80097

The category of aspect

Доклад

Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

Spect is grmmticl ctegory of the Verb which expresses difference in the wy the ction is shown to proceed. The ctegory of spect is linguistic representtion of the objective ctegory of Mnner of ction. The reliztion of the ctegory of spect is closely connected with the lexicl mening of verbs.

Английский

2015-02-16

28.73 KB

4 чел.

The category of aspect.

Aspect is a grammatical category of the Verb which expresses a difference in the way the action is shown to proceed.(e.g. write-is writing, wrote-was writing) be V ing -discontinuous morpheme. The category of aspect is a linguistic representation of the objective category of Manner of Action. It is realized through the opposition Continuous: Non-Continuous. The realization of the category of aspect is closely connected with the lexical meaning of verbs. There are some verbs in English that do not normally occur with progressive aspect, even in those contexts in which the majority of verbs necessarily take the progressive form. (e.g.think, understand, know, hate, love, see, taste, feel, possess, own, etc.) However, all the ‘non-progressive' verbs take the progressive aspect under particular circumstances. (обст-вах). As the result of internal transposition verbs of non-progressive nature can be found in the Continuous form: Now I'm knowing you. Generally speaking the Continuous form has at least two semantic features - duration (the action is always in progress) and definiteness (the action is always limited to a definite point or period of time). The grammatical category describing the manner of the action is called the aspect. The aspect shows whether the action is represented as process, result, whether it was in duration (продолж-ть) for a certain period of time (from the point of view of its progress &completion). It can be expressed by lexical means: groups of limitive (terminative) & unlimitive (durative) verbs. Terminative verbs denote an action implying a certain limit. Durative don't imply any such limit, (to find - to search, to look - to see). According to aspective characteristics, i.e. the relation of the verbal semantics to the idea of a processual limit: 1.Limitive verbs present a process as potentially limited, unlike the term terminative suggests! arrive, come, leave, find, start, stop, conclude 2.Unlimitive verbs (durative) imply no limit in their semantics {move, continue, live, sleep, work, behave). 3.Verbs of double aspective nature (understand-исследовать) - meaning depends on the context. In English unlike Russian aspect is inseparably connected with the tense form (conjugated categories). The aspect auxiliary indicates not only the manner of the action but the time too. In Russian - 2 aspects: the perfective & the imperfective that are obligatory realized. They differ both in meaning and in form. In English there are no such clear-cut distinctions. For that reason not all linguists recognize the category of the aspect at all. English lexical aspect expresses a potentially limited or unlimited process, whereas the Russian aspect expresses the actual conclusion (the perfective, or terminative aspect-непредельный глагол ) or non-conclusion (the imperfective. or non-terminative aspect) of the process in question. Unlike their Russian absolutely rigid counterparts, English verb pairs are but loosely distinguished and easily reducible. Other (minor) types of lexical aspective meanings 1)instantaneous(momentary), 2)ingressive (starting), 3)supercompleted (developed to the extent of superfluity), 4) undercompleted (not developed to its full extent) Traditionally there are 4 aspects:1.The Perfect aspect presents an action in the form of the result achieved by a certain moment in the Present. Past or Future.2.The Continuous aspect presents an action in the process of its performance at a certain moment in the Present, Past or Future. Some verbs however are not used in this aspect - verbs of perception (to see, to hear), verbs of mental activity (to know, to believe, to recognise, to suppose), verbs denoting volition (to want, to desire, to wish), verbs denoting abstract relations (to have, to be, to belong, to depend, to consist).3.The Perfect Continuous aspect describes the period of duration of an action which is indicated either by an adverbial modifier (for 2 hours, since) or by a temporal clause (since I came here).4.The Indefinite or the Simple aspect. It's very difficult to characterize the manner of the action in this case because unlike in the 3 aspects above mentioned there is no special auxiliary describing the manner of this action in this case. Some scholars say that the Indefinite aspect has the zero meaning of the aspect because it only indicates the time of an action. For this reason this aspect is called Indefinite or Simple Tenses. In the modern linguistics within oppositional theory Continuous aspect vs. the Non-Continuous aspect (common aspect, unmarked (weak) member) Бархударов: the peculiar marker - discontinuous morpheme be -ing. the difference in meaning: Continuous aspect is defined as an action in progress, developing at a given moment; Common aspect doesn't express duration.


 

А также другие работы, которые могут Вас заинтересовать

55840. Самостоятельная подготовка студентов к проведению урока по легкой атлетике. Учебно-методическая разработка 190 KB
  Задачей подготовительной части урока является подготовка организма занимающихся к предстоящей нагрузке основной части обучение видам легкой атлетики развитие физических качеств и формирование специальных двигательных качеств...
55842. ОРГАНІЗАЦІЯ САМОСТІЙНОЇ РОБОТИ СТУДЕНТІВ У ВИЩИХ НАВЧАЛЬНИХ ЗАКЛАДАХ 114 KB
  Співвідношення обсягів аудиторних занять і самостійної роботи студентів визначається з урахуванням специфіки та змісту конкретної навчальної дисципліни її місця значення і дидактичної мети в реалізації освітньопрофесійної програми а також питомої ваги...
55843. Вычитание двузначных чисел с переходом через разряд 30.5 KB
  Оборудование урока: компьютер мультимедийный проектор экран учебник математики рабочая тетрадь по математике №1 Тип урока: урок открытия нового знания. В содержание урока я включила элементы обучения школьников универсальным учебным действиям...
55844. Мои домашние животные 63.5 KB
  При создании урока я как учитель поставила перед собой и детьми цели: Цели урока: развитие языковой догадки зрительной и слуховой памяти логического мышления инициативы через составление диалога...
55845. Борьба за существование и ее формы 24.5 KB
  Напомнила домашнее задание и тему прошлого урока дала несколько минут на повторение домашнего задания. При проверке домашнего задания использовала индивидуальный опрос так как материал прошлого урока достаточно объемный и каждый ответ на вопрос может быть оценен.
55846. Время 34.5 KB
  Специфика урока состоит в том что он готовит учащихся через повторение времени к следующему блоку Распорядок дня.
55847. Минералы и горные породы 31.5 KB
  Анализ целеполагания Анализ структуры урока Анализ содержания учебного материала Анализ деятельности учителя на уроке. Задачи урока реальны для выполнения.