Main and minor types of Word-Formation
Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика
Main types of Word-FormationWe distinguish 2 main types of word-formation: derivation (encouragement, irresistible, worker) and composition (black-board, day-dream, week-end). Within these types further distinction may be made between the ways of forming words
Main and minor types of Word-Formation.
Main types of Word-FormationWe distinguish 2 main types of word-formation: derivation (encouragement, irresistible, worker) and composition (black-board, day-dream, week-end). Within these types further distinction may be made between the ways of forming words: Word-Formation Derivation ( Affixation ,Conversion) Cornposition (словосложение: Derivational Composition)Derivation - the basic ways of forming words; in derivation are affixation (feminist) and conversion (water - to water, slim - to slim).Affixation - adding affixes to stems - is a basic means of forming new words in English.Affixation is divided into suffixation and prefixation. Suffixation is characteristic of noun and adjective formation, while prefixation is typical of verb formation. Suffixes: -age, -ment, -tion, -er, -dom, -ship, -ism, -ese, -ian, -ish, -ful, -less, -y, -fy, -en Prefixes: un-, in-, syn-, non-, a-, dis-, ex-, fore-, re-, de-, extra-, vice-, ultra-, be- Conversion is the process of coining new words in a different part of speech but without adding any derivative element so that the basic forms of the original and derived words coincide. N>V: eye - to eye, fish - to fish, dust - to dust V>N: to move - a move, to walk - a walk, to cut - a cut Adj->N: bitter - a bitter, final - a final, poor - the poor Adj-»V: better - to better, open - to open. Composition is one of the most productive types of word-formation. It consists in joining together two or more stems to form one compound word. Compounds can be: - neutral - formed by joining together two stems without connecting elements, e.g. crybaby, goldfish, flowerbed, grandfather, armchair.-morphological - components are joined together by a linking element, e.g. craftsman, hand/craft. -syntactical - the components are joined by means of form-word stems, e.g. man-of-war, forget-me-not, bread-and-butter.Also compounds can be:a)compounds proper arc formed by joining two stems, e.g. earthquake;b)compound-derivative (stem+affixes), e.g. long-legged, broad-minded, a two-seater**c) compound-shortened words, e.g. h-bag, A-bomb.* * millowner - N+(N+er) - a derivative-compound teenager - (N+N)+cr - a compound-derivative.Minor types of Word-Formation Shortening - the dropping of the initial or final part of a word to form a shorter word. Shortening can be: acronomy / abbreviation - the process of forming a word out of the initial letters of a word combination (NATO - North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, UNO -United Nations Organisation) -blending - parts of several words arranged to form a new word (Interpol -international police, oillitex - oil politex - нефтяная политика) - clipping - a shortened word (initial, final, medial) - выпадение начальных, конечных или средних букв (laboratory - lab)- back-formation - by means of removing suffixes - отсечение суффикса (greedy»greed, frivolous>to frivol) -Sound imitation (звукоподражание): to row - рычать, to bubble - журчать, to giggle хихикать-Sound interchange: blood->bleed, to speak»speech, food-»feed Distinctive stress (ударение): to con'duct - 'conduct, to ob'ject - 'object -Reduplication: bye-bye, walkie-talkie, ping-pong, chit-chat