Иностранные языки, филология и лингвистика
The actual situation of the communication has two varieties of languages - the spoken and the written. The situation in which the spoken variety of language is used and in which it develops can be described as the presence of an interlocutor. The absence of an interlocutor.
The actual situation of the communication has two varieties of languages- the spoken and the written. The situation in which the spoken variety of language is used and in which it develops can be described as the presence of an interlocutor. The absence of an interlocutor .The spoken language is maintained in the form of a dialogue the written in the form of a monologue the spoken l-ge. Has a considerable advantage over the written in that human voice comes into play. This is a powerful mean of modulating the utterance as are all kind of gestures which together with the intonation, give additional information. The forms of the written lan. Replace those of the spoken language. When dissemination(распространение) of ideas is the purpose in view . Its the written variety of language. with its careful organization and deliberate choice of words and constructions that can have political, cultural and educational influence on a wide and scattered public. The gap between the spoken and written varieties of language in the developments of the literary language will always remain apparent due to the difference in circumstances in which the two are used. Here is an example showing the difference : Marvelous beast, a fox.. Great places for wild life these wooded chines; so steep you cant disturb them pigeons, rabbit, foxes, hares,- every mortal thing.
Its written counterpart would run as follows : What a marvelous beast fox is !” These wooded chines are splendid places for wild life. They are so steep the one cant disturb anything. Therefore one can see every imaginable creature here- pigeons, rabbits, foxes, hares.”
The spoken language cannot be detached from the user of it, the speaker, who is unable to view it from the outside. The written language can be detached from the writer enabling him to look upon his utterance objectively and giving him opportunity to correct and imprve what has beenput on paper. That is why it is said that the written language bears a greater volume of responsibility that its spoken counterpart.
The spoken variety differ from the written language phonetically, morphologically, lexically and syntactically. Thus of morphological forms the spoken language commonly uses contracted forms as “hed(he would), shes (she is). These morphological and phonetic pecularitiesare sometimes regarded as violations of grammar rules caesed by a certain carelessness whuch accompanies the quick tempo of colloquial speech or an excited state of mind.
The syntactical pecularities of the spoken language are perhaps not so striking as the lexical ones, but more than any other features, they reveal the true nature of the spoken variety of language, that is, situanional character of the communication. Another syntactical feature of the written language is its use of complicated sentence units. The written language prefers hypotaxis to parataxis; long periods are more frequent than shot utterances.
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