. the Theory of levels of equivalence are presented in the works of C. N. Komissarova, who considered the theory of levels of equivalence as a model of translation activity, based on the assumption "that equivalence relations are established between the same levels of text and translation. The basis of this model is the selection in the text content of a series of levels, different in nature, the information transmitted from source to receptor" [Commissioners, 1973, 62].
The essence of this theory is that "differences in the systems S and five-and creating texts in each of these languages to varying degrees may limit the ability to fully preserve in the translation of the original content. Therefore, translation equivalence can be based on the preservation (and therefore loss) of different elements of meaning contained in the original. Depending on what part of the content is passed to the translation to ensure the equivalence vary different levels (types) of equivalence. At any level of equivalence translation can provide interlanguage communication" [Commissioners, 1990, 51].
In the transmitted from the Source to the Receptor text Century. N.Commissioners identifies five main levels of content: 1) the level of linguistic signs (words); 2) language; (3) level (structure) of the message; 4) the level of description of the situation; 5) the target level of communication.
The sequence of levels, according to C. N. Komissarova, reflects not only the structure of the content, but the main stages of the analysis of Receptor sent him a text. First, the Receptor identifies language signs, then consistently clarifies the content of the analyzed text at the level of statements, messages, describe the situation and comes to the understanding of the content of the whole on the target level of communication" [Commissioners, 1973, 66].
Describing these levels, he notes that the upper threshold privodimosti equivalence will be at the lowest level (i.e. at the level of language units), and the lower its threshold - equivalence only at the highest level (i.e. at the level of the target communication). This equivalence at the higher levels does not mean equivalence at lower, whereas the equivalence at the lowest level automatically assumes equivalence and at higher levels, because the translator must understand all the levels from the original language signs to the purpose of communication.
Later Century. N.Commissioners changed the sequence of the allocated levels on the back and introduced the notion of type equivalence. Different types of equivalence are illustrated Century. N.Komissarov as follows:
The first type (the equivalence at the level of the purpose of communication): 

And that's pretty thing to say.
You ought to be ashamed!
The purpose of communication is the expression of the emotions of the speaker, which outraged the previous statement of the interlocutor.
The second type (IFF-level description of the situation):
Not answered the phone.
He lifted the receiver.
In this case, the total of the content of the original and translation not only transmits the same purpose of communication, but also reflects the same extralinguistic situation. Here are incommensurable language features of the original and translation actually describe the same thing, point to the same reality - pick up the phone - this is the "answer" the call.
The third type (equivalence at the level of the message):
Scrubbing makes me bad-tempered.
From cleaning floors I spoiled the mood.
This translation retains the purpose of communication, describes the same situation and saved General concepts with which this situation is indicated in the original.
The fourth type (equivalence at the level of structure statements):
1 told him what I thought of her.
I told him my opinion about it.
This type of equivalence implies, along with the three components of content stored in the third type, play a significant portion of the values of the syntactic structures of the original
The fifth type (equivalence at the level of linguistic signs):
The house was sold for 10 thousand dollars.
The house was sold for 10 thousand dollars.
In this type of equivalence is preserved the purpose of communication, the description of the situation, the meaning of the message, the value of syntactic structures and the meaning of the words, i.e., maximum degree of proximity of the contents of the original and translation, which can exist between texts in different languages.
The model of the theory of equivalence, despite the intention of the author to indicate to the interpreter achieving equivalence of the source and target text, also has drawbacks: 1) the model does not show the essence of the translation; 2) the analysis is carried out only from the point of view of the linguistic approach that narrows the point of view of the author and not giving him the opportunity to consider the translation process thoroughly; 3) although the author correctly indicate the item "the goal of communication"that fit into the framework of activity theory, focusing on the transfer of the intentions of the sender of the text, the levels of equivalence is not very clearly explain what type equivalence in question, whether semantic, whether on the level of equivalence of intentions.
Also do not explain the essence of translation communicative and informational model of translation. In the communicative model of translation, the translation process is explained as an act of bilingual communication. It has a message, its sender and receiver, the code (language) and communication (written or oral) with regard to the genre of this speech. Simplified diagram of the steps of this model is as follows: the sender encodes the message and transmits it to the appropriate channel, the receiver decodes it (i.e., considering) and then converts received information using the new code and transmits it to the recipient on the same or a different channel with preservation of the genre peculiarities of the original message. Complicates the scheme is the fact that the recipient-the translator must choose the best option possible transmission source information. It is also important that the translator is a participant in the communication process that performs the dual function of recipient and sender information [Vinogradov, 2006, 29].
Informative model takes into account the intellectual characteristics of the sender (author) and recipient (translator) text, cultures and visions of the world peculiar to correlate linguistic communities, as well as situational and communicative conditions of generation of the source text. Supporters of informative models assume that in the minds of the receptor occurs at the same time, the analysis and synthesis of content components, resulting in the understanding and perception of a coherent volume information [Vinogradov, 2006, 29-30]. 

H. Cognitive-pragmatic model of translation
The analysis of the main models of translation shows that in each of them are characterized by some features of the translation process: 1) model natural correspondences (examines the types of the language in the original and the target language), 2) situational-denotation model (gives an idea about one of the ways of achieving adequacy in translation via correlation of denotata and situations of the source language and the target language); 3) the denotation model (also looking at ways to achieve equivalence via correlation of the denotata of the original and the original language); 4) the transformational model (develop the rules for the transformation of the original message in the target language); 5) the semantic model (describes the correspondence between the content source and target language); 6) three-phase model of translation (highlights the stages of the process of interlingual communication); 7) interpretative model (focuses on understanding and comprehension of the source text, extract the meaning and transfer it into another language); 8) the theory of levels of equivalence (descriptive model, allowing the translator to achieve closeness to the original by focusing on equivalence goals communication in the original and in translation); 9) communication model (explains the translation as an act of interlingual communication); 10) informative model takes into account the intellectual characteristics of the sender of the text and the recipient, the nature of perception and understanding of the source text). The advantage of these models is that they develop some aspect of the translation process, but do not cover the entire translation activity, so these models cannot describe fully the essence of translation activity.  Therefore, it is deemed advisable to build a cognitive-pragmatic model of translational activity, allowing both to describe the translation in all its guises (as a secondary reproductive activity, as a textual activity, as the process of interlingual communication), and to focus on issues of interpretation of the source text, its perception, its adaptation to the norms and values and principles of the recipient of the text of the representative of another linguistic-cultural community, the interpretation of it. The above diagram (No. 3,4,5) are only some of the processes of translation activity, and cognitive-pragmatic model of translation is translation as a holistic process. It does count as communicative, texto-language activity entity translation process is presented as a kind of spiritual and practical rehabilitating activity and its reproductive nature, and cognitive activities translator (perception, cognize (recognition, comprehension, understanding, interpretation, creation of discourse-text process languagefiles, imaginative-creative activity of the interpreter, the use of knowledge, updating competence. 

In our opinion, all presented models of the translation process last - cognitive-activity model of the translation process, presents us most clearly expresses the essence of the translation, first of all, its active nature, manifested in its active nature in three forms: 1) translation as an activity, which is manifested in the dialectical process outwork and the objectification of texts in primary and secondary language codes; secondly, the activity essence of translation is manifested in the processes of speaking and understanding, the accumulation of language material, textoriginy, using language tools - primary and secondary codes in the course of intercultural communication; thirdly, that the translation activity has all the features of the subject. Fourth, cognitive activity entity translation process, which is manifested in the implementation of communicative rehabilitating activity in the process of exchange of information (source) and converted into a form of life of the subject of the translation in the second language. The communicative essence of the translation appears in the actualization of two levels of communication (primary between the sender of the text and the interpreter and secondary between the translator and recipient of the text in the target language). Fifth, this model also takes into account the need to emphasize the main points languagefiles of the translator's activity, lies in its ability to perform cognitive activities (concept, perception, attribution, authentication) in the process of understanding and comprehension of the source text's primary language code. In the process of updating the cognitive activity interpreter during the perception of the source text is included in the surrounding perceived reality. "The activity of cognition, writes, E. Webelieve - we understand the totality of all processes performed by the components of cognition as an interactive system in order to understand the process of human life. "The main feature of the cognition is that: 1) the activity of cognition is a necessary condition for effective inclusion of the subject in the surrounding perceived (reflected their reality); 2) the activity of cognition is a necessary condition for the exercise of any activity, including cognitive" [Webelieve, 2006, 144].
The translator on the basis of knowledge of the primary language code is included in cognitive activities such as perception, recognition marks of the original text) understands and comprehends it (also is a cognitive activity), then during decoding of the source text in a second language creatively rethinking it (lingueglietta activities), translates and interprets it according to the value of the norms and principles of other linguistic and cultural community, a representative of which is the recipient of the text. Sixth, in during the representation of text in the secondary language translator performs cognitive functions, he learns cognitive function, implemented a secondary language, as becoming proficient in a second language, studying not only the set of lexico-semantic and grammatical models of second language, but also learns the rules of their application, their ability to explicate the concepts, language picture of the world as a set of concepts, develops the skills of interpretation of the text, discourse, forms a secondary linguistic consciousness and acquires the necessary socio-cultural experience, acculturates in a different cultural system. Mode the interpretation of the text" [Paducheva, 2005, 40] requires a cognitive process of acquiring knowledge. Knowledge also have a cognitive entity. They represent a basic form of cognitive organization "results reflect the objective of the properties and attributes of reality in the minds of people, because it is an important factor in the ordering of their daily lives and activities. Knowledge is part of the memory contained in the consciousness of the information, the results reflect the objects of the surrounding world, United in a certain ordered system" [Alifirenko, 2004, 174].  Knowledge of different types of knowledge about the language, the rules of its use, knowledge of cultural categories-concepts of different cultural systems, knowledge of strategies and tactics, techniques of translation, which is included in the scope of the concepts of "intercultural competence" and "translation competence": all that is formed and stored in the thesaurus, the body of knowledge stored in the mind in an orderly manner. Y. N. Karaulov gives this definition thesaurus: "1) store, "Treasury"; 2) the method of storage, which allows you to efficiently model the world" [Karaulov, 1981, 191].
Thus, this model allows to describe the essence of the process of translation as a cognitive activity, and the mediating reproductive, allowing the subject of the translation industry - communicate to perceive the original message, understand it, decode the second language, creatively interpreted in accordance with the requirements of the actualization of cognitive function in a second language and values and norms of different cultural systems, in accordance with a mode of interpretation that requires competence intercultural nature (knowledge), the competence of the translator (skills, strategies, tactics, techniques, methods of translation).

6.2. Illustrative submodule. Illustrative frames. "Graphics". "Examples".
6.2.1. Graphics 

Fig.11 - Cognitive-activity model
translation activities

6.2.2.Examples
Example No. 1
Adequate replacement
Quick relief - ambulance,
Quickly to help
Good rid - dance - good riddance!
Example No. 2
In J. I. Retsker the notion of equivalence applies only to the relationship between microadenoma text, but not on intertextual relations. This equivalent was understood as a constant equal match, as a rule, does not depend on context
Dodder "dodder", dodman (snail), dog-bolt (swing bolt), supermarket (supermarket).

6.3. The reference module. Reference frames. "Glossary". List of basic and additional literature". "Reference sites"
6.3.1. Glossary
The theory naturally matches the theory, which contributes to the classification under which are taken into account when translating from one language to another.
Transformation - translation-unit conversion OIA
Equivalents constant that does not depend on the context of the compliance units of the source language units of the target language.
Theory of levels of equivalence - model translation activities, based on the assumption that this is a similar equivalence relations are established between similar levels of text and translation.

6.3.2. The list of basic and additional literature

Key readings

Alekseev, A. S. Theory of natural correspondences as an unsolved problem //proceedings of the XXIX interuniversity scientific-methodical conference of professors and graduate students. Vol.8. Actual problems of theory and practice of translation. - SPb., 2000.
Alifirenko N. F. Theory of language. - M.: Academia, 2004.
Commissioners Century. N. Theory of translation (linguistic aspects) - M.: Higher school, 1990.
Commissioners Century. N. Modern translation: a Course of lectures. - M.: Publishing house "ETS", 1999.
Sdobnikov centuries, Petrov O. Century translation Theory. - M, AST: East-West, 2007.
Further reading

Vinogradov C. C. Translation: General and lexical issues. 3rd ed. - M.: KDU, 2006.
Cadet O. Problems of translation in the light of communication theory //problems of the theory of translation in foreign linguistics. - M.: International relations, 1978.
Karaulov Y. N. Linguistic engineering & thesaurus literary language. - M., 1981.
Commissioners Century. N. A word about the translation /Essay linguistic doctrine of translation/. - M.: International relations, 1973.
Revzin, I. I., Rosenzweig C. Y. fundamentals of General and machine translation. - M.: Higher school, 1964.
Paducheva E. C. Mode of interpretation as a technique //Izvestiya. A series of literature and language, 2005. So 64.
Webelieve, that is, Language as a means of access to the processes of cognition //Vestnik KazNU. Philological series, No. 6(96), 2006.
Schweitzer, A. D. Translation and linguistics. - M.: Voenizdat, 1973.
Lederer M. La theorie interpretative de la traduction: un resume //Information-communicative aspects of translation. Part I. - N. Novgorod: Lunn them.N. A. Dobrolyubova, 1997.
D. Seleskovitch Interpretind for International problems of Language and communication. Washington: Pen and Booth. 1994.

6.3.3. "Reference sites"
www.wordsmyth.net 
www.alleng.ru 
www.perevod4ik.com 
Uz-Translations:For translators  

6.5. Control submodule. Supervisory personnel . "Questions and answers on them." "Tests for intermediate control on".
6.5.1. Questions for self-assessment and answers to them

Who formulated the theory of natural correspondences?
What is the essence of situational-denotation model of translation?
How many stages of transformation of the original message is provided in the transformational model of translation?
What is the advantage of interpretative translation models?
What levels of equivalence stated in the theory of levels of equivalence Century. N.Komissarova?
What is the disadvantage of interpretative theory?
What is the essence of cognitive-activity model of the translation process?
Options ataov Button response A. I. J. the Retsker of Danet Century. Century. N.Komissarov Yes no A. As the situation is, the set of denotata, you should pass the situation and specify the items in her five-Yes no Century. the fact that any situation in different languages adequate Yes no A. Three phase Yes no C. In the transformational model N. Chomsky, Y. Nida, there are three phases:1) phase transformation of complex structures in nuclear;
2) the stage of transfer of nuclear structures of the source language in the nuclear konstruktsii five;
3) the stage of transformation of nuclear structure S in the complex design of the five-Yes no Yes no A. five levels of equivalence Century. N.Komissarova these levels of equivalence: the target level of communication; Yes no C. In the model equivalence Century. N.Komissarova these levels of equivalence: the target level of communication; describe the situation, the message level level word level structure remarks Yes no A. cognitive-activity model of translation focuses on the study of translation as an interpretive activity phenomenon. Yes no C. In the cognitive-activity model of translation translation is considered as a set of interpretative activity operations: in the first stage, the essence of this activity is manifested in the fact that the translator in the process of raspredsetevaya text in FL interprets, comprehends it, decodes, converts it to text in a second language, i.e. preglacial in the text of the translation language, then this objectified interpreted them accordingly to the norms of perception and understanding of the recipient of the text on the second of askedu.net
6.5.2. Tests for intermediate control on the subject
What knowledge you need to know for the translator to understand the theory of natural correspondences I. J. of Retsker?
A) Translation skills and Omnia
C) knowledge of intercultural competence
C) the Theory of equivalence Century. N.Komissarova
D) Strategy and tactics of translation
E) Knowledge about equivalence, functional analogues, knowledge about adequate replacements
2. What model of translation suggests the possibility of replacing the names of items in a given situation S to the corresponding names in the translation language?
A) Transformational model of translation
C) Interpretative model of translation
C) Denotation model of translation 

D) Denotation - situational model of translation
E) Cognitive - pragmatic model of translation
3. Who of scientists develops the theory of levels of equivalence?
A) A. D. Schweitzer
B) L. K. Latyshev
(C) K. J. The Retsker
D) In. N.Commissioners
E) N.Chomsky, Y. Naida
4. What is the advantage of interpretative translation models
A) In the development stages of interpretation
In the development of the theory of understanding
C) focus on pragmatic theory of translation
D) In the development of the theory of equivalence
E) In the development of the theory of understanding, understanding and interpretation of the text in FL and text on five?
5. How many stages of transformation involves the transformation model N. Chomsky?
A) One
C) Two
(C) Three
D) Four
E) Five
6) any translation activity draws the attention of cognitive-pragmatic model of translation?
A) On the activity entity translation
B) For the interpretation of the translation in FL
(C) the necessity of understanding the source text
D) the necessity of knowledge of cognitive operations used in the translation process
(E) the need knowledge of the strategies of interpretation OIA and five and types of translation actions in the process of translation activities

6.6. Statistical submodule. The resulting frames (feedback)
6.6.1. Answers to questions
Question # 1
A. the Correct answer.
B. Incorrect.
Question No. 2
A. the Correct answer.
B. Incomplete response
Question No. 3
A. response Surface
B. a Detailed answer. True.
Question No. 4
A. Incomplete response
B. a Detailed answer. True.
Question No. 5
A. response Surface
B. a Detailed answer. True.
Question No. 6
A. Incomplete response
B. a Detailed answer. True.

6.6.2. Code to the tests
1) E
2) D
3) D
4) E
5)
6) E 

Case module # 7. Realities perevodovedenie and transfer them to another language.
7.1. Theoretical submodule. Theory. Information frames.
7.1.1 Problem determination realities and their types
Despite the wide use of the term "reality", so far, neither in linguistics, either in linguistics or in perevodovedenie not sufficiently clear criteria for determining realities, not touched for almost a question about the essence of national realities. Only in some works on the theory and criticism of literary translation, linguistics and perevodovedenie (A. I. Fedorov, Gachechiladze, Century Rossells, A. S. Ermagambetova, S. Vlahov, J. A. Zhakupov, S. I. Florin, D. Tomakin) realities were considered as words that give an idea of the specifics of everyday life, culture and lifestyle of representatives of any linguistic and cultural community. The reality is words, mostly associated with the specifics of national color. They are words that have national-cultural components values.  National specifics of their expressed not only in form but also in content. In perevodovedenie when defining realities focuses on the national coloring of their referents (color)and basicvideo.net meaning of their words identified in the translation process. The reality, as bearers of national or historical flavor, do not have equivalents in other languages and cannot be directly translated into other languages. That is why S. I. Vlahov and S. P. Florin define them as "words, words, naming objects, characteristic life (life), cultural, social and historical development of one nation and another alien; as bearers of national and/or historical flavor, they usually do not have an exact match (equivalent in other languages) and, therefore, cannot be translated "common grounds", requiring a special approach" [Vlahov, Florin, 1980]. Reality is not only the facts, phenomena, objects, and their names are words and phrases [Vlahov, Florin, 1970, 432-456]. Those concepts that are reflected in the realities are of a national character and materialize in non-equivalent vocabulary: words used to Express concepts that are missing in another culture, in another language, words relating to individual cultural elements, i.e., to the cultural elements that are characteristic only for culture But not in culture B, and words that have no translation into another language, in a word, reality does not have equivalents outside of the language to which they belong" [Vereshchagin, Kostomarov, 1973, 53].
A. I. Fedorov also believes that the realities are used to denote concepts and phenomena of social life, material life, specific only for a particular people or country [Fedorov, 2002].
In addition to the normal realities of marked non-equivalent vocabulary, are in special realities, called associative realities. These realities are associated with a variety of national historical and cultural phenomena and very peculiar embodied in language. According to C. S. Vinogradov, "associative realities are not reflected in the special words, in non-equivalent vocabulary, and "entrenched" in the words of the most common. They find their expression persisted in the components of the meanings of the words, the tones of the words in the emotional-expressive overtones in the internal form of words, etc. by detecting information of the different concepts, but similar words in the two languages" [Vinogradov, 2006, 38]. 

Case module # 7. Realities perevodovedenie and transfer them to another language.
7.1. Theoretical submodule. Theory. Information frames.
7.1.1 Problem determination realities and their types
Despite the wide use of the term "reality", so far, neither in linguistics, either in linguistics or in perevodovedenie not sufficiently clear criteria for determining realities, not touched for almost a question about the essence of national realities. Only in some works on the theory and criticism of literary translation, linguistics and perevodovedenie (A. I. Fedorov, Gachechiladze, Century Rossells, A. S. Ermagambetova, S. Vlahov, J. A. Zhakupov, S. I. Florin, D. Tomakin) realities were considered as words that give an idea of the specifics of everyday life, culture and lifestyle of representatives of any linguistic and cultural community. The reality is words, mostly associated with the specifics of national color. They are words that have national-cultural components values. National specifics of their expressed not only in form but also in content. In perevodovedenie when defining realities focuses on the national coloring of their referents (color)and basicvideo.net meaning of their words identified in the translation process. The reality, as bearers of national or historical flavor, do not have equivalents in other languages and cannot be directly translated into other languages. That is why S. I. Vlahov and S. P. Florin define them as "words, words, naming objects, characteristic life (life), cultural, social and historical development of one nation and another alien; as bearers of national and/or historical flavor, they usually do not have an exact match (equivalent in other languages) and, therefore, cannot be translated "common grounds", requiring a special approach" [Vlahov, Florin, 1980]. Reality is not only the facts, phenomena, objects, and their names are words and phrases [Vlahov, Florin, 1970, 432-456]. Those concepts that are reflected in the realities are of a national character and materialize in non-equivalent vocabulary: words used to Express concepts that are missing in another culture, in another language, words relating to individual cultural elements, i.e., to the cultural elements that are characteristic only for culture But not in culture B, and words that have no translation into another language, in a word, reality does not have equivalents outside of the language to which they belong" [Vereshchagin, Kostomarov, 1973, 53].
A. I. Fedorov also believes that the realities are used to denote concepts and phenomena of social life, material life, specific only for a particular people or country [Fedorov, 2002].
In addition to the normal realities of marked non-equivalent vocabulary, are in special realities, called associative realities. These realities are associated with a variety of national historical and cultural phenomena and very peculiar embodied in language. According to C. S. Vinogradov, "associative realities are not reflected in the special words, in non-equivalent vocabulary, and "entrenched" in the words of the most common. They find their expression persisted in the components of the meanings of the words, the tones of the words in the emotional-expressive overtones in the internal form of words, etc. by detecting information of the different concepts, but similar words in the two languages" [Vinogradov, 2006, 38]. 

C. S. Vinogradov singles out the following realities: 1) household (housing, property, clothing, hats, food, drinks; labour and employment; monetary units; units of measure; musical instruments; folk dances and songs, artists; folk festivals, games; treatment); 2) ethnographic and mythical realities (ethnic and social groups and their representatives; the divine, fantastic creatures; legendary place); 4) the realities of the natural world (animals, plants, landscape, landscape); 5) the realities of public administration device and public life (current and historical) - administrative units and state institutions, public organizations of the party and so on, their officials and participants; industrial and agricultural enterprises and trade institutions; basic military and police units and offices, civic offices and professions, titles, titles; 6) onomastic realities (anthroponyms, toponyms, names of literary characters, names, companies, museums, theatres, palaces, restaurants, shops, beaches, airports, etc); 7) associative realities [Vinogradov, 2006].
In the Kazakh language are the following realities:
-
socio-historical realities (Bai, Myrza, tamnar, AA-Sultan, IATA, etc.);
-
the realities associated with the customs and traditions of the people: (crdc, eroc, Arash);
-
the realities of designating national games (BGE, kkar, serke Tartu, girl-uu, game-kumalak, atiban and others);
-
the realities associated with the conduct of ranches (KNTEU, cseu, Zhailau, it);
-
the realities associated with religious concepts (rn, Shariat, Molda, Hazrat);
-
the realities associated with the names of the clans and tribes (Kerey, zyban, Tabyn and others);
-
realities denoting family relations (toal, baibishe);
-
realities indicating folk concepts (Zhyr, aitys);
-
the realities associated with the names of everyday objects (tekemets, organ, Alasha and others);
-
reality, expressing features of the national character (AK PAL, Babil aus and others).
J. A. Zhakupov singles out the following realities: 1) words denoting natural and ethnographic concepts; 2) folk realities; 3) domestic realities; 4) words denoting the social and historical realities [Zhakupov, 2004, 51].
In these three classifications realities classification is carried out on the basis of different criteria: thematic principle (C. I. Vlasov, S. P. Florin, V. S. Vinogradov) and extra-linguistic and linguistic (D. Tomakin). In perevodovedenie more acceptable is the classification based on the comparison of language systems. Therefore, in this science is the distinction between reality and gaps. Reality is non-equivalent words that do not have matches in the other culture and denote specifiesa concepts of culture of any nation. Gaps is the denotation or connotation pits that occur in the process of translation or mapping of the conceptual shades or connotative meanings of the same word. The concept of designating any phenomenon coincides in different languages, it may be universal, but the shades of meaning of words denoting the concept itself of shades concepts, subjective evaluation values connotations may not be the same in different languages. And in this case we speak of the gaps. 

8.1.2. Gaps as a type of non-equivalent words
Gap is one of the types of non-equivalent words. The difference in the gaps from the realities is that first, the realities of close otmoetsa with referent and denote concepts - the idea of the subject, available in one country and the other missing. Gaps Express the notion of an object, existing in the two countries, but they mean it in the process of expressing semantic shades concepts; secondly, the realities associated with the value expressed through concepts and gaps is meaning well. They indicate shades of meaning, not in the views of the residents of one country; and third, the realities are not associated with associations, inadequate in relation to the subject, and gaps are native speakers of a language do not coincide Association, which is associated with values and beliefs of the native speakers of a language. Therefore, C. S. Vinogradov mention associative gaps still emphasized that such realities are "entrenched" in the words of the most common. They find their expression persisted in the components of the meanings of the words, nuances of words, emotionally-expressive overtones in the internal form of words, etc. by detecting information of the different concepts, but similar words in the two languages [Vinogradov, 2006].
The emergence of associative gaps associated with existence in the semantic structure of the word special national-specific components. Thereto Century, the SAC considers these seven, which either differ from the corresponding SEM in lexical correspondences language comparison on the contents or status, or differ in the absence of a comparison of SEM in the same language if they are in another (other) [GAK, 1977, 162].
National-specific seven included in the structure of lexical meaning of the word. Judging from the meaning of the word, as the relations of words to the denotatum, mediated through the signified (the referent), and the reality of the word relates to denote items not directly, but through the signified (the referent), which can be defined as the subject of thought, reflecting the subject or the phenomenon of objective reality and forms the conceptual content, which relates this language unit. Words realities, in addition to the direct denotation of values, may have other connotative values.
The lexical meaning of the word includes two main macro: denotation and connotat. The national specificity of the word is manifested both at the level of denotation, and at the level of connotate. In the denotation component words are specified distinctive features of objects and phenomena of objective reality. At the level of denotation meaning of national specificity is evident in my choice of distinctive features in the perception of the phenomena of reality, in another group in this sense.
Cross-language equivalents are differences in connotative component of lexical meaning. Thought Century. N. Telia, connotative part of the meaning of the word "subject of objectivation is not the world, and the attitude that displays some form of emotive reactions of the subject to denote" [Telia, 1986, 134]. 

Connotative values differ because in them the elements connotations are estimates, associative imagery, emotive and functional-stylistic components.
It is the discrepancy between connotative components of the lexical meanings of words in different languages leads to a different kind of subjective semantic gaps. And it is quite natural, as subjectively meaningful gaps are updated in the context mapping words from different languages is not only an objectively real meaning, but also connotative, a component which can be subjective semantic values, i.e. values that expresses a subjective attitude speaking to the subject of thoughts, his reactions, his associates. Subjective meanings Express background knowledge contained in the lexical background of the word. Lexical background of the word, which presents background knowledge, acts as a special kind of word meaning. The semantics of words in linguistics conceived as the unity of lexical concepts, acting as the means of nomination: due to the minimal number of semantic shares that make up the scope, people recognize, classify objects, recognize and call them) and lexical background, which is conceived as the totality of all attributed to the word-concept of information available in the mass ordinary consciousness of native speakers. Lexical background has an individual status as language, objective meaning of words in context, acquire additional personal meanings: subjective values (units), speech by the speaker's intention, his assessment of the situation, knowledge of the speaker, his assessment of the situation, knowledge of the rules of communication skills. Therefore, A. N. Leontief argued that conceptually-mediated, subject correlation and associative structure relationships with other words and define its objective public meaning as the first aspect is "reasonable meaning." The second aspect is subjective personal meaning, which, firstly, is that the word "means" for the native speaker, because, according to A. N. Leontief, personal meaning expresses it (subject) relationship to perceived objective phenomena" [Leont'ev, 1972, 227]. This attitude in speech activity is expressed, in particular, in the subjective emotional evaluation of words. In other words, subjective personal meaning is a kind of prism of individual refractive objective public meaning of phenomena as collective lessons learned by native speakers. Coupled objective public meaning of the verbal units and their subjective personal assessment as the first aspect of subjective personal meaning to form meaning (language) words. This subjective personal meaning acquired in the situation in the expression of the subjective relationship of the individual is closely linked with the basic meaning of the word. They inter-necessary and complement each other. The value of this objective, the permanent component of a lexical unit, and the meaning - changing, emerging in speech component words. E. D. Suleimenov emphasizes the interconnectedness of values and meaning, saying that the value and meaning "cannot be known as Autonomous entities: they are inseparable from each other. No sense can not be delivered without significant expressions" [Suleimenov, 1989, 9]. 

 G. M. Vereshchagin and C. G. Kostomarov indicate that in each word are in special semantic shares, part of which refers to the conceptual semantic shares, and part - to neponyatiynom. In their opinion, the conceptual semantic shares are those that "provide a classification of the subject, are part of the lexical concepts" [Vereshchagin, Kostomarov, 1973, 25].
Other semantic stakes not included in the conceptual belong to the lexical background. Lexical background are those, taken together, neponyatiynom DM are samemu, but do not participate in mediated by language classification of human activity, and Express extra-linguistic content. Lexical background, i.e. individual meaning, has an individual status, he comes into the mind of this, it is a specific person, as a retainer knowledge. However, in the basis of individual lexical background of lay knowledge common to all native speakers of the language and culture. Lexical background the phenomenon of cultural-linguistic. It lies on the intersection of language and culture, so without knowledge of the lexical background impossible disclosure of meaning, connotations, allusions, implications, and sometimes impossible, and understanding the word in its objective value. Therefore, the gaps should be considered not only words, no conceptual correspondences in comparable languages (due to the absence of the objects themselves), but also words background vocabulary, expressing background knowledge - of words which differ in their backgrounds due to the mismatch of individual semantic components that are not in concepts and backgrounds called "minor signs". "But the thing is, what these semantic fraction expressing the lexical background, play a crucial role in attributing the words to this culture, so it is in this "particular" is the national identity of the designated data word phenomena" [Tomakin, 1988, 14].
One word for the concept in the most General form (generic and therefore quite specific), which is owned by a foreigner, native language contrasts dozens of names of specific items related to that common as species to genus with some of these items (and accordingly, the corresponding words) belong to the national peculiarities of the culture and form groups realities do not have matches in the other cultures. The names of these objects do not have equivalents in the translation into other languages.
Gaps stand out not only because of the full discrepancy indicated by their subjects in the matched cultures and their individual characteristics.
Therefore, in linguistics realities should be considered as words denoting objects related to the history, culture, economy and lifestyle of the country of studied language, which differ completely or partially separate semantic shares their lexical concepts) from the lexical concepts of words matching language. Words, different semantic shares beyond concepts, refer to the background vocabulary [Tomakin, 1988, 15].
In our opinion, to the realities should include the words, completely different from the lexical concepts of words matching language. And words, different semantic shares their lexical concepts are gaps.
In this case, there are semantic and conceptual gaps.
Y. A. Sorokin, I. Y. Marcovina interpret gaps in the following way: "the lacuna is some text in which there is something strange, strange, wrong (something that can be evaluated on the scale of "unclear/clear", "unusual/usual", "unfamiliar/familiar", "wrong/right" [Sorokin, Marcovina, 1988, 77] 

The mapping between the source language and the target language shows that in comparison, they found two types of gaps: 1) meaning "well" and 2) the actual gaps.
Semantic wells Y. A. Sorokin, and I. Y. Marcovina give the following definition: "Meaning well is some piece of text, where the sum (field) denotata is vague due to: 1) nepredstavleniem those or other elements of the denotation of the structure of some phenomenon in the analyzed text; 2) inadequacy of images of the denotata of the receiving device (formation samples projections based on existing text elements of the denotation of the structure of some phenomenon); 3) quasicondensate designata, hindering the identification of the denotata as belonging to different conceptual-semantic fields" [Sorokin, Marcovina, 76].
In the translation the term "meaning well" to understand the actual denotation of the realities of expressing national-specific concepts that are missing in other cultures. It is their conceptual nepredstavleniem in other cultures leads to the appearance of gaps, the denotation of "yum". The actual "gaps" should be marked connotation realities that have connotative meanings in the semantic structure of the word. These gaps indicate the state of some conceivable world reducyrovana (incomplete). Such incomplete gaps are called partial. They include that in the original language have full set of these things, but in the translation of these seven are expressed incompletely. A number of these things, some components segment exceeds the number of SEM in the translation of this fragment, for example, in the translation of text from the works of E. Hemingway: "He always thought of the sea as la mar which is what people call her in Spanish when they love her" (E. Hemingway), "he always thought of the name of the sea as la mar which is what his name is in Spanish people who love him" (E. Hemingway. The old man and the sea, S. 347). la mar is a partial gap, as in the process of translation in the text is lost relationship she - sea; she - la mar (she - sea), which indicates the author. In Russian language "sea" is translated as the word is neuter in English has no gender category, so in this language the gender assigned arbitrarily or other inanimate objects.
When comparing languages are words that match their substantive values, but not the same connotations. Word connotation gaps relate to the background lexicon. Connotations are expressed not in non-equivalent vocabulary, and words denoting the same objects in the comparable cultures, but their differences are rooted in the national identity of the associations produced by the word. The connotation of the realities of their persisted find expression in the components of the meanings of the words, in shades of meanings of words in a verbal domestic form, etc. by detecting information mismatch conceptually similar words in the two languages. Differences in connotative meanings of words are explained by cultural-ethnographic identities of the peoples of different countries and denominated in the background knowledge. Background knowledge is mutual knowledge of the realities of the speaker and hearer, which is the basis of linguistic communication. This background information, including skills as a generalized image of the actions, behaviours, expectacy, speech postulates words, embodying social experience of the people - all this relates to socio-cultural information that is specific to a particular nationality. They mastered the members of this ethnic society and reflected in its language. To background knowledge E. M. Vereshchagin relates also knowledge of the social history of communicant. They are also included in the background knowledge: "the participants in the act of communication must be to a certain extent the General social history. Under the social history of man are understood to be those characteristics that he encountered within a particular social group or broader language community. These include human behavior, the system's worldview, ethnicity estimates, aesthetic tastes" [Vereshchagin, 1969]. Social history of communicant is the background knowledge that have been accumulated in each of the communicants to the act of communication. Each of the participants of the speech act must have a certain experience as linguistic (language)and non-linguistic (knowledge about the world). For communication is necessary, first, a common language; secondly, the participants in the act of communication should have a certain commonality of social history, and, thirdly, they must have a voice situation, i.e., the specific conditions of a given act of communication. The language depends on the possibility of a communicative act from the General social history depends on the content of the messages, from the speech situation - their linguistic form [Vereshchagin, 1969]. Community social history finds its expression in the background knowledge. Background knowledge in a broad interpretation is almost all the knowledge that should be possessed by the communicants. 

D. Tomakin in the field of dissemination divides them into the following subgroups: 1) universal knowledge; 2) regional information; 3) information available only to members of certain ethnic and linguistic community (nation); 4) information available only to members locally (residents of the area) or socially closed group - in linguistic terms, this corresponds to territorial and social dialects (for example, the names of the local geographic features and related associations); 5) information in the possession of only the members of this microcollection: such as family, educational and industrial group, etc., (e.g., nicknames, known only to a small circle of people, associations, connected with the history of this microcollection, incidents, not beyond) [Tomakin, 1980, 84].
Connotative gaps reflect the diversity of background knowledge in different cultures. Such gaps Express six types of connotations or meanings: 1) fine (presentation); 2) emotional; 3) cultural-civilizational: 4) thematic (semantic field); 5) informative (level of knowledge); 6) worldview [Komlev, 1992].
Among these kinds of connotations for holding interest connotations associated with zabavnymi (modal, evaluation and emotionally expressive elements of the lexical meanings of the word).
Linguistic manifestation connotations are portable meaning of words (crow, hat, stepson and others) Have the same words in different languages may have different connotations, such as "rat" - eng. Rat traitor, other rat "stingy man". Ratte "people who work with passion", eng. Rat "void primigenia service man" [Komlev, 1992].
H. K. Temirgazina, speaking about the conceptual gaps, explains the appearance of gaps for the following reasons: "gaps (emptiness, space, skip)- - arises in a particular language words and concepts available in another language. Gaps appear not because there is no phenomenon or concept, and because of this culture as a matter irrelevant to the selection of one or another aspect, one or the other side of reality" [Temirgazina, 2002].
H. K. Temirgazina right in the sense that the appearance of gaps is not necessarily due to lack of words or concepts in the other culture, as the ethnic groups living in different ecological and socio-historical, cultural, geographical landscape conditions, perceive the world in its own manner, under the point of view of perception. Therefore, they are one and the same world conceptualiser in different ways, inadequate concepts. That is why only you can say that gap is the lack of appropriate concepts in the culture of this nation.
The concept is an idea that represents a synthesis of the characteristics of the subject and highlight objects of various classes according to their characteristics, the Association based on common characteristics of denotata belonging to the same class. The notion of an object is based on selection of features that distinguish one object from another, generalization of these signs and draw some General conclusions about the characteristic properties of the subject. Based on this, the subject of the definition. Representatives of different linguistic and cultural communities differently divides the objective world, allocating those objects, or other signs that seem significant for a representative of this culture. On the basis of the marked characteristics of this ethnic group is the concept about the subject. But these same characteristics may seem insignificant, not typical of other media culture, perceiving this objective world through the prism of their culture. Reality is perceived differently in different languages, as it is conceptualized by representatives of different linguistic and cultural communities through the prism of their cultures. Certain differences between the conceptual division of the world in different cultures is the result of inadequate awareness of different linguistic and cultural communities. Different perception of the world through ethnic-linguistic picture of the world contributes to the fact that the bearers of different cultures may choose as the basis of communication different sides of the same phenomenon. The objective world is the same for different ethnic groups, however, structuration in the conceptualization different. Together with the existence of semantic universals - the universality of the categories and known community in the designation of the same fragments of the real world.
Moreover, the absence in some cultures fractional fragments of the General concepts is evidence that General concepts, universal for both languages, can be expressed as the integer or as something dismembering this General concept. In this case, the concept is expressed in a few words or phrases that link concepts with the word may be direct, or indirect, expressed in a sustainable combination or using a relative definition. Therefore, for the selection of verbal gaps should consider a few cases, the ratio concepts and words: 1) in all cultures and languages of the world are missing as a concept and its verbal expression, for example, in English there is no word "mother-in-law"; 2) in any culture (cultures) defined the concept finds expression in the language, not directly, but indirectly, through other concepts, verbal in the form of the same type combine derivatives, for example, mother-in-law (Rus) - mother - in-law (mother-in-law - mother-in-law mother - not by blood, but by marriage). In this case, the leading concept of "mother" (mother, wife), there is a hidden, implicit. In these cases, "leading concept there is a latent, only in this series, for example, FR. pommier (Apple), prunier (plum tree), poirie (pear tree); 3) originating in the mind, the concept for some time can to exist in the form of either a) cumbersome phrases, or b) detailed description, which is not deployed in order to more fully define something known, and in the absence of a suitable name for the concept, for example, sometimes speaking in any situation, look for the most adequate word for incurred but not yet decorated language concepts.
The classification analysis of gaps shows that different scientists inadequately describe them, highlighting their different types.
A. A. Lacquer, considering the cultural gaps that arise in the process of intercultural communication, distinguishes four types of gaps: 1) subject gaps (gaps, reflecting the national-cultural peculiarities of communicants belonging to different linguistic and cultural communities). These gaps result from the mismatch of the national psychological types of the communication parties. The existence of the "character" of the gaps caused by specific features of the national character of the local media of different cultures; 2) cultural and emotional gaps. Their appearance is caused by the peculiarities of manifestation of national temperament; 3) "carnival" gaps indicate national-specific modus of being funny in different cultures" [Lacquer, 211-212].
B. So Kulibaeva are the following types of gaps: 1) the subject; 2) cultural background; 3) associative or symbolic gaps; 4) ethnoconnotation gaps; 5) non-verbal gaps; 6) behavioral gaps [kulbaevo, 2010, 17].
In our work, gaps are treated as semantic and functional wells arising from the inadequacy of speech, kinesiska and emotive state behavior of speakers of different languages belonging to different linguistic and cultural communities in the process of intercultural communication, when the inadequacy of the language picture of the world in their minds leads to unequal structuring of the world in languages and different conceptualization.
We are distinguished on the basis of the totality of verbal and non-verbal state behavior of speakers of different languages belonging to different linguistic and cultural communities, the following gaps: 1) intercultural gaps are snippets of statements, strange, incomprehensible to communicate considering a different culture at the initial stage of culture shock through his own and ethnocentrism. These gaps can be attributed to the mismatch of the customs, rites, rituals that each culture is interpreted and implemented differently, for example, the tradition of celebrating New year in Kazakhstan, Russia, Greece different; 2) ethnographic gaps - gaps that occur when the communicants are not familiar with the words-realities, giving an overview of the national color of the ethnic group, calling the concept of life, toponyms, clothing, etc.: 3) behavioral gaps. Principles of conduct in different people inadequate, so the positions of different groups according to the principles of behavior are not always the same, that is a sign of a different perception of the world, the existence of different pictures of the world, different stereotypes speech behavior enshrined in conventional form in the consciousness of the ethnic groups; the inadequacy of the speech behavior of representatives of different linguistic and cultural communities is the result of locality and identity of cultures, and behavior - an integral component of culture; 4) the subject-emotive gaps arising from the peculiarities of manifestation of national temperament carriers of different cultures; 5) the subject-mentality gaps that occur because of the different worldviews, attitudes, value orientations of ethnic groups, the features of their national character; (6) conceptual gaps that arise due to the absence of the concepts in a different language or different transmission language in another language (based on the implementation of the concepts of type combine-combining; 7) idiomatic gaps - gaps that appear because of the different graphic representation of the objective world in different Nations and his second nomination, conceptualization; 8) stylistic gaps - gaps that occur because of the different set of words to different functional styles in languages related to enablescrolling; 9) language gaps semantic wells; gaps that occur because of the different non-verbal States partners in the process of intercultural communicative act, different interpretations will cast, inadequate motor skills non-verbal behaviour among representatives of different gaps. 

The presence of non-verbal subcultures - aggregates only kinesiska and emotional States of individuals as representatives of some psychic types allows you to select kinesiska gaps. Kinesiska gaps are gaps that occur due to the inadequacy of paralinguistic-ical States, paralinguistic behaviors of different cultures. Kinesiska gaps - the national-specific nonverbal behavior of interactants intercultural communication, representatives of different ethnic groups. Such communicants in terms of intercultural communication, entering into contact with members of another linguistic-cultural community and even speaking in the language of the latter act according to its behaviour, use "its" kinesiska, proxemics system. And in this case we can speak about intercultural nonverbal gaps - paralinguistic elements, ambiguously interpreted in different cultures.
11) Connotative gaps that arise due to mismatches in different languages subjective evaluation the subjective attitude of the subjects towards the object of thought in different cultures, which is associated with the realization of their values and negative or positive value orientations; 12) Associative gaps.

7.1.3. Classification realities in perevodovedenie and ways of their translation
In perevodovedenie realities should be classified on the basis of the criterion of privodimosti-non-transferability. This raises the question: are there any equivalents of these words in the language of the translation, whether the conceptual relatedness of words, denoted by the realities or arise denotation "the pit" - gaps.
In our opinion, the reality can be viewed as lexical gaps, as realities as non-equivalent words have no equivalents in the other language. If such gaps should speak not only about the lack of equivalent words in another language, but also about the lack of an equivalent in the form of phrases that word. The appearance of such gaps is due to the fact that each national language-specific, therefore, according to A. Verbickas, "in language reflects not only the unique environmental conditions and culture, but also the originality of the national character of its speakers. Not surprising that in the eskimo language has many names for snow, in the Arab - camel, and Chinese rice. The language reflects the conditions of existence of his people and contains the names and realities, specific people" [Verbitskaya, 1996, 21].
However, it is necessary in this case to use the common term "reality".
In perevodovedenie realities reflect in their structure due to the natural and geographical environment in which people live - media language, culture and peculiarities of the political structure of society, the life, manners, customs, traditions, folk beliefs, folklore, cultural-historical and cultural associations related to different realities. Denotation realities represent objects and phenomena that are characteristic of the culture, but does not have a corresponding mapped culture (corresponding words attributed to non-equivalent vocabulary). Non-equivalent words have no semantic mappings in the system contents inherent in another language. Their existence is explained by the divergence of cultures, cf.: soup, pickle, hash, soup, beer, pancakes, dress, boots, mittens, fathom, yard, mile, spool, pound, pounds, peddler, my Lord, the mayor, the Assembly, petition, estate, servant, slave, bondage, good fellow, fair maiden, Sivka-burka, the Firebird, honey, beat the forehead, raise the alarm, Kolomenskaya versta and other 

Those realities include proper names and onomastic lexicon.
Following the formation of the translated language gaps that occur when "semantic wells", "conceptual wells", inadequacy associative views of the speakers, the connotation of zaznaczenie words in different languages. So, for the connotation of the gaps are cases when the notion enclosed in the structure of the same words in different languages, but additional connotative meanings of the word are not the same and cause in the minds of the media, certain cultural and historical associations, for example, rooster, Fox, eagle, spider, pig, wolf, br, EU, bltr, at and other such words evoke different associations, for example, if in Russian and Kazakh languages the word "cock" has the connotation is "bully", in France "cock" is a symbol, the official emblem of France - a symbol of courage and fighting qualities. Connotative meaning in Proverbs "C'est le cog du village" ("It is a rustic rooster" - the first guy in the village"), "C'est un bean cog" ("This is a beautiful rooster" - the philanderer), "Il se bat comme un petit cog" ("He fights like a Cockerel - the bully) positive, whereas in other cultures subjective attitude fluctuates between negative and positive.
Classification realities in carrying out should be made primarily on the basis of the differentiation of reality and gaps. The reality is basicality words that are not found in this language, but there are other, as denote specific concepts of the culture of the people.
It is impossible to find the equivalents in the other language, because language is not a concept found in the source segment. The lacuna is the word that have the same subject-objective value with the word of the original, but includes connotative values, expressing subjective attitudes, subjective-evaluative sense. It is expressive, emotional components values. Moreover, the emergence of gaps caused by different conceptual, semantic connotations of the word in different languages. The denotation of the pit arise from inadequacy and associative views of different peoples associated with the same object, phenomenon.
The main methods of transmission of the realities on the language of the translation by the authors treated differently. So, C. S. Vinogradov identifies the following ways of translated words realities: 1) transcription (transliteration); 2) Hypo-hyperemesis translation; 3) assimilation; 4) izafa translation; 5) calques [Vinogradov, 2006, 119-120].
S. I. Vlahov and S. P. Florin provide multiple means of conveying reality in translation: 1) transcription (transliteration); 2) the actual translation. It includes: a) neologisms (Calca, Polyanka, development, semantic neologism); b) replacement of realities; in) approximate translation (genus-species replacement, functional equivalent, description, explanation, interpretation); d) contextual translation.
Occasional receptions offered by S. I. Vlachova and S. P. Florini appear to be too vague, it is difficult to be used in the translation process. The authors in the selection of the techniques did not produce a careful selection of the realities because, firstly, one group included and occasional borrowing (subject to transcription and transliteration, translation) and mastered, assimilated in language-receptor words which have become elements of the lexical system of the host language; secondly, it differentially to learn words realities in the original and in translation. The emergence of new words realities in translation will not always be successful and partially compensates for the national reality; third, the term "rough translation" can be recognized as a failure.
In the process of transferring words realities you should use the basic techniques, proven by many interpreters: 1) transcription (transliteration); 2) assimilation; 3) compensation gaps; 4) descriptive translation; 5) calques; 6) genus-species replacement; 7) functional analogue; 8) translation review. Consider some of them. 

Assimilation is a translation methods, similar to Hypo-gipertonicheskoj replacement. The difference between them is that liken words rather call concepts, apocynaceae in relation to the generic concept, and not a subordinate and subordinate concepts, for example, bombas - bloomers, Balice - pins.
Transcription of reality involves mechanical shifting realities of OIA in five graphical means of the latter with the closest approximation to the original phonetic form: light brown. dumplings - Bolg. Pelosi.
The compensation gap - acceptance of transfer realities, when the translated word increases the number of SEM, it is more than semantic structure of a word of the original, for example, scones - pancakes, milk - Russian "milk". The concepts are the same, but depending on the characteristics of its storage in the United States are distinguished: homogenized milk (homogenized milk; chocolate milk (chocolate milk)vanilla milk with vanilla); butter milk (buttermilk); joghurt (yogurt, product type Varentsov). In the Russian reality, to talk about milk, cream, sour cream, sour milk. Therefore, when the compensation of the realities of national specificity is not transmitted.
Descriptive translation is welcome when the reality is transmitted descriptive, translator describes this phenomenon explains, for example, a Kansas cyclone is not just cyclone, tornado, whirlwind, up a huge cloud of dust and sweeping away everything in its path (hence the Cyclone state - one of the nicknames of Kansas).
Translation and commentary is welcome to comment, is necessary when the recipient is unknown reality of the original. Translation in parenthesis or in a footnote explains the reality of, for example, canyon wind - canyon wind. The translator says this word using textlogo comment, says it's the night wind that occurs in the canyon during cooling of the walls. "Severka" Russian reality, denoting a cold wind, and Chinook - wet wind of the North-Western part of Pacific coast of the United States.
Calques reception when translated internal structure of reality, the structure is saved in the new word is a neologism, created on the basis of the material elements of the target language, for example, the subdivision - the subdivision, raffine - refined, bear - bear, bull - bull and other
Functional analogue of a technique for matching similar words in the target language, for example, order - order.
Thus, the analysis of ways and means of conveying the realities of the original in the target language shows that the most difficult translation connotation realities. Close relationship with their spiritual culture of the people and his language often makes use of a translator for compensation, descriptive translation, translation review.

7.2. Illustrative submodule. Illustrative frames. "Graphics". "Examples".
7.2.1. Graph. 

Fig. 14. Typology realities in perevodovedenie 

Fig. 15 – Typology of lacunae in translation studies

Fig. 15 - How to transfer realities in translation studies

8.2.2. Examples
Example No. 1.
Denotation realities
Domestic realities Cemping-site Kit I, LME, OS, Sertoli I, there Otau, lken I, PTER, Krka, our tbel I, AK Shaan, Zheti ' I, Horde, he C ' Horde, Otau, Kara shirakata, bungalow (Bungalow), aparthment building (apartment house), mobile home (mobile home), mobile home park, inn (a small embankment or hotel), heakth food shop "healthy food"), highrise (apartment house), harrods (one of the famous Department stores), grosery (grocery store), first and chip shop (eatery serving fried fish), efficiency apart ment (Studio apartment), semidetached house, two-family house), detaliched house (single family home) and other Example No. 2
Banknotes
Tiyn, Asa, PL, legend, ruble, Euro, dollar, Altyn, kumis, jumby, tai TA kumis, Altyn asamese dollar, Bick nickel-and-dime (dime), nickel (Nickel), New Zealand dollar (NZD), quinea (gold coin at 21 shillings), half croun, florin (coin at two shillings), farthing (bronze coin in a quarter of a penny), pens, money (money), ducat, coin (coin threepence) Example No. 3
Traditions, customs
speakers take, Nauryz mereces toulou, balasana ASAP take Bastani, eroc, ymis mwyndy, Ydir tn, one CTO, one ASON take sybaga Kelo, Amanat, surely, sonar, AST, itty, toymaster, organ Kelo Toya, trcnd, tberg take shidehara, Timea fat, шашуShrove Tuesday (pancake day), ladies day (Lady day - the second day of the races at Ascot, when women wear unusual hats), Halloween, Guy father's Night (the Night of guy Fawkes), Inauguration day inauguration), farter (garter, the bride wears the wedding day)
7.3. Reference submodule. Reference frames. "Glossary". List of basic and additional literature". "Reference sites"

8.3.1. Glossary
Connotations - extension (modal, evaluative and emotional appraisal and emotional-expressive) elements of the lexical values.
Connotation the connotation is more, modal, emotionally-expressive meaning of the word.
Gaps denotation, conceptual, connotative well that arise in case of a mismatch, lack of meaning, zaznaczenie, conceptual shades of the same words, universal for all languages, but have differences in different languages due to inadequacy or absence of shades of meaning, concepts, connotative meanings of different cultures.
Reality is non-equivalent word or concept that refers to a specific occurrence of any culture.

7.3.2. The list of basic and additional literature 

Fig. 15 - How to transfer realities in translation studies

8.2.2. Examples
Example No. 1.
Denotation realities
Domestic realities Cemping-site Kit I, LME, OS, Sertoli I, there Otau, lken I, PTER, Krka, our tbel I, AK Shaan, Zheti ' I, Horde, he C ' Horde, Otau, Kara shirakata, bungalow (Bungalow), aparthment building (apartment house), mobile home (mobile home), mobile home park, inn (a small embankment or hotel), heakth food shop "healthy food"), highrise (apartment house), harrods (one of the famous Department stores), grosery (grocery store), first and chip shop (eatery serving fried fish), efficiency apart ment (Studio apartment), semidetached house, two-family house), detaliched house (single family home) and other Example No. 2
Banknotes
Tiyn, Asa, PL, legend, ruble, Euro, dollar, Altyn, kumis, jumby, tai TA kumis, Altyn asamese dollar, Bick nickel-and-dime (dime), nickel (Nickel), New Zealand dollar (NZD), quinea (gold coin at 21 shillings), half croun, florin (coin at two shillings), farthing (bronze coin in a quarter of a penny), pens, money (money), ducat, coin (coin threepence) Example No. 3
Traditions, customs
speakers take, Nauryz mereces toulou, balasana ASAP take Bastani, eroc, ymis mwyndy, Ydir tn, one CTO, one ASON take sybaga Kelo, Amanat, surely, sonar, AST, itty, toymaster, organ Kelo Toya, trcnd, tberg take shidehara, Timea fat, шашуShrove Tuesday (pancake day), ladies day (Lady day - the second day of the races at Ascot, when women wear unusual hats), Halloween, Guy father's Night (the Night of guy Fawkes), Inauguration day inauguration), farter (garter, the bride wears the wedding day)
7.3. Reference submodule. Reference frames. "Glossary". List of basic and additional literature". "Reference sites"

8.3.1. Glossary
Connotations - extension (modal, evaluative and emotional appraisal and emotional-expressive) elements of the lexical values.
Connotation the connotation is more, modal, emotionally-expressive meaning of the word.
Gaps denotation, conceptual, connotative well that arise in case of a mismatch, lack of meaning, zaznaczenie, conceptual shades of the same words, universal for all languages, but have differences in different languages due to inadequacy or absence of shades of meaning, concepts, connotative meanings of different cultures.
Reality is non-equivalent word or concept that refers to a specific occurrence of any culture.

7.3.2. The list of basic and additional literature 

www.alleng.ru

www.perevo4ik.com

uz-Translations: for translators

Write a report on the theme "the realities of the UK".
Write the annotation to the book D. Tomachine "Reality-Americanism". - M.: Higher school, 1988.
Based on the classification given in the works of C. I. vlachova, S. P. Florina, make a classification of the realities in Russian and Kazakh languages.

Tasks for independent work of students
under the supervision of teachers (SRSP)

Determine what kind of connotation realities-gaps is transmitted in the following context:
In the translation of the book of Campora said, Two court ladies, crossing the New bridge, for some two minutes was able to see there and monk, and a white horse. Then one of them pushed her friend's elbow, said: "What up whores, then I can certainly do it to look out for no reason".
Determine the culture of a people characterized by the following realities: "the Oval office", "honest Abe", "VAP Vipan", "Blue ox s", "stones cent".
Determine reality "Fife-o-clock" characterizes the culture of any people. Whether this tradition with the traditions of Russian and Kazakh peoples?
Check that the connotation realities are in the following context: "MyBase BL GE the created Psion CRD. Been sespa, Kok ElTR Timati La of jamerica Kip AP, Assasin as BCAP, meanina TANAP tirip, Haa aradi".
Based on the study of thematic classifications realities define the group realities: poncho, Pala, sombrero, the espadrille, chiripa, Sagar and others
Identify the group to which belong the following realities: maraca, Guiro, Ken, patuto, marimba, often, kweka, bambuco, vidalita, Samba, warach, : malambo, and other korido
Determine which method of translation used in the following example
"Mel guessed that his regular dispatcher had been relieved the time being, perhaps for some sleep in the "Blue Room" as Airport Standing Orders-with a trace of humor is called the snow crew''s bunkhouse" (Haily A. Airport. - Moscow, 1978, p.8).
"Mel realized that the Manager was replaced, vozmozhno he went to sleep in "detox", as not without humour was called at the airport hostel for people who are snegouborki" (Haley A. the Airport. - M., 1978, S. 310).
Determine the transfer of the following realities:
New York, Daniel Boone, Honest Abe, David Crockett, cent stores.
What kind of translation of the commentary is needed when translating the realities of the Commonwealth (Canada) "But there's supposed to be a big scene between two girls from Toronto and three women from French Canada who want independence from the Commonwealth".
Identify whether there is "meaning well" when mapping the realities of the Kazakh, Russian and English languages. Take for comparing two groups of realities (political and ethnographic).

7.4.2. Exercises
Exercise # 1.
Compare the original text and the text in the target language and determine what kind of reception elimination or substitution in question in this case:
He plied her with scones and jam
He treated her pancakes with jam
Exercise # 2.
Rewrite the text in Russian and Kazakh language in the workbook. Compare and identify the value orientation of the Kazakh and Russian peoples, determine what connotative value notions "our", "brown" in different languages.
Yarsi salon our nde SESM CST” (Å.Slonov. Itemset, b.); “Dausin Italy: ESP TREN Kosh ist Maida our Selden musical whom EMEs” (Å.Slonov. Arman AISI, 101B.); “Oh, BL bi Bolan KS Bayram bol mA Eken? - finally IMSA our dauys shit” (O. Sarsenbaev. The Jew gligence, 11b.); “Al, ayinde! - BL Tay Yes Arabic Dausy - Myna EAS Bayaman, әlі de oir other. Sshe Mindy aralast. - Our tirmidi” (C. Imagenow. Asha, b.); “Kmdr - Dama, “BL I IRS?” Dema July abayon arse Latin, sonyman brge eBay da tym idea bol Berman our tbel sarasy bar, our tbel lard blur cbec Salatin” (K. Segev. Jol, b.); “Itan sabatin TCSP Sroubek IgE Celgene, Kel-balali EC on totoras our abaper Shay SP eaten-dy” (S. Begalin. Stan, b.).
"The international community is alarming link between Austrian and West German neo-Nazis. However, one time the local brown tried to deny the existence of such contacts" (Communist, 1971, No. 66). "Brown speakers apparently becomes clear that the program planned "March of freedom" breaks (Literary Gazette, 1972, 16 Aug.).

Exercise # 3.
Compare the Association of the words "Sarah" and "yellow", Yellow in Kazakh, English and Russian languages, and identify what negative or positive orientation associated with these people with this color. Identify the meanings of these words in monolingual dictionaries. Determine the reality or gaps.

Table 3. Associations with the word "yellow" in different languages
СарыЖелтыйYellowСары aren
Sarah zhilik
Sarah TIC
Sarah Torah she
Sarah aus
Sarah Ayaz
Sary of Taban air
Sarah sүrgіn, u IRIN
Sarah toym ry
Sarah etc serpyllum
Sarah BA Jons
Sari Gambas
Sarah TSEK
Sarah Ayaz
Sarah wayim
Sarah seek a
Sarah RPC
Sary Galgalta sunflowers
Yellow newspaper
Tabloids Jealous
Cowardly
Yellow man 

Exercise # 4.
Compare the rites and rituals of English and Kazakh peoples and determine what type of reality they are
English realities of the Kazakh realities Easter egg (Easter egg), Easter basket (Easter basket), get married (to marry), betrothal (engagement), Struan Michel (pastries, bread St. Michael), Michaela''s Day, The cry of neck (Creek Shen), Horn dance horns), caieleach (the rite, the last sheaf, "the old woman")Neck Yu, TSAU the CES, Iryna tksu, TL at TL Atin, dauis fat, da TSU, Sara fat, OTA may u, betacar
Exercise No. 5.
Look socio-political literature, identify the realities that characterize political life of Kazakhstan, rank them according to thematic groups.

Exercise # 6.
Identify and describe the realities associated with the life of the Kazakh, Russian and English peoples.

7.5. Control submodule. Supervisory personnel. "Questions and answers on them." Interim tests on the topic.

Questions for self-assessment

How do you understand the term "reality"?
Why reality referred to as non-equivalent words?
What realities are called denotation?
On what basis are classified words realities in linguistics?
How do you understand the term "meaning well"?
What types of gaps are highlighted in perevodovedenie?
What are the realities and gaps on other language you know?
Answer options answer Button 1A. The reality is untranslatable slowed no B. the Reality is words denoting the specific concepts of life, culture, way of life of any nation Yes no 2A. Because they don't have equivalents in other ASYCUDA no B. the realities of one of the types of non-equivalent words without semantic correspondences in other languages Yes no 3A. Denotation is called reality, denoting objects and phenomena typical for any cultured B. no Such realities called denotata Yes no 4A. In linguistics realities called non-equivalent words Yes no B. In linguistics consider the realities of words denoting objects related to the history, culture, economy, way of life of the country of the studied language. They differ completely or partially separate semantic shares of lexical concepts words matching language)Yes no 5A. Meaning well is the absence of meaning or meanings of words in any ASYCUDA no b By Y. A. Sorokin and N. Y. Marcovina given this definition of "meaning well": "Meaning well" is a piece of text, where the sum (field) denotata is vague due: nepredstavleniem those or other elements of the denotation of the structure of some phenomenon in the analyzed text; 2) inadequate images of denotata in perceiving communicated no 6A. In perevodovedenie allocated connotation Laconia no B. In perevodovedenie allocated connotation, associative, cultural, ethnographic, conceptual, semantic Laconia no 7A. Calques, selection of functional analogue no B. Comparison, transcription, compensation gaps, descriptive translation, translation review, functional analogd no 

.5.2. Tests for intermediate control on the subject
1. Who gives this definition realities realities are words, phrases, naming objects, characteristic life (life), cultural, social and historical development of one nation and another alien"
D. Tomakin
A. I. Fedorov
Century, Kostomarov, E. M. Vereshchagin
S. I. Vlahov, S. P. Florin
C. S. Vinogradov
2. What are the realities on C. S. Vinogradov give an idea of home, property, clothing, hats, food, drinks, types of work, money, units of measure, etc.
Ethnographic and mythical
The realities of the world of nature
Household
Geographic
Socio-political realities
3. Who gives this definition the gap "the gap is some text in which there is something "strange, strange, wrong."
Y. A. Sorokin, I. Y. Marcovina
D. Tomakin
D. Temirgazina
I. A. Sternin (Moscow), O. I. Bykov
Y. S. Stepanov
4. Who of scientists suggests that gaps is the lack of adequate shade concepts in the culture of this nation, as the ethnic groups living in different ecological, socio-historical, geographical landscapes perceive the world differently, a different angle of view, so the same world conceptualiser in different concepts
Y. A. Sorokin, I. Y. Marcovina
D. Tomakin
H. K. Temirgazina
I. A. Sternin (Moscow), O. I. Bykov
Y. S. Stepanov
5. When in the target language increases the number of this word we can talk about what transfer non-equivalent words?
About descriptive translation
About calques
About the functional analogue of
About the translation commenting
Compensation
6. What kind of transfer realities you can tell if a translation into another language of the internal structure of the realities with words translated language?
About descriptive translation
About calques
About the functional analogue of
About the translation commenting
Compensation

7.6. Statistical submodule. The resulting frames (feedback).
7.6.1. Answers to questions
Question No. 1.
A superficial answer. Wrong.
Detailed answer
Question No. 2.
Incomplete answer.
Detailed answer. True.
Question No. 3.
True. You answered correctly.
Wrong. A superficial answer.
Question No. 4.
Incomplete answer.
Detailed answer. Correctly.
Question No. 5.
A common response. Not quite correct.
Detailed answer. Whiz.
Question No. 6.
Incomplete answer.
The right answer. You pointed out the main types of gaps.
Question No. 7.
A superficial answer.
True. You answered correctly.

8.6.2. Ciphers to the tests.
D
C
A
C
E
B 

Case module 8. The problem of multiple-meaning words translation
8.1. Theoretical submodule. Theory. Information frames.
8.1.1. The definition of "complex word"
R. A. Budagov in the article "the Law of multiple meanings of the word" noted that "the vocabulary of a language increases not only and not so much quantitatively as qualitatively new meaning to old words, reviewed the relationship between the old and new values. A quantitative increase in the dictionary itself is important, but not supported by the qualitative transformations phenomenon would lead to the loss of continuity in the semantic development of words" [Budagov, 1975].
Polysemy or ambiguity of words that have the same words several interconnected meanings. The polysemy of the word occurs in the modification and development of the original meaning of any word. During this deployment the value is not in a straight line, and around the main values and each of the secondary values may in turn become a new centre of semantic use.
According to the principle of asymmetry of the linguistic sign, one sign may carry multiple items of content, and one item of content may be indicated by several characters in terms of expression Karczewski [1965, 85-90].
Accepting this principle, we recognize that every sign is a content and each content is necessarily finds expression in a particular sign. Currently, however, this principle seems to be inadequate to understand and explain the relationship between content and expression, when elements of the plan content is not always expressed by the elements of expression, and their presence caused as a consequence, conclusion or premise of the components of the content, which found expression in words. Therefore, you should pay attention to the update on the semantic structure of the word values that exist implicitly as a consequence of domiciliaria subtext, and values resulting from secondary nomination. G. P. Melnikov distinguishes specific conceptual unit and an abstract representative of this unit, which is the value of the linguistic sign. Speech sign is a signifier for the linguistic sign and the linguistic sign is a signifier for the value. The value acts as a meaning for meaning. Meanings can be expressed in speech explicitly and to remain implicit. If explicitly expressed a sense acts as an intermediary to bind this value to the implicit meaning, language character gains one level oznacenych, i.e., the level of implicit meaning arising from a fatal contradiction between the multidimensional system of mental images, explained by the ability of the brain to simultaneously generate complexes of ideas, and the linear organization of language signs for deployment which requires time (and on the letter and space). As a consequence, all born inconsistencies plan content and plan of the expression, i.e., all attempts to fit in the plan of expression more units of meaning with fewer signs of language. Polysemantic word and represents a case where one linguistic sign contains many explicitly expressed and implicit existing units of meaning. Therefore, L. A. Novikov emphasizes that under the polysemy (multiple meanings) is the ability of words to have multiple meanings (semen), i.e., to denote different classes of objects, events, actions, processes, attributes and relations [Novikov, 1989, 189]. 

There are several areas in the development of polysemy. Representatives of the first believe that a significant word is the sum of the contexts in which it is used this word. In this case, the different contexts create the appearance of different meanings of the word, altering vague original value. The total value represents the sum of the individual proposals, implemented only in the context of [the Russian language and Soviet society, 1968, 121]. With this approach, the polysemy reduced to the sum of contexts, and poliamidnye words multivalued not in themselves, but only to the extent in which contexts create different values. This interpretation polysemy leads to the denial of ambiguity. Representatives of the second direction (A. A. Potebnya, L. C. szczerba) consider each value of polysemantic words independent word. The fallacy of this way is that the problem of polysemy is replaced by the problem of ambiguity and context [szczerba, 1958].
Supporters of the third direction assume that the meanings of words are units of the language system and exist regardless of the context not created them. Polysemy is the result of generalization, the group and the historical building of different values within a single word [Budagov, 1976, 242].
Polysemantic word may represent a combination of several interrelated values, actualising in the context of prisoners in the word in advance (i.e., in the word as an element of language structure) different values. The role of context in this case is the selection of a need at the moment virtual values and its actualization [Vasiliev, 1975, 4].
A fundamentally new approach in the understanding of polysemy is the point of view of L. A. Novikov and I. A. Sternin, considering the complex word as a unity LSV (lexico-semantic variants), the number of which equals the number of distinct values.
Understanding of the linguistic sign - words as a set of lexico-semantic variants of the approach to the semantics of the term "semantic structure" [Novikov, 1982].
"Under the semantic structure of the word, we will understand, " says I. C. Arnold, the structural numerous possible for a word lexical values, options and shades and their emotional and stylistic colouring, manifested in different forms and contexts of use, i.e., being in the ratio of additional distribution" [Arnold, 1969].   

For the semantic structure of polysemantic words characteristic of a semantic network, which is based on one source semema around this sememe grouped derivative sememe (LSV). LSV between the relationship of the derivative - epidymitis relations. Want epilepticheskie relationships were associated with at least two LSV, and one of them must be associated epidymitis with any third LSV, i.e., one of them must be explained through at least one of the others. In epidymitis values are usually basic and derived values that come from the main and derived from LSV. The main topic for which the main value is different from the non-core, is autosemantic first, i.e. the minimum dependence on context. Non-core value can be opposed to the basic values cinematically, due to the context. The context excludes the possibility of manifestation of the basic values, creating for him a weak position.
Polysemantic word represents an organized structure for some of its values are linked by hierarchical relations in the sense that different meanings of the words are common semantic components that integrate data values and distinctive, for which these values are realized as different. Understanding complex word as explicit-implicit structure, we believe it is necessary to consider the semantic structure of polysemantic words in two aspects: the aspect of the types of SEM with regard to their severity and type this from the point of view of their expression. Both of these moments in the interaction form a semantic structure. The semantic structure of the word by the value represents a set of values, and if the review by the plan expression is a set LSV [Abisheva, 2000, 206].
The basic meaning of the word and the lexical-semantic variants (LSV) are paradigmatic relations as additional values LSV have both similarities and differences with the main value; similar because the same underlying value, is different because they have additional shades of meaning.
Essential and non-core, additional values (LSV) differ integral and differential characteristics. Integral is the unifying characteristics. They show the similarity of the main and additional values. Differential signs - discriminating, when the primary and secondary values have different shades of meaning.
The manifestation of the separate meanings of the word is manifested in terms of their compatibility with any other word, i.e., in terms of additional distribution when each lexico-semantic variant of a word (single value polysemantic words) is associated with some feature compatibility and on this basis differs from the other lexico-semantic variant (LSV) the same word.
In our opinion, the distinction between the individual values of polysemantic words is in terms of additional distribution: in different contexts (explicit way the expression) and in the semantic structure of the multi-meaning words (implicit means of expression).  

Explicitely and implicit semantic structures can be manifest that the words, uniting together on the basis of the principle of the identity of their functionally determined characteristics and the principle of interdependence of identity and distinction of these signs, contact between a system of meaningful relationships and are included in the system of relations. Thus, in the semantic structure of polysemantic words separate LSV associated with a primary value on the one hand, the correlation relationships and are with him in the invariant-implication relations on the basis of the identities and differences of values, and on the other epilepticheskie relations as derived values, which were based on the primary, the direct meaning.
The objectification of lexico-semantic variants of the word occurs in a context in terms of additional distribution. So, Y. D. Apresian proposes to distinguish between the individual values of policement on the basis of the principles of compatibility and transformation. Emphasizing that each relevant difference in terms of content corresponds to the difference in terms of expression, Y. D. Apresian indicates that such differences exist in the syntactic structure of the language: each value polysemantic words is correlated with specific syntactic features (distribution, transformation), which are formally similar values [Apresyan 1967].
A. N.Shmelev, K. P. Smolin believe that the manifestation of the individual values is typed in the contexts of different nature - contexts of the first and second types, called by the authors the context position [Smolin, 1986].
The question of the manifestation of individual values polysemantic words are connected with the question of the criteria of their differentiation. In the proposed method the selection criterion "typed contexts" is not entirely successful. A fragile and subjectivity of this criterion was written much.
Attempts to use more objective, accurate methods to highlight individual values of policement led to the use of lexicology method of component analysis. In the works of M. M. Kopylenko, O. N. Seliverstova, M. D., K. P. Smolina, etc. have been proposed various methods of determining how the individual values of multi-meaning words, and composition of its semantic structure.
For translation studies is important as a knowledge translator features of the semantic structure of polysemantic words of the source language and the ability to objectify some of its values - lexico-semantic variants, compare them to their original values in the semantic structure of the words of the original and words of the target language in order to most accurately convey the meaning behind any component polysemantic words.

8.1.2. Contrastive-comparative analysis of multiple-meaning words of the source and target languages, and identify differences in their structure
Identify similarities and differences in the semantic structures of multiple-meaning words caused by the need to have information about the convergence and divergence of multiple-meaning words in different languages with the aim of preventing translation errors. Polysemantic words is a language universal, the result of the action of the universal laws of development of multiple meanings. However, the manifestation of the action of these laws in different languages is different, therefore the comparative-contrastive analysis of multiple-meaning words can note the following differences: 1) the words of the source language and target language differ in its semantic scope and correlation with various groups. A significant word in one language may appear as unequivocal, and the other is how many meanings. So, the word "Baur", "liver", "liver" refers to the same denotata, but the words denoting them relate to different groups of semantic patterns unambiguous and multilingual word. The volume of words "Baur" does not match the volume of the meanings of the words "liver" and "liver" in Russian and in English languages.
In Russian the word "liver" only has meaning; "big iron man and animals, producing bile and participating in the processes of digestion, metabolism and circulation" [Dictionary of the Russian language, 1983, 119]. In English "liver" - "liver" is also not portable values. In the Kazakh language "liver" is a significant word, and in Russian and in English is unambiguous words, although in all three languages they denote the same concept.
Contrastive-comparative analysis of multiple-meaning words helps to identify the differences in the structure of polysemantic words not only in terms of paradigmatic values (core and non-core meanings of the word), but also focuses on the similarities or differences of the syntagmatic relations of various words. 

Syntagmatic relations in the lexicon appear in the rules of combination of words, ability to connect with the circle of the lexical units. Lexical combinability can be very broad and limited.  Limited combinations of words can be considered as frazeologicheskii associated values. Century Century Vinogradov pointed out that "most of the words and meanings of words are limited in their relations within a language semantic relations of the language system. These lexical values can occur only in connection with strictly defined terms of concepts and their verbal signs. For such limitations as if there is no reason in logic or semantic nature themselves denote objects, actions and events. These limitations are specific to the language laws verbal communication of values" [Vinogradov, 1978].
2. Not the same socetaemost potency of words in different languages. Thus, in one language lexeme can have a broad meaning and includes a wide range of compatibility, but in other languages this word denoting the same denotation, has a narrow range of compatibility, compare the range and combination of words AK, white, weiß.
In the Kazakh language, there are 46 combinations of words white \126-137/
Compare the environment of the words in white Russian (white snow, white nights, bright, white heat, white bone, white meat, white poems, defeat white, white ticket, in broad daylight, white, white flag, white terror.
See in German: weiß, ein weibes Blatt Papier (clean sheet), die weiber Fahne hissen - to raise the white flag; ein wieber Fleck auf der Landkarte - white spot (unexplored), weiber Flub - medical Beli, weiber Kohle - white coal, energy, water; weiber Schrecken - white terror; der weibe Sport - 1) winter sports,skiing; 2) tennis; der weibe Tod - death on the ice (snow), Weibe Woche - week sales of linen goods, der weibe Sonntag - religious Sunday after Easter, die weibe Frau - Sueve. White lady (Ghost, coercion).
German combination with the word Weiß - white also differ from similar combinations in Russian and Kazakh. Therefore, there is a mixed distribution of the word "white" in the language in which one word fields, in addition to the General have their own environment.
3. Not the same connotative meanings of words multiple-meaning words in the original and translated languages, as connotative values Express the subjective attitude of the individual, ethnic group to any subject of thought, expressing positive or negative evaluation of Axiologic. Connotation, according to C. N. Telia is a way of expression evaluation. It is in the evaluation expressed the attitude of the subject (individual and collective): "this ratio value par excellence, " writes C. N. Telia, and it provides answers to the questions: who estimates that, as for whatever reason or motive, and from what positions. Terms: (variables) relationship, the subject (the person with her tastes and Outlook) and the object (the fragment of the world in his system links) - connected in this respect, a value judgment, which is expressed a particular liking of the subject to the world" [Telia, 1986 

AK, in Kazakh, Russian and English languages do not match the estimated values of the words expressed in the connotations. In negative and positive estimates, expressed in connotative values do not match evaluative meanings, cultural and value-based shades. In General, negative evaluation in portable values generated on the basis of color perception, are the same in Russian, Kazakh and English languages: black armand (black armband), black soul (dark soul), black mail (black mail), black news, black day, black eyes, black enemy, but in the Kazakh language of negative assessments with the word black more: Kara Zurek, Kara niet, Kara nd, Arabic, Kara is, Kara Hasan (miser), Kara basin (evil desire) and other However, the word "Kara" in the Kazakh language has positive values: Kara trolled (healthy and strong), Kara NPR (the crowd), Kara a (army), Kara KS (deep autumn), Kara ones (native land), Kara Kazakh family (home) and other

8.1.3 the Techniques of multiple-meaning words translation
Methods of multiple-meaning words translation from a source language to the target language are different. One of them is receiving due to the context of translation. C. S. kapovich, focusing on the difficulties of translating multiple-meaning words, indicates that the interpreter should give an answer to the question, what exactly expresses one or another complex word in what context it is used, and not in a hurry to "grant" the most frequently occurring value. There are plenty of examples due to the context of the English translation of Russian words, for example: 1) magazine is a periodical publication; 2) ournal - scientific journal; 3) the log book the log book; 4) register - class journal; 5) minute book, minutes - the journal of the minutes of the meetings [kapovich, 2006, 24].
Polysemantic words of the source language in the process of interpreting and translating it into another language should be analyzed in the context of the positions of the first and second types. "The context position is the position of words in a contextual environment, which is clearly represented Sammy part of its lexical meaning" [Smolin, 19866, 101]. The first type of the context position is determined by the place of the word in this context the environment that implements a particular semantic component in syntagmatic relations. The second type of context positions determined by the place in context the environment, identifying certain semantic position paradigmatically related words. Syntagmatic relations of words - system semantic context, which represents a minimal binomial a combination of words that can be considered as the context position of the first degree. One member of this Syntagma is semantically realized the word, different is the key word, which comes semantic hint. The second type of the context item is a larger environment (the proposal, the text in which the word becomes paradigmatic and sistematicheskie relationships with many words, is expanding its semantic meaning.
The reception detection values policemanager words by using the method of distributional analysis.
In the process of conducting distributional analysis compares socetaemost model multiple-meaning words native language and the target language and identify matching cases, additional mixed and partial distribution, then identify the values and environments; words in comparable languages and some conclusions are drawn, for example, the analysis of multiple-meaning words in comparable languages shows that:
I. some multiple-meaning words of the source language and the target language differs matching or contrasting distribution. In this case, constituency have only shared environment;
II. Words are for further distribution, in which the environments of the analyzed words are almost no members in common, no prevent. So, for example, surrounded by the words get copper in portable values, there is almost overlapping combinations.   

 Compare the meaning of the word copper in the Russian language
Copper voice (voiced, sharp)
Copper forehead (about pointless stubborn, stupid man).
II. The words of Russian, Kazakh and German languages are partial distribution, if the environment intersect, as constituency have shared and private environment.

8.2. Illustrative submodule. Illustrative frames. "Graphics". "Examples

 

Fig.18- Semantic structure of the polysemantic word

Fig. 17 - ratio values and LSV polysemantic words

8.2.1. Examples
8.2.2. Example No. 1
Table No. 4. The meanings of new words, new, neu
new Newnen 1. Newly made or newly acquired, not or little used Gauz neu die neuere
Literatur2. Newly opened, invented by die Welt Heue
das Neue Test-ament 3. Unknown, little known to anyone mit neuen Kräften
an die Arbeit gehen 4. Introduced instead of the previous, former, replacing the former or one that will appear, will replace the old. 5. Related to the closest time period. 6. That have recently emerged, appeared 7. What was not anything again open, heard the Example No. 2 - Intersecting and private environment in a multivalued words "brain", "mi", "das Brain"
the "brain" das Brain, das Hirn 1. The Central nervous system of humans and animals-the substance that fills the skull and the channel of the spine, the body mysle-tion in humans. ein langsames Brain haben
ihm haben sie das Brain geklaut, er hat kein Brain 2. The main engine, steering center something stammt das nicht aus defined Cehirn, sein Cehirn
treibt Blasen, Cehirnakrobat 3. Soft tissue filling the cavities of bones der Hirnfatzke
die Hirnfuge
das Hirngespinst
sich mit Hirngespinsten quälen 4. Mind, the mental capacity of a 5. Dish from the brain of some animals 6. To the bone, to the last degree, with all his being.

People with brains
Spinal cord
The brain

8.3.Reference submodule. Reference frames. "Glossary". List of basic and additional literature". "Reference sites"
9.3.1. Glossary
Differential characteristics - distinctive signs.
Implicit meaning is expressed by the meaning of the word.
Integral signs which signs
A significant word - a word that has several meanings.
The basic meaning of the word - meaning, minimally dependent text.
Non-primary meaning of the word value, dependent on context.
Explicit meaning - the meaning expressed by means of the lexical units.
Epidymitis relationships - relationships the derivative, when from the main poisondamage values Geminate additional derived values lexico-semantic variants of the word (LSV).

8.3.2. The list of basic and additional literature
Key readings

Abisheva K. S. Kazakh-Russian language contacts and questions of assimilation of words in the language system of the recipient. - Almaty: RIO VAK Republic of Kazakhstan, 2000.
Arnold N. In. The polysemy of the noun and lexico-grammatical categories // Foreign languages at school, 1969 No. 5.
SAC Century, a Comparative typology of Russian and French languages. - M., 1983.
Novikov, L. A. Semantics of the Russian language. - M., graduate school, 1982.
Sipowicz C. S. Handbook of translator from Russian to English Russian-English Translation Handbook. -Mn.: Terrasystems, 2006. 

Further reading

Apresyan Y. D. Experimental investigation of the semantics of the Russian verb. -M.; Nauka, 1967.
Budagov R. A. Man and his language. - M.: Nauka, 1975.
Vasiliev L. M. Polysemy // Studies on semantics. - Ufa, 1975.
Vinogradov centuries Lexicology and lexicography. M., Nauka, 1978.
Dudchenko centuries Lexico-semantic analysis of the equivalence of the values of one of the thematic groups in Russian and German // Aspects of lexical meaning. - Voronezh, 1982.
Russian and Soviet society. The language of modern Russian literary language. - M.: Nauka, 1968.
Smolin K. P. Component analysis and semantic reconstruction in the history of words // Problems of linguistics, 1986, No. 4.
Telia Century. N. Connotative aspect of connotative semantics units. -M.: Nauka, 1986.
Ter-Minasova S., Language and intercultural communication. -M.: Publishing house of Moscow state University, 2004.
Szczerba L. C. Selected works on linguistics and phonetics. -Leningrad: Leningrad state University, 1958.

8.3.3. Informational sites
Uz - Translations: For translations
P3yum. Narod.ru\ library

8.4. Control training submodule. Operating personnel. "Job". "Exercises".
8.4.1. Job
Tasks for independent work of students (IWS)

To write a paper on "Methods of multiple-meaning words translation".
S
ummarize the section of "Transfer of multiple-meaning words and homonyms" in the book of C. S. of Kapovich "Handbook of translator from Russian to English Russian-English Translation Handbook. - Mn.: Terrasystems, 2006. - S. 23-31.

Tasks for independent work of students under the supervision of a teacher (SRSP)

What is the method of translation used in the transfer process connotative values in the following context (translated from French to English)? Athanase, ne dans la banliene rouge de Trelaze, Athahase lintrepide, alerta directement larcheveche. - Atanas, a native of Trelaze, red farmhouses of Angers, fearless Atanas appealed directly to the management of the diocese.
What transfer method should be used when translating from Russian into English word "to write". What is the equivalence of multivalued verb in English, compare:
write (total value) - write
write (music) - cоmpose
write (paintings) - paint
write, compile (project) - design.
Identify the composition of words: "solid", "atty", "hard", solid, using the method of component analysis.
Analyze the environment of the words "solid" "atty", "hard", "solid" with the help of the method of distributional analysis.
Using context is due to receive, investigate the value of lexico-semantic variants of polysemantic words in the following context: 

"Vulgarity always found it hard and sharp judge" (A. M. Gorky, SOBR. Op. 16 T. M., 1979, 16, S. 51).
Determine the correct translation of the word "Baur" in English, see the following contexts: "the First spoke Bearden. It for the whole summer he found nothing and now have got out earlier than others - Ochakov, my liver, God now promises you a good year" [, Musrepov. Awakened edge, S. 79]; "Sugars white soul, is of such words in the legs fell to Bulakbay. - My liver, my friend, to re-live start [, Musrepov. Awakened edge, S. 111].
Determine whether the range and combination of words "small" and "shallow".
Determine the method of transfer in the context of the first position, realizing the value of lexico-semantic variant and multi-meaning words acute, sharp stars, sharp boots socks, acute cold, acute pain, acute hearing, a keen eye, sharp wit, sharp joke, sharp laughter, sharp, sharp judge, acute hatred, sharp focus, sharp memory, the pungent smell, etc. Put them in Kazakh and English languages.
Determine whether the meaning of "dewiss" "of course", "Rene", "naturally" in different languages. What method in this case you can use?
Determine the method of transfer in the words "der Arm upper limb of a person from shoulder to fingers), "die Hand "from wrist to fingers." In Russian and Kazakh languages the concept of "ol", "hand" used in the meaning of the word "hand". Identify, what is national identity nemnogo composition of concepts in different languages.

8.4.2. Exercises

Exercise # 1
Write down in a notebook the meaning of the word "velvet" and identify the major and minor values given word (LSV), draw a diagram of the CE mantic structure of the given words: velvet dress, velvet eyes, velvet voice, velvet bells, velvet brow, velvet glitter, velvet laughter, velvet bass, velvet smooth, velvety sleep, velvet grass, velvet sand.

Exercise # 2
Copy, paste instead of the points eligible on the meaning of words:
Farcical ...., horse..., Sasani..., drum...satin...plush..., cast iron...
Words for reference: Roth, laughter, style, vaudeville, leaves, voice, head.

8.5. Control submodule. Supervisory personnel. "Questions and answers on them." "Tests for intermediate control on".
8.5.1. Questions for self-assessment and answers to them

1.What do you understand by the term "semantic structure of the word"?
2. How can you define the concept of lexico-semantic variant?
3. What signs are called integral?
4. What signs are called differential?
5. What are the differences in the semantic structures of multiple-meaning words of the source language and the target language can you name?
6. How do you understand the term "additional distribution"?
7. Whether the method of anthropomorphism in different languages?
8. What is the essence of taking the "context-driven translation"? 

9. What focuses the method of component analysis?

Answer options Button 1. A. Semantic structure - the content of the word B. the Semantic structure is a structural set of possible word lexical values, options and shades of meaning - LSV Yes no 2.A. Lexico-semantic variant is the non-primary meaning of the word Yes no B. Lexical-semantic variant is a derived value, Apocalypses from the main, direct spaceneedle 3.A. Integral characteristics are the characteristics of the word discriminating values. Yes no B. Integral characteristics are the characteristics of unification. They show similarities direct and dopolnitelnih, minority znacheniya 4.A. Differenzialnye signs is a Discerner of the meaning of the words of Dane B. Differenzialnye signs is the unification of princedale 5.A. The semantic structure of polysemantic words of different languages differ in the value Yes no B. Semantic structure of polysemantic words of different languages differ in value and by compatibility, do not match their portable of spaceneedle 6.A. Additional distrubute is surrounded by the words Yes no 7.A. No, not solpadeine B. Anthropomorphism is a universal semantic law, when the properties of a living subject pripisyvaetsya inanimate. This law svoebrazno refracted in different languages Danet 8.A. Context-driven translation is a translation that takes into account the meaning of the word in contextedit B. This method of translation, which takes into account the contexts of the first and second posizione 9.A. The method of component analysis focuses on identifying components of the meanings of the word in two languages, the translator tries for translation to take into account all the components of the meaning of the word (seven) and translate, choosing the most appropriate option from the composition of these componentevent B. Verifies the values of mnogoznachnye


8.5.2. Tests for intermediate control


1. Who among data scientists talked about the fact that the vocabulary of a language increases not so much quantitative as qualitative?
A) R. A. Budagov
C) L. A. Novikov
(C) Century Century Vinogradov
D) I. C. Arnold
E) A. N.Shmelev
2. Who among scientists gave this definition of a polysemantic word: "Under the polysemy (multiple meanings) is the ability of words to have multiple meanings (cemem)"
A) R. A. Budagov
C) L. A. Novikov
(C) Century Century Vinogradov
D) I. C. Arnold
E) A. N.Shmelev
3. What scientists consider a multivalued word as unity LSV (lexico-semantic variants)?
A) R. A. Budagov, Centuries Vinogradov
C) L. A. Novikov, I. A. Sternin (Moscow)
C) I. C. Arnold, D. N. Shmelev
D) J. D. Apresian, K. P. Smolin
E) M. M. Kopylenko, O. N. Seliverstova
4. What kind of analysis of multiple-meaning words reveals similarities and differences in the meanings of the words?
A) Comparative method
C) Distributional analysis
(C) Method of component analysis
D) Contrastive-comparative analysis
E) Method of transformational analysis
5) What kind of analysis polysemantic words focuses on the environment of the word?
A) Comparative method
C) Distributional analysis
(C) Method of component analysis
D) Contrastive-comparative analysis
E) Method of transformational analysis
6. What is the word called lexico-semantic variant?
A) Direct value
In a Derivative value
C) Invariant
D) Derived figurative meaning that is different from producing shades of meaning
E) the Figurative meaning
7. What are the signs of polysemantic words belong to the integral?
A) Discriminating
C) Combined
(C) Determining
D) Differential
E) Unite the signs indicating the similarity of the basic and additional values 

8.6. Statistical submodule. The resulting frames (feedback)
8.6.1. Answers to questions
Question No. 1.
A. response Surface
B. Detailed, correct answer
Question No. 2.
A. General, incomplete answer
B. a Detailed answer. True.
Question No. 3.
A. Incorrect answer
B. True. Well done!
Question No. 4.
A. the Correct answer
B. Incorrect
Question No. 5.
A. response Surface
B. Detailed. The right answer.
Question No. 6.
A. response Surface
B. Detailed, correct answer.
Question No. 7. 
A. General response. Incomplete
B. Detailed, correct answer
Question No. 8.
A. the Correct answer
B. Postateinyi response. Incomplete
Question No. 9.
A. response Surface
B. Detailed. True.

9.6.2. Code to the tests
1) And
2) In
3)
4) D
5)
6) D
7) E 

Case module No. 9. A national approach to idioms and problems of translation to another language
9.1. Theoretical submodule. Theory. Information frames.
9.1.1. General classification of phraseological units in linguistics and in perevodovedenie
Before considering this problem, we define our relationship to the term "phraseological unit" and to the volume of phraseology.
At the present stage, there has been three approaches to phraseological material - wide and narrow. The first opinion expressed in the works of A. I. Efimov, E. M. Galkina-Fedoruk, A. A. reformed, V. Vinogradov.
So, A. I. Efimov, E. M. Galkina-Fedoruk, A. A. reformed belongs to the phraseology of any sustainable phrases, Proverbs, sayings, fairy-tale beginnings, aphorisms, winged words. C. C. Vinogradov, also understanding the idioms in a broad sense, allocates idioms by different criteria: the basis for selection of idioms is phraseological semantics as a defining characteristic. Based on this criterion centuries Vinogradov allocated phraseological fusion, phraseological unity phraseological combinations [Vinogradov, 1978]. But phraseological combinations have been allocated to them on other grounds than phraseological fusion and unity. The absence of a common principle in the allocation of phraseological units leads to an understanding of how idioms expressions "slack", "to hold the stone in his bosom", "railway", "sensitive issue" and others In phraseology were included phrases with carrying value of one of the components, manifested in a narrow compatibility with certain words (evil, annoying, creepy feeling, and so on).
A broad view of the object phraseology also adheres M. M. Kopylenko, which emphasizes that within the phraseology can be studied all kinds of individual and group matching tokens. According to M. M. Kopylenko, from the phraseology exclude: 1/ education type to the bone, leg, nose, under wraps, under sideways, not teeth, etc. 2/ Proverbs, aphorisms; 3/ composites - education, in which combinations of tokens changed, which led to casinofortune. However, if we start from a broad understanding of object phraseology as "the combination of lexemes"proposed by M. M. Kopylenko and H. W. Popova, phraseological material to be included in phraseology, in phraseological dictionary, will be infinite [Kopylenko, Popov, 1989]. A narrow understanding of object phraseology found in the works of A. M. Molotkova, MT Tagiyev, I. A. Fedosov, etc. So, A. I. Molotkov highlights how the object phraseology only the category of sustainable verbal complexes that unfairly leaves out inclusion in the phraseological dictionary of numerous phraseological units [Molotov, 1974]. I. A. Fedosov, [Fedosov, 1987] understands phraseological unit only the adhesion and cohesion.
In the works of N. M.Shan [Shan, 1985], O. C. Akhmanova, V. P. Zhukov provides the basic criteria and allocation of phraseological units: 1/ repeatable. Idioms are not created in the process of communication, and are reproduced in the finished form; 2/ semantic integrity. The main criterion for distinguishing phraseological units from word formations is precisely the nature of their correlation with reality, the integrity of the nomination semantic integrity in many cases determined metaphorical reinterpretation of free phrases; 3/ sustainability semantics. Resilience is a measure of the degree of semantic unity, indivisibility components; 4/ availability of components - the component parts of phraseological units, deprived of the main features of words; 5/ proof; 6/ expressiveness, emotionality; 7/ accent design (unlike words, phraseological unit has two or more stress).
Based on these distinguishing characteristics, it is possible to distinguish a phrase from the words and phrases. Among them, as defining or relevant are highlighted in the semantic cohesion of the components and their razdelnopoloe. Other signs of a steady ratio values and a certain lexico-grammatical structure and their reproducibility in speech - defined semantic relatedness of word components. Based on the differential characteristics inherent in the phrase, we can give the following definition: phraseological unit is playing in finished form semantically non-free combination of words characterized by semantic integrity and idiosyncratic.
From the point of view of semantic match idioms are classified differently in the work of centuries Vinogradov and N. M.The Shan. Vinogradov centuries in his article "On the main types of phraseological units" distinguishes these three types of phraseological units allocated from the point of view of semantic integrity:
1) phraseological fusion;
2) phraseological unity;
3) phraseological combinations. 

Phraseological fusion is such phraseological units, which Express the overall figurative meaning, not derived from the values of the components of a phraseological unit, for example, headlong, down in the Shoe, take the beans, the dog to eat, etc.
Phraseological unity idioms, the total value of which is partially motivated by the values of the components of phraseological units: to put teeth on the shelf, seven Fridays of the week, reckless, the first pancake is always lumpy and others
4) Phraseological combinations are phraseological units, components of words which consist of words not found in the free use, for example, Tosca green, sworn enemy, etc.
N. M.Shan allocates the fourth kind idioms - phraseological expressions. These include idioms, components which occur both bound and free use: the things are there; you are afraid of wolves, no walk in the forest and others [Shan, 1985].
In perevodovedenie phraseological units are classified as the degree of semantic match (C.A. Fedorov), and the degree of fulfilment of certain pragmatic tasks (C. S. Vinogradov). A. C. Fedorov is based on the classification centuries Vinogradov and B. A. Larina, highlighting: 1) combination of variables; 2) sustainable metaphorical combinations, clearly stand out "by the presence of stereotypical", traditionalism and metaphorical reinterpretation, the departure from the original application; 3) idioms, different from the previous group "more deformed, shortened, far from the initial structure (lexical and grammatical) [Larin, 1977, 148]. In his thoughts, in perevodovedenie should be based on data classification, as "from the point of view of translation is extremely important such features of phraseological units, as the degree of semantic unity or separation of their elements, the degree of clarity or ambiguity of motivation, the presence or loss of the inner form, imagery), stylistic coloring [Fedorov, 2002, 220]. Therefore, A. C. Fedorov considers the possibility of translating idioms (phraseological growths), as his thoughts, specifying their untranslatability unreasonable. Such idioms in other languages which may correspond to the entire idioms, which can serve their faithful translation; 2) sustainable metaphorical combinations (phraseological unity). Such sustainable metaphorical combinations represent different degrees of motivation, transparency of the inner form to the national specificity; 3) variables [Fedorov, 2002].
C. S. Vinogradov gives the actual translation classification of phraseological units, dividing them into three large groups:
1) lexical idioms;
2) predicative idioms;
3) comparative idioms.
Lexical idioms are semantically related words, and conceptually similar, for example, black stockings, old bird, without a king in the head and other Predicative idioms are complete sentences, entrenched in the language in the form of ready steady formulas, for example, better a bird in the hand than a crane in the sky; first step is the hardest and other 

 Comparative idioms are idioms that are entrenched in the language as a stable comparison, for example, sly as a Fox, rock solid, fresh as a Daisy and the other Is a special type of sustainable momentum. The most common models are:
adjective + Union + noun;
verb + Union + noun [Vinogradov, 2006].
In our opinion, for the translation more acceptable is the generally accepted classification of phraseological units according to the degree of semantic match, such as the classification of phraseological units is basically the same in many languages.

9.1.2 national peculiarities of phraseological units and problems lingvokulturologicka interference in translation
For the linguist, translator and psycholinguist idioms interesting primarily because they carry the total social experience, contain patterns of ordinary, everyday consciousness, reflect national-cultural specificity of language. Expressing the abstract through the concrete, the abstract through sensual and visually tangible, idioms are a kind of form of reflection extralinguistic reality. Passing the compressed story of fables, legends, the essence of Proverbs, historical events, idioms are a powerful weapon compression values.
In the compression strength of social experience in phraseology is most clearly demonstrated national-cultural specificity of language and its relation to the material and spiritual life of the people, its history. These "regular expression", according to F. I. Buslaev", are a kind of micromini, because they contain in themselves and the moral law, and common sense, expressed in a brief sentence, which was bequeathed by the ancestors to guide the descendants" [Buslaev, 19]. 

Appeal to the idioms is of interest in that it allows to approach the study of the characteristics of mental stock of the nation, especially the human psyche is not abstract, exploring some freestories of the subject, and in the context of and in connection with a particular kind of building culture characteristic of a particular people. As a result, the product of human activity, culture at the same time has the opposite effect on the formation of human mind and consciousness, it stipulates certain forms of regulation of human behavior.
For a translator - the study of phraseological units is of interest in that it allows you to identify the forms of manifestation and reflection in the idioms of identity mental warehouse of the people, the peculiarities of the psyche of the individual, inadequate representatives of different ethnic groups.  ofioms perform reflexive function, carrying the age-old experience and value system of the people recorded in the content idioms as figurative language units. In their figurative content embodied cultural-national worldview and the peculiarities of national mentality. Therefore, phraseological units are national specifics, which appears first, in the reflection of the mental stock of the nation and national consciousness; secondly, to Express the diversity of national forms and national flavor of the culture of a people, which is reflected in the phraseological image, a kind of different Nations; thirdly, the peculiarities of phraseological units is manifested in inadequate different peoples ways of establishing the phraseological image; fourth, the national specifics of their manifests itself in inappropriate connotations content idioms; fifthly, in the national specifics of the design them with the help of linguistic means.
National-cultural peculiarities of phraseological units is manifested in thoughts Y. S. Maslova, in that they reflect the specific features of national life: "speaking of idioms, often celebrate their national identity. Undoubtedly, in every language there are many specific form, and motivation, and is particularly evident this peculiarity in those idioms, which reflected the specific features of national life and history of the people" [Maslov, 1987, 119].
The peculiarities of phraseological units is shown, according to C. H. Cherdantseva, in that they can reflect directly the cognitive activity of members of the language team, based on the naive view of the world of native speakers, their relation to each other, to what happens to them in this world [foot of MT, 1996, 66].
In the opinion of
K. K. Duisenova, cause the differences phraseological systems in different languages are features of phraseological pattern, including prototypes, archaisms, view of the world, processes, and types of dependencies in the world. The last factor in particular strongly determines, writes K. K. duysenova, the typology and the system of ethnic, ideological, national-cultural labeled phraseological images in a particular language. It is in this component, first of all, strongly disagree phraseological picture of the world of different languages" [duysenova, 2006, 29].
National marker offset of the idioms is the result of inadequate cultural connotation of the information contained in them shaped base and connotative Convento. About this Century, the SJC writes the following: "First in the world there is a kind of prototype situation, corresponding to the "literal" meaning of the phraseological unit. It receives the content, which is then rethinking, ie, formed the image of phraseological units based on the primary meanings of the words in the prototype situation. These primary words as would be in the image of its value. So there is an internal form (EOF), which contains basic information related to culture" [GAK, 1999, 104]. 

National markeroffset, as you can see, is manifested primarily in the specifics of the inner form of idiom and its specific design in different languages. Thus, the analysis of manifestations of national-cultural martirovannoj idioms in the process of mapping their method contrastive-comparative analysis shows that differences phraseological systems are noted in the following cases:

 (1) inadequate figuratively-somatic division of reality on the basis of anthropomorphism. So, in Kazakh, Russian languages somatic phraseological units of the Russian and Kazakh languages are oriented each on their linguistic and cultural commonality, therefore, despite the coincidence in the basic conceptual plane, they differ from each other in the following points: 1) in the Russian language somatic idioms reflect the close family ties, and in the Kazakh far and near, for example, Baur a close relative), RATM, Baur (a distant cousin), Bel balasi (own child), Bel da etc. 2) reflect the ethnic and social differentiation AK seek, Kara seek. 3) somatic idioms of the Kazakh language more associated with the expression of the estimated characteristics of the person, than in Russian, see: AK Zhurek, TAS, Baur, without Burek (stale), auyzy gel, jelm aus, Ala a, money TSU (being shy) 4) in the Kazakh language in the values of somatic phraseological units, there is a strong positive atrocinerea orientation than in Russian: Arshin TS, (chest), chest (eng. Negative, jinx - Koz party , but Koz KREN, KZN taboo, positive).
2) National labelled idioms that describe the appearance of the person, due to the originality of value orientations, beliefs about the beauty of a person. This reflects the difference value judgments of each nation, cf.: Nurly Beth, Benin an Taman - blood with milk; poppies color - Kyzyl Shirali, ariat Koz, Ouma aus, Alma moyin, urali Koz - the fair maiden, the picture of beauty, Swan neck, turquoise eyes, slender as stem and other
3) phraseological image of national character is also inadequate. Idioms describing a person's character, different forms of execution used language features, for example, AK Zhurek, BA moyin, Ala a, wind in the head, mouth open, regardless of the person, Coon like that, grated Kalach, etc. without bourek, TAS, Baur, and others
4) marked National idioms, figurative reflect the life of the nation, its traditions, the type of economic activity, da's event, rum bar, beats saum wait, TSAU the CES, at shatterin jer, sier SSCE wait, flail language, cooking porridge, got ' em for life, thumbs beat, bread and salt, to fabricate a pretzel, neither fish nor fowl, pull GIMP, neither bitch nor a hitch, though the number on the head teshie and other
5) national specificity is also reflected in the diversity of national consciousness of the peoples, for example, the specificity of national consciousness of Kazakhs closely related "TRT TLC four kinds of cattle - the basis of his nomadic way of life, therefore a significant place in his ethnocentric system take idioms, Dating back to the images of the animal world. In the sphere of such idioms included us, first, such a metaphor which is based on part of phraseological turnover lexical component with the name of the animal (at SN fat, at Kirien kessu, at and oinau, Ala ozdy you, kr Audi jacinda, MISI tleu, at St and others); second, idioms containing the names of the traits, features of the external appearance of a person, correlated with the defining properties of inanimate objects and phenomena of reality, habits, behavior and appearance of animals: MIME AU, aristanti airu, TLC bla, ITsE ru and other 

Thus, the analysis of the national peculiarities of phraseological units shows that culturally-shaped and language markeroffset them is a result of inadequate perception of the world through the prism of their culture, lifestyle, lifestyle, world view. All this is reflected in the divergent phraseological images of idioms.

9.1.3 Methods of translation of phraseological units
For a full translation of idioms should be taken as the starting position classification according to the degree of semantic match as the main types of phraseological units (phraseological fusion and phraseological unity) can be translated using idioms in another language. And in this case you can use the technique of idiomatic translation by choosing the appropriate equivalents in the target language. Researchers are the following types of equivalents:
1) absolutely identical phraseology, semantics, style, lexico-grammatical forms and syntactic structure, for example: heart aches - Jean augy.
2) full phraseological equivalents idioms Russian and national languages, the same morphological and syntactic characteristics;
3) incomplete or partial
the first step is Alasi Adam
open - mouth your aus
4) phraseological equivalents (match conversion idioms bills turnovers in meaning and style)
the language of well-hung - ausina sausan then
5) phraseological policelike (match Russian and national phraseological units of meaning and stylistic characteristics, partially phonetically)
to draw a parallel - parallel tcsu
6) borrowed idioms
Demyanova ukha - Demian ohasi [Bayramov, 1989].
M. I. Sabitov, considering the cross-language correlation idioms in raznostoronnih language, identifies the following types of phraseological units mapped in the interlanguage plan: 1) are identical IFF the material, content and functional community matching idioms, which are the result not so much of the language of kinship, but also linguistic, cultural and historical ties. Such idioms are characterized by the highest degree of formal semantic and stylistic similarities; 2) direct equivalence as the similarity of the structural organization of forms of community values and functions of the related idioms. These idioms are characterized by full or partial semantic and stylistic coincidence, correlation of vocabulary or grammatical structures; 3) synonymous IFF. Is defined as meaningful and functional equality related idioms that are not characterized by structural-typological similarity. Idioms of this type are motivated semantic basis; 4) equivalents differs homonymy and polysemy, i.e. the sameness or difference of the aspect of the organization at large or smaller differences in the cumulative sense [Sabitova, 2000, 79].
Based on this classification, take them as a basis and on the basis of their characteristic: the reception of the translation of phraseological units with the help of equivalents.
When using this method, you can specify several cases: Translation by selecting an absolute equivalents, for example: safe and sound - safe and sound, to live like a cat with a dog - lеad a cat dog life, almost (to rest) on our laurels - rest-op one's laurels, the salt of the earth - the salt of the earth, to play with fire - to play with fire, the hour has come (struck) - one's hour has struck, there is no smoke without fire there is no smoke without fire, white night - AK tn, Golden handcuffs - Altyn war, black market - Kara Bazaar, white elephant - AK PL, sinus take to make a proposal, etc. 2) Partial equivalence. Partial frazeologicheskie equivalents may be the same value, stylistic colouring, but you can get the lexical composition, such as to promise mountains of gold - to promise wonders, to promise the moon, away, home is best East or West, home is the best, buy a pig in a poke to buy pig in a poke, is the first project is the first portent (sign), not worth powder and shot, the game is not worth the candle, the talk of the town the talk of the town, massacre of the innocents - the massacre of the innocents, there is no smoke without fire - birds of a feather flock together. 

Thus, when translating idioms from one language to another, it is important to focus on the preservation of their national specificity, loyal to the national image that requires a careful selection of the target language idioms, equivalent, similar, can also figuratively to describe the subject of thought, and colorful, and figuratively to describe it, to have a certain impact.


10.2. Illustrative submodule. Illustrative frames. "Graphics". "Examples".
10.2.1. Graphics 

ᄉᄃ

Fig. 18 – Classification of phraseologisms in translation studies

ᄉᄃ

 

Fig. 19 -Main factors of nationally marked idioms 

Fig. 20 - the Ways of translation of phraseological units m OIA five

10.2.2. Examples
Example No. 1.
Proper names as an indicator of martirovannoj FE as Mama passed, Ivan Nepomnyashchy, work coat, der dumme August, Maitre Jacque, Jean de Paris, ESM handy ESC Joly, Asym handy such such Joly, Kleben basinda cnde IIN.

Example No. 2.
Reflection in FE lifestyle of the people
Hand werk hat goldenen Boden (craft will not be lost), Beamter auf lebenzeit (official life), Berliner Weibe (Berlin beer), nicht einen Dent Anstad (have no shame, no conscience). Traditional road ESIM Khan, mount Kultobe each meeting.

Example No. 3.
Reflected in the different FE models of time:
Cyclic and linear (Russian and German culture): gone is the time when we were inseparable, Die zeit verrint (time goes by), die Zeit dränot (no waiting time). The Kazakh culture. Cyclic time: the year of the monkey, year of the mouse;
Mythological time: ancient times, long ago days;
Environmental time: morning, lunch,wintering;
Family time: it was in the Vault, during the memorial Asa Sauna.
Situational time: time for milking mares, the time for boiling tea, time for boiling milk.

9.3. Reference submodule. Reference frames. "Glossary". List of basic and additional literature". "Reference sites".
9.3.1. Glossary
Phraseological unity is a phraseological units, the total value of which is partially motivated by the values of the components of a phraseological unit.
Phraseological combinations are idioms, the components of which consist of words that are not found in free use.
Phraseological fusion is such idioms that Express the overall figurative meaning, not motivated by the values of the components of a phraseological unit.
Phraseological equivalents (absolute) - absolutely identical phraseology, semantics, style, lexico-grammatical forms and syntactic structure.

9.3.2. The list of basic and additional literature

Key readings 


Further reading

The Buslaev F. I. About teaching Russian language.- M., 1980.
SAC Century, the Theory of linguistic change., - M., 1999.
Larin A. B. history of the Russian language and General linguistics (selected works).- M., 1977.
Maslov, Y. C., Introduction to linguistics,a - M., 1987.
Molotkov A. N. Basics phraseology of the Russian language.- M.: Nauka, 1977.
Sabitova because To the question of cross-language correlation idioms in raznostoronnih languages // Vestnik Kazuma and ME, 2000, No. 1.
Fedorov A. C. Fundamentals of the General theory of translation (linguistic problems).- SPb.: The philological faculty of St. Petersburg state University; M: LLC "Publishing house "Philology", 2002.
Fedorov, I. A. Functional-stylistic differentiation of Russian phraseology. - Rostov, 1987.
Shan N. M. The phraseology of modern Russian language.- M., 1985.
Foot of MT C. H. Idiom and culture. Questions of linguistics, 1996, No. 1.

9.3.3. Informational sites 

ᄉwwwᄉ.ᄉgumerᄉ.ᄉinfo

ᄉwwwᄉ.ᄉclassesᄉ.ᄉru

uz-Translations:for translations

9.4. Control training submodule. Operating personnel. "Job". "Exercises".
9.4.1. Job
Tasks for independent work of students (IWS)

Write a report on the theme "national specific idioms.
Compare the passage from the book And. yesenberlin "the Nomads", S. Maugham "the Moon" in the original language and the translation, describe how the translation of idioms.
Note from the book A. Ambracia "2000 2000 Russian English idioms idioms, set phrases".- Minsk: Potpourri, 2007, 50 idioms, map their equivalents.

Tasks for independent work under the supervision of a teacher (SRSP)

Pick 10 idioms of Kazakh, Russian and English languages, compare them and determine what is their national identity?
Note from the "Phraseological dictionary of the Russian language" (SPb, Polygraphology", 2006 30 idioms, arrange them in groups, separated in the classification centuries Vinogradov and N. M.Shan according to the degree of semantic match.
Slide 10 idioms from Russian into Kazakh and English languages, determine the transfer.
Where to cicheti, bill of sale, to take the gun, hang dogs on someone, like cranberries, the voice of one crying in the wilderness, all born in the string to RUB points makes with from the hut, to the roaring of the Beluga.

4. Compare idioms in Russian and German languages using contrastive-comparative method. Select the character connotations, determine do they match:
Ein Wolf im Schlafpetz - wolf in sheep's clothing
Den Bock zum Cärtner machen - to let the goat in the garden
Der Hund an dem Hen - dog in the manger
5.Determine the type of phraseological units of the German language according to the degree of semantic match:
Jehem den Kopf (waschen - soaping, lathering someone head); keinen Finger krummen - do not hit your finger about a finger; auf Eis legen - freeze, not to let go.

9.4.2. Exercises
Exercise # 1.
Copy, paste the phraseological unit, a suitable sense in this situation.
Crimson...,black..., black..., black..., black...,at the distance of translation of sheep..., no light, no...the king..., Fox..., grated...if you come...
For inquiries sheep, soul, market, ringing, dawn, Patrikeeva, prosperity, Peas.

Exercise No. 2.
Translate idioms in Kazakh and English languages, find the absolute phraseological equivalents:
OTA may u, to live like cat and dog, between two fires, time is money, gentlemen of fortune, mass culture, happy end, fair play, to be or not to be.

Exercise # 3.
Translate into Russian, determine the types of phraseological units in English according to the degree of semantic match.
The hole of the bublik Out of the frying pan into the fire.
Swim against the current
Mirtal grip
The gold mountain Broad shoulders
Kick the bucket at bay
Kilkenny cats

Exercise # 4.
Determine the method of translation of English idioms into English:
The queen of the seas - vladica seas; the stream of consciousness stream of consciousness; Black and White - black and white; bad egg - a rotten egg, hot potato hot potato (sensitive issue), cash cow cash cow; to be on cloud nine to be on the ninth cloud.

9.5. Control submodule. Supervisory personnel. "Questions and answers on them." Interim tests on"
9.5.1. Questions and answers on them

Questions for self-assessment

What types of phraseological units according to the degree of semantic match highlights centuries Vinogradov?
Who was the classification of phraseological units in perevodovedenie?
What is the peculiarities of phraseological units?
How would you describe the term "equivalence"?
What types of equivalents, you know?
What is the admission comes from?
How do you understand the term "functional analogue"?
Answer options Button otveta. three types of phraseological edinica no B. Vinogradov centuries there are three types of phraseological units: phraseological fusion, phraseological unity phraseological combinations 2A. C. S. Vinogradov Yes no B. A. D. Schweitzer Yes no 3A. The peculiarities of phraseological units is manifested in the specifics of their internal forms, phraseological image in the ability of FE to reflect reality, lifestyle, life naroda no B. national peculiarities of phraseological units is manifested in their ability to reflect the traditions, customs naroda no 4A. IFF is available in five absolutely similar in semantics, style belonging to the structure of the phraseological units of Iyad no B. Equivalence is a complete coincidence FE OIA and Page no 5A. Absolute equivalents, partial equivalents, full phraseological equivalents Yes no B. Full equivalents Yes no 6A. Phraseological calques are perevoda no B. Phraseological calques is the translation of the inner form and structure of foreign idioms using the original units ASYCUDA no 7A. Functional analogue is a selection of idioms in the target language, performs the same function as in the Iyad no B. Functional analog is selection of similar idioms in Page no

9.5.2. Tests for intermediate control on the subject
1. this definition refers to what type of phraseological units according to the degree of semantic match: ... this phraseological units, the holistic way, which is not the sum of the values of the components?
Phraseological unity
Phraseological fusion
Phraseological combinations
Phraseological expression
Phraseological predicative expressions
2. Who among scientists was the classification of phraseological units in perevodovedenie?
Century Century Vinogradov
C. S. Vinogradov
A. D. Schweitzer
M. M. Kopylenko
C. N. Commissioners
3. What type of phraseological units according to the translation of classification include the following idioms: wolves fear no walk in the forest, Curious Varvara at the Bazaar nose was torn off, to get as chickens in Osip?
Lexical idioms
Verbal idioms
Comparative phraseological units
Predicative idioms
Noun idioms
4. What reception of the translation of phraseological units used in this case translation: to have a skeleton in the cupboard (closed) - to have a personal family secrets, hidden from outsiders
Phraseological calques
Functional phraseological similar
Descriptive translation
Translation using absolute equivalents
Translation using a relative partial equivalents
5. What method of translating phraseological units used in this case: the sword of Damocles (sword of Damocles), to start business from startch (start from scratch)?
Translation using a functional phraseological analogues
Descriptive translation
Phraseological calques
Translation using absolute equivalents
Translation using a relative partial equivalents
6. What method of translation of the idioms used in this case: tooth and nail - sleeves rolled up, it's raining cats and dogs - rain buckets of it?
Translation using a functional phraseological analogues
Descriptive translation
Phraseological calques
Translation using absolute equivalents
Translation using a relative partial equivalents
7. What method of translation of the idioms used in this case to call the bluff - mcellen abiraman OU, to search for the afternoon with fire - sham arily zdeu, free bird - Erkin Kus?
Phraseological calques
Functional phraseological similar
Descriptive translation
Translation using absolute equivalents
Translation using a relative partial equivalents

9.6. Statistical submodule. The resulting frames (feedback)
9.6.1. Answers to questions
Question No. 1.
Incomplete answer.
Detailed answer. True.
Question No. 2.
The right answer. Well done!
The wrong answer.
Question No. 3.
Detailed answer. True.
A superficial answer. Wrong.
Question No. 4.
The full answer. True.
The wrong answer. 

Question No. 5.
The right answer. Whiz!
A superficial answer.
Question No. 6.
Wrong.
Detailed answer. Correctly.
Question No. 7.
Detailed answer. True.
A superficial answer.

10.6.2. Code to the tests
B
B
D
C
E

Case module No. 10.The problem of translation synonyms
10.1. Theoretical submodule. Theory. Information frames

10.1.1. Classification of synonyms
Translation synonyms - words with similar meaning but different in sound, causes particular difficulty, as a novice translator does not always accurately can find an adequate source word replacement in the target language appropriate to a particular situation. Therefore, it is necessary to take into account differences in the meanings of the words-synonyms, their expressive characteristics and style accessory. In this regard, it should be an accurate representation of the synonyms, their types, methods of correlation between them in synonymic rows.
The definition of synonyms in the literature causes difficulties, because there are several viewpoints on the definition of synonyms. The most common definition can be divided into two groups: 1) semantic direction; 2) structural direction. Semantic direction characterized by the presence of three main subgroups definitions synonyms: 1) denotation, i.e., the object or phenomenon; 2) concepts; 3) values. Criterion denotation community as a condition of synonymical was nominated a number of such scientists as A. I. Galic, S. I. Abakumov, F. N. The Buslaev, A. A. Reformed, C. N. Klyuev, V. A. Sirotina. So, C. N. Klyuyev understands synonyms as "word-concept that reflects the essence of one and the same phenomena of objective reality, but different additional shades of meaning, and serving not only to substitute for each other, much to clarify thoughts and our attitude toward the suggestion" [Klyuyev, 1961]. The second group of criteria synonymical nominate the proximity of the concepts. In this case understood as synonyms of the word "different, but similar in value expressing the same concept [Bragin, 1981, 3]. The third semantic direction in the definition of synonyms criterion of synonymical recognizes the proximity of the meanings of the words and considers synonyms for words that are "identical or very close in meaning" [the Dictionary of synonyms, 1975, 7].
Representatives of the business areas in identifying synonyms come from the criterion of interchangeability. According to G. P. Golovanova, interchangeability is recognized criterion of synonymical. Interchangeability when establishing synonymic relations between words is understood as "the ability, on the one hand, semantic replacement coming in synonymic relations of words, as the possibility of using one word instead of another based on their semantic proximity, and the use of them in the same or similar nature of lexical compatibility contexts" [Golovanova, 1972, 113]. 

The analysis of different points of view on the nature of the synonym shows that the presence of the lexical structure of the language of an extensive system of different words, different meaning, expressive and stylistic nuances, leads to understanding the vicinity of the meanings of the words are not always the same as the researchers. However, most scholars recognize that the sameness or equivalence of the concepts assigned to the different words, the closeness of their values and interchangeability are the main criteria in the definition of synonymous words as a special lexical phenomena that distinguish it from other phenomena of lexical system of the language. In the definition of synonyms, this A. P. Eugenieva, indicates that synonyms should be considered only those words that relate to each other in their use and significance [Evgenyeva, 1964, 10]. The right is also recognized this definition synonyms: Synonyms for the words that are close or identical in meaning, denoting the same concept, but different from each other, or shades of meaning or stylistic colouring, or both signs" [Evgenyeva, 1964, 10]. As you can see, synonyms have regular identity values, way vzaimozamenjat each other. Therefore, under the synonyms we understand words denoting the same concept, similar in meaning, is capable vzaimozamenjat each other, differ from each other connotations and field use.
Classification, synonyms, hierarchical and raznoaspektnyh. In the main, the most common types can be selected lexical, grammatical (morphological), syntactic [Polovnikova, 1981]. Lexical synonyms are words that are included in the series are United by affinity or identity values, the equivalence of concepts, for example: flood - the flood, the conclusion - the conclusion - the conclusion, summary. Lexical synonyms depending on the nature of the differences can be divided into three types:

1) synonyms, distinguished intellectual, semantic content (absolute synonyms or doublets), for example, doctor - doctor, linguistics - linguistics; 2) synonyms, different formal structure. Synonymous with semantic and expressive values. Synonymous with semantic differences, called semantic or ideographic. They differ from other shades of meaning, for example: loud deafening, cold ice, brave, brave. Conceptual synonyms to Express the shades of the same concepts, for example: smile-smirk, to work, to sit, to walk, to wander. Expressive synonyms can be the subject-shaped (year - Godin, forehead - forehead, to die - to die) and emotionally-fold differences (horse, nag, build - to rise).
2) Synonymous with the formal differences may be proper lexical, for example, courage is courage; lexico-slovoobrazovatel-tion (the old man, the lazy sloth, illiterate - ignorant), lexico-phonetic, for example, a wardrobe closet, and other
3) Synonymous with relational differences are stylistic synonyms. They differ in the sphere of usage and stylistic features, for example: message (common) - report (official); sleep (common) - sleep (spoken vernacular); genre, for example, a person (observatron.)- face (book.).
Morphological synonyms are synonyms, different forms of words: people to people, silent, hostile - to be at loggerheads.
Syntactic synonyms are correlated with each other (i.e., expressing the same idea) design, for example: a Mother asked her son to buy bread and the Mother asked her son, so he bought bread. 

Synonyms are included in the synonymic series, incorporating words close in meaning, calling the same concept, but different shades of meaning and use. A. A. Bragin defines a synonymic row: "So highlights the differentiating role of synonyms, stands out not only in General is synonymous words, but even more important distinctive characteristics of each of the synonyms. Shades of meaning influenced by different combinations, different syntagmatic synonyms. Synonymic line - a kind of bridge between the world of cognitive concepts and the world of words, reflecting the process of cognition" [Bragin, 1981, 6].
In synonymic row the total value actualizes the dominant (main word synonymous row), and private values - the members of this series. In this series of words connected by identity or limit the generality of lexical meanings and are raznoraznim differential characteristics (shades of meaning, the field of use, emotional-expressive properties). In paradigmatic terms, the main characteristic of synonyms is a relationship of shared and private, based on correlation relationships, representing the correlation of words as distinctive members of the identity on a variety of grounds. The internal structure of the Microsystem - synonymic series is conceived as a sequence of elements with gradually decreasing relationship with respect to the reference value. Each element of a sequence is associated with a common element (the leading synonym-dominant), which represents the base of this group of elements and from which other elements are trait. The communication system synonymic rows represent the number of which in relation to certain groups kollektivnyh elements acts as consisting of similar items that are in the same sequence and mutually overlapping [Abisheva, 2000, 224].
In these series of different names associated or General concept, forming a number of synonymous names. Organising centre synonymic series is dominant, the word, which is common to all members of the synonymic series is expressed most clearly.

10.1.2 Techniques of translation synonyms
The main transfer synonyms are replacement, selection of the functional equivalent, the translation member Hypo-gipertonicheskoj paradigm - synonymic row - generalization or specification.
Welcome replacement of synonyms of the source language synonyms in the target language is implemented in the case, if these languages have synonyms that correspond to each other ideographic and stylistic and expressive characteristics, for example, synonyms of the Russian language: face, face, face, face, face do not always find a match in the Kazakh language. In the dictionary of synonyms of the Kazakh language C. measures taken by mr.bizakov "Synonymer Kazakh language" [Almaty, 2007] we find the following synonyms: Beth lit, Beth Bane, Beth is, Beth PSN, Keskin - calbet, Keskin - cap, Tr - TS, rat [Bishow, 2007, 139]. Stylistic synonyms "muzzle", "face" is transferred neutral synonyms, which reduces their expressive-shaped and emotionally-shaped shades of meaning.
Selection of functional analogue - receiving selection of an adequate synonym in the target language that performs the same functions as are performed synonym in the source language, for example, the synonyms in synonymic row muddler, cap, hat, dilatory, rasaraja transmitted in the Kazakh language using functional analogues: barefoot, balbir, Bosa, mngas, maupas, Bolger, Bosal, bostow.
Welcome generalization or specification of the value of the synonym is used in cases when instead of the word dominant, the main word synonymous number are members of this series, antonyms, expressing specific values, for example, "the rose" - the synonymic dominant in the series. Rose is a generic word and includes in its scope species the name of the rose: Alpenrose ("Alpine"), Apfelrose ("Apple"), Bengalrose ("Chinese"), Dornrose ("dog"), Duftrose ("elliptic leaf"), Essigrose ("French"), Heidenrose ("steppe"), Kohlrose ("Provencal"), Teerose ("tea") and other These words are synonymous with each other. This is a welcome clarification. Generalization synonymous values is carried out in cases of replacement of species concepts clan rose.
Thus, in the process of translation synonyms should focus on the types of synonyms, their functions, their stylistic characteristics, in order to achieve an adequate translation. It is also necessary to consider the nature of relationships between dominant number of synonymous and members of the series, keeping these relationships in the target language. 

11.2. Иллюстративный  подмодуль.Иллюстративные кадры. «Графика».  «Примеры»

11.2.1. Графика

Fig 21 – Synonims classification

Fig. 22 - the Basic techniques of translation synonyms

11.2.2. Examples
Example No. 1
Ideographic synonyms
Polite, helpful, tactful, delicate, subtle.
Sipayi, set, cscal, kapayim
Example No. 2
Stylistic synonyms
Eyes, burkely, margali, eye, face, face, face, face, face, face.

Example No. 3


Beth, lpet, PSN, is, TLA, Azhar, Didar,,, Tr, Keskin, rat, calbet, keep
Inclusive relationships
Furniture: Desk, chair, sofa, bed, bench, stool, bench.
Example No. 4
Relationships crossing - collocative relations: far, far, far, far away, where Makar is not chasing the calves, in the middle of nowhere
Example No. 5
Correlation relations
Red - red, scarlet , crimson, purple, red


13.3. Reference submodule. Reference frames. "Glossary". List of basic and additional literature". "Reference sites"
11.3.1. Glossary
Synonyms are words close in meaning, but differ from each other or shades of meaning or stylistic colouring.
Synonymic line - a group of words combined in one a number of common values, but different from the dominant (main words of this number), or shades of meaning or stylistic colouring.
Inclusive relationships - relationships enable, when the connection between the individual item and the set is determined by its belonging to this set.
Collocative communication is the relationship of the intersection, when the same word can appear in several synonymic series.
Correlation is a relationship of interdependence and identity, as well as differences between members of the synonymic series.

10.3.2. The list of basic and additional literature

Key readings
Bragin, A. A. Vocabulary of the language and culture of the country in the linguistic aspect. - M: English, 1981.
Golovanova, P. To the question about the role of exchangeability in the isolation and definition synonyms /Synonyms of the Russian language and its features. - L.: Nauka, 1972.
Evgenyeva A. P. Draft dictionary of synonyms. - M., 1964.
Kazakova, T. A. Practical basics of translation. English - Spanish. - SPb.: Publishing House "Union", 2006.
Sipowicz C. S. Handbook of translator from Russian into English. Russian - English Translation Handbook. - Mn.: Tetrasystems, 2006.

Further reading

Abisheva K. M. Kazakh-Russian language contacts and questions of assimilation of foreign words in the language system of the recipient. - Almaty: RIO VAK Republic of Kazakhstan, 2000.
Bizav With. Synonymer Kazakh language. - Almaty: “Arys” baspasy, 2007.
Evgenyeva A. P. Dictionary of synonyms of the Russian language. - M., 1975.
Kirichenko N. L. Relations of inclusion and ways of its linguistic expression. Abstract.Diss.Kida.the topic of degree work.Sciences. - L., 1987.
Klyuyev Century. N. Synonym dictionary of the Russian language. - M., 1961.
Polovnikova Century. And. Lexical aspect in teaching Russian as a foreign language at an advanced stage. - M., 1981.
Silin C. L. To the problem of synonymy //Problems of linguistics, 1987, No. 4. 

Synonym dictionary of the Russian language. - M., 1975.
Cheremisin P. J. Stylistic synonyms in English. - M., 1976.
10.3.3. Informational sites
Uz - Translations: For translations
P3yum. Narod.ru\ library

10.4. Control training submodule. Operating personnel. "Job". "Exercises".
10.4.1. Job. Tasks for independent work of students (IWS)

Write an essay on the subject "Methods of translation synonyms Oia five".
Write a review about dictionary "Synonymer Kazakh language. - Almaty: "Arys" baspasy, 2007".

Tasks for independent work of students under the guidance of a teacher (SRSP)

Note from the "Dictionary of synonyms ("Ed. by A. P. Evgeniou 50 synonyms. Divide them into subgroups in accordance with the types of synonyms. Put them in Kazakh and English languages.
Make a chart of the ratio of synonymous several of the dominant and of the members of this paradigm.
Find synonyms in Kazakh, English, German languages in the word "beautiful". Compare ranks between them. Make your own conclusions.
Continue synonymous a number of words in the German language. Make the same a similar series of synonyms in Kazakh and English languages: Hund - Jagdhund, Wolfshund, Schaterhund, Windhund, Köter, Duchshund, Kettenhund, Spürhund, Hetzhund, Fox.
Define a group of synonyms and translate them into English: to disappear, to die, to die out; to flood, to inundate; outstanding, large, prominent (figure); a big, huge, enormous (house); painting, painting, canvas, fence, fence.
Data stylistic synonyms translate into Kazakh and English languages: to harm, to damage, to substitute the leg, put a pig; wife, spouse, my half, my mistress, Baba; optometrist, eye doctor, glasnik, beautiful, pretty, good as the picture, nice.
Identify the functions of synonyms in the following context: dear sir, " he began almost with solemnity, " poverty is not a Vice, it's the truth...But poverty, sir, poverty is a Vice (Dostoevsky). Bring on the Kazakh German, English languages. Check, whether the functions of the synonyms in the target language?
Determine which transfer used to transfer synonymous with OIA five in the following examples. Check whether equivalence, the proximity values:
talk
converse, speak (with)
talk
talk to
chat
chat (with)
polasaithe, potraits.
chitty - chat
Determine which transfer of synonyms used in the translation of the following synonyms:
a clerk - clerk
a doorkeeper - doorman
Put this synonymic series on Russian and English languages, keeping Hypo-gipertonicheskoj compliance dominant and members of synonymous paradigm: er, Batyr, airman, aarli, hunger, aiyan. 

10.4.2. Exercises

Exercise # 1.
Insert instead points the proper meaning of synonyms:
It was lovchik, swindler, word, .....
The face was arrogant, it was not ... a person who is suffering, and it was ... otpetova person who would we ... he met a nice woman, not ... ......
Exercise # 2
Rewrite the text, determine the types of synonyms
The table was carved from malachite, his colour was light green, not olive, not emerald and malachite. The color of the rose was not blood-red, and purple, most likely red, red. He walked quickly, but small steps, hopping along behind him. Ivan Petrovi was raised , thin, delicate, helpful person, so he could not, without respect of persons, to Express the truth in the face, and tried to bring its opinions using polite phrases.
Exercise # 3
Copy the text, paste in the appropriate sense frazeologicheskie synonyms.
This was the man about whom nothing is known, the word... .
Everyone has their own problems, so to say .
Moses was a brilliant young man, handsome, clever, pure word .... .
Exercise # 4
Rewrite the text, determine what the relationships are between the synonyms in the following contexts.
Utensils - spoons, plates, cups, saucers, cups.
He was deceived in his expectations, he objsource, it was objemail, overcharged as sticky.
Stuck like a Burr.

10.5. Control submodule. Control and personnel training. "Questions and answers on them." "Tests for intermediate control on"
10.5.1. Questions and answers on them

What words are called synonyms?
What types of synonyms highlighted in the language?
How do you understand the term "synonymic line"?
What links come together in a relationship of dominance and members of the synonymic series?
what links are called inclusive?
What links are called correlation?
What methods of translation, synonyms, you know?

Answer options answer Button A. Synonyms are words that are similar in znacheniya B. Synonyms are words close in meaning, but differ from each other or shades of meaning or stylistic colouring of Dane A. Ideographic, contextualizers B. Absolute, ideographic, stylistic, lexical and grammatical, idiomatic, synonymous, contextualizers A. Synonymic line is a group of words United by an expression of shared values.Dane B. Synonymic series is a series in which synonyms are connected by certain relations.Dane A. Inclusive, collocative, correlation of Dane B. Inclusive, of pereskioideae A. Inclusive communication is the relationship of peresecheniye B. Inclusive relationships activate when a certain element acts as a member of morestudent A. Correlation is correlative connection, when members of the synonymic series come not only in a relationship of interdependence, identity, and replicachanel B. Correlation is correlative relationship.Dane A. substitute, selection of functional analogy, generalization, concretization B. replacement trick.Danet 

10.5.2. Tests for intermediate control on the subject
1. Some scientists believe that the allocation of synonyms should be considered the criterion denotation community?
A) C. N. Klyuev, V. A. Sirotina
C) A. A. Bragin
(C) A. P. Evgenyeva
D) ,P. Golovanov
E) J. D. Apresian
2. What are synonyms differ in intelligent semantic content?
A) Relational synonyms
B) Morphological synonyms
C) Ideographic synonyms
D) Syntactic synonyms
(E) Absolute synonyms
3. What is the function of synonyms is implemented in this context: wood - birch, poplar, ash, aspen, oak, elm, willow, larch, Redwood
(A) the substitution Function
In) Feature specification
C) Function identities
D) Function differenziali
(E) the characteristic Function
4. What is the transfer of synonyms used in this case: a miser, cheapskate, petty, winter snow will not beg; Sara, Ali tar, saibai, asany devil sat psed.
A) Receiving generalization
C) Receiving a specification of
(C) Receiving the selection of the functional equivalent of the
D) Receiving replacement of synonyms
(E) Transcription
5. What is the transfer of synonyms is if substitute synonyms OIA synonyms five: generous, never-failing hand, Myrza, Holy Ken.
A) Receiving generalization
C) Receiving a specification of
(C) Receiving the selection of the functional equivalent of the
D) Receiving replacement of synonyms
(E) Transcription

10.6. Statistical submodule. The resulting frames (feedback)
10.6.1. Answers to questions
Question # 1
A. Incorrect. A superficial answer.
B. the Correct answer.
Question No. 2
A. Incomplete response
B. Correct answer
Question No. 3
A. True. Well done!
B. response Surface
Question No. 4
A. the Correct answer
B. Incomplete response
Question No. 5
A. Wrong answer
B. True. You correctly answered the question
Question No. 6
A. a Detailed answer. True
B. Incomplete response
Question No. 7
A. the Correct answer
B. Incomplete response

9.6.2. Code to the tests
1) And
2) E
3)
4)
5) D
6)
7) D 

The following property of the term is cognitive saturation. This property combines those aspects of the term, as the degree of accuracy of existing definitions, the degree of completeness, the existence of a system of knowledge (theory), in which is embedded the meaning of the term, the level of knowledge on the degree of universality or specificity, place this unit in the chain of historical development of cognition. The cognitive nature of the term is that the term appears as a result of the cognitive activity of a specialist, such as the conceptualization and verbalization of professional scientific knowledge. The structure of knowledge in a particular area is a set of concepts, combined a certain hierarchy and verbalized in the term as the name of the concept. Definitively and consistency of the term as a mark of special concepts predetermine frame organization of terminliste. The term can be attributed to scientific concepts, because, firstly, the term has such a component patterns common to all concepts as conceptual component. The term and concept, gives the definition of a scientific concept. Secondly, the term and concept contains the required level of knowledge in a particular area. In classical cognitive linguistics argues the view that the concepts presented patterns of knowledge. Thought E. C. Kubratovo, each linguistic phenomenon should be considered to be adequately described and explained only when it is considered at the intersection of cognition and communication"; the goal of cognitive linguistics "is not only to match each language form its cognitive counterpart, its conceptual or cognitive structure (thereby explaining the importance or the contents of a form through a specific cognitive structure, the structure of opinion or knowledge), but also to explain the reasons for selecting or creating this "package" to the content" [Kubrakov, 2004, 16].
Unlike other types of knowledge (national, linguistic, pragmatic, cognitive, mental, extralinguistically, knowledge axiological) the term concept is scientific knowledge that are specific to each area of the sphere of human activity.
In addition to providing the scientific knowledge, the term is a means of transmitting information and knowledge. Terms that are part of the language included in the system of knowledge of the world. So, I. P. Susov notes that "language is included in the complex system of cognition of the world, in the information-cognitive system, which interact thinking, consciousness, memory, and language. It is localized in the human brain. Its main purpose is to provide processes of perception from the outside, processing this information and save, transfer to other individuals" [Susov, 2002].
The terms included in the cognitive thesaurus person. The semantics of terms allows for analysis of cognitive-thesaurus approach. The essence of cognitive-thesaurus approach is to determine, as perceived by the person of an objective world in the process of mental activity, as absorbed knowledge about the world through the mental mechanisms of the language. In the process of cognitive-thesaurus approach reveals how the system terminology is a thesaurus organization of knowledge.
The thesaurus is understood as: 1) location, Treasury; 2) a way of organizing the material in this "store"; 3) the method of storage which allows you to efficiently simulate the world [Karaulov, 1981, 191]. 

Terminological thesauri (terminological system) are formed on the basis of cognitive and semantic criteria. Cognitive symptom is manifested in the fact that individuals, calling the objective world, compare some things with others, highlight their essential characteristics and are clueless about the subject, for example, to make the concept of the subject "chair" should compare it with the denotata belonging to the group of furniture: sofa, stool, bench, chair, stool and only on the basis of comparison of these items are identified such essential features of the subject "chair"as "rigid fixture for seat", "no arms", "designed to seat one person." On the basis of such evidence shall be drawn up definition - definition of chair: the chair is a rigid device that is designed to seat one person, with a back but no arms, and in this case we can speak about the conceptualization, the essence of which is that based on the essential features to make a concept about the subject. Next, each term that reflects the social experience and the results of the cognitive activity of individuals enshrined in various categories in the categorization and structuring of the language, when every fragment of objective reality, is assigned a specific name. The process of categorization of the concepts on the subject of objective reality and its semantic structuring in language occur during activation of the first and second kinds of linguistic contacts between near and objective world: 1) the first contact between linguistic and near the objective world is in cognitive activity; 2) the second contact occurs in a communicative activity, reproducing thoughts "in accordance with the recorded in the thesaurus system concepts" [Ganelina, 1993].
During the first and second type contacts are mental operations and cognitive activities such as perception, categorization, comparison, conceptualization). When updating the second set of contacts when the communication is verbal cognitive activities of individuals, expressed in raspredsetevaya and opredeljivanje language signs and the expression of subjective relations and meanings in relation to the object of thought. In the first and second series of contacts between linguistic and near the objective world is made terminological thesaurus in the field of scientific knowledge based on cognitive characteristics (conceptualization) and matematicheskikh (making topical delivery). In this case we can talk about the cognitive characteristics of a thesaurus as a thesaurus, realizing accumulative and reflective functions of language is knowledge of the world systematically in the form of a picture of the world, reflecting the relationship of humans with the surrounding reality. Knowledge about the world is stored in memory and consciousness "is not in the form of processed and prepared for oral performance of speech texts, and ordered the whole thematic groups related to cash spheres of life experience".
Cognitive trait thesaurus theme manifests itself in the relationship between words, when the concepts in the categorization and conceptualization are summed up under the rubric of experience, i.e., conscious, friend, are in thematic series and groups. According to C. G. shafikova, categorization is a generalization of (typing) parts of the world. Typing, or, in other words, the rendering to the type ("experience"), is constantly, continuously and independently of human consciousness. Summarizes what he sees (tree, bird, house, and so on), making (for example, a man riding on a boat, bike, carousel), what reflects distracted from the routine of life (e.g., grammatical phenomena, type, number, case, taxis and so on)that evaluates through the prism of their feelings [Shafikov, 2007, 3]. 

Thematic series also have a semantic basis. Words are combined into thematic series on the basis of expression of the same General concepts. The thematic range of terms the key word is nominative-thematic unit contrasted against the "basic concept of shades of concepts close to the concept of each private category, for example, in the terminology of fundamental terms (nominative-thematic units) contrasted the base, reference, and other private terms, revealing any scientific concept as shipenkov. Main term " hyponym calling a generic term, private in terms of thematic range is hyperonymy.
D. M. Frumkin, A. K. Zvonkin, O. N. The Larichev, V. B. Kasevich emphasized that the new knowledge is the result of the activity of our brain. Dictionary saves only what has already been laid there by the compiler.
The dictionary can not be considered as a database, as it does not generate new knowledge. New knowledge is generated in the perception of words in Association with other words, in the realization of their associative links [Frumkin, Zvonkine, Larichev, Kasevich, 1990].
Thus, the analysis of the main properties of the term, such as precision, unambiguity, no synonyms, antonyms, consistency, allows us to characterize it as a unit, is able to determine the scientific concept and perform cognitive function. Cognitive saturation, cognitive-semantic way of representing scientific knowledge in the thesaurus shows that these properties of the term should be retained in the target language.

11.1.2 the Ways of translation of terms
The main way terminology is calques. First of all, we should highlight the main sign, taken for the basis of this concept: this is a translation. "However, in contrast to translation in General, as the semantic transfer of foreign units, " writes L. N. Semenov, and borrowing as sound (letter) playback, a calque translation of the structural parts of foreign elements. The characteristic structural (not only semantic) similarity tracing paper distinguishes from other related items [Semenova, 1973, 136].
Many official terms were translated into the Kazakh language by copying the previous one, for example, Kenes (meeting), Erie (position), ARIS (petition), bury (order), tonteg (below), Geary krsiten (above), joana talmis (above), taiin the only (appointed), ATHINA (name), asna esene (at public expense), Sarala aldana (to take action), MTA polyp Otaru (feel the need), tn zhasau (apply), Sino (to offer) and other
In "English-Russian dictionary of Economics" (M., 2005) also observed the technique comes when translating English terms, such as: administration, tax abatement - tax discount, avise - of - credit, the abuse of credit. Compare also the technique comes from Russian into Kazakh in the works of I. C. Sartbaeva, B. Mamykovo, , Akylbekova and others: Internet - Internet delzer; real money - Tr Orgy, hard currency - atty currency, computer networks - computer jades, enter the file file CRU, active safe - asset Temir Sunday, white knight - AK poets, sluggish market - silber market price umbrella - BAA Alkatiri, the basket of currencies - currency organi and other
In the process of translation terms are actively used semantic, derivational and phraseological calques. Semantic calques is welcome when the term of the source language are rethinking acquires additional significance under the influence of another. Semantic calques is also a process motivated the investigation in a foreign language semantics of the image. 

Semantic calque, entrenched in the language, included in the semantic system used by the foreign sample words on the position of his private values, for example: Colin (wave of the labour movement), Kyzyl (red), AK (white), Orta (medium), dauis (voice), when, saryn (motive), garys (competition), kures (scrum) and other
Morphological calques are formed as a result of convergent influence of another language, manifested in the comparison, for example, structural-semantic models of the Kazakh and Russian languages. In cases of word-formation comes from the new words appear in the design of their structural-semantic model of another language, in particular, Russian. So, most of the words from Russian, calcerrada in the Kazakh language by words and combinations of words, the combination of a root and an affix, for example: glissandi (unemployment), Altara (manuscript), Baneasa, technically (technical), scar (military), satirli (legal), stichele (natural), dnssd (powerless) and other
Following reception of translated terms is the use of samples, clichés, clichés as equivalents in the translation language. This technique, according to, today, is called monoclonality reception. This technique should be used in the process of translation terms in office. Such terminological combinations of the source language that have equivalents in the translation language, used when translating names of institutions, titles, positions, for example: birth certificate - to Turala CLK; Department of Finance - Argy Department and others [Akylbek, 2000].
Receiving a replacement or choice of synonyms in the target language. The essence of this method consists in replacing the original term or terminological combinations of similar meaning, or meaning of the term, terminalization in the target language, for example: based on the above - Geary bandaloni neshe, in combination with the current legislation - oldaily Jurgen Sagara Sykes, venture capital (venture - tocell Caspian, demurrage, dimeric biofeedback Trini ushin tlem and other
Descriptive translation. The essence of this method consists in the clarification of the term, the interpretation of its values, for example: in the dictionary R. K. Tokseitova "Economically ssdc anitanola. Economic dictionary" [Karady, 1999] this technique is used when translating the following words: underwriter - (ail. underwriter) - samandira komissiyasinin, thecult barely curlers samandira the wrestler Nemes it samandira ability ukit Telasi, 22 S.; basins organ (aggressive portfolio), Baldy knina Kurt Karl Culp Otyrar Baali Austar packet 38 S.; agenda (agenda) - kun trtb Keese, skerik candecode calilegua this meseleleri tsbus" [10C.].
Transliteration is a method of transferring graphic form words using the letters of the target language, for example: barter - barter ,business - business, venture - venture, underwriter - underwriter, spicer speaker, averaging - average, market conditions - the market conjuncture, the title list - titular TSM, forward transactions - forward opercular and other
Thus, in the process of translating the source language into the target language by using the basic techniques of translation terms it is necessary to focus on preserving the essence of translated scientific concepts, its scientific significance and definitively. You should also follow the basic principles of carminabrowne, use and functioning of the terms that are different from words on their inherent characteristics.


11.2. Illustrative submodule. Illustrative frames. "Graphics". "Examples"
11.2.1. Graphics 

Рис. 24 – Основные признаки термина

Fig.25 — Main signs of term concept

Fig. 26 - the Basic techniques of translation of the term

11.2.2. Examples
Example No. 1
Translation terminology of thesarus
Reprodutiva activities, bilingual identity of the translator's source text, text, translation, translation strategy, tactics, transfer, compensation, lacuna, realities, decoding, interpretation.
Example No. 2
Economic terminology system
Credit, tax, business, cash, audit, underwriter, supervisor, Accountant, letter of credit, guarantor, market maker, merchandising, dividends, rate-cash, credit operations

12.3 . Reference submodule. Reference frames . "Glossary". "A list of basic and more literature. "Reference sites".
12.3.1. Glossary
Cognitive saturation of the term - the degree of accuracy of definition of the term, a system of knowledge, which is embedded in the meaning of the term
The term is a word or phrase special language, combined with the scientific concept of
Terminological system - a set of special words expressing concepts in any field of knowledge or production.
Terminology thesarus - way retention terms of any field of knowledge, distributed in mind for semantic and cognitive characteristics (conceptualization and categorization of terms) in tematicheskie rows and groups.

11.3.2. The list of basic and additional literature.

Key readings

Aliyev O. J. Economy terlinden Brenda mzeller // Terlinden Brenda mzeller. - Astana, 2005.
Analina L. K. Nomination and derivational relations. - Almaty, 1993.
Khaidarov Feasible Interventions.T. Kazak of terminologiassa iaasa csers. - Almaty, 1993.
Armanville W. Kazak of terminologiassa iaasa csers. - Almaty, 1993.
Speranskaya A. C., Podolsky, N. In., Vasiliev A. P. Common terminology: theory. - M.: Nauka, 1989.

Further reading

Aylak, Cattani Audru terebene // Ana tili, 11, 18.05.2000.
Akhmanova O. S. Dictionary of linguistic terms. - M., 1969.
Karaulov Y. N. Linguistic engineering & thesaurus literary language. - M., 1981.
Kubrakov E. C. About cognitive science and urgent problems of cognitive linguistics // Issues of cognitive linguistics, 2004 No. 1.
Oder Mamyrbek. IC hastarin gourgue yesdelete cabr arminder Myung, Audemer Turala // Sally terminology: bugs Myung future. Respublikasi elimi practically Seminary Materialdary. - Astana, 2003.
Urbanbella W. Sally terminologian alicastrum Orin Alyp Jurgen kemske // Sally terminology: bugs Myung future. Respublikasi elimi-practically Seminary Materialdary - Astana, 2003.
Semenova L. N. To the question of the phraseological calques in the Russian language (phraseological gallicism) // Problems of Russian Rosobrazovanie. - Tula, 1973.
Susov I. P. Cognitive processes and language // Introduction to theoretical linguistics. -M., 2002.
Tomanbay S. R. Economy, Argy-nesia, Bank, sale-keden satander, exchange Zhane kasperek otolaryn Orissa-Kazakh Kazakh language. - Almaty: Ssdc - dictionary, 1999.
Frumkin, R. M., Zvonkin A. K., Larichev O. N., Kasevich Century B. knowledge Representation as a problem // Problems of linguistics, 1990 6.
Shafikov S., Categories and concepts in linguistics // Problems of linguistics, 2007 No. 2.

11.3.3 informational sites
Zhurnal/.lib.EN
Intertext.narod.ru
www.bartleby.com/ reference

12.4. Kontrolno - training submodule. Operating personnel. "Job". "Exercises".
11.4.1. Job
Tasks for independent work
students (ALS)

Write a report on the theme "Terminological thesaurus in the field of translation studies".
Make an annotation in the book Speranskii A. C., Podolsky, N. In., Vasilieva A. P. Common terminology: theory. - M.: Nauka, 1989.

Tasks for independent work of students
under the supervision of a teacher 

Take some terminology bilingual dictionaries, note of them for 15 translated terms and analyze them.
Review the vocabulary Among S. R. "Great economic Russian-Kazakh dictionary of economic, financial, banking, tax, customs, insurance, stock and business terminology" (Almaty, 1999), note the terms and terminationtime with the word "credit" and consider ways of translating from Russian into Kazakh language.
The following terms are translated using any cripples?
Incоmpet /ence/ incompetent - bliss; inhuman (inhuman); adamhex: interpret //tion (interpretation) Tsingtao: lead ship (manual), bassily; commanding (command); scary bassily; nublik (publication), Zaria Ciara; ovation (standing ovation), a chapeau and other
Give an interpretation of the terms "reproductive translation activities", "understanding", "interpretation", "transliteration, "transcription".
Translate the following terms into English: korgaushy, Basily, sepat, basabe, KTM.
What features of translated terminationtime from Russian to Kazakh should be followed if there are differences in the morphemic structure of words: surface, submarine, station, unplanned, hypersonic, ultraviolet.
How caliroots terminationtime from Russian into Kazakh: capital investment , counter-plan, bitter salt, precious product.

11.4.1 Exercises
Exercise # 1
Write from a dictionary of Economics, Argy, Nessie, Bank,sale - keden satander, exchange Zhane kasperek foulard Orissa-Kazakh Kazakh language" Toshiba S. R. 50 economic terms and postalservice methods of translation, identify terminological mistakes and explain the reasons for their occurrence.
Exercise # 2
Review the list of economic terms - names of persons and will continue this list up to 50 items of accountant, auditor. distributor, debtor, creditor, promoter, investor, market maker, merchandiser, marketer.
Exercise # 3
Analyze the terms that give an idea of the methods of economic analysis, identify their terminology is
Analysis of variance, analysis margin analysis for breakeven analysis of economic, direct pastoralis, calculation method, method of integration
Exercise # 4
Define (definition) the following economic terms: akkreditiv, cent, currency, Euro, dollar, penny, shilling, pound, letter of credit personal, revolving letter of credit, promissory note, money cheque.
Exercise # 5
Continue terminology a number with the word marketing: marketing services
Marketing price,
Marketing direct,
The strategic marketing...

11.5. Control submodule. Control and personnel training. "Questions and answers on them." Interim tests on the topic.
11.5.1. Questions and answers on them.

Questions for self-assessment

Does the term from the word?
What does the term mean?
What are the signs of the term you can call?
Why are admitted translation errors in the translation process terms? 

How do you understand the meaning of the term "thesaurus"?
On the basis of any signs formed a thesaurus?
What reception of translated terms is the key?
What is the semantic calque?
How do you understand the term "formative blueprint"?
What is the essence of taking klisarova?
Answer options answer Button A. Yes, words mean things, and the term defines any notion. The term is a special word. Yes no B. No, not different, as the term can be considered as a word.Yes no A. the Term does definitivno of functioanl B. Nominative function, unambiguity, technologynet A. Consistency, integrity iterative synonyms, definitivamente B. the ability of the term to give a scientific definition of donateware A. In the process of translation mistakes because of ignorance of the translator of the content of the terms of any field of knowledge. Such errors include: the assumption of multiple meanings of terms, unclear definition of the term, unjustified genus-species replacement, etc. Yes no B. Translators are not allowed any mistakes in the translation of the term of Dane A. Thesarus - this store, as well as the way of organizing the material in this store Yes no N. Thesarus is a dictionary Yes no A. On the basis of cognitive and semantic criteria Yes no B. on the basis of the semantic characteristic of Dane A. Calques Yes no B. descriptive translation Yes no A. Semantic calque is a translation of the inner form of foreign words, change or transform the meaning of the original language under the influence of another language Yes no B. Translation of foreign Yes no A. Semantic calque is a translation of foreign words in parts Yes no B. Semantic calque is a translation Parfeny translation of foreign words. Yes no A. Calques is the use of closedat B. Using samples, clichés, clichés as equivalents in five of Danet
11.5.2. Tests for intermediate control on the subject
1. What does the term mean?
(A) Nominative
C) Characteristic
(C) Definitive
D) Cognitive
E ) Pragmatic
2.What a terminological error has place in the case of multivalued term
A) violation of the principle of uniqueness
C) Unjustified replacement type umbrella term
C) Neopravdana generic replacement by species panatem
D) Ignorance of the main goals of streamlining national terminology
(E) a Fuzzy term definitelynot
3. What is the meaning of the term?
A) the meaning of the word, which includes the denotation of values
The significance of the words, which includes the denotation and connotation values
(C) the Value of polysemantic words, consisting of direct and multiple LSV
D) the meaning of the term - definition, the definition, which he attributed
E) Is unambiguous words
4. What is cognitive saturation?
A) the Implementation by the term cognitive function
In) Accuracy of the term
(C) the validity of the term
D) the polysemy of the term
E) the Presence of synonyms, and antonyms of the term
5. How do you understand the term "Thesarus"?
A) Dictionary of synonyms
In) Ontologicheskiy dictionary
(C) Explanatory dictionary
D) Store . in which the material is organized in a special way
(E) the Dictionary of foreign words
6. These terms have been translated from Russian into Kazakh using any method of translation of the term: a sluggish market - silber nary, price umbrella BAA Alkatiri; Sarala aldana - take action
A) Calques
C) Klisarova
(C) Replacement
D) Descriptive translation
E) Transliteration
7. These terms are translated using any method of translation of the term?
Demurrage - demonic biofeedback Trini ushin tlem
Venture - venture - tocell Caspian
A) Calques
C) Klisarova
(C) Replacement
D) Descriptive translation
E) Transliteration

11.6. Statistical submodule. The resulting frames (feedback)
12.6.1.Answers to questions
Question # 1
A. the Correct answer. True
B. Incorrect
Question No. 2
A. True
B. Incorrect answer
Question No. 3
A. Full. Detailed answer
B. Incorrect answer
Question No. 4
A. Full. Detailed answer
B. Incorrect answer
Question No. 5
A. the Correct answer
B. Surface response. Wrong.
Question No. 6
A. the Correct answer.
B. Incomplete response
Question No. 7
A. Correctly
B. Incorrect
Question No. 8
A. Full. Detailed answer
B. Incorrect answer
Question No. 9
A. Full. Detailed answer
B. True. The correct answer
Question No. 10 

Case module No. 12. The problem of translation of metaphors
12.1. Theoretical submodule. Theory. Information frames.
12.1.1. Linguo-cognitive theory of metaphor
The study perevodovedenie techniques figuratively-stylistic use of the word is connected, firstly, to the fact that different types of texts in the original language, there is an increasing tendency to metaphorical; that is associated with the desire of the producers of the text to the provision of effective impact on the recipient. Interest in the theory of metaphor, secondly, associated with the need for an interpreter of knowledge about mechanisms of action, types of transfer functions of metaphors. Thirdly, the translator must be aware of the techniques of translation of metaphors, and to do this he must study the theory of tropes. The term "trail" is understood in a narrow and broad sense. Trails in the broad sense is a system of disparate significant items, hierarchically organized, motivated, involved in contextual relations of semantic transfer (for example, paths in literature, painting, music, film, pantomime, psychoanalysis, etc., [Lotman, 1999]. Trails in the narrow sense are two mutually incompatible important element, between which a relationship is established adequacy within a certain context [Zheltukhin, 2004, 31].
There are three main pathways: 1) metaphor; 2) metonymy; 3) synecdoche.
Metaphor - trails, the essence of which consists in the formation of contextual speech figurative meaning on the basis of similarity of some features of two objects, one of which is already marked, and the value that contains the attributes attached to the word in speech, and the second receives the designation in this particular case usage. Metaphor is a way of creating new, relevant lexical units and is widely used in the art of speech.
There are several directions in the study of metaphor: psychological, semantic, formal, cognitive. Representatives psychological direction, in particular F. I. the Buslaev, regarded as an allegorical metaphor trails, based on the identification of objects, phenomena, concepts by similarity. This transfer of the names of one word into another by similarity of features and functions. E. Cassirer, E. T. Cherkasova, indicating that the metaphor is a transfer on the semantic similarity of names, define metaphor as "the transfer of the name of one representation into another sphere - a different view, like any feature of the first or continuing any indirect with him analogy" [Cassirer, 1990, 35], [Cherkasova, 1968, 36].
From the semantic side, the metaphor can be described as paths, which in the process of developing a figurative meaning (when transferring names on the similarity of characteristics or similarity functions) occur semantic shifts on the basis of the following characteristics: 1) the sign of abstractness (the pulse of public life; weeping of the President; the appetites of monopolies); 2) characteristic expressiveness (tentacles, the octopus, the wrong side of the political world); 3) the characteristic semantic dublinbet (combined direct and figurative meanings).
Syntactic characteristics of metaphors involves identifying typical syntactic conditions metaphoricaly of a word. Century Century Vinogradov, considering the lexical meaning of words in paradigmatic and syntagmatic plans, emphasized the importance of the study of syntagmatic and design-based meanings of the word. So, syntactically determined the meaning of the word is always metaphorical. It appears in the conditions of any word in a new function, for example, when the noun acts as a predicate, for example: dress - beautiful cakes - delicious [Vinogradov, 1978]. 

Metaphor is the result of associative analogy of one subject with another. In this case, new words are created by secondary nomination. Under the secondary category refers to the use of existing language nominative funds in the new function of naming. Secondary nomination show the possibility of multiple contacts between extralinguistic range and scale: ice cream (meat) (adjective) - ice cream (noun); rabbit (animal) - hare (cowardly man) [Ganelina, 1993].
The structural trend in the study of metaphor takes into account the characteristics of the shape, that is the plan of expression metaphors. In this case, the analysis of metaphors count as level membership units serving carrier metaphorical image (verbal metaphors): twirl her husband; metforminonline phrases: sharp smell of apples; phrasal metaphors: the catcher and the beast flees; and her speech affiliation can be identified, for example: noun (path, container), case (acute), verbal metaphors (to shake things up, to twist) and other
On the syntactic function of the verbal metaphors are allocated predicative metaphors, for example: silence is Golden, your hands, real ice. The grammatical form of the word-arguments in noun metaphor - genitive metaphors, for example: ice your hands [Moskvin, 2006, 140].
Functional direction in the classification of metaphor considers the metaphor in the target dimension, i.e., by running a metaphor functions. So, is allocated nominative metaphor used to refer to any concept. In this case we can speak about secondary nomination, when by semantic way of forming words occurs metaphor used to describe any concept that does not have a name, for example, satellite (Earth satellite), zip (zip). Metaphor can perform the evaluation function when it evaluates any subject of thought. This metaphor can be called axiological metaphor, for example: gold man, gold hands, snake in the grass, Viper, giant, and other thoughts There is also decorative metaphor as a means of aesthetic reflection of reality, for example: diamond dew, gold hair and other
The fourth direction is cognitive. The metaphor is studied representatives of this direction as an instrument of cognition, educational purposes - for explanations, predictions, identifying properties of the object under study by comparing with the well-known phenomenon, that is, in heuristics (cognitive, epistemological function) [MacCormac, 1985, 36-37]. Cognitive metaphor is not just fix the existing similarity matching objects, and asked him," are attributed to the objects in that area previously identified their properties and thereby guide the process of scientific discovery search these properties" [Gusev, 1984].
The metaphor acts as a form of conceptualization, contributing to the formation of new concepts about the subject of thought.
At the most General approach, the metaphor is seen as the vision of one object over another, and in this sense is one of the ways of representing knowledge in a linguistic form. The metaphor usually refers not to a single isolated objects, and complex mental spaces (areas of sensory or social experience). In the processes of knowledge of these complex, directly unobservable mental space, are related through the metaphor with more simple or specifically observed mental spaces (for example, human emotions are compared to fire, the spheres of economy and politics - with games, sports and so on). In such metaphorical representations is transferred to the conceptualization of the observed cognitive space directly unobservable, which in this process is conceptualized and included in the conceptual system of a given language community. If this is the same mental space can be represented by one or several conceptual metaphors.
Cognitive metaphor is used in that case, "when a scientist discovers a new phenomenon, in other words, creating a new concept and looks for his name" [Ortega y Gasset, 1991, 203]. The metaphor in this case is used in two functions: firstly, so as "to increase the amount of knowledge is relatively poorly understood area by transferring additional information from more well-known situation" [Petrov, 1990, 139]. Secondly, the metaphor is used for the name of the object that does not yet have names.
Cognitive metaphor is different from the language of metaphor because it performs nominative, cognitive function, language and metaphor performs character, shaped function. N. D. Arutyunov specifies these functions, as the most characteristic of metaphors, adding to it more and figurative [Arutyunov, 1979].
Thus, the analysis of the main directions of metaphor, we can conclude that the metaphor is one of the expressive means of learning and cognition; metaphorical transfer is carried out according to similarity of form or function between two objects of reality; the metaphor is the result of secondary nomination, when the word is combined direct and portable values. 

12.1.2 translation Techniques metaphors
Basic techniques of translating metaphors of the source language to the target language are:
the structural transformation;
permutation;
traditional compliance;
add;
parallel naming metaphorical basis.
The structural transformation of the metaphors of the source language in the target language. The essence of this method consists in the structural transformation of the verbal and grammatical metaphors, if required by the differences in the principles of combinatorics between the source and translating in the language:
"I woke earlу to see the kiss of the sunrise summoning and rosy flush to the western cliffs, sight which never fails the spirits".
"I got up early and saw from the sun's kiss at sunrise he glowed West rocks is a sight to which I invariably inspires" [Kazakov, 2006, 241].
The structural transformation of the original stylistic units in this example is caused by the difference in the grammatical traditions impersonation in English and Russian languages. If you reproduce verbatim the original structure, the proposal will receive artificial for Russian combinatorial combinations: "to see kiss the rising sun, causing a pink blush on the Western cliffs, a sight that never fails to make me feel good".
Welcome rearrangement of the structural elements of the metaphors used in cases where there are differences in the grammatical or syntactic forms IA and five, for example, in English metaphorical epithet can be expressed attributive and the noun phrases, as in English, as in Kazakh, very often used combination of an adjective with nouns, taking the genitive metaphors, for example: On the opposite bank AP eтerald ribbon of fields and foliage bоrdеrеd the rivеr; beyond lay the desert, the Red Land of the ancient texts.
Send arse better jaasi easterly Zhane EGN Alabina Zhasyl cgen jackelen. Alrdy arlynda, CNE of gabbaland Kyzyl Zher Dept falatyn, SL gave cosily Satyr.
The opposite shore of the river was fringed with emerald green fields and trees; behind them stretched the desert, in the ancient scrolls called red Earth.
Replacement metaphors. This technique is used in cases when the animal or anthropomorphic metaphors of the source language are replaced by the such in the target language, for example, in English, Kazakh, Russian languages metaphorical epithets "black", "Kara", "black" can be translated in some cases literally, for example: black day, black day, Kara-kun; black deed, black case, Kara IC. However, in most cases, the metaphorical functions of the epithet in these languages diverge, as in the Kazakh language the word "Kara" can perform as a negative evaluation function (Kara Beth, Kara Horde)and expressive (Kara jer, Kara Shanyrak). Expressions of English black sheep (black sheep), black frost black frost), replaced in Russian and Kazakh languages, for example, black sheep, other Kozy, eudy irdy, eudy shelady; strong hard frost, Kyzyl sun Ayaz and other Replacement occurs when rameterization, when the metaphor of OIA is replaced by the metaphor of the translation language.
Traditional compliance. Animal metaphors are basically the same for the secondary category, for example, is "tricky" used tulk; Fox, fox; is predatory, cruel: Askar, wolf, wolf, cunning - SR jylan, snake, serpent; stubborn - GS, bull, bull. However, the emotional-evaluative associations related to in one way or another animal are not the same, in different cultures, for example, the word horse in the English language is associated with positive emotions type "thoroughbred", "healthy", "graceful"in the Kazakh language with the word antibodies are also associated with positive values, for example: at Jay, at Baylor (euphemism - man) and others In the Russian tradition "horse" metaphor mostly accompanied by other, and sometimes opposite associations: "clumsy", "strong", "ugly", "rough", "big", etc. These associations are particularly pronounced if the "horse" metaphor refers to a woman: "a horse-woman" or "Mare" is a big, strong, clumsy, ugly woman.
Parallel names metaphors of the source language and the target language. The essence of this method consists in the selection of equivalents of this source of metaphor in the target language, such as metaphors, gawar, diamond sparkler is used as equivalents in different languages. Only in this case one and the same figure of speech denotation is replaced by another word in the target language, but using them in parallel.
Parallel name of the metaphors used in cases of parallel items of secondary nomination of objects, for example: hare, Oan, bear, Mama Ayu,bear ; zholbarys, tiger, tiger in different languages.
Reception add is used in cases where there are differences in metaphorical constructions of the source language and the target language, for example: the concept of power figuratively transferred in Russian, Kazakh and English languages. Used mostly welcome impersonation when inanimate concept of "power" are properties of the person. In Russian the word "power" is implemented in verbal metaphor: the government has ordered the government decided, in the Kazakh language are added to shaped nomination of power: it Atan su SCSU, in English, the power indicated by the words dominante, rule, dominante role.
Receiving demetalizarii is the essence of the method is that the metaphor of the source language is replaced numerations expression, for example:
She stared out of the window, a world away (Gordon).
She stared out the window, thinking about her. 

ᄉᄃ

Fig. 26 - the Main directions in the study of metaphor 

ᄉᄃ

 

Fig. 26 - the Main directions in the study of metaphor
Fig. 27 - translation Techniques metaphors

12.2.2. Examples
Example No. 1.
Rameterization
- You didn't see anyone today? Opposite was one adjutant, one stretched trooper and a lady
You didn't meet anybody else at their place today, did you.
Yes, I did, There was an adjutant guardsman, and a lady.

Example No. 2.
Traditional compliance
Red girl - beautiful girl.
Good fellow - a brave man.

12.3. Reference submodule. Reference frames. "Glossary". List of basic and additional literature", "reference sites"
12.3.1. Glossary
Metaphor - trails, the essence of which consists in the formation of secondary portable values based on the similarity of the signs of the two objects. Thus the name of one object is transferred to another according to the similarity of the signs, forms or functions.
Personification is the attribution of characteristics of animate beings to inanimate objects.
Transfer of title - transfer of names from one subject to another by similarity of signs, of similar shape.
Rameterization - replacing the metaphor of OIA on the metaphor of the translation language.
Shifting metaphors reception rearrangement of the structural elements of the metaphor.
Traditional correspondence - receiving selection of an appropriate metaphor in the translation language.

12.3.2. Secocoeni and additional literature

Key readings

Arutyunov N. D. Metaphor //Russian language: an encyclopedia. - M., 1979.
Vinogradov centuries Lexicology and lexicography. - M.: Nauka, 1978.
Zheltukhin M. R. Trails and their functions //Russian literature, 2004, No. 1.
Kazakova, T. A. Practical basics of translation. English Is English. - SPb.: Publishing House "Union", 2006.
Petrov centuries Metaphor: from semantic representations to the cognitive analysis //problems of linguistics, 1990, No. 3.

Further reading

Analina L. K. Nomination and derivational relations. - Almaty, 1993.
Gusev, S. C. Science and metaphor. - L., 1984.
Cassirer E. C. the Power of the metaphor Theory of metaphor. - M., 1990.
Lakoff G., Johnson M. Metaphors we live. - M.: publishing house of LCG, 2008.
Lotman Y. M. Inside thinking worlds. Man - text - semi - history. M., 1999.
Moskvin B. N. Stylistics of the Russian language. Theoretical course. - Rostov n/D: Phoenix, 2006.
Ortega y Gasset H. Two main metaphors. - M., 1991.
Silver, B. A. About materialistic approach to the phenomena of language. - M., 1983.
Cherkasova E. T. Experience linguistic interpretation of tropes //Problems of linguistics, 1968, No. 2.
MacCormac, E. R. A cognitive theory of metaphor. - Gambridge, 1985.

12.3.3. Informational sites 

ᄉwwwᄉ.ᄉgumerᄉ.ᄉinfo

intext.narod.ru

ᄉwwwᄉ.ᄉalengᄉ.ᄉru

12.4. Control training submodule. Operating personnel. "Job" Exercises.

12.4.1. Job
Tasks for independent work of students (IWS)

Write a report on the theme "Cognitive direction in the development of the theory of metaphor".
Read and outline article Y. A. Belikova "Impersonation in the book"the Russian language: an encyclopedia. - M., 1977, 285 S.

Tasks for independent work under the supervision of a teacher (SRSP)

Turn the offer, which is a metaphorical phrase in Kazakh and English languages. Name the transfer: Muddy crowd of riders raced in the mountains.
In the process of anthropomorphism converging phenomena of nature with human actions, replacement of moral phenomena and mental phenomena are physical. The following example find anthropomorphic metaphor:
Mashadi stared him (the son - A. K.) after he was sorry son, but he folded wide his arms, saw the mountains, such as stern and proud as he is.
Check whether the Russians metaphorical expressions like the fair maiden, my good fellow to pass by taking the traditional correspondence in Kazakh and in English? If they mean the same metaphors in English and their translation into Kazakh and English languages: sarily Kyz, Sulu Kiz (beautiful girl), red maiden (girl), Boz ball (Boz ball), fine fellow (great guy).
Translate English metaphorical momentum in the Kazakh and Russian languages. Check whether there are any in this case, the structural transformation a dreаm of a dress, a beast of a car, a barrel of a man, an angel of a girl .
Put this metaphorical expression of the cream of society in Kazakh and English languages.
Bring cognitive metaphors: the black hole, desert tan in Kazakh, German and English languages.
Install, what is the difference between cognitive metaphors from art. Translate linguistic metaphors load of memories, knowledge, running time, the train goes, time goes by, the rain comes in Kazakh, German and English languages.
Install, what is the difference of root metaphors: a family tree of languages, a family tree, a branch of languages, the genetic relationship of languages, genealogical classification from other kinds of metaphors?
Set features the following metaphors: chronic unemployment, yellow newspaper, the cancer of crime.
Set the reception metaphoricaly shaped words: ground moaning - groaning the mother - land of cheese; the whispering birches, the sun laughs, brush it hladil and Tupelo.


12.4.2. Exercises
Exercise # 1.
Rewrite the text, determine the methods of translation of metaphors from Russian into Kazakh.
Heart ascribed human attributes: cold, indifferent (MS Zhurek, Salin Zhurek), the wounded heart (aura Zhurek, sorry Zhurek, an Zhurek)configured hostile to the object of thought (Italy Zhurek, sm Zhurek), faithful (Shyn Zhurek, AK Zhurek, Animas Zhurek), fair (Adlet Zhurek), young, brisk (Jas Zhurek, et Zhurek), timid (regen Zhurek), passionate (Zhalyn Zhurek, ysty Zhurek, July Zhurek, Italy Zhurek), survivors of passionate love and betrayal (kriegen Zhurek) and other

Exercise No. 2.
Metaphors of English translate into English, using the technique of structural transformation
1. Some literary works rise above heat distinctions of genre car to be out new riverbeds
2. By Blake, Eternity, measurable in clock seconds, trails endlessly into oblivion and reaches indefinitely into the future

Exercise # 3.
Translate these sentences into English, please note the anthropomorphic model of the Russian and English languages.
Storm haze the sky opened up
The whirlwinds of snow spinning
For Windows ached autumn wind,
The glass was crawling rain 

               

12.5. Control submodule. Supervisory personnel. "Questions and answers on them." "Tests for intermediate control".
12.5.1. Questions and answers on them.

As discussed metaphor representatives semantic direction?
As is understood metaphor representatives psychological direction?
What methods of metaphorization you know,
What methods of translating metaphors can you name?
The essence of the traditional reception of conformity?
How do you understand the term "replacement metaphors"?
How would you describe the term "anthropomorphic model of metaphor"?
What is the admission structural transformation of the metaphor?
As you can imagine the reception parallel naming metaphorical basis?
Options ototokoi otveta. As semantic neologism, in which the combined direct and figurative meanings of Deneb. Semantic direction considers metaphor as a trope, in which there are semantic shifts on the basis of the characteristics of abstraction, expressive, semantic duplineonline. Representatives psychological direction metaphor is understood as the transfer of naimenovaniya. As trails, which includes direct and portable znacheniya. The genitive metaphors, personification of Deneb. Embodiment, the genitive metaphors, the transfer of words from one plane to another, the implementation of syntactically determined values daneta. Adding, traditional compliance Deneb. Structural transformation, permutation, traditional line, adding a parallel naming metaphorical basis daneta. Selection of appropriate equivalents of Deneb. Used in regard to the metaphors folklore, biblical, ancient origin, when in OIA and five have very different ways metaphorical similarity daneta. Replacement of metaphor is to replace the metaphor of OIA synonymous metaphor in another language Deneb. Replacement metaphors, rameterization is to replace the metaphor of OIA and metaphor Padanya. This embodiment of Deneb. Anthropomorphic model (personification) is a technique when the properties, qualities of a person are transferred to animals, inanimate objects, phenomena daneta. The essence of this method consists in the structural transformation of the verbal and grammatical metaphors. Deneb. Transformation metaphors OIA and Padanya. The essence of this method consists in the selection of equivalents metaphors of OIA in the translation language. Use them in parallel.Deneb. The selection of equivalents of the original metaphor in Paganet
12.5.2. Tests for intermediate control on the subject
1. What shaped tool has the following definition: "Trails, the essence of which consists in the formation of contextual speech values based on the similarity of some features of two objects
Metonymy
Metaphor
Synecdoche
Comparison
Hyperbole
2. These metaphors relate to what metaphors according to the classification of structural directions: cast iron face an acute problem, thin man, velvety look
Noun
Verb
Adjectives
Sacrament
Predicative
3. What direction in the classification of metaphors saw it in target aspect, i.e. by running a metaphor functions?
Psychological
Semantic

Structural
Functional
Cognitive
4. What method of metaphorization used in this context: its hard icy silence now caused him respect. She looked out the window and sat quite still, as in your own office, without asking a single question. Wow, what a cunt! The flint. Rock. The steel. Battleship Potemkin". (T, Ustinov. Great evil and petty mischief, S. 274).
Impersonation
The genitive metaphor
The transfer of words from one plane to another
Predicative metaphor
Transfer names
5. What is the transfer metaphor is used in case of differences in grammatical and syntactic forms of OIA and five?
The structural transformation of metaphors
Welcome permutation metaphors
Replacement metaphors
Deetatizatsiya
Parallel names metaphors OIA and metaphors five
6. What is the transfer metaphor is used in cases of differences in metaphorical constructions of OIA and five?
Adding
Replacement metaphors
Welcome permutation
Deetatizatsiya
The structural transformation of metaphors

12.6. Statistical submodule. The resulting frames (feedback)
12.6.1. Answers to questions
Question No. 1.
A superficial answer.
True. Detailed answer.
Question No. 3.
Incomplete answer.
Detailed answer. True.
Question No. 4.
Incomplete answer.
Detailed answer. True.
Question No. 5.
Incomplete, superficial answer.
Detailed answer. True.
Question No. 6.
A superficial answer. Wrong.
The right answer. Well done.
Question No. 7.
A superficial answer. Wrong.
Detailed answer. True
Question No. 8.
Detailed answer. True.
Incomplete answer.
Question No. 9.
Detailed answer. True.
Incomplete answer.

12.6.2. Code to the tests
B
C
D
C
B
A

Case module No. 13. Problems of translation of metonymy.
13.1. Theoretical submodule. Theory. Information frames.

13.1.1 Metonymy as a cognitive mechanism rehabilitating activity
In linguistics, metonymy is also considered as one of the main kinds of tropes that perform the function of secondary nomination: rename items, transfer of names from one subject to another in adjacency concepts. Linguists metonymy is investigated as a mechanism of speech consisting in a regular or occasional transfer of name from one class of objects or a single object to another class or a subject associated with data connectivity, zapredelnosti, involvement in one situation" [Linguistic encyclopedic dictionary, 1990, 300]. Metonymic is the transfer of names from one object to another "on the basis of their real or associative adjacency, connectedness, interdependence" [Morier, 1981, 743], i.e. on the basis of spatial, temporal or causal relations [Paul, 1960, 117].
The basis of metonymic transfer is the influence of external factors: the similarity or contiguity characteristics of two different objects or phenomena in the real world. Change the meanings of words based on metonymic type of transfer is also carried out when the respective influence of the internal regularities of the language, resulting in the strengthening and development of the semantic relations of words, subordinate to his main trends in the development of language - trend expressiveness and regularity. When wrapping the adjacency names tendency of the tongue to the regularity is manifested in the fact that new words, undergoes a semantic shift in the value adjacent to the relevant lexico-semantic groups, gaining the ability analogical application. Analogical transfer is one of the types of associative analogy, creating new words by secondary nomination on the basis of generalization and convergence on associative links related attributes of objects and the transfer of names from one subject to another. The tendency of the tongue to the regularity is manifested in the fact that metonymy serves as a regular mechanism of secondary nomination, contributing to the emergence of new words by semantic way of word formation. When metonymic transfer available in the language of the nominative funds are used in a new function named" [Ganelina, 1993]. 

When analyzing metonymie serious attention is paid to the distinction between these two mechanisms of speech, saying that if the allegorical metaphors based on the identification of objects, phenomena, concepts according to their similarity, the allegorical of metonymy based on the relationship (ownership) of things (objects, phenomena, concepts). Metonymy is the result of renaming one thing through another associated with it by the adjacency. P. Ricoeur, considering the relationship between metaphor and metonymy, talks about the possibility of the polar relation between metaphor and metonymy more General functional significance, which indicates the polarity of the metaphorical and metonymic processes of thinking [Ricoeur, 1995, 109].
According to R. Jakobson, "competition" between metaphoric and metonymic mechanisms manifests itself in any symbolic activity, whether verbal, intrapersonal, social, or any other [Jacobson, 1990, 129].
Recently metaphor and metonymy were studied in cognitive linguistics, which considers them as cognitive mechanisms of speech play an important role in racemachine and the generation of speech. Metonymy is studied in the framework of this science as the mental mechanism. J.Lakoff and M. Johnson, considering metonimia, as metaphor, as complex mental space (the area of feelings or social experience). In the processes of knowledge of these complex mental space correlate with simpler, specifically the observed mental spaces based on the adjacency of features. Transfer conceptualization observed mental space is directly observable on the basis of the related signs. This directly unobservable conceptualized and included in the conceptual system of a given language community. To illustrate the operation of metonymic mechanism J. Lakoff and M. Johnson characterize mental model "receptacle", widespread in the framework of the concept sphere of "man".
As a generic concept for cognitive unit that accumulates knowledge about the world, involved in the process of racemachine researchers use the term "mental model". This category corresponds with a fragment of reality (knowledge which accumulates and is a result of its practical and cultural development. The main source of mental model serves as a perceptual experience (empirical way, decoratory experience). On the language system (associative-verbal level) this unit is designed in the framework of associative-verbal field. This means that the image (mental model) explicated lexical means of different parts of speech, different lexico-semantic and thematic groups [Lakoff, Johnson, 1990].
Metonymy can also be viewed in the framework of cognitive concepts offered j.Lakofa and M. Johnson in relation to metaphor. The authors of the source area is described by the concept of "signification m descriptor" (words or phrases representing concepts from different fields). In target - denotation descriptor (expression, representing the idea of the object of thought). As signification m and denotation descriptors form a finite set, and should be organized in a concise hierarchy that reflects the structure of the respective areas. These hierarchies can serve as individual inputs in base [Lakoff, Johnson, 1990].
Indeed, metonymy can be described as hierarchically organized a field in which you can select the original meaning (signification m descriptor), which produces secondary derived value (secondary denotation - secondary denotation descriptor). The migration source primary value on the secondary when the secondary nomination is made on the basis of mental models metonymic transfer, bringing different concepts based on associative links between them. The convergence of different denotata based on the sign of adjacency is the result of associative thinking in the process rehabilitating activity of the subject. It is the subject in the course of their cognitive cognitive activity brings on the basis of the Association of different concepts, finds common features, compares them, and on the basis of common features between the two denotata makes the conclusion about the necessity of deciding on various denotata under the General concept. Secondary concept is the result of the migration okoncatelnogo experience (empirical), reflected on the associative-verbal level as the primary category of the subject. If metonidazole name of the subject source is transferred to the denotation of the descriptor in the process rehabilitating and cognitive activity of the subject. In this case, there is a secondary conceptualization, manifested in the tabulation under one common notion of names significative and denotation of descriptors based on associative links between them. Metonymic mechanism racemachine manifests itself in bringing together the names of two items in the course of associative thinking and the announcement of nominations under one concept that unites two nominations in the associative-verbal network on the basis of sensory okoncatelnogo experience.
Metonymy does not only nominative function, contributing to the emergence of secondary nomination of a new designation, but also has an expressive function. In this case we can talk about figurative metonymie contributing to the decoration of speech, for example, the month of pale beam leads on a sad face (I. Kozlov), emerald eyes, satin skin, cast iron color. Cf. also: "and he now continues to work from morning till night. Losing one job, looking for another, so that "hard labor" remains in full force and effect" [M. Saltykov-Shchedrin, T. 9, S. 199].
Thus, metonymy is a cognitive nature. Its essence is manifested in the fact that it is a cognitive mechanism racemachine facilitating the transfer of names signification m descriptor (source denotation descriptor - area goals) as a result of convergence on the basis of associative thinking the name of two denotata and summing them under one concept that unites two related concepts in the mental metonymic models. 

13.1.2 Mental metonymic models
Mental metonymic models contribute to the actualization of metonymic thinking in language and speech. In the language of metonymy is seen as an effective way of semantic derivation, leading to new words. In the style of metaphor is studied as an expressive trails. In cognitive linguistics metonymic mental model is investigated as a way of conceptualizing a more complex mental space through less complex mental space. Despite the fact that metonymy is studied in different ways, but at the same time allied Sciences, mental models of metonymically used in all Sciences. Among them seem productive mental models of methimazole in the field of noun and adjective.
For nouns the most productive mental models are: content ↔ containing (structure - public or commercial institution, enterprise, for example, the structure of the banking, economic, educational, etc.; market - economic reflections in the sphere of trade; squirrels, rabbits, wolves - Belarusian cash signs and other); effects ↔ scene (space - a single complex of any of the events in a particular area, for example, a single space, economic, legal information, and so on; literary lounge - holding parties, debates on literary themes, and other [Chernikova, 2001, 87-88].
This model can be called and "receptacle - compatible". In the conceptual sphere "man" in this model plays a significant role. M. P. Odintsov about the conceptual sphere of "man" as the receptacle writes the following: "Man is possessed of mind, will, speech, active, i.e., acting in its choice "I", and at the same time is an inert thing - space which contains a variety of objects, substances, material (physical) and ideal (spiritual), such as physical and spiritual: the brain, heart, blood, stomach, chest, feeling such a unique spirit, as a soul, conscience, memory, mind, consciousness, thought, imagination, feelings, and personality traits: love, wisdom, kindness, envy, hatred, sadness, joy, and many others. In the spiritual space is not only all actually human, but limit the whole universe, everything that comes into the mind of a person in the subjective images of nature, animate and inanimate objects, micro - and macrocosm, of the cosmos" [Odintsov, 1991, 65].
Expansion model "receptacle" in the conceptual sphere "people" is governed by metonimia - various partial models: whole - part-whole "man - intellectual, emotional, ideological, speech aspects, for example: in my head → in the skull → brain → in → in mind - if only; chest → heart (soul) - > feelings - confusion. In his mind he made complex calculations. In our dreams - a trip to the sea - out of sight - out of mind [Ilyukhin N. A., 2002].
In the field of metonymie nouns are also common in such models as: 1) the transfer material on the product, for example, copper and copper money, pennies, penny; 2) the transfer of an appellation of the settlement on the totality of its inhabitants or the related event, for example, Borodino (the battle at Borodino field, Filevsky Council with the venue of the Council at Fili); 3) actions on the result, place or involved in the action of the subject (person, object, object, instrument), for example, stop a certain action and the location of bus stops), whistle (instrument whistle and device for whistling); 4) with the forms of expression of the content or its material embodiment in the actual content of, for example, a thick book refers to the subject, and interesting book for content; 5) with the industry knowledge of the science on the subject of science, such as grammatical structure of language and the study of its branch of linguistics; 6) social event, its participants, for example, "the conference will take place in may and the conference adopted an important decision; 7) social organization, institutions on the totality of its staff and premises, for example: "repair factory" and "factory went on strike"; 8) from the whole to the part, cf. the group - tree - pear - fruit; 9) emotional state the reason, for example, "horror", "fear" and "terrible event"; 10) the name of the author can be used to refer to his works or created models, for example, bull - "the name of the master and furniture with a certain type of decoration" [Linguistic encyclopedic dictionary, 1990, 300].
"Model" is a proper noun → work. The model has varieties: 1) the name of the own - product wizard named after him, for example, Kalashnikov (the inventor) → Kalashnikov (machine), Colt (inventor) - colt (weapon); 2) the name of the private - property, estate, land, for example: Mary is Presented to 3000 acres, from the speech of F. M. Plevako: "when Mary Presented was taken to Moscow to treat, who wrote in the name of the wife of Wagner that is Presented was taken to the madhouse. When this letter was written directly: "save its 3000 acres, her estate from the hands of the brethren."
In the field of metonymie adjectives, productive models such as: 1) the characteristic of the object → a sign of another object, or is associated with the first object made from it or use it, for example, clean technology, environmental education, computer literacy; 2) the characteristic of the object → attribute of the action associated with the object (laser surgery, building export).
Metonimia called adjectives indicative of metonymies. The complexity of metonymie signs is that they are based on nouns and in a greater number of participants transfer (if metonymie nouns or two items, for example: audience (premise) → audience (the people in this area); if metonymie adjectives: two items - one characteristic: brave - bold response (response brave man) [Bireh, 1987, 63].
The mechanism of metonymy adjectives arises from specific object as a mechanism for the nomination. The denotation of adjectives are the qualities, characteristics, attributes of objects. However, the quality, the property does not exist without its media and on "is an adjective always projected the value of the media attribute" [wolf, 1973, 7].
Detailed description of the mental metonymic models perevodovedenie necessary in order to understand how they operate in the cognitive process of human activity, as manifest themselves in different languages, are the same whether these mental models in different languages.

13.1.3 translation Techniques of metonymie
Translation of the original metonymie on the target language in many cases is not straightforward, as different languages mental models of metonymy can match. So, in Kazakh and English languages are also common in such models as "part - whole"; "receptacle - gr"; "material product", "name their own work, "action - result", etc. Therefore, the main technique used in the transmission of metonymy, is to replace the original mental model of OIA on the mental metonymic model in five, for example, the mental model: the White house → the White house, AK I → AK I (AK Orda), White hоuse - White hоuse available in these three languages, only in the Kazakh language the concept of "home" replaced the word "Horde"with "national specificity in the sense of "Khan stake, the place of residence of the nomads", "military and administrative organization.
However, in the translation process of metonymy source language difficulties are encountered. According to T. A. Kazakova, the greatest difficulty for translation are such cases of metonymic transfer, which is based on Association: 

a) between subjects and one of his signs is metonymic epithet;
b) between the whole and the part of the subject - synecdoche;
in between a proper noun and a common noun, with an overall informative-indicative basis, antonomasia [Kazakov, 2006].
Let us consider the possible techniques used in the translation of these varieties of metonymy.
Indicative metonymy arising in cases of transfer name of one concept to another based on common characteristics, causes really difficult, because when the secondary nomination appears figurative meaning, the meaning of which can be confusing for the medium of another language and culture. For example, phrases that emerged as a result of migration on mental models: a sign indicating the color of the clothes → indication that the person in the clothes, such as: brown speakers, brown, brown people evil will be incomprehensible to the addressee, if he has no cultural information about the supporters of fascism, neo-fascism, dressed in a brown uniform. In this case we are talking about the supporters of the political party. That is why the literal translation here cannot be used. The necessary translation and commentary the word. The method of translation of the comment is to give an explanation (brief or extended) to this phrase, to explain its lexical background. To give the concept of the negative associations with the term "brown". The appearance evaluation and stylistic connotations to the word "brown" is the result of the updating of the semantic structure of the original word potential of SEM. The semantics of any word includes not only the lexical concept created by its semantic structure, but also surrounding this word associations that arise in the course of its varied speech usages. These associations are so-called "lexical background of each word [Vereshchagin, Kostomarov, 1983]. Metonymy can be based on any of the components of the lexical background of words that are not included in its semantic structure and occasional manifested in the immediate context. Ba