Parts of speech classification, gram-l classes of words
Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика
There are three main criteria according to which we classify the words into a different gram. classes. They are meaning, form function. not the individual lexical meaning of each word but the meaning common to all the words of a given class which constitutes its essence; form, it’s the morphological characteristics of a type of word...
Parts of speech classification, gram-l classes of words.
There are three main criteria according to which we classify the words into a different gram. classes. They are meaning, form & function.
1) not the individual lexical meaning of each word but the meaning common to all the words of a given class which constitutes its essence;
2) form, its the morphological characteristics of a type of word;
3) the syntactical property of a type of a word:
a) its method of combining with other words;
b) its function in a sen-ce (Vinogradov, Smirnitsky, Ilyish).
In accord with described criteria words are divided into notional & functional. To the not-l parts of speech belong the N, the Adj., the numeral, the V, the Adv.
1) Features of the Noun:
a) the categorical meaning of substance;
b) the changeable forms of number & case, the specific suffixal forms of their derivation;
c) the substantive functions in the sen-ce (Subj., Obj., Predicate), prepositional connectives, modification by Adj-s.
2) Features of Adj.:
a) categorical meaning of property (qualitative and realative);
b) the forms of degrees of comparison for qualitative adj.;
c) adjectival functions in the sentence (attribute).
3) Features of the numeral:
a) the categorical meaning of number(cardinal and ordinal);b)the narrow set of simple numerals, the specific forms of composition for compound numerals;
c) the function of numerical attribute and numerical substantive.
4) Feature of pronoun:
a) the categorical meaning of indication;
b) the narrow sets of various status with the corresponding formal properties of categorical changebility and word building;
c)substantival and adjectival functions for different sets.
5) Features of the V.:
a) the categorical meaning of process, presented in two forms (finite and non-finite);
b) the forms of the verbal category for person,,number, tense, aspect ,voice, mood. The opposition of finite and non-finite forms;
c) the function of the finite predicative form the finite verb and the mixed verbal function for non-finite verbs.
6) Features of Adv.:
a) the categorical meaning of secondary property (of property process or another property);
b) the forms of degrees of comparison;
c) the function of various adverbial modifiers.
The notional parts of speech unite the words of complete nominative meaning, characterized by selfdependent functions in the sen-ce.
Functional parts of speech are incomplete nominative meaning & non-selfdependent. They are the article, the preposition, the conjunction, the particle, the modal word, the interjection.
The article expresses the specific limitation of the substantive functions.
The preposition exp. the dependences & independences of substantive reference.
The conjunction exp. connections of the phenomena.
The particle unites the functional words of specifying & limiting meaning. To these series refer also verbal postpositions.
The modal word exp. the attitude of the speaker to the situation. Here belong: functional words of probability (probably, perhaps), of qualitative evaluation (fortunately, unfortunately, luckily) & also of affirmation & negation.
The interjection. They are series of emotions.
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