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Sentence in traditional syntax

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Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

From the traditional point of view the nuclear of syntax is formed by the gram. Subject and gram. Predicate. Periphery is formed by other parts of a sentence: complements, objects, two types of adjuncts (attributes and adverbial modifiers). These parts of a syntax are called secondary and are normally optional.

Английский

2015-02-18

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Sentence in traditional syntax.

From the traditional point of view the nuclear of syntax is formed by the gram. Subject and gram. Predicate. Periphery is formed by other parts of a sentence: complements, objects, two types of adjuncts (attributes and adverbial modifiers). These parts of a syntax are called secondary and are normally optional. The structure of a syntax: normally the subject comes the first and it may be expressed by various parts of speech, but usually nominal group, which includes the head and different types of noun modifiers.

1). Simple verbal may be represented by synthetic and analytical forms.

2). Compound verbal: simple verbal compound verbal, compound nominal.

The basic word order in the sentence subject group + predicate group + object or complements + adverbial modifier.

There are several classifications of sentence:

a). According to the type of communication.

b). Declarative sentences or statements.

c). Exclaminatory sentences.

d). Imperative sentences.

2). According to the structure we name:

a). Simple sentences ( one predicate ) they may be subdivided into one – member sentences, elliptical sentences, when one main member is missed but is understood from the context and extended sentences.

b). Composite sentences. The points of the difference between sentence and phrases.

1). The phrase like a word is a nominal unit of language, while the syntax is a predicate utterance unit.

2). The phrase consists of not less than three words, but there are one – word sentences.

3). Each component of phrase can undergo gram. Changes without destroying the identity of the phrase. A change in a form of one or more words in the sentence would produce a new sentence.

4). The phrase lades predication modality and intonation while the sentence is characterized by these features.

Principal parts of the sentence. The subject is a part of the sentence which denotes a person or a thing whose actions are expressed by the predicate of a sentence. Subject may be : simple and complex. A simple subject is expressed by means of a word or a phrase: e. g. The sky was clear. A complex subject is expressed by gerundial, infinitival or participial construction, e. g. For me to hear this is hard your having missed the train is no excuse.

In according with its content the subject falls into:

1). Personal subject denotes a person or a thing or points to it in a very broad sense: e.g. She lives in Rostov – on – Don.

They say the concert was a good success.

An impersonal subject neither denotes no points to a person or a thing. Its expressed by a personal pronoun and is used in sentence denoting the following relations :1)natural phenomenon: its raining;2) time: its 5 o’clock; 3) distance : its only three miles to the station;4) state of thing in general: it was very difficult;5) motive or estimate of an action: its difficult to translate the article.

Composite Sen-s is formed by two or more predicative line. Each predicative unit makes up a clause, which corresponds to a separate sentence: e.g. when I sat down to dinner I looked opportunity to sleep in casually the information.

Complex Sen-s is a polypredicative construction built up on the principle of subordination.

Compound Sen-s is a composite sentence built on the principle of coordination it may be expressed either syndetically (coordinative connectors) or asyndectically e.g. she was tall and slander, her hair light chestnut.