80744

Categorial Structure of the Word

Доклад

Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика

The most general meanings rendered by L. expressed by systemic correlations of word-forms are interpreted as categorial grammatical meanings. The forms themselves are identified within definite paradigmatic series. The categorial meaning (e.g. the gram. number) unites the individual meanings of the correlated paradigmat...

Английский

2015-02-26

29.65 KB

14 чел.

Categorial Structure of the Word.

The most general notions reflecting the most general properties of phenomena are referred to in logic as “categorial notions”, or “categories”. The most general meanings rendered by L. & expressed by systemic correlations of word-forms are interpreted as categorial grammatical meanings. The forms themselves are identified within definite paradigmatic series. The categorial meaning (e.g. the gram. number) unites the individual meanings of the correlated paradigmatic forms (e.g. singular - plural) & is exposed through them hence, the meaning of gram. category & the meaning of the gram. form are related to each other on the principle of the logical relation b/n the categorial & generic notions.

The gram. category is a system of expressing a generalized gram. meaning by means of paradigmatic correlations of gram. forms in a category are exposed by the so-called “gram. oppositions”. The most important type of oppos. is the binary privative [privətiv] (отрицатю) opposition; it is formed by a contrastive pair of members in which one member is characterized by the presence of a certain different feature (“mark”) while the other is characterized by the absense of this feature. The member which the feature is present is called the “marked” or “strong” and is designated by the sumld+ other member is called the “unmarked” or “weak”. And is designated by the symb. e.g. the voice and devoiced consonats form a privative opposition[t,d,g,p,t,k,]. The defferential feature of the opposition is “voice”. This feature is present in the voiced consonants so they are marked members of opposition. The devoiced consonants – unmarked. The means of building up member-forms of oppos-ns are divided into synthetical & analytical; accordingly, the gram. forms are classed into synthetical & analytical too.

Synthetical gram. forms are realized by the inner morphemic composition if the word (take – took – taken, drive – drove – driven).

Analytical forms are typical of Modern Eng. They present a combination of auxiliary word with a basic word (have finished, have been, more beautiful), as a marginal analytical form – type gram. repetion should be recognized: e.g. He knocked and knoked and knoked without reply. Essential division of gram. categories is based on the changeability factor of the exposed feature. This division is represented by the system of the third person pronouns serving as genre – indices: it, he, she, he, or she (person, cousin etc.).

Variable feature categories can be exemplified by the substantive number (sing.-pl.) or the degrees of comparison (positive- comparative - superlative). Constant feature categories reflect thestatic classifications of phenomena, while variable feature categories expose various connections b/n phenomena.